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FortiGate Infrastructure Lab Guide


for FortiOS 6.0
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Email: courseware@fortinet.com

11/7/2018
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Change Log 7
Virtual Lab Basics 8
Network Topology 8
Lab Environment 8
Remote Access Test 9
Logging In 10
Disconnections and Timeouts 12
Screen Resolution 12
Sending Special Keys 13
Student Tools 14
Troubleshooting Tips 14
Lab 1: Routing 17
Exercise 1: Configuring Route Failover 18
Verify the Routing Configuration 18
Configure a Second Default Route 19
Configure the Firewall Policies 20
View the Routing Table 22
Configure Link Health Monitors 23
Test the route failover 23
Restore the routing table 26
Exercise 2: Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing 28
Configure Administrative Distance 28
Change the ECMP Load Balancing Method 29
Verify Traffic Routing 29
Configure Priority 30
Verify ECMP 31
Configure Policy Route for HTTPS Traffic 32
Verify the Policy Route 34
Lab 2: SD-WAN 37
Exercise 1: SD-WAN 38
Remove Interface References 38
Configure SD-WAN Load Balancing 39
Create a Static Route for the SD-WAN Interface 41
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Create a Firewall Policy for SD-WAN Load Balancing 42
Verify the SD-WAN Load Balancing Configuration 42
Lab 3: Virtual Domains 44
Exercise 1: Creating VDOMs and VDOM Objects 46
Create a VDOM 46
Create a Per-VDOM Administrator 47
Move an Interface to a Different VDOM 48
Add DNS service to an Interface 49
Test the Per-VDOM Administrator Account 50
Execute Per-VDOM CLI Commands 51
Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link 53
Create an Inter-VDOM Link 53
Configure Routing Between VDOMs 54
Configure Firewall Policies for Inter-VDOM Traffic 56
Test the Inter-VDOM Link 58
Lab 4: Transparent Mode 59
Exercise 1: Transparent Mode VDOM 61
Create a Transparent Mode VDOM 61
Moving an Interface to a Different VDOM 62
Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link 64
Create an Inter-VDOM Link 64
Create firewall policies 65
Route Inter-VDOM traffic 69
Test the Transparent Mode VDOM 69
Lab 5: Configuring a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN 72
Exercise 1: Configuring Route-Based IPsec VPN 74
Create a VPN Using the VPN Wizard 74
Review the Objects Created by the VPN Wizard 75
Exercise 2: Configuring Policy-Based IPsec VPN 79
Show Policy-Based VPN Settings in the GUI 79
Create a Policy-Based VPN 79
Create a Firewall Policy for a Policy-Based VPN 81
Move a Firewall Policy 82
Exercise 3: Testing and Monitoring the VPN 84
Test the VPN 84
Exercise 4: Configuring an IPsec VPN Between Two FortiGate Devices 86
Prerequisites 86
Create Phases 1 and 2 on Local-FortiGate 87
Create a Static Route for a Route-based VPN on Local-FortiGate 88
Create an Interface Zone on Local-FortiGate 88
Create Firewall Policies for VPN Traffic on Local-FortiGate 89
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Review the VPN Configuration on Remote-FortiGate 91
Test the IPsec VPN 91
Exercise 5: Configuring a Backup IPsec VPN 92
Configure a Backup VPN on Local-FortiGate 92
Review the Backup VPN Configuration on Remote-FortiGate 93
Test the VPN Redundancy 93
Lab 6: Fortinet Single Sign-On (FSSO) 95
Exercise 1: Configuring FSSO Collector Agent-Based Polling Mode 97
Install the FSSO Collector Agent 97
Configure the FSSO Collector Agent 99
Configure SSO on FortiGate 102
Assign Polled FSSO Users to a Firewall Policy 104
Test FSSO 105
Lab 7: High Availability (HA) 109
Lab HA Topology 109
Exercise 1: Configuring High Availability (HA) 112
Configure HA Settings on Local-FortiGate 112
Configure HA Settings on Remote-FortiGate 113
Observe and Verify the HA Synchronization Status 113
Verify FortiGate Roles in a HA Cluster 114
View Session Statistics 115
Exercise 2: High Availability Failover 116
Trigger Failover by Rebooting the Primary FortiGate 116
Verify the HA Failover and FortiGate Roles 117
Trigger an HA Failover by Resetting the HA Uptime 118
Observe HA Failover Using Diagnostic Commands 118
Exercise 3: Configuring the HA Management Interface 120
Access the Secondary FortiGate through the Primary FortiGate CLI 120
Set Up a Management Interface 121
Configure and Access the Primary FortiGate Using the Management Interface 121
Configure and Access the Secondary FortiGate Using the Management Interface 122
Disconnect FortiGate From the Cluster 123
Restore the Remote-FortiGate Configuration 124
Lab 8: Web Proxy 126
Exercise 1: Configuring an Explicit Web Proxy 127
Show the Explicit Web Proxy Settings 127
Enable Explicit Web Proxy 127
Create an Authentication Scheme 127
Create an Authentication Rule 128
Create a Proxy Policy 128
Configure Firefox for Explicit Web Proxy 129
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Test the Explicit Web Proxy Configuration 131
List the Active Explicit Web Proxy Users 132
List the Active Explicit Web Proxy Sessions 132
Exercise 2: Configuring the Transparent Web Proxy 134
Disable the Explicit Web Proxy in Firefox 134
Redirect the Traffic to the Transparent Web Proxy 135
Create the Proxy Policies 137
Testing the Transparent Web Proxy 138
Lab 9: Diagnostics 140
Exercise 1: Knowing What is Happening Now 141
Execute Diagnostic Commands 141
Exercise 2: Troubleshooting a Connectivity Problem 143
Identify the Problem 143
Use the Sniffer 143
Use the Debug Flow Tool 144
Fix the Problem 145
Test the Fix 145
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Change Log

This table includes updates to the FortiGate Infrastructure 6.0 Lab Guide dated 5/13/2018 to the updated
document version dated 8/9/2018.

Change Location

Fixed FIT in the network topology diagram Virtual Lab Basics on page 8

Various formatting fixes Entire guide

This table includes updates to the FortiGate Infrastructure 6.0 Lab Guide dated 8/9/2018 to this updated
document version dated 11/7/2018.

Change Location

Updated the entire Virtual Lab Basics section "Virtual Lab Basics" on page 8

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Virtual Lab Basics

In this course, you will use a virtual lab for hands-on exercises. This section explains how to connect to the lab
and its virtual machines. It also shows the topology of the virtual machines in the lab.

If your trainer asks you to use a different lab, such as devices physically located in your
classroom, then ignore this section. This section applies only to the virtual lab
accessed through the Internet. If you do not know which lab to use, please ask your
trainer.

Network Topology

Lab Environment

Fortinet's virtual lab for hands-on exercises is hosted on remote data centers that allow each student to have their
own training lab environment or point of deliveries (PoD).

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Lab Basics Remote Access Test

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Remote Access Test

Before starting any course, check if your computer can connect to the remote data center successfully. The
remote access test fully verifies if your network connection and your web browser can support a reliable
connection to the virtual lab.

You do not have to be logged in to the lab portal in order to run the remote access test.

To run the remote access test


1. From a browser, access the following URL:
https://use.cloudshare.com/test.mvc

If your computer connects successfully to the virtual lab, you will see the message All tests passed!:

2. Inside the Speed Test box, click Run.


The speed test begins. Once complete, you will get an estimate for your bandwidth and latency. If those
estimations are not within the recommended values, you will get any error message:

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Logging In

After you run the remote access test to confirm that your system can run the labs successfully, you can proceed to
log in.

You will receive an email from your trainer with an invitation to auto-enroll in the class. The email will contain a
link and a passphrase.

To log in to the remote lab


1. Click the login link provided by your instructor over email.
2. Enter your email address and the class passphrase provided by your trainer over email, and then click Login.

3. Enter your first and last name.


4. Click Register and Login.

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Lab Basics Logging In

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Your system dashboard appears, listing the virtual machines (VMs) in your lab topology.

5. To open a VM from the dashboard, do one of the following:


l From the top navigation bar, click a VM's tab.

l From the box of the VM you want to open, click View VM.

Follow the same procedure to access any of your VMs.

When you open a VM, your browser uses HTML5 to connect to it. Depending on the VM you select, the web
browser provides access to either the GUI of a Windows or Linux VM, or the CLI-based console access of a
Fortinet VM.

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For most lab exercises, you will connect to a jumpbox VM, that could be either a Windows or a Linux VM.
From the jumpbox VM, you will connect over HTTPS and SSH to all other Fortinet VMs in the lab
environment.

Disconnections and Timeouts

If your computer’s connection to the VM times out or closes, to regain access, return to the window or tab that
contains the list of VMs for your session, and reopen the VM.

If that fails, see Troubleshooting Tips on page 14.

Screen Resolution

The GUIs of some Fortinet devices require a minimum screen size.

To configure screen resolution in the HTML5 client, use the Resolution drop-down list on the left. You can also
change the color depth:

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Lab Basics Sending Special Keys

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Sending Special Keys

You can use the Virtual Keyboard panel to either send the Ctrl-Alt-Del combination, or the Windows key:

From the Virtual Keyboard panel, you can also copy text to the guest VM's clipboard:

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Student Tools

There are three icons on the left for messaging the instructor, chatting with the class, and requesting assistance:

Troubleshooting Tips

l Do not connect to the virtual lab environment through Wi-Fi, 3G, VPN tunnels, or other low-bandwidth or high-
latency connections.
l Prepare your computer's settings by disabling screen savers and changing the power saving scheme so that your
computer is always on, and does not go to sleep or hibernate.
l For best performance, use a stable broadband connection, such as a LAN.

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l You can run a remote access test from within your lab dashboard. It will measure your bandwidth, latency and
general performance:

l If the connection to any VM or the virtual lab portal closes unexpectedly, try to reconnect. If you can't reconnect,
notify the instructor.
l If you can't connect to a VM, on the dashboard, open the VM action menu, and select Reset:

l If that does not solve the access problem, you can try to revert the VM back to its initial state. Open the VM action
menu, and select Revert:

Reverting to the VM's initial state will undo all of your work. Try other solutions first.

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l During the labs, if the VM is waiting for a response from the authentication server, a license message similar to the
following example appears:

To expedite the response, enter the following command in the CLI:


execute update-now

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Lab 1: Routing

In this lab, you will configure the router settings, and try scenarios to learn how FortiGate makes routing
decisions.

Objectives
l Route traffic based on the destination IP address, as well as other criteria.
l Balance traffic among multiple paths.
l Implement route failover.
l Implement policy routing.
l Diagnose a routing problem.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 50 minutes

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Routing > local-routing.conf, and then click
Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Configuring Route Failover

In the lab network, Local-FortiGate has two interfaces connected to the Internet: port1 and port2. During this
exercise, you will configure the port1 connection as the primary Internet link, and the port2 connection as the
backup Internet link. Local-FortiGate should use the port2 connection only if the port1 connection is down. To
achieve this objective, you will configure two default routes with different administrative distances, as well as
configure two link health monitors.

Verify the Routing Configuration

First, you'll verify the existing routing configuration on Local-FortiGate.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), complete the following:

l View the existing static route configuration on Local-FortiGate.


l Enable the Distance and Priority columns in the static route configuration page.
l Make note of the Distance and Priority values of the existing default route.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Configure a Second Default Route on page 19.

To verify the routing configuration


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click Network > Static Routes.
3. Verify the existing default route for port1.

4. Right-click any of the columns to open the context-sensitive menu.


5. In the Available Columns section, select Distance and Priority, and then click Apply.

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The Distance and Priority columns display.

Note that, by default, static routes have a Distance value of 10, and a Priority value of 0.

Configure a Second Default Route

You will create a second default route using the port2 interface. To make sure this second default route remains
inactive, you will assign it a higher distance.

Take the Expert Challenge!


l On Local-FortiGate GUI, configure a second default route using port2.
l Assign it a Distance of 20, and Priority of 5.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Configure the Firewall Policies on page 20.

To configure a second default route


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > Static Routes.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

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Field Value

Gateway 10.200.2.254

Interface port2

Administrative Distance 20

4. Click the plus (+) icon to expand the Advanced Options section.
5. In the Priority field, enter a value of 5.

6. Click OK.
A second default route is added.

Configure the Firewall Policies

You will modify the existing Full_Access firewall policy to log all sessions. You will also create a second firewall
policy to allow traffic through the secondary interface.

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Take the Expert Challenge!
l Continuing on Local-FortiGate, enable logging for all sessions in the existing Full_Access firewall policy.
l Create a second firewall policy named Backup_Access.
l Configure the Backup_Access policy to allow traffic from port3 to port2 with NAT enabled.
l Enable logging on the Backup_Access policy for all sessions.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see View the Routing Table on page 22

To configure the firewall policies


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
2. Double-click the existing Full_Access policy to edit it.
3. Enable logging for All Sessions.

All Sessions logging ensures that all traffic is logged, and not just sessions inspected
by security profiles. This will assist in verifying traffic routing using the Forward
Traffic logs.

4. Click OK.
5. Click Create New.
6. Configure a second firewall policy with the following settings:

Field Value

Name Backup_Access

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface port2

Source LOCAL_SUBNET

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Field Value

Destination all

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action Accept

NAT  <enable>

7. Enable logging for All Sessions.


8. Click OK.

View the Routing Table

The Local-FortiGate configuration now has two default routes with different distances. You will view the routing
table to see which one is active.

To view the routing table


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved
session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Enter the following command to confirm the list of active routes in the routing table:
get router info routing-table all

Note that the second default route is not listed.

4. Enter the following CLI command to list both active and inactive routes:
get router info routing-table database

5. Confirm that the second default route is listed as inactive.

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Stop and think!
Why is the port2 default route inactive?

The port2 default route has a higher administrative distance than the port1 default route. When two or
more routes to the same destination have different distances, the lower distance route is always active.

6. Leave the PuTTY session open.

Configure Link Health Monitors

You will configure two link health monitors to monitor the status of both the port1 and port2 routes.

To configure link health monitoring


1. Continuing on the LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, enter the following CLI commands to create a link
health monitor for port1 on Local-FortiGate.
config system link-monitor
edit port1-monitor
set srcintf port1
set server 4.2.2.1
set gateway-ip 10.200.1.254
set protocol ping     
set update-static-route enable
next

2. Configure another link health monitor for port2.


edit port2-monitor
set srcintf port2
set server 4.2.2.2
set gateway-ip 10.200.2.254
set protocol ping     
set update-static-route enable
end

3. Leave your PuTTY session open.

Test the route failover

First you will access various websites, and use the Forward Traffic logs to verify that port1 route is being used.
Next you will force a failover by reconfiguring the port1 link health monitor to ping an invalid IP address. You will
then generate some more traffic, and use the Forward Traffic logs to verify that the port2 route is being used.

To confirm port1 route is primary


1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Log & Report > Forward
Traffic.
2. Right-click any of the columns to open the context-sensitive menu.
3. In the Available Columns section, select Destination Interface.

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4. Scroll down in the right-click menu and click Apply.


The Destination Interface column is displayed.

5. Open a few new tabs in the web browser, and go to a few websites:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
4. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Log & Report > Forward
Traffic.
5. Click the refresh icon.

6. Locate the relevant log entries for the three websites you accessed, and verify that their Destination Interface
indicates port1.

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This verifies that the port1 route is currently active and in use.

To force the failover


1. Return to the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and enter the following CLI commands to modify the
port1 link monitor:
config system link-monitor
edit port1-monitor
set server 10.200.1.13
next
end

2. Wait a few seconds.


Since 10.200.1.13 is a non-existent host in the lab network, the link health monitor will not receive any
replies. Because of this, the link health monitor will assume that the port1 Internet connection is down, and
remove the corresponding route from the routing table.

3. Leave your PuTTY session open.

To verify the route change


1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Log & Report > System
Events.
Verify that Local-FortiGate detected the link monitor failure and removed the corresponding port1 route.

2. Click Monitor > Routing Monitor.


3. Verify that the port2 route is active in the routing table.

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routing table Exercise 1: Configuring Route Failover

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To verify traffic logs
1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a few new tabs in the web browser, and go to a few websites:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
2. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Log & Report > Forward
Traffic.
3. Locate the relevant log entries for the three websites you accessed, and verify that their Destination Interface
indicates port2.

This verifies that Local-FortiGate is using the port2 default route.

Restore the routing table

Before starting the next exercise, you will restore the port1 link health monitor's server configuration with a valid
host address, which will restore the port1 default route as the active route in the routing table.

To restore the port1 health monitor configuration


1. Return to the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and enter the following CLI commands.
config system link-monitor
edit port1-monitor
set server 4.2.2.1
next
end

2. Close the PuTTY session.

To verify the routing table


1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Monitor > Routing
Monitor.
2. Verify that the port2 route is removed, and the port1 route is active.

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3. Close the browser.

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Exercise 2: Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing

In this exercise, you'll configure equal cost multipath (ECMP) routing on Local-FortiGate to balance the Internet
traffic between port1 and port2. After that, you'll configure a policy route to route HTTPS traffic through port1
only.

Configure Administrative Distance

To establish ECMP, first you will configure multiple static routes with the same administrative distance.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), complete the following:

l Change the port2 static route administrative Distance to 10.


l Verify that both port1 and port2 default routes are active in the routing table.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Change the ECMP Load Balancing Method on page 29.

To configure administrative distance


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click Network > Static Routes.
3. Double-click the port2 static route to edit it.
4. Change the Administrative Distance to 10.

5. Click OK.

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To verify the routing table
1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Monitor > Routing Monitor.
2. Verify that both default routes are now active:

Change the ECMP Load Balancing Method

By default, the ECMP load balancing method is based on source IP. This works well when there are multiple
clients generating traffic. In the lab network, because you have only one client (Local-Windows), the source IP
method will not balance any traffic to the second route. Only one route will always be used. For this reason, you
will change the load balancing method to use both source and destination IP. Using this method, as long as the
traffic goes to multiple destination IP addresses, FortiGate will balance the traffic across both routes.

To modify the ECMP load balancing method


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved
session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Enter the following CLI commands to change the ECMP load-balancing method.
config system settings
set v4-ecmp-mode source-dest-ip-based
end

4. Leave the PuTTY session open.

Verify Traffic Routing

You will generate some HTTP traffic and verify traffic routing using the Forward Traffic logs.

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Take the Expert Challenge!
l On Local-Windows, open a few new browser tabs and generate some HTTP traffic.
l Verify the traffic routing on Local-FortiGate using the Forward Traffic logs.
l Identify why all the outgoing packets are still being routed through port1.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Configure Priority on page 30.

To verify traffic routing


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open new tabs in the web browser, and go to a few websites:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
2. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Log & Report > Forward
Traffic.
3. Identify the Destination Interface in the relevant log entries for the websites you accessed.

Why are all the outgoing packets still being routed through port1?

Stop and think!


The port2 route is not being used because it was configured with a higher priority value than the port1
route (see Configure a Second Default Route on page 19). When two routes to the same destination have
the same administrative distance, both remain active. However, if the priorities are different, the route with
the lowest priority value is used. So, to achieve ECMP with static routes, the distance and priority values
must be the same for both routes.

Configure Priority

You will change the priority value for the port2 route to match the port1 route.

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Take the Expert Challenge!
On Local-FortiGate, modify the static routing configuration so both default routes are eligible for ECMP.

If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Verify ECMP on page 31

To configure priority
1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > Static Routes.
2. Double-click the port2 default route to edit it.
3. Click the plus (+) icon to expand the Advanced Options section.
4. Change the Priority value to 0.
5. Click OK.

Verify ECMP

Now that both port1 and port2 routes share the same distance and priority values, they are eligible for
ECMP. First, you will verify the routing table, and then verify traffic routing using the Forward Traffic logs.

To verify the routing table


1. Return to the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and enter the following CLI commands on Local-
FortiGate:
get router info routing-table database

2. Verify that both default routes are currently active:

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NOTPolicy REPRINT
Route for HTTPS Traffic Exercise 2: Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing

© FORTINET
To configure the CLI sniffer
1. Continuing on the LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, enter the following CLI commands:
diagnose sniffer packet any 'tcp[13]&2==2 and port 80' 4

The filter 'tcp[13]&2==2' matches packets with the SYN flag on, so the output will show
all SYN packets to port 80 (HTTP).

2. Leave the PuTTY window open in the background.

To verify ECMP routing


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open new tabs in the web browser, and go to a few websites:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
2. Return to the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and press Ctrl+C to stop the sniffer.
3. Analyze the sniffer output.

The SYN packets are egressing both port1 and port2. This verifies that Local-FortiGate is now load
balancing all Internet traffic across both routes.

4. Leave the PuTTY session open.

Configure Policy Route for HTTPS Traffic

You will force all HTTPS traffic to egress through port1 using a policy route. All other traffic should remain
unaffected and balanced between port1 and port2. To implement this, you will configure a policy route.

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NOT2: REPRINT
Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing Configure Policy Route for HTTPS Traffic

© FORTINET
To configure a policy route for HTTPS traffic
1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Network > Policy
Routes.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Protocol TCP

Incoming interface port3

Source address > IP/Netmask 10.0.1.0/24

Destination Address > IP/Netmask 0.0.0.0/0

Source Ports From 1 to 65535

Destination Ports From 443 to 443

Action Forward Traffic

Outgoing Interface <enable> and port1

Gateway Address 10.200.1.254

The policy route should look like the following example:

4. Click OK.

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NOT REPRINT
the Policy Route Exercise 2: Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing

© FORTINET
Verify the Policy Route

First, you will verify the routing table, and then verify policy routing by generating HTTPS traffic and viewing the
CLI sniffer output.

To verify the policy route table


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Monitor > Routing Monitor.
2. Click Policy.

3. Verify that the policy route is added to the policy route table.

To verify policy routing for HTTPS traffic


1. Return to the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and enter the following CLI commands on Local-
FortiGate:
diagnose sniffer packet any 'tcp[13]&2==2 and port 443' 4

As before, this sniffer filter matches packets with the SYN flag on, but this time for port
443 (HTTPS).

Leave the PuTTY window open in the background.

2. On the Local-Windows VM, open new tabs in the web browser, and then go to a few HTTPS websites:
l https://www.fortiguard.com
l https://support.fortinet.com
3. Return to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and then press Ctrl+C to stop the sniffer.
4. Analyze the sniffer output:

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NOT2: REPRINT
Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing Verify the Policy Route

© FORTINET

The SYN packets are egressing port1 only. This verifies that Local-FortiGate is applying the policy route for
HTTPS traffic.

To verify non-HTTPS traffic routing


1. Continuing on your LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, enter the following CLI command:
diagnose sniffer packet any 'tcp[13]&2==2 and port 80' 4

2. On the Local-Windows VM, open new tabs in the web browser, and then go to a few HTTP websites:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
3. Return to the open LOCAL-WINDOWS PuTTY session, and press Ctrl+C to stop the sniffer.
4. Analyze the sniffer output:

HTTP (port 80) traffic remains unaffected by the policy route, and is still load balanced across both port1 and
port2 routes.

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NOT REPRINT
the Policy Route Exercise 2: Equal Cost Multipath and Policy Routing

© FORTINET
Stop and think!
The Local-FortiGate configuration still has the two link health monitors for port1 and port2. Do they also
enable routing failover for ECMP scenarios?

Yes. If Local-FortiGate detects a problem in any of the routes, the link monitor will remove the
corresponding route, and all Internet traffic will be routed through the remaining route.

5. Close the PuTTY session and browser.

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Lab 2: SD-WAN

In this exercise, you will configure SD-WAN on Local-FortiGate.

Objectives
l Configure SD-WAN load balancing.
l Configure routes and firewall policies for SD-WAN.
l Verify SD-WAN load balancing.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 20 minutes

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > SDWAN > local-sdwan.conf, and then click
Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: SD-WAN

In this exercise, you will configure SD-WAN using the port1 and port2 interfaces on Local-FortiGate.

Remove Interface References

Before you can add port1 and port2 as SD-WAN member interfaces, you must remove all configuration elements
referencing the two interfaces.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), remove all firewall policies and routes
referencing port1 and port2.

If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Configure SD-WAN Load Balancing on page 39.

To remove interface references


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click Network > Static Routes.
3. Select the port1 default route, and then click Delete.

4. Click OK.
5. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
6. Select the Full_Access policy, and then click Delete.

7. Click OK.

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NOT1: SD-WAN
REPRINT Configure SD-WAN Load Balancing

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Configure SD-WAN Load Balancing

You will configure SD-WAN load balancing for all Internet traffic between port1 and port2.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254), complete the following:

l Configure SD-WAN members with the following configuration


l port1 with Gateway 10.200.1.254.
l port2 with Gateway 10.200.2.254.
l Edit SD-WAN Rules to use Source-Destination IP as the load-balancing method.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Create a Static Route for the SD-WAN Interface on page 41

To configure SD-WAN load balancing


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > SD-WAN .
2. Set Status to Enable.
3. In the SD-WAN Interface Members section, click + sign to add the first interface.

4. Configure the following:

Field Value

Interface port1

Gateway 10.200.1.254

Status <enable>

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NOTSD-WAN Load
REPRINT
Balancing Exercise 1: SD-WAN

© FORTINET
5. In the SD-WAN Interface Members section, click again + sign to add the second interface.
6. Configure the following:

Field Value

Interface port2

Gateway 10.200.2.254

Status <enable>

The SD-WAN configuration should look like the following example:

7. Click Apply.
8. Click Network > SD-WAN Rules.
9. Right click on sd-wan rule and click Edit.

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NOT1: SD-WAN
REPRINT Create a Static Route for the SD-WAN Interface

© FORTINET

10. Set Load Balancing Algorithm to Source-Destination IP.


11. Click Ok.

Create a Static Route for the SD-WAN Interface

You will create a default route using the sd-wan virtual interface.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254), configure a default route using the sdwan interface.

If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Create a Firewall Policy for SD-WAN Load Balancing on page 42.

To create a static route for SD-WAN


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > Static Routes.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Destination Subnet

0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0

Interface SD-WAN

Administrative Distance 10

4. Click OK.

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NOT REPRINT
a Firewall Policy for SD-WAN Load Balancing Exercise 1: SD-WAN

© FORTINET
Create a Firewall Policy for SD-WAN Load Balancing

You will create the firewall policy to allow the Internet traffic to pass from port3 to the sd-wan interface.

To create a firewall policy for SD-WAN load balancing


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Name SDWAN_Access

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface SD-WAN

Source LOCAL_SUBNET

Destination all

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action Accept

NAT  <enable>

4. Click OK.

Verify the SD-WAN Load Balancing Configuration

First, you will review the Local-FortiGate routing table to examine the routes installed for SD-WAN. Then, you will
use the CLI packet capture tool to verify whether or not FortiGate is load balancing HTTP traffic between the SD-
WAN member interfaces.

To review the routing table


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved
session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Enter the following command to confirm the list of active routes in the routing table:
get router info routing-table all

4. Verify that both default routes for port1 and port2 have the same distance value and are active in the routing
table.

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NOT1: SD-WAN
REPRINT Verify the SD-WAN Load Balancing Configuration

© FORTINET

After you create a static route for the SD-WAN interface, FortiGate automatically
adds individual routes, with the same distance value, for all member interfaces. This
ensures all routes will be active in the routing table, which makes them eligible for load
balancing.

To verify the SD-WAN load balancing configuration


1. Continuing on the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, enter the following CLI commands:
diagnose sniffer packet any 'tcp[13]&2==2 and port 80' 4

2. On the Local-Windows VM, open new tabs in the web browser, and go to a few websites:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
3. Return to the open LOCAL-FORTIGATE PuTTY session, and press Ctrl+C to stop the sniffer.
4. Analyze the sniffer output.

The SYN packets are egressing both port1 and port2. This verifies that Local-FortiGate is now load
balancing all Internet traffic across SD-WAN member interfaces.

5. Close the PuTTY session and your browser.

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Lab 3: Virtual Domains

In this lab, you will create one VDOM and configure an inter-VDOM link.

Objectives
l Use VDOMs to split a FortiGate into multiple virtual devices.
l Create an administrative account and limit access to one VDOM.
l Route traffic between VDOMs by using inter-VDOM links.

Time to Complete
Estimated:  25 minutes

Topology
The goal of the lab is to create the following topology. You will use VDOMs to logically split the Local-FortiGate
into two virtual firewalls: the root VDOM, and the customer VDOM. Both VDOMs are running in NAT mode. So all
Internet traffic coming from Local-Windows must pass through the customer VDOM first, and then the root
VDOM.

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

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3: Virtual Domains

© FORTINET
To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file
1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > VDOM > local-VDOM.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Creating VDOMs and VDOM Objects

During this exercise, you will add a new VDOM. Then, you will create an inter-VDOM link between the VDOM you
added, and the root VDOM. You will also create an administrator account that will have access to only one
VDOM.

The configuration file for this exercise already has VDOMs enabled.

Create a VDOM

A FortiGate with enabled VDOMs always includes a root VDOM. Administrators can create additional VDOMs to
split the physical FortiGate into multiple virtual firewalls. In the next steps, you will add a second VDOM.

To create a VDOM
1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
You will notice that the FortiGate menu has changed. This is because VDOMs are enabled. There is now a
drop-down menu at the top of the menu. In the drop-down menu, you can select the global settings or the
VDOM-specific settings for the root VDOM. The default setting is Global.

2. Click System > VDOM.


3. Click Create New.
4. Configure the following VDOM.

Field Value

Virtual Domain customer

Inspection Mode Proxy

5. Click OK.

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NOT1: Creating
REPRINT
VDOMs and VDOM Objects Create a Per-VDOM Administrator

© FORTINET
Notice that the drop-down menu at the top of the menu shows a third option: the VDOM-specific settings for
customer:

Create a Per-VDOM Administrator

You will create an administrator account that has access only to the customer VDOM .

To create a per-VDOM administrator


1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Global > System >
Administrators.
2. Click Create New > Administrator.
3. Configure the following values:

Field Value

User Name customer-admin

Type Local User

Password fortinet

Confirm Password fortinet

Administrator Profile prof_admin

Virtual Domains customer

4. Remove root from the Virtual Domains list to restrict the new administrator's can access to customer only.

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NOT REPRINT
an Interface to a Different VDOM Exercise 1: Creating VDOMs and VDOM Objects

© FORTINET

5. Click OK.

Move an Interface to a Different VDOM

The account customer-admin will be able to log in only through an interface in the customer VDOM. So, move
the port3 interface, which connects to the internal network, to the customer VDOM.

To move an interface to a different VDOM


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Global > Network > Interfaces.
2. Edit port3.
3. From the Virtual Domain drop-down menu, select customer.

4. Click OK.

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NOT1: Creating
REPRINT
VDOMs and VDOM Objects Add DNS service to an Interface

© FORTINET
Add DNS service to an Interface

For Local-Windows, the DNS server is port3. First, you will enable the DNS database in the Feature Visibility
section. Then, you will add DNS service to port3.

To enable the DNS database


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, select the customer VDOM in the drop-down menu at the top of the
menu.

2. Click System > Feature Visibility.


3. In the Additional Features section, turn on the DNS Database switch.

4. Click Apply.

To add DNS service to an interface


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, in the customer VDOM, click Network > DNS Servers.
2. Under DNS Service on Interface, click Create New, and then configure the following values:

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NOT REPRINT
the Per-VDOM Administrator Account Exercise 1: Creating VDOMs and VDOM Objects

© FORTINET
Field Value

Interface port3

Mode Forward to System DNS

3. Click OK.
4. Log out of the Local-FortiGate GUI.

Test the Per-VDOM Administrator Account

To see what access is available to the customer-admin account, try logging on to the FortiGate-Local GUI as
customer-admin.

To test the per-VDOM administrator account


1. Log in again to the Local-FortiGate GUI, but this time use the administrator name customer-admin with the
password fortinet.
2. View the GUI and examine what the VDOM administrator is allowed to control.
Because the customer-admin administrator can access only the customer VDOM , the GUI does not
display the Global configuration settings or the VDOM-specific settings for the root VDOM.

3. Log out of the Local-FortiGate GUI, and log in back with the user name admin and password password, which
has access to the global settings and all VDOMs.

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NOT1: Creating
REPRINT
VDOMs and VDOM Objects Execute Per-VDOM CLI Commands

© FORTINET
Stop and think!
Why is the dashboard different between the two login sessions?

Logging in with the admin account gives you full access to both the root VDOM as well as the
FortiGate system resources. Logging in with the customer-admin account provides access
only to the customer VDOM, and does not provide access to the system resource details.

Execute Per-VDOM CLI Commands

After you enable VDOMs , the structure of the GUI menu and the tree structure of the CLI changes. In this
exercise, you will examine the differences in the CLI for VDOMs.

To execute per-VDOM CLI commands


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved
session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Try to execute the following command to list the routing table.
get router info routing-table all

Did the CLI reject the command? To execute this command when VDOMs are
enabled, you must specify the VDOM first, in order for FortiGate to know which
VDOM’s routing table to display.

4. To enter the customer VDOM context, type.

config vdom
edit customer

Be careful when typing VDOM names with the edit command.

VDOM names are case sensitive, and the edit command can both modify and create
VDOM. For example, if you enter edit Root, you will not enter the pre-existing
root VDOM. Instead, you will create and enter a new VDOM named Root.

5. Now that you've specified the VDOM, try looking at the routing table again.

get router info routing-table all

The command works now. The information displayed in the routing table is specific to the customer VDOM.
Remember that each VDOM has its own routing table.

6. Go to the root VDOM context now.

next
edit root

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NOTPer-VDOM
REPRINT
CLI Commands Exercise 1: Creating VDOMs and VDOM Objects

© FORTINET
7. Now use the command for listing the routing table:

get router info routing-table all

This time, the information displayed in the routing table belongs to the root VDOM. You will observe that this
table is different from the one for the customer VDOM.

8. Close the PuTTY session.

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Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link

In this exercise, you will route traffic between two VDOMs using an inter-VDOM link.

Create an Inter-VDOM Link

You will create an inter-VDOM link to route traffic between two VDOMs.

To create an inter-VDOM link


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the Global VDOM, Click Network > Interfaces.
3. Click Create New, and then select VDOM Link.
4. In the Name field, type vlink.
5. In the Interface 0 (vlink0) section, configure the following settings:

Field Value

Virtual Domain root

IP/Network Mask 10.10.100.1/30

Administrative Access HTTPS, PING, SSH

6. In the Interface 1 (vlink1) section, configure the following settings:

Field Value

Virtual Domain customer

IP/Network Mask 10.10.100.2/30

Administrative Access HTTPS, PING, SSH

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NOTRoutingREPRINT
Between VDOMs Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link

© FORTINET

7. Click OK.
After creating the inter-VDOM link, notice the two inter-VDOM sub-interfaces added within the root and
customer VDOMs (expand vlink). These interfaces are named vlink0 and vlink1. You can use them to
route traffic between two VDOMs.

Configure Routing Between VDOMs

You will add the static routes to both VDOMs to route traffic between them. The objective is to have Internet
traffic from Local-Windows crossing the customer VDOM first and then the root VDOM, before the traffic goes
to the Linux server and the Internet.

To configure routing between VDOMs


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, in the VDOM drop-down list, select the customer VDOM.

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NOT2: Inter-VDOM
REPRINT Link Configure Routing Between VDOMs

© FORTINET

2. Click Network > Static Routes.


3. Click Create New to specify a default route for the customer.
4. Add the following route.

Field Value

Destination Subnet

0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0

Gateway 10.10.100.1

Interface vlink1

5. Click OK.
Now, you will specify a route for the root VDOM to the internal network.

6. In the VDOM drop-down menu, select root.

7. Click Network > Static Routes.


8. Click Create New.
9. Configure the following route:

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NOTFirewall
REPRINT
Policies for Inter-VDOM Traffic Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link

© FORTINET
Field Vlaue

Destination Subnet

10.0.1.0/24

Gateway 10.10.100.2

Interface vlink0

10. Click OK.

Configure Firewall Policies for Inter-VDOM Traffic

You will create firewall policies to allow Internet traffic to pass through the customer and root VDOMs.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), configure the appropriate firewall
policies to allow traffic to flow freely across the inter-VDOM link. This will require two firewall policies, one
from port3 to vlink1, and one from vlink0 to port1.

If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Test the Inter-VDOM Link on page 58.

To configure firewall policies for inter-VDOM traffic for port3 to vlink1


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, in the VDOM drop-down list, click customer.

2. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.


3. Click Create New.
4. Configure the following firewall policy to allow traffic to pass from port3 to vlink1:

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NOT2: Inter-VDOM
REPRINT Link Configure Firewall Policies for Inter-VDOM Traffic

© FORTINET
Field Value

Name Internet

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface vlink1

Source all

Destination all

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action ACCEPT

NAT <disable>

5. Click OK.

To configure firewall policies for inter-VDOM traffic for vlink0 to port1


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, in the VDOM drop-down menu, click root.
2. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
3. Click Create New.
4. Configure the following policy:

Field Value

Name Internet

Incoming Interface vlink0

Outgoing Interface port1

Source all

Destination all

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action ACCEPT

NAT <enable>

5. Click OK.

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NOT REPRINT
the Inter-VDOM Link Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link

© FORTINET
Test the Inter-VDOM Link

Now, you will test your configuration to confirm that Internet traffic is being routed through the two VDOMs and
the inter-VDOM link.

To test the inter-VDOM link


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a few browser tabs, and go to a few external HTTP websites, such as:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
Traffic should be flowing through both VDOMs now.

2. Open a command prompt window, and then execute a traceroute command to an Internet public IP address:

tracert –d 4.2.2.2

3. Check the output.


The first hop IP address is 10.0.1.254, which is port3 in the customer VDOM. The second hop IP
address is 10.10.100.1, which is the inter-VDOM link in the root VDOM. The third hop IP address is
10.200.1.254, which is the Linux server.

4. Close the command prompt and your browser.

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Lab 4: Transparent Mode

In this lab, you will create a transparent mode VDOM. You will also configure an inter-VDOM link, this time
between a transparent mode VDOM and a NAT mode VDOM.

Objectives
l Configure a transparent mode VDOM.
l Configure an inter-VDOM link.

Time to Complete
Estimated:  20 minutes

Lab Topology
The goal of this lab is to create the topology below. You will use VDOMs to logically split the Local-FortiGate into
two virtual firewalls: the root VDOM and the inspect VDOM. The root VDOM is in NAT mode. The inspect
VDOM is in transparent mode and will be inspecting the traffic for virus protection. So all Internet traffic coming
from Local-Windows must transverse first the root VDOM, and then the inspect VDOM.

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

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To restore the FortiGate configuration file
1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Ensure the Scope is set for Global, then click Local PC, and then click Upload.
4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Layer2 > local-layer-2.conf, and then click
Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Transparent Mode VDOM

The configuration file for this exercise already has VDOMs enabled. In this exercise, you need to create only a
transparent mode VDOM called inspect and then move the interface to the inspect VDOM.

Create a Transparent Mode VDOM

You will create a new VDOM, and then change its operation mode to transparent.

To create a transparent mode VDOM


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
The configuration that you restored at the beginning of this lab has VDOMs enabled. For this reason, you will
see a drop-down menu at the top of the menu. It provides access to the global settings and to each VDOM-
specific setting.

2. In the drop-down menu, select Global.


3. Click System > VDOM, and then click Create New.
4. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Virtual Domain inspect

Inspection Mode Flow-Based

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5. Click OK.
6. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved
session.
7. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
8. Enter the following command to change the inspect VDOM operation mode from the default NAT mode to
transparent mode:

config vdom
edit inspect
config system settings
set opmode transparent
set manageip 10.200.1.200/24
end
end

Stop and think!


What is that 10.200.1.200 IP address for?

It is the management IP address for the transparent mode VDOM. Interfaces that belong to a transparent
mode VDOM do not have IP addresses, but the VDOM itself has one. You can use this IP address for
administrative access to the device and this VDOM.

9. Close the PuTTY session.

Moving an Interface to a Different VDOM

You will move the interface port1 to the inspect VDOM.

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Take the Expert Challenge!
On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), move the port1 interface to the
inspect VDOM.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

To move an interface to a different VDOM


1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, select the Global VDOM and click
Network > Interfaces.
2. Edit port1.
3. In the Virtual Domain drop-down menu, select inspect.

4. Click OK.

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Exercise 2: Inter-VDOM Link

In this exercise, you will create an inter-VDOM link. Then, you will create the firewall policies that allow Internet
access across both VDOMs. Finally, you will configure and test antivirus inspection in the inspect VDOM.

Create an Inter-VDOM Link

Create the inter-VDOM link for routing traffic from the root VDOM to the Internet through the inspect VDOM.

To create an inter-VDOM link


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Select the Global VDOM and click Network > Interfaces.
3. Click Create New, and then select VDOM Link.
4. In the Name field, type vlink.
5. In the Interface 0 (vlink0) section, configure the following settings:

Field Value

Virtual Domain root

IP/Network Mask 10.200.1.1/24

Administrative Access HTTPS, PING, SSH

6. In the Interface 1 (vlink1) section, configure the following settings:

Field Value

Virtual Domain inspect

Administrative Access HTTPS, PING, SSH

7. Click OK.
The Interfaces page displays with the updated configurations.

8. Review the inter-VDOM link interfaces you just created (expand vlink).

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Note that vlink0 and vlink1 are logical interfaces that you can use to route traffic between the root and
inspect VDOMs. An IP address is configurable only on the NAT mode VDOM interface.

Create firewall policies

You will create firewall policies to allow Internet traffic to pass through both VDOMs. You will also enable antivirus
inspection in the inspect VDOM.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), complete the following:

l Create two firewall policies to allow Internet traffic to pass through both VDOMs. One policy will be from
vlink1 to port1 and the other will be from port3 to vlink0.
l In the inspect VDOM, enable the default antivirus inspection profile on firewall policy.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Route Inter-VDOM traffic on page 69.

To create a firewall policy on the inspect VDOM


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, from the VDOM drop-down menu, select inspect.

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2. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.


3. Click Create New.
4. Configure the following settings.

Field Value

Name Inspected_Internet

Incoming Interface vlink1

Outgoing Interface port1

Source all

Destination all

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action ACCEPT

5. In the Security Profiles section, turn on the AntiVirus switch, and then, in the antivirus profile drop-down menu,
select g-default.

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6. Click OK.

To create a firewall policy on the root VDOM


1. Continuing in the Local-FortiGate GUI, from the VDOM drop-down menu, select root.
2. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy, and then click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings.

Field Value

Name Internet

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface vlink0

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Field Value

Source all

Destination all

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action ACCEPT

4. In the Firewall/Network Options section, turn on the NAT switch.


5. In the Logging Options section, turn on the Log Allowed Traffic switch, and then select All Sessions.

6. Click OK.

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Route Inter-VDOM traffic

To route traffic from Local-Windows to the inspect VDOM, you must create a default route in the root VDOM.

To route inter-VDOM traffic


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI and in the root VDOM, click Network > Static Routes.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Destination Subnet

0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0

Gateway 10.200.1.254

Interface vlink0

4. Click OK.

Test the Transparent Mode VDOM

You will use the traceroute command to confirm that Internet traffic is crossing the inter-VDOM link. Then, you
will try to download a virus to confirm that antivirus inspection in the inspect VDOM is working.

To test the transparent mode VDOM


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a command prompt window.
2. Run the following traceroute to verify that your first two hops are 10.0.1.254 and 10.200.1.254.

tracert –d 10.200.3.1

Stop and think!


You will observe that the first hop IP address is 10.0.1.254, which is port3 in the root VDOM. The
second hop IP address is 10.200.1.254, which is the Linux server. Why isn't the traceroute showing any
IP address belonging to the inspect VDOM?

A transparent VDOM does not route packets like a NAT VDOM. Instead, it forwards frames based on the
destination MAC addresses as a LAN Layer 2 switch. A traceroute shows the IP addresses of all the routers
along a path to a destination. The inspect VDOM is not acting as a router, but as a Layer 2 switch.

3. Close the command prompt.


4. Open a new browser tab and go to:

http://www.eicar.org

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4. Click Download ANTI MALWARE TESTFILE, and then click Download.

5. Select the option to download the eicar.com file using HTTP.

6. Confirm that the antivirus profile in the inspect VDOM blocks the following action.

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Review log files on root VDOM
1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI and the root VDOM, and click Log
& Report > Forward Traffic.
2. Locate a log entry for the www.eicar.org website.
3. Click on one of the following entries to view more details.

Stop and think!


Why do the log entries indicate that the traffic was permitted?

Remember that the root VDOM is the unrestricted Internet side of the inter-VDOM link. In the next steps
you will review the logs for the inspect VDOM.

Review log files on the inspect VDOM


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, in the VDOM drop-down menu, select inspect.
2. Click Log & Report > Forward Traffic, and then locate a log entry for the www.eicar.org website.
3. Click the entry to view more details.
You should notice that the item was blocked by the antivirus policy.

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Lab 5: Configuring a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN

In this lab, you will configure a point-to-point IPsec VPN between two FortiGate devices. You will also configure
redundant VPN tunnels with failover capability between the two FortiGate devices.

Objectives
l Deploy a site-to-site VPN between two FortiGate devices.
l Compare route-based to policy-based VPNs.
l Monitor VPN tunnels.
l Configure redundant VPNs between two FortiGate devices.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 60 minutes

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Remote-FortiGate and Local-FortiGate.

Make sure to restore the correct configuration on each FortiGate using the following
steps. Failure to restore the correct configuration on each FortiGate will prevent you
from doing the lab exercise.

To restore the Remote-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.200.3.1 with the
user name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

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3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Site-to-Site-IPsec > Route-vs-Policy-based-
IPSEC > remote-rvp.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Site-to-Site-IPsec > Route-vs-Policy-based-
IPSEC > local-rvp.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Configuring Route-Based IPsec VPN

During this lab, you will configure an IPsec tunnel between Local-FortiGate and the Remote-FortiGate for
communication between the Local-Windows VM and Remote-Windows VM.

Create a VPN Using the VPN Wizard

Now, you will configure Local-FortiGate using the VPN wizard, which creates the IPsec in route-based mode.

To create a VPN using the VPN wizard


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click VPN > IPsec Tunnels.
3. Click Create New.
4. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Name ToRemote

Template Type Site to Site

Remote Device Type FortiGate

NAT Configuration No NAT between sites

5. Click Next .
6. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Remote Device IP Address

IP Address 10.200.3.1

Outgoing interface port1

Authentication Method Pre-shared Key

Pre-shared Key fortinet

7. Click Next.
8. Configure the following settings:

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Field Value

Local Interface port3

Local Subnets 10.0.1.0/24

Remote Subnets 10.0.2.0/24

9. Click Create.
You should see the following screen:

10. Click Show Tunnel List.


You will see the VPN you just created.

Review the Objects Created by the VPN Wizard

Now, you will review the objects that were created by the VPN wizard.

To review the objects created by the VPN wizard


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click VPN > IPsec Tunnels.
2. Select the VPN you just created, and then click Edit.
Notice the quick mode selectors that the wizard configured for you.

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You will need this information to configure the other FortiGate. The quick mode selectors on both sides must
mirror each other. In other words, the Local Address on one side must match the Remote Address on the
other side.

3. Click Cancel.
4. Click Network > Interfaces.
5. Click the plus (+) icon that appears beside port1.
You will see a new virtual interface named ToRemote (matching the phase 1 name).

Stop and think!


What does this virtual interface tell us about the VPN created by the wizard? Is it policy-based or route-
based?

The wizard created the VPN using a route-based configuration. FortiGate automatically adds an IPsec
virtual interface for each VPN configured as route-based. This does not happen in a policy-based
configuration.

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A route-based VPN requires firewall policies and at least one route to the remote network. As you will see, the
wizard has created all of these additional objects for you.

5. Click Policy & Objects > Addresses, and then click + sign to expand Address and Address Group.
Observe two new firewall address objects: ToRemote_local_subnet_1, and ToRemote_remote_subnet_
1.

6. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.


Observe the new two firewall policies: one from port3 to ToRemote and another from ToRemote to port3.
You will see that the Action is both cases is ACCEPT.

7. Click Network > Static Routes, and look at the static route added by the wizard.

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Stop and think!


Why did the IPsec wizard add a second route using the blackhole interface?

FortiGate drops all packets routed to the blackhole interface. The IPsec wizard added two static routes: one
to the IPsec virtual interface, with a distance of 10 and one to the blackhole interface, with a distance of
254. The route with the lowest distance, the one to the IPsec virtual interface, takes precedence. However,
if the VPN is down, the route to the blackhole interface becomes active,even though it was originally the
higher-distance route. So, traffic destined to the VPN is now routed to the blackhole interface and dropped.
The route to the blackhole interface prevents FortiGate from sending VPN traffic to the default route while
the VPN is down. The route to the blackhole interface also prevents FortiGate from creating unnecessary
sessions in the session table.

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Exercise 2: Configuring Policy-Based IPsec VPN

For learning purposes, you will configure the second FortiGate device differently. During this exercise, you will
create the VPN on Remote-FortiGate using a policy-based configuration, without using the wizard.

Show Policy-Based VPN Settings in the GUI

By default, policy-based configurations are hidden in the GUI. Now, you will show policy-based VPN settings in
the GUI.

To show policy-based VPN settings in the GUI


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.200.3.1 with the
user name admin and password password.
2. Click System > Feature Visibility.
3. Under the Additional Features section, enable Policy-based IPsec VPN .
4. Click Apply.

Create a Policy-Based VPN

Now, you will create phases 1 and 2.

To create a policy-based VPN


1. Continuing on the Remote-FortiGate GUI, click VPN > IPsec Tunnels.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following:

Field Value

Name ToLocal

Template Type Custom

4. Click Next.
5. Disable Enable IPsec Interface Mode.

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6. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Remote Gateway Static IP Address

IP Address 10.200.1.1

Interface port4

Mode Config <disable> (leave it unchecked)

NAT Traversal <disable>

Dead Peer Detection On Idle

Method Pre-shared Key

Pre-shared Key fortinet

7. Keep the default values for the remaining settings.


8. In the Phase 2 Selectors section, click the edit icon to edit the settings.

9. Complete the following:

Field Value

Local Address 10.0.2.0/24

Remote Address 10.0.1.0/24

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10. Click OK.

Now the quick mode selectors on both sides mirror each other. If that is not the case,
the tunnel will not come up.

Create a Firewall Policy for a Policy-Based VPN

Now, you will create a firewall policy to allow traffic. In a policy-based configuration, only one policy is required to
allow traffic initiated on either side. The policy is applied bidirectionally.

To create a firewall policy for a policy-based VPN


1. Continuing on the Remote-FortiGate GUI, go to Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Name VPN_traffic_to_Local FGT

Incoming Interface port6

Outgoing Interface port4

Source REMOTE_SUBNET

Destination LOCAL_SUBNET

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action IPsec

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Field Value

VPN Tunnel ToLocal

Allow traffic to be initiated <enable>


from the remote site

4. Click OK.

This is probably the first time you have seen the action IPsec for a firewall policy. In
previous exercises, the available actions were Accept and Deny only. IPsec is
displayed in the GUI only when the policy-based VPN settings are not hidden.

Move a Firewall Policy

The new policy was created below the firewall policy for Internet traffic. Now, you will need to move the new
policy up for the VPN traffic to match it. 

To move a firewall policy


1. Continuing on the Remote-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
2. Expand the list of firewall policies for port6 to port4.

3. Drag the policy VPN_traffic_to_Local FGT above the Internet policy.

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NOT2: Configuring
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Stop and think!
In the previous exercise, the VPN wizard added a static route for the VPN traffic. Why don't you need to add
a static route in this case?

The VPN wizard creates the IPsec using a route-based configuration, which always requires additional
routes (usually static routes) to route the traffic through the IPsec virtual interface. This is usually not
required in a policy-based configuration. Policy-based configurations require the VPN traffic to match a
firewall policy with the action IPsec. Because traffic from 10.0.2.0/24 to 10.0.1.0/24 matches the
existing default route, and so the IPsec firewall policy from port6 to port4, no additional routes are needed.

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Exercise 3: Testing and Monitoring the VPN

You have finished the configuration on both FortiGate devices. Now, you will test the VPN.

Test the VPN

Now, you will test the VPN.

To test the VPN


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click Monitor > IPsec Monitor.
Notice that the VPN is currently down.

3. Right-click the VPN, and then select Bring Up.

The Status column of the VPN contains a green up arrow, indicating that the tunnel is up.

Stop and think!


Do I always have to bring up the tunnel manually after creating it?

No. In the current configuration, the tunnel will stay down until you either bring it up manually, or there is
traffic that should be routed through the tunnel. Because you are not generating traffic between
10.0.1.0/24 and 10.0.2.0/24 yet, the tunnel is still down. If you had generated the required traffic
while the tunnel was down, it would have come up automatically.

4. On the Local-Windows VM, open a command prompt window, and then run the following command to ping
Remote-Windows:
ping 10.0.2.10

The ping should work.

5. Close the command prompt window.


6. Return to the Local-FortiGate GUI, and then click Monitor > IPsec Monitor.
7. Click Refresh to refresh the screen.

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and Monitoring the VPN Test the VPN

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You will notice that counters for Incoming Data and Outgoing Data have increased. This indicates that the
traffic between 10.0.1.10 and 10.0.2.10 is successfully being encrypted and routed through the tunnel.

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Exercise 4: Configuring an IPsec VPN Between Two
FortiGate Devices

In this exercise, you will configure one VPN for redundancy between Local-FortiGate and Remote-FortiGate.

Prerequisites

Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file on Remote-FortiGate and Local-FortiGate.

Make sure to restore the correct configuration on each FortiGate using the following
steps. Failure to restore the correct configuration on each FortiGate will prevent you
from doing the lab exercise.

Once you load the configurations, Remote-FortiGate will be pre-configured for VPN
redundancy. The steps to configure Remote-FortiGate are included in this exercise,
however, this exercise provides instructions where you can review this configuration
for Remote-FortiGate.

To restore the Remote-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.200.3.1 with the
user name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Site-to-Site-IPsec > Redundant IPsec VPN >
remote-redundant-VPN.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file
1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Site-to-Site-IPsec > Redundant IPsec VPN >
local-redundant-VPN.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

Create Phases 1 and 2 on Local-FortiGate

Now, you will configure the IPsec VPN by creating phases 1 and 2.

To create phases 1 and 2


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click VPN > IPsec Tunnels, and then click Create New.
3. Complete the following:

Field Value

Name Remote_1

Template Type Custom

4. Click Next.
5. In the Network section, configure the following settings:

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FortiGate Devices

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Field Value

Remote Gateway Static IP Address

IP Address 10.200.3.1

Interface port1

Dead Peer Detection On Idle

6. In the Authentication section, configure the following settings:

Field Value

Method Pre-shared Key

Pre-shared Key fortinet

7. Keep the default values for the remaining settings.


8. Click OK.

Create a Static Route for a Route-based VPN on Local-FortiGate

The VPN was created as route-based. This means that the VPN requires at least one route (static or dynamic) to
forward the traffic through the tunnel. Now, you will create a static route for that purpose.

To create a static route for a route-based VPN


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > Static Routes.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Destination Subnet

10.0.2.0/24

Interface Remote_1

4. Click OK.

Create an Interface Zone on Local-FortiGate

Now, you will create an interface zone that will includes the two IPsec virtual interfaces (the virtual IPsec
interfaces for the primary and secondary VPNs). It is not mandatory to have an interface zone for redundant
VPNs, but it minimizes the number of firewall policies you must create later.

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To create an interface zone
1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > Interfaces.
2. Click Create New, and then select Zone.

3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Name VPN

Interface Members Remote_1

4. Click OK.

You will add a second VPN interface to the zone in a later exercise, when you
configure a backup VPN.

Create Firewall Policies for VPN Traffic on Local-FortiGate

Now, you will create two firewall policies between port3 and VPN , one for each traffic direction.

To create the firewall policies for VPN traffic


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Name Remote_out

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface VPN

Source LOCAL_SUBNET

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Field Value

Destination REMOTE_SUBNET

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action ACCEPT

4. In the Firewall/Network Options section, disable NAT.


5. Click OK.
6. Click Create New one more time.
7. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Name Remote_in

Incoming Interface VPN

Outgoing Interface port3

Source REMOTE_SUBNET

Destination LOCAL_SUBNET

Schedule always

Service ALL

Action ACCEPT

8. In the Firewall/Network Options section, disable NAT.


9. Click OK.

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NOT4: Configuring
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Review the VPN Configuration on Remote-FortiGate

For the purposes of this lab, Remote-FortiGate is preconfigured for you. This configuration was included in the
configuration file you uploaded at the beginning of this exercise. You can review this configuration by completing
the steps that follow.

To review the Remote-FortiGate configuration


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.200.3.1
with the user name admin and password password.
2. To review the VPN configuration, click VPN > IPsec Tunnels, and review Local_1.
3. To review the static route for the route-based VPN, click Network > Static Routes, and review Local_1.
4. To review the interface zone, click Network > Interfaces, and in the Zone section, expand VPN , and review
Local_1.
5. To review the firewall policies for VPN traffic on Remote-FortiGate, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy, and
review Local_out and Local_in.

Test the IPsec VPN

Now, you will test the VPN by generating some traffic and confirming that the VPN comes up.

To test the IPsec VPN


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a command prompt window.
2. Generate a ping to the Remote-Windows VM (10.0.2.10):
ping 10.0.2.10

FortiGate may not have previously established the VPN. If so, the first few pings will
fail while FortiGate negotiates and establishes the VPN.

3. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Monitor > IPsec
Monitor.
4. Confirm that the Remote_1 VPN is up.
You should see a green arrow in the Status column.

5. Close the command prompt.

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Exercise 5: Configuring a Backup IPsec VPN

In this exercise, you will create a second route-based VPN for redundancy. This time, configure the VPN from
Local-FortiGate port2 to Remote-FortiGate port5.

Remote FortiGate is pre-configured for VPN redundancy.

Configure a Backup VPN on Local-FortiGate

Now, you will configure a backup VPN on Local-FortiGate.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), configure the following to create a
route-based redundant VPN:

1. Create a new VPN IPsec tunnel:


l Use Remote_2 for the VPN name.
l Use 10.200.4.1 for the remote IP address.
l Use port2 for the interface.
2. Add a static route using Remote_2 with administrative distance of 20. Note the Distance and Priority
values of the existing default route.
3. Edit the network interface zone named VPN , and in Interface Members add Remote_2.

If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Review the Backup VPN Configuration on Remote-FortiGate on
page 93.

To configure a backup VPN on Local-FortiGate


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Repeat the configuration steps in To create phases 1 and 2 on page 87 to create phases 1 and 2.
l Use Remote_2 for the VPN name.
l Use 10.200.4.1 for the remote IP address.
l Use port2 for the interface.

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3. Click Network > Static Routes.
4. Click Create New.
5. Add the following static route:

Field Value

Destination Subnet

10.0.2.0/24

Interface Remote_2

Administrative Distance 20

6. Click OK.
7. Click Network > Interfaces.
8. Edit the zone VPN .
9. In the Interface Members field, add Remote_2.
10. Click OK.

Review the Backup VPN Configuration on Remote-FortiGate

For the purpose of this lab, Remote-FortiGate is preconfigured for you. This configuration was included in the
configuration file you uploaded at the beginning of the previous exercise. You can review this configuration by
completing the steps that follow.

To review the Remote-FortiGate configuration


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.200.3.1
with the user name admin and password password.
2. To review the VPN configuration, click VPN > IPsec Tunnels, and review Local_2.
3. To review the static route for the route-based VPN, click Network > Static Routes and review Local_2.
4. To review the interface zone, click Network > Interfaces, and in the Zone section, expand VPN , and review
Local_2.
5. To review the firewall policies for VPN traffic on Remote-FortiGate, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy, and
review Local_out and Local_in.

Test the VPN Redundancy

Now, you will test the VPN failover. You will use the sniffer tool to monitor which VPN the traffic is using.

To test the VPN redundancy


1. Continuing on Local-Windows, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Run the following command to sniffer all ICMP traffic to 10.0.2.10 with verbosity 4:

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diagnose sniffer packet any 'icmp and host 10.0.2.10' 4

4. Open a command prompt window, and then run a continuous ping to Remote-Windows:

ping –t 10.0.2.10

5. Return the the PuTTY session and view the sniffer output.
It will show that Local-FortiGate is routing the packets through the VPN Remote_1:

28.040086 port3 in 10.0.1.10 -> 10.0.2.10: icmp: echo request


28.040107 Remote_1 out 10.0.1.10 -> 10.0.2.10: icmp: echo request
28.041188 Remote_1 in 10.0.2.10 -> 10.0.1.10: icmp: echo reply
28.041196 port3 out 10.0.2.10 -> 10.0.1.10: icmp: echo reply

Now, you will simulate a failure in the VPN Remote_1 and observe how the FortiGate starts using the
secondary VPN Remote_2.

6. Return to the browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Network > Interfaces.
7. Edit port1.
8. Set the Interface State to Disabled to bring down the tunnel Remote_1.
9. Click OK.
10. Wait a few minutes until FortiGate detects the failure in the VPN Remote_1 and reroutes the traffic through
Remote_2.
11. Return to the PuTTY session and view the sniffer output again.
Notice that the VPN Remote_2 is being used now:

546.352063 port3 in 10.0.1.10 -> 10.0.2.10: icmp: echo request


546.352090 Remote_2 out 10.0.1.10 -> 10.0.2.10: icmp: echo request
546.353546 Remote_2 in 10.0.2.10 -> 10.0.1.10: icmp: echo reply
546.353560 port3 out 10.0.2.10 -> 10.0.1.10: icmp: echo reply

12. Close the PuTTY session and command prompt.


13. To finish this exercise, return to the browser tab where you are logged on to the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click
Network > Interfaces.
14. Edit port1.
15. Return the Interface State to Enabled.
16. Click OK.

Omitting these last steps may prevent you from doing the next exercise.

17. Close your browser.

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Lab 6: Fortinet Single Sign-On (FSSO)

In this lab, you will configure Fortinet's solution for single sign-on (FSSO). FSSO enables FortiGate to identify
users by collecting user logon activity from Windows Active Directory.

This includes installing and configuring the domain controller agent and FSSO collector agent in order to monitor
and consolidate the user logon events and send them to FortiGate.

You will also configure the SSO option on FortiGate to enable communication with the collector agent,
specifically to poll event log information.

Objectives
l Install and configure the Fortinet domain controller agent.
l Install and configure the FSSO collector agent.
l Configure SSO on FortiGate.
l Test the transparent or automatic user identification by generating user logon events.
l Monitor the SSO status and operation.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 35 minutes

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then select Configuration > Restore.

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3. Select Local PC, and then click Upload.
4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > FSSO > local-fsso.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Configuring FSSO Collector Agent-Based
Polling Mode

To configure FortiGate to identify users by polling their logon events using a Fortinet Single Sign-On (FSSO)
agent, you must install and configure a collector agent.

The following FSSO agents are available on the Fortinet Support website
(http://support.fortinet.com):

l DC agent
l Collector agent for Microsoft servers: FSSO_Setup
l Collector agent for Novell directories: FSSO_Setup_edirectoryController agent for
Citrix servers: TSAgent_Setup

Then, you will configure your FortiGate to communicate and poll information from the FSSO collector agent. For
this, you must assign the polled user to a firewall user group and add the user group as a source on a firewall
policy.

Finally, you can verify the user logon event collected by FortiGate. This event is generated after a user logs on to
the Windows Active Directory domain. Therefore, no firewall authentication is required.

Install the FSSO Collector Agent

In this section, you will install the FSSO collector agent on a Windows server.

To install the FSSO collector agent on a Windows server


1. On the desktop of the Local-Windows VM, click Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > FSSO.
2. Right-click FSSO_Setup_5.0.0261_x64, and then select Run as administrator.
The FSSO collector agent installation wizard opens.

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3. Click Next.
4. Accept the license agreement, and then click Next.
5. Accept the default destination folder, and then click Next.
6. Supply the following credentials, and then click Next:
l User Name: .\Administrator
l Password: password
The password is the administrative user password of the Local-Windows VM.

7. Accept the default settings, and then click Next.

8. Click Install to complete the installation.


9. Uncheck the Launch DC Agent Install Wizard check box.
10. Click Finish.
You successfully installed the FSSO collector agent.

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Configure the FSSO Collector Agent

In this procedure, you will configure the FSSO collector agent to allow FortiGate to poll information from it using
collector agent-based polling mode without a DC agent.

To launch the FSSO collector agent


1. On the Local-Windows VM, click the Windows icon to open the Start menu.
2. At the bottom of the screen, click the down arrow .
3. Scroll right, and, in the Fortinet menu, select Configure Fortinet Single Sign On Agent.

The Fortinet Single Sign On Agent Configuration configuration window opens.

To enable an authenticated connection from FortiGate


1. Continuing in the Fortinet Single Sign On Agent Configuration wizard, in the Authentication section,
complete the following:
l Select the Require authenticated connection from FortiGate check box.
l In the Password field, type Fortinet.

You will use this password later when configuring FortiGate. This password allows
FortiGate to communicate and poll the logon events from the FSSO collector agent.

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To select a DC to monitor
1. Continuing in the Fortinet Single Sign On Agent Configuration wizard, in the Common Tasks section, click
Show Monitored DCs to specify the monitored domain controller.
2. Click Select DC to Monitor.
3. In the Working Mode section, make sure the following elements are selected in order to poll the logon sessions
from the domain controller:
l Polling Mode (Polling logon sessions from Domain Controller)
l Check Windows Security Event Logs

Collector agent-based polling mode has three options for collecting login information:

1. NetAPI: Polls NetSessionEnum function on Windows every 9 seconds or less.


2. WinSecLog: Polls all security events on DC every 10 seconds or more.
3. WMI: DC returns all requested login events in three seconds.
The poll interval times are estimated and depend on the number of servers and
network latency.

4. In the Domain controller monitored by this collector agent section, select the TRAININGAD/Win-
Internal.trainingAD.training.lab check box to monitor by FSSO collector agent.

5. Click OK.
6. Once complete, click Refresh Now.
You will see a logon event for 10.0.1.10, which is the IP address for the Local-Windows VM.

7. Click Close.

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To specify monitoring groups
1. Continuing in the Fortinet Single Sign On Agent Configuration wizard, in the Common Tasks section, click Set
Group Filters to specify the monitored groups.
2. Click Add.
3. Select the Default filter check box, and then click Advanced.

4. Expand TRAININGAD , and then select the AD-users check box.

5. Click Add selected user groups.


Your monitored group is named: TRAININGAD/AD-users.

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6. Click OK.
7. Click OK.
FortiGate will poll this monitored group after you configure the SSO settings on FortiGate.

8. Click Save&close to finish the configuration.


The FSSO collector agent loads your settings.

Configure SSO on FortiGate

In this procedure, you will set up the SSO server on FortiGate. This process allows FortiGate to automatically
identify the user who connects using SSO. Then, you must add the polled FSSO users to an FSSO user group,
before configuring your firewall policies.

To configure the SSO server on FortiGate


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click User & Device > Single Sign-On.
3. Click Create New, and then enter the following settings.

Field Value

Type Fortinet Single-Sign-On Agent

Name TrainingDomain

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Field Value

Primary FSSO Agent 10.0.1.10

Password Fortinet

Note: This is the password you specified while configuring the Fortinet
Single Sign-On Agent. This password allows the FortiGate to
communicate and poll the logon events from the FSSO collector agent.

4. Click Apply & Refresh.


FortiGate identifies the group based on the filters from the FSSO collector agent.

5. Click View.
You will see the monitored group named: TRAININGAD/AD-USERS.

Stop and think!


Why does the User/Group field not automatically display after clicking Apply and Refresh?

Apply and Refresh allows FortiGate to communicate and poll information from the FSSO collector agent.
If FortiGate does not refresh with the correct polled information, it could be a password mismatch. The
agent IP password must be the same as the password you set up in the Authentication section during
the FSSO collector agent configuration.

6. Click X to close the Collector Agent Group Filters window.


7. Click OK.
A green checkmark in the Status column confirms the communication with the FSSO collector agent is up.

To assign the polled FSSO user to an FSSO user group


1. Continuing on the FortiGate-Local GUI, click User & Device > User Groups.
2. Click Create New, and then enter the following settings:

Field Value

Name Training

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Field Value

Type Fortinet Single Sign-On (FSSO)

Members TRAININGAD/AD-USERS

The polled FSSO user is automatically listed because of the selected group type:
FSSO.

3. Click OK.

Assign Polled FSSO Users to a Firewall Policy

In this procedure, you will assign your polled FSSO user as a source on a firewall policy. This allows you to control
access to network resources based on user identity.

To test the connection without assigning the polled FSSO user to any firewall policy
1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a new browser tab, and go to https://www.fortinet.com.
You will note that all users can access the Fortinet website.

To add the FSSO user group to your firewall policy


1. Return to your browser tab where you are logged into the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Policy & Objects >
IPv4 Policy.
2. Edit the firewall policy named Full_Access.
3. In the Source drop-down list, click LOCAL_SUBNET.
4. Then, in the Select Entries section, select User and add the Training group.

5. Click OK.

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Test FSSO

After a user logs on to the Windows Active Directory domain, the user is automatically identified based on their
IP. As a result, FortiGate allows the user to access network resources as policy decisions are made.

For the purposes of this lab, you will generate a user logon event and monitor FortiGate to observe how it
identifies the user.

To test the connection after assigning the polled FSSO user to the firewall policy
1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a new browser tab, and go to http://support.fortinet.com.

Stop and think!


The Fortinet Support website does not load, why?

Because the current logged in user is not within the TRAININGAD/AD-USERS group.

To review the connection status between the FSSO collector agent and FortiGate
1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved
session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Enter the following command to show the connection status between FortiGate and each collector agent.

diagnose debug enable


diagnose debug authd fsso server-status

4. Observe the CLI output.


Your FortiGate is connected to the FSSO collector agent.

Server Name Connection Status Version


----------- ---------- --------------
TrainingDomain connected FSSO 5.0.0261

To monitor communication between the FSSO collector agent and the FortiGate (1)
1. In the VM List, from the box of the Local-FortiGate, click View VM to open the FortiGate console.
2. Login as admin and password password.
3. Enter the below commands:
diagnose debug enable
diagnose debug application authd 8256

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You will return to this output after generating a logon event. Continue to the next procedure.

To generate a logon event


1. Return to the Local-Windows VM, and click the Windows button.
2. Select Administrator, and then click Sign out.
3. In the left of the browser window, click Virtual Keyboard > Send Ctrl-Alt-Del.
4. Select Other User and to log in with the following credentials:

Field Value

User name aduser1

Note: This user has been preconfigured for you in Active Directory.

Password Training!

5. Press Enter.

To monitor communication between the FSSO collector agent and the FortiGate (2)
1. Return to the console session of the Local-FortiGate VM, and view the output of the diagnose command:

[_process_logon: 871]: ADUSER1(10.0.1.10, 0) logged on from TrainingDomain.

You have generated a logon event in the Local-Windows VM and it has been captured
by your domain controller, polled by your collector agent, and forwarded to FortiGate.

You may see two IP addresses because the Local-Windows VM has two NICs in your
lab environment.

2. Enter the following command to stop the debug process:


diagnose debug reset

To display the FSSO logins


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate VM console, type the following command:
diagnose debug authd fsso list

2. Review the output, which shows the FSSO logins.

----FSSO logons----
IP:10.0.1.10 User: ADUSER1 Groups: TRAINING/AD-USERS
Workstation: WIN-INTERNAL.TRAININGAD.TRAINING.LAB MemberOf: Training
Total number of logons listed: 1, filtered: 0
----end of FSSO logons----

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You may see two IP addresses because the Local-Windows VM has two NICs in your
lab environment.

To review the user event logs


1. Return to your Local-Windows VM where you are logged into Windows as aduser1.
2. Open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user name admin and password
password.
3. Click Log & Report > User Events.
4. Select a log, and then click Details to view more information about it.

To monitor FSSO logons


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Monitor > Firewall User Monitor.
2. Click Show all FSSO Logons.

You may see two IP addresses because the Local-Windows VM has two NICs in your
lab environment.

To test the connection after generating a logon event


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a new browser tab, and go to http://support.fortinet.com.
As expected, ADUSER1 is granted to access the network resources.

To reconnect to the admin user


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, click the Windows button.
2. Select aduser1, and then click Sign out.
3. In the left of the browser window, click Virtual Keyboard > Send Ctrl-Alt-Del.

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4. Select Other User and log on with the following credentials.

Field Value

User name Administrator

Password password

5. Press Enter.

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Lab 7: High Availability (HA)

In this lab, you will set up a FortiGate Clustering Protocol (FGCP) high availability (HA) cluster of FortiGate
devices. You will explore active-active HA mode and observe FortiGate HA behavior. You will also perform an HA
failover and use diagnostic commands to observe the election of a new primary in the cluster.

Finally, you will configure management port(s) on each FortiGate to reach each FortiGate individually for
management purposes.

Objectives
l Set up an HA cluster using FortiGate devices.
l Observe HA synchronization and interpret diagnostic output.
l Perform an HA failover.
l Manage individual cluster members by configuring a reserved management interface.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 45 minutes

Lab HA Topology

After you upload the required configurations to each FortiGate, the logical topology will change to the following:

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to each FortiGate.

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Use the procedure that follows to restore the correct configuration to each FortiGate.
Failure to restore the correct configuration to each FortiGate will prevent you from
doing the lab exercise.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > HA > local-ha.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

To restore the Remote-FortiGate configuration


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.200.3.1 with the
user name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

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3. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.
4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > HA > remote-ha.conf, and then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Configuring High Availability (HA)

FortiGate High Availability (HA) uses the FortiGate Clustering Protocol (FGCP), which uses a heartbeat link for
HA-related communications to discover other FortiGate devices in same HA group, elect a primary device,
synchronize configuration, and detect failed devices in an HA cluster.

In this exercise, you will configure HA settings on both FortiGate devices. You will observe the HA synchronize
status, and verify the configuration is in sync on both FortiGate devices using the diagnose commands.

Configure HA Settings on Local-FortiGate

Now, you will configure HA-related settings using the Local-FortiGate GUI.

To configure HA settings on Local-FortiGate


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click System > HA, and then configure the following HA settings:

Field Value

Mode Active-Active

Device priority 200

Group name Training

Password Fortinet

Tip: Click Change, and then type the password.

Session pickup <enable>

Monitor Interfaces Click X to remove port4.

Heartbeat interfaces port2

The configuration should like the following example:

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3. Click OK.

Configure HA Settings on Remote-FortiGate

Now, you will configure HA-related settings on Remote-FortiGate using the console.

To configure HA settings on Remote-FortiGate


1. In the VM List, from the box of the Remote-FortiGate, click View VM to open the FortiGate console.
2. Log in as admin and password password.
3. Enter the following commands to configure the HA settings:  

config system ha
set group-name Training
set mode a-a
set password Fortinet
set hbdev port2 0
set session-pickup enable
set override disable
set priority 100
end

Observe and Verify the HA Synchronization Status

Now that you have configured HA on both FortiGate devices, you will verify that HA has been established and the
configurations are fully synchronized.

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The checksums for all cluster members must match, in order for the FortiGate devices to be in a synchronized
state.

To observe and verify the HA synchronization status


1. Continuing on the Remote-FortiGate console, you should see the error messages that FortiGate sends to the
console.
This sometimes shows useful status change information.

2. Wait four to five minutes for the FortiGate devices to synchronize.


After the FortiGate devices are synchronized, the FortiGate console will log out all admin users.
slave succeeded to sync external files with master
slave starts to sync with master
logout all admin users

3. When prompted, log back in to the Remote-FortiGate console as admin and password password..
4. To check the HA synchronize status, run the following command: .

diagnose sys ha checksum show


5. In the VM List, from the box of the Local-FortiGate, click View VM to open the FortiGate console.
6. Log in as admin and password password.
7. To check the HA synchronize status, run the following command:

diagnose sys ha checksum show

8. Compare the output from both FortiGate devices.


If both FortiGate devices are synchronized, then the checksums will match.

9. Alternatively, you can run the following command on the console of any FortiGate in the cluster, to view the
checksums of all cluster members:

diagnose sys ha checksum cluster

Verify FortiGate Roles in a HA Cluster

After the checksums of both FortiGate devices match, you will verify the cluster member roles to confirm the
primary and secondary devices.

To verify FortiGate roles in an HA cluster


1. From the VM List, View VM, on both the Local-FortiGate console and the Remote-FortiGate console, run the
following command to verify that the HA cluster has been established:

get system status

2. View the Current HA mode line on both consoles.


Notice that the Local-FortiGate is a-a master, and the Remote-FortiGate device is a-a backup.

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In this configuration, the FortiGate device that is named Local-FortiGate is the master
in the HA cluster because override is disabled and monitored ports are not configured.
Next, the cluster checks for priority—Local-FortiGate, which has a priority of 200, has
greater priority than Remote-FortiGate, which has a priority of 100.

View Session Statistics

Now, you will view session statistics.

To view session statistics


1. Return to the Local-Windows VM, and open few web browser tabs and connect to a few websites. For example:
l https://docs.fortinet.com
l www.yahoo.com
l www.bbc.com
2. Return to the Local-FortiGate console and the Remote-FortiGate console, and run the following command on
each:
get system session status

The primary FortiGate will have more sessions than the secondary FortiGate. This is
because all management traffic is with the primary; all non-TCP traffic is also handled
by the primary. By default, only TCP sessions that require a security profiles inspection
are load balanced between the primary and secondary FortiGate devices.

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Exercise 2: High Availability Failover

You have set up an HA cluster. Now, you will trigger an HA failover and observe the renegotiation among devices
to elect a new primary device and redistribute the sessions.

Trigger Failover by Rebooting the Primary FortiGate

You will reboot the primary FortiGate in the cluster to trigger failover.

Take the Expert Challenge!


1. On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254 | admin/password), complete the following:
l Play a long video on http://www.dailymotion.com.
l Run a continuous ping to IP address 4.2.2.2.
2. On the Local-FortiGate console (admin/password), reboot Local-FortiGate.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you have performed these steps, seeVerify the HA Failover and FortiGate Roles on page 117.

To trigger failover by rebooting the primary FortiGate


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a web browser and go to the following URL:

http://www.dailymotion.com

If Java is not enabled, enable it.

2. Play a long video (over five minutes).


3. While the video is playing, open a command prompt, and then run a continuous ping to a public IP address.

ping 4.2.2.2 -t

4. To trigger a failover, on the Local-FortiGate console, run the following command to reboot the Local-FortiGate.

execute reboot

5. Press y to confirm that you want to reboot the FortiGate.

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Verify the HA Failover and FortiGate Roles

Now, you will verify the HA failover, and check the roles of FortiGate in an HA cluster.

To verify the HA failover and FortiGate roles


1. Return to the Local-Windows VM and check the command prompt and video that you started earlier.
Because of the failover, the Remote-FortiGate device is now the primary processor of traffic. Your ping and
video should still be running.

2. To verify that Remote-FortiGate is acting as the primary device in the HA cluster, on the Remote-FortiGate
console, run the following command:

get system status

Stop and think!


When Local-FortiGate finishes rebooting and rejoins the cluster, does it rejoin as the secondary, or resume
its initial role of primary?

3. To see the status of all cluster members, run the following command on any FortiGate in the cluster:

diagnose sys ha status

You should see that Local-FortiGate rejoins the cluster as a secondary. It has lost its role of primary:

In this configuration, the FortiGate device named Local-FortiGate becomes the


secondary in the HA cluster because override is disabled and monitored ports are not
configured. Next, the cluster checks for uptime. Because Local-FortiGate was
rebooted, it has less uptime than Remote-FortiGate.

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Trigger an HA Failover by Resetting the HA Uptime

Now, you will trigger a failover by resetting the HA uptime on the current primary FortiGate—which should be
Remote-FortiGate—and verifying FortiGate's role in the HA cluster.

To trigger an HA failover by resetting the HA uptime on FortiGate


1. On the Remote-FortiGate console, run the following command:

diagnose sys ha reset-uptime

By resetting the HA uptime, you are forcing the cluster to use the next parameter to
determine which FortiGate has more priority for becoming the primary. As per the
configuration, Local-FortiGate has a priority of 200, and Remote-FortiGate has a
priority of 100. Local-FortiGate will become the primary device in the cluster.

2. Remote-FortiGate now has the backup role in the cluster. On the Remote-FortiGate console, run the following
command to verify it:

get system status

Observe HA Failover Using Diagnostic Commands

The HA synchronization process is responsible for FGCP packets that communicate cluster status and build the
cluster. You will use real-time diagnostic commands to observe this process.

To observe HA failover using diagnostic commands


1. On the Local-FortiGate console,log in as admin and password password.
2. Run the following commands.

diagnose debug enable


diagnose debug application hasync 0
diagnose debug application hasync 255

The diagnose debug application hasync 0 command is used to stop the


debug. You will use this entered command later.

3. On the Remote-FortiGate console, run the following command to reboot the Remote-FortiGate:

execute reboot

4. Press y to confirm that you want to reboot FortiGate.


5. On the Local-FortiGate console, view the output while the secondary device reboots and starts communicating
with the cluster.

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The output will show that the current primary FortiGate is sending heartbeat packets and trying to
synchronize its configuration with the secondary FortiGate’s configuration.

6. To stop the debug output on Local-FortiGate, press the Up Arrow key twice, select the second-last command (in
this case, diagnose debug application hasync 0), and then press the Enter key.
7. Return to Local-Windows VM and close the command prompt to stop the continuous ping.
8. Close the browser.

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Exercise 3: Configuring the HA Management Interface

In this exercise, you will configure a spare interface in the cluster to be a nonsynchronizing management
interface. This will allow both FortiGate devices to be reachable only for SNMP and management purposes.

If a management interface is not configured, you will have access to the GUI of only the primary FortiGate in the
cluster. However, you can connect to the secondary FortiGate only through the primary FortiGate's CLI or through
the console connection.

You can also configure an in-band HA management interface, which is an alternative to the reserved HA
management interface feature and does not require reserving an interface that is only for management access.

Access the Secondary FortiGate through the Primary FortiGate CLI

You will connect to the secondary FortiGate through the CLI of the primary FortiGate.

To access the secondary FortiGate through the primary FortiGate CLI


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Type the following command to access the secondary FortiGate CLI through the primary FortiGate’s HA link:
execute ha manage <id>

Use ? to list the id values.

4. When prompted, log in as admin and password password to Remote-FortiGate.

5. Run the following command to get the status of the secondary FortiGate:

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get system status

6. View the Current HA mode line.


You will notice that the Remote-FortiGate device is a-a backup.

7. To return to the CLI of Local-FortiGate, run the following command to return to the primary:
exit

8. Run the following command to refresh license information:


execute update-now

Set Up a Management Interface

You will use an unused interface on the FortiGate devices in an HA cluster to configure a management interface.
This allows you to configure a different IP address for this interface for each FortiGate in the HA cluster.

To set up a management interface


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI (usually the primary) at
10.0.1.254 with the user name admin and password password.
2. Click System > HA.
3. Right-click Local-FortiGate, and then click Edit.

4. Enable Management Interface Reservation, and in the Interface field, select port7.
5. Click OK.

port7 connects to the same LAN segment as port3.

Configure and Access the Primary FortiGate Using the Management Interface

You will configure and verify access to the primary FortiGate using the management interface.

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To configure and verify access to the primary FortiGate using the management interface
1. From the VM List, on the Local-FortiGate console, log in as admin and password password.
2. Run the following commands to configure port7:

config system interface


edit port7
set ip 10.0.1.253/24
set allowaccess http snmp ping ssh
end

Even though this address overlaps with port3, and would not usually be allowed
(FortiGate does not allow overlapping subnets), it is allowed here because the
interface now has a special purpose, and is excluded from the routing table.

3. Return to the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.253 (note
the IP address) as admin and password password.
This will verify connectivity to port7.

Configure and Access the Secondary FortiGate Using the Management


Interface

You will configure and verify access to the secondary FortiGate using the management interface.

Take the Expert Challenge!


1. On the Remote-FortiGate console (admin/password), complete the following:
l Verify that the non synchronizing interface settings have been synced to the secondary.
show system ha

l Verify that port7 has no configuration, and then configure the port7 IP/Netmask as
10.0.1.252/24 with the same allowaccess configured for Local-FortiGate port7.
2. On the Local-Windows VM, log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI (admin/password) using the port7 IP
address to verify connectivity.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After the configuration is ready, see Disconnect FortiGate From the Cluster on page 123.

To configure and verify access to the secondary FortiGate using the management interface
1. From the VM List, on the Remote-FortiGate console, log in as admin and password password.
2. Verify that the non synchronizing interface settings have been synced to the secondary:
show system ha

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Look for ha-mgmt-status and ha-mgmt-interface. These should be set.

3. Run the following command to verify that port7 has no configuration:

show system interface

4. Configure port7:

config system interface


edit port7
set ip 10.0.1.252/24
set allowaccess http ping ssh snmp
end

5. Return to the Local-Windows VM.


6. Open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.252 (note the IP address) as admin and
password password.
This will verify connectivity to port7.

Each device in the cluster now has its own management IP address for monitoring purposes.

Disconnect FortiGate From the Cluster

You will disconnect Remote-FortiGate from the cluster. FortiGate will prompt you to configure an IP address on
any port on FortiGate so that you can access it after disconnecting.

To disconnect FortiGate from the cluster


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254
with the user name admin and password password.
2. Click System > HA.
3. Right-click Remote-FortiGate, and then click Remove device from HA cluster.

4. When prompted, configure the following settings:

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Field Value

Interface port3

IP/Netmask 10.0.1.251/24

5. Click OK.
This removes FortiGate from the HA cluster.

Restore the Remote-FortiGate Configuration

Now, you will restore the Remote-FortiGate configuration so that you can use the Remote-FortiGate in the next
labs.

Failure to perform these steps will prevent you from doing the next exercise.

Take the Expert Challenge!


l Log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI using the IP address configured in the previous procedure. If Remote-
FortiGate is waiting for a response from the license authentication server, run the command below to force
an immediate license authentication retry.
execute update-now
l Restore the Remote-FortiGate configuration using the remote-initial.conf file located in Desktop
> Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > HA folder.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

To restore the Remote-FortiGate configuration


1. On the Remote-FortiGate console, run the following command to validate license and support information for
Remote-FortiGate:
execute update-now

In this environment, the FortiManager is acting as a local FortiGuard server. It


validates the FortiGate licenses and replies to FortiGuard Web Filtering rating
requests from FortiGate VMs. As Remote-FortiGate is removed from the HA cluster, it
may take few minutes to validate its license. The execute update-now
command is used to force an immediate license authentication retry.

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2. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Remote-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.251 with the
user name admin and password password.
3. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

4. Click Local PC, and then click Upload.


5. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > HA > remote-initial.conf, and then click
Open.
6. Click OK.
7. Click OK to reboot.

Failure to perform these steps will prevent you from doing the next exercises.

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Lab 8: Web Proxy

In this lab, you will learn how to configure FortiGate to be an explicit and transparent web proxy.

Objectives
l Configure FortiGate to act as a web proxy.
l Apply security policies to web proxy traffic based on HTTP headers.
l Authenticate, authorize, and monitor web proxy users.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 40 minutes

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Select Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Web-Proxy > local-web-proxy.conf, and then
click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Configuring an Explicit Web Proxy

During this exercise, you will configure the FortiGate to act as an explicit web proxy. You will also configure the
FortiGate to authenticate and authorize Internet access for specific users. The authentication enforcement is
done with an authentication scheme and an authentication rule. The authorization is done by adding the allowed
user groups to the source of the proxy policy.

After that, you will manually configure Firefox with the proxy IP address and port.

Show the Explicit Web Proxy Settings

By default, the explicit web proxy settings are hidden on the GUI. You will show them.

To show the explicit web proxy settings


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click System > Feature Visibility.
3. Under the Security Features section, enable Explicit Proxy.
4. Click Apply.

Enable Explicit Web Proxy

You will enable explicit web proxy on the network setting.

To enable explicit web proxy


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Network > Explicit Proxy.
2. Enable Explicit Web Proxy.
3. Click Listen on Interfaces, and select the interface port3.
4. In the HTTP port field, type 8080 - 8080.
5. In the HTTPS port field, select Use HTTP Port.
6. Click Apply.

Create an Authentication Scheme

You will create an authentication scheme to use the local user database for web proxy authentication.

To create an authentication scheme


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL_FORTIGATE saved
session.

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2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Enter the following commands to create the authentication scheme:
config authentication scheme
edit WebProxyScheme
set method form
set user-database local
next
end

Create an Authentication Rule

You will enforce web proxy authentication by creating an authentication rule that matches all traffic coming from
the internal subnet. You will use the authentication scheme created in the previous procedure.

To create an authentication rule


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session, enter the following commands to create the authentication
rule:
config authentication rule
edit WebProxyRule
set srcaddr LOCAL_SUBNET
set active-auth-method WebProxyScheme
set protocol http
next
end
2. Leave the PuTTY session open (you can minimize it on your desktop).

Create a Proxy Policy

You will create the policy to allow explicit proxy traffic to access the Internet. Only the user student will be
authorized to browse the Internet through the proxy.

To create a proxy policy


1. Return to the browser tab where you are logged in to the Local-FortiGate GUI, and click Policy & Objects >
Proxy Policy.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Proxy Type Explicit Web

Enabled On port3

Outgoing Interface port1

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Field Value

Source Address > LOCAL_SUBNET

User > STUDENTS (under the USER GROUP section)

Destination all

Schedule always

Service webproxy

Action ACCEPT

4. Click OK.

Configure Firefox for Explicit Web Proxy

You have configured Local-FortiGate as an explicit web proxy. Now, you will configure Firefox to use the explicit
web proxy.

To configure Firefox to use the explicit web proxy


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, and the Firefox browser, click the Open Menu icon in the upper-right
corner.

2. Click Options.

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3. Scroll down to the Network Proxy section, and click Settings.

4. Select Manual proxy configuration, and configure the following settings:

Field Value

HTTP Proxy 10.0.1.254

Port 8080

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5. Select Use this proxy server for all protocols.
6. In the No Proxy for field, add the subnet 10.0.1.0/24 (separated by a comma).
This list contains the names, IP addresses, and subnets of websites that will be exempted from using the
proxy.

7. Click OK.
8. Close Firefox.

Test the Explicit Web Proxy Configuration

You will test the explicit web proxy configuration.

To test the explicit web proxy configuration


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open Firefox, and browse to any HTTP website, such as:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
FortiGate will request authentication.

2. Use the following credentials:

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Field Value

User Name student

Password fortinet

After entering these credentials, you should have Internet access through the explicit web proxy.

List the Active Explicit Web Proxy Users

You will execute a CLI command to display the list of active web proxy users.

To list the active web proxy users


1. Return to your Local- FortiGate PuTTY session, and type the following CLI command to check the list of active
web proxy users:

# diagnose wad user list

List the Active Explicit Web Proxy Sessions

For each explicit web proxy connection to a website, two TCP connections are usually created: one from the client
to the proxy, and one from the proxy to the server.

You will run some debug commands to list the sessions established between the client and the proxy. Then, you
will list the sessions established between the proxy and the servers.

To list the active explicit web proxy sessions between the client and the proxy
1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a few tabs in Firefox, and generate some HTTP traffic, such as:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
2. Return to the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session, and type these CLI commands:

diagnose sys session filter clear


diagnose sys session filter dport 8080
diagnose sys session list

You can also use the grep command to display only the source and destination IP addresses and ports for
each session:
diagnose sys session list | grep hook=pre

3. Now browse the websites you just launched.


4. Review the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session output.

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Stop and think!
Why is the source IP address of all those sessions 10.0.1.10?

Why is the destination IP address of all those sessions 10.0.1.254?

Why don’t you see any public IP address listed in those sessions?

Two TCP sessions are usually created for any client-to-server connection that goes through an explicit web
proxy: one from the client to the proxy, and one from the proxy to the server. By using the destination port
8080 as the filter, you are listing only the sessions from the client (10.0.1.10) to the proxy's internal
interface (10.0.1.254).

5. Close your broswer.

To list the active explicit web proxy sessions between the proxy and the servers
1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a few tabs in Firefox, and generate some HTTP traffic, such as:
l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
l http://www.eicar.org
2. Return to the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session, and type these CLI commands:

diagnose sys session filter clear


diagnose sys session filter dport 80
diagnose sys session list | grep hook=out

3. Now browse the websites you just launched.


4. Review the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session output.

Stop and think!


Why is the source IP address of all these sessions 10.200.1.1?

Why don’t you see the IP address of the Windows server (10.0.1.10)?

By using the destination port 80 as the filter, you are listing only the sessions from the proxy's external
interface (10.200.1.1) to the server. The client's IP, in these cases, is not the source or the destination.

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Exercise 2: Configuring the Transparent Web Proxy

During this exercise, you will configure the FortiGate to act as a transparent web proxy. You will use a proxy
address to selectively block web traffic to the Fortinet website while allowing traffic to other destinations.

Disable the Explicit Web Proxy in Firefox

With transparent web proxy, browsers do not need to be explicitly configured to send traffic to the proxy
IP address. HTTP packets are transparently inspected by the proxy as they flow from the client to the server.

To disable the explicit web proxy in Firefox


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open Firefox.
2. In the upper-right corner, click the Open Menu icon.

3. Click Options.
4. Scroll down to the Network Proxy section and click Settings.
5. Select No proxy.

6. Click OK.
7. Close Firefox.

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Redirect the Traffic to the Transparent Web Proxy

To transparently redirect HTTP packets to the web proxy, the web traffic must match an allowed firewall policy
that is using a proxy options profile with the setting HTTP Policy Redirect enabled. So, you will create a proxy
options profile with this setting enabled and assign it to the outbound firewall policy.

To create a proxy options profile


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. Click Security Profiles > Proxy Options.
3. In the upper-right corner, click the plus (+) icon to create a new proxy options profile.

4. Complete the following:

Field Value

Name HTTP_Redirect

HTTP Policy Redirect <enable>

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5. Click OK.

To apply the proxy profile to the firewall policy


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
2. Edit the Full_Access firewall policy that goes from port3 to port1.
3. Under the Security Profiles section, change the Proxy Options profile to HTTP_Redirect.

4. Click OK.

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Create the Proxy Policies

You will create two proxy policies. One policy will block traffic to any hostname that contains eicar.org. The
other policy will allow traffic to any other destination. For the first policy, you will use a proxy address to match
traffic using the information in the host field of the HTTP headers.

To create a proxy address


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > Addresses.
2. Click Create New, and then click Address.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Category Proxy Address

Name EICAR

Type Host Regex Match

Host Regex Pattern .*eicar\.org

Note that the regex pattern that you entered starts with a dot.

4. Click OK.

Take the Expert Challenge!


On the Local-FortiGate GUI (10.0.1.254), complete the following:

l Configure the first proxy policy to block traffic to the EICAR website using the proxy address created in To
create a proxy address on page 137.
l Configure a second proxy policy to allow all other traffic.
If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, seeTesting the Transparent Web Proxy on page 138.

To create a proxy policy to block traffic to the Fortinet web site


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > Proxy Policy.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

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Field Value

Proxy Type Transparent Web

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface port1

Source LOCAL_SUBNET

Destination EICAR (under the PROXY ADDRESS section)

Schedule always

Service webproxy

Action DENY

4. Click OK.

To create a proxy policy to allow traffic to other destinations


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate GUI, click Policy & Objects > Proxy Policy.
2. Click Create New.
3. Configure the following settings:

Field Value

Proxy Type Transparent Web

Incoming Interface port3

Outgoing Interface port1

Source LOCAL_SUBNET

Destination all

Schedule always

Service webproxy

Action ACCEPT

4. Click OK.

Testing the Transparent Web Proxy

You will test the two transparent proxy policies.

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To test the transparent web proxy
1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a new Firefox browser tab.
2. In the upper-right corner, click the Open Menu icon.

3. Click History and click Clear Recent History.


4. Click Clear Now.
5. Open a new browser and try to connect to www.eicar.org.
You should get an Access Denied message.

6. Try to connect to any other HTTP site, such as:


l http://www.pearsonvue.com/fortinet/
l http://cve.mitre.org
Traffic should be allowed.

7. Close your browser.

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Lab 9: Diagnostics

In this lab, you will run some diagnostic commands to learn about the current status of FortiGate. You will also
use the sniffer and debug flow tools to troubleshoot and fix a connectivity problem.

Objectives
l Identify your network’s normal behavior.
l Monitor for abnormal behavior, such as traffic spikes.
l Diagnose problems at the physical and network layers.
l Diagnose connectivity problems using the debug flow.
l Diagnose resource problems, such as high CPU or memory usage.

Time to Complete
Estimated: 30 minutes

Prerequisites
Before beginning this lab, you must restore a configuration file to Local-FortiGate.

To restore the Local-FortiGate configuration file


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254 with the user
name admin and password password.
2. In the upper-right corner of the screen, click admin, and then click Configuration > Restore.

3. Select Local PC, and then click Upload.


4. Click Desktop > Resources > FortiGate-Infrastructure > Diagnostics > local-diagnostics.conf, and
then click Open.
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK to reboot.

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Exercise 1: Knowing What is Happening Now

During this exercise you will use CLI commands to get information about FortiGate, such as traffic volume, CPU
usage, memory usage, and ARP table.

Execute Diagnostic Commands

You will execute some diagnostic commands and take note of some of the information displayed.

To execute diagnostic commands


1. On Local-Windows, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL_FORTIGATE saved session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Find the following information and write down your answers in the spaces provided. Below, see the list of
commands you should use to get the answers.

Field Value

Firmware branch point

Current HA mode

Hostname

CPU utilization

Memory utilization

Average network usage

Average session setup rate

Negotiated speed and duplex mode for interface


port1

MTU for port1

MAC address for the IP address 10.200.1.254

Name of the process consuming most CPU (if any)

Name of the process consuming most memory

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Use the following CLI commands to find the information requested above:
get system status
get system performance status
get hardware nic port1
diagnose ip arp list
diagnose sys top 1

(Press Shift-P to order the processes by CPU usage, Shift-M to order them by
memory usage, or Q to stop.)

4. Close the PuTTY session.

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Exercise 2: Troubleshooting a Connectivity Problem

During this exercise, you will use the sniffer and debug flow to troubleshoot a network connectivity problem.

Identify the Problem

As you will see in this procedure, there is a network connectivity problem between the Local-Windows VM and the
Linux server.

To identify the problem


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open a command prompt window.
2. Start a continuous ping to the Linux server (IP address 10.200.1.254):

ping -t 10.200.1.254

The ping is failing. You will use the sniffer and debug flow tools in Local-FortiGate to find out why.

3. Do not close the command prompt window. Keep the ping running.

Use the Sniffer

Take the Expert Challenge!


Now that you understand what the problem is, try to fix it without looking at the FortiGate configuration.
Use the built-in sniffer and debug flow tools to troubleshoot the problem.

If you require assistance, or to verify your work, use the step-by-step instructions that follow.

After you complete the challenge, see Test the Fix on page 145.

You will start troubleshooting by sniffing the ICMP traffic going to the Linux server.

To use the sniffer


1. On the Local-Windows VM, open PuTTY and connect over SSH to the LOCAL-FORTIGATE saved session.
2. At the login prompt, enter the user name admin and password password.
3. Enter the following command to sniffer the ICMP traffic to 10.200.1.254:

diagnose sniffer packet any "icmp and host 10.200.1.254" 4

4. Observe the output:


interfaces=[any]

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filters=[icmp and host 10.200.1.254]
5.439019 port3 in 10.0.1.10 -> 10.200.1.254: icmp: echo request
10.442347 port3 in 10.0.1.10 -> 10.200.1.254: icmp: echo request
15.444343 port3 in 10.0.1.10 -> 10.200.1.254: icmp: echo request
20.545397 port3 in 10.0.1.10 -> 10.200.1.254: icmp: echo request

The packets are arriving to FortiGate, but FortiGate is not routing them.

5. Press Ctrl-C to stop the sniffer.

Use the Debug Flow Tool

To get information about why the packets are being dropped, you will run the debug flow tool.

To use the debug flow tool


1. Continuing on the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session, enter the commands below. You will configure the debug flow
filter to capture all ICMP traffic to and from the IP address 10.200.1.254:

diagnose debug flow filter clear


diagnose debug flow filter proto 1
diagnose debug flow filter addr 10.200.1.254
diagnose debug enable
diagnose debug flow trace start 3

Output should be similar to what is shown below. The FortiGate receives the ICMP packet from 10.0.1.10
to 10.200.1.254 from port3:
id=20085 trace_id=1 func=print_pkt_detail line=5363 msg="vd-root received a packet
(proto=1, 10.0.1.10:1->10.200.1.254:2048) from port3. type=8, code=0, id=1,
seq=33."

It creates a new session:


id=20085 trace_id=1 func=init_ip_session_common line=5519 msg="allocate a new session-
00000340"

It finds a route for the destination 10.200.1.254, through port1:


id=20085 trace_id=1 func=vf_ip_route_input_common line=2583 msg="find a route:
flag=04000000 gw-10.200.1.254 via port1"

It drops the packet. The debug flow shows the error message:
id=20085 trace_id=1 func=fw_forward_handler line=586 msg="Denied by forward policy
check (policy 0)"

The message Denied by forward policy check indicates that the traffic is denied by a firewall
policy. It could be either a denied policy explicitly configured by the administrator, or the implicit denied policy
for traffic that does not match any configured policy.

The policy 0 indicates that the traffic was denied by the default implicit policy. If the traffic were blocked
by an explicitly configured policy, its policy ID number would be indicated in this output, instead of the
number zero.

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Fix the Problem

Now that we have found the cause of the problem, let's fix it.

To fix the problem


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, open a browser and log in to the Local-FortiGate GUI at 10.0.1.254
with the user name admin and password password.
2. Click Policy & Objects > IPv4 Policy.
3. Look at the firewall policies.
The Full_Access filewall policy does not allow ICMP traffic (only HTTP). This is why FortiGate is dropping
the ping packets.

4. Edit the Full_Access firewall policy.


5. Change the service from HTTP to ALL.
6. Click OK.

Test the Fix

You will test to confirm that the configuration change fixed the problem.

To test the fix


1. Continuing on the Local-Windows VM, check the command prompt window to see if the continuous ping is
working now.
2. Stop the ping by pressing Ctrl-C, but leave the command prompt open.
3. Return to the Local-FortiGate PuTTY session where you are running debug commands, and clear all the ICMP
sessions from the session table:

diagnose sys session filter clear


diagnose sys session filter proto 1
diagnose sys session clear

4. Start the debug flow again:

diagnose debug flow filter clear


diagnose debug flow filter proto 1
diagnose debug flow filter addr 10.200.1.254
diagnose debug enable
diagnose debug flow trace start 3

There should not be any output yet, because the ping is not running.

5. Return to the command prompt window, and start the ping again:

ping -t 10.200.1.254

6. Check the debug flow output.


It is a bit different now. The error message is not displayed and you will see a few new logs.

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Traffic is allowed by the firewall policy with the ID 1:
id=20085 trace_id=4 func=fw_forward_handler line=737 msg="Allowed by Policy-1: SNAT"

FortiGate applies source NAT (SNAT):


id=20085 trace_id=4 func=__ip_session_run_tuple line=3164 msg="SNAT 10.0.1.10-
>10.200.1.1:62464"

Additionally, you will see the debug flow logs from the return (ping reply) packets:
id=20085 trace_id=5 func=print_pkt_detail line=5363 msg="vd-root received a packet
(proto=1, 10.200.1.254:62464->10.200.1.1:0) from port1. type=0, code=0, id=62464,
seq=83."
id=20085 trace_id=5 func=resolve_ip_tuple_fast line=5438 msg="Find an existing session,
id-000003f2, reply direction"
id=20085 trace_id=5 func=__ip_session_run_tuple line=3178 msg="DNAT 10.200.1.1:0-
>10.0.1.10:1"
id=20085 trace_id=5 func=vf_ip_route_input_common line=2583 msg="find a route:
flag=04000000 gw-10.0.1.10 via port3"

The procedure in this exercise describes what you should usually do when
troubleshooting connectivity problems on a FortiGate. Sniffer the traffic first, to check
that the packets are arriving to FortiGate, and that FortiGate is properly routing them.
If the sniffer shows that the traffic is being dropped by FortiGate, use the debug flow
tool to find out why.

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No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make any
derivative such as translation, transformation, or adaptation without permission from Fortinet Inc.,
as stipulated by the United States Copyright Act of 1976.
Copyright© 2018 Fortinet, Inc. All rights reserved. Fortinet®, FortiGate®, FortiCare® and FortiGuard®, and certain other marks are registered trademarks of Fortinet,
Inc., in the U.S. and other jurisdictions, and other Fortinet names herein may also be registered and/or common law trademarks of Fortinet. All other product or company
names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Performance and other metrics contained herein were attained in internal lab tests under ideal conditions, and
actual performance and other results may vary. Network variables, different network environments and other conditions may affect performance results. Nothing herein
represents any binding commitment by Fortinet, and Fortinet disclaims all warranties, whether express or implied, except to the extent Fortinet enters a binding written
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absolute clarity, any such warranty will be limited to performance in the same ideal conditions as in Fortinet’s internal lab tests. In no event does Fortinet make any
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Fortinet disclaims in full any covenants, representations,and guarantees pursuant hereto, whether express or implied. Fortinet reserves the right to change, modify,
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