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División de Universidad Abierta

Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

FACULTAD DE DERECHO
IDIOMA
OCTAVO, NOVENO O DÉCIMO

Datos curriculares:

Ø Nombre de la asignatura: Idioma


Ø Ciclo: Licenciatura
Ø Plan de estudio: 1341-1139
Ø Carácter: Obligatoria
Ø Créditos: S/C
Ø Asignatura precedente: Ninguna
Ø Asignatura subsecuente: Ninguna

Características de los destinatarios:

Estudiantes de la licenciatura en Derecho del Sistema de Universidad Abierta que estén


cursando el octavo, noveno o décimo semestre.

Que cuenten con:

• Capacidad de interpretar textos auténticos a través de estrategias comprensión de


lectura, conocimiento previo de los conceptos generales y básicos del sistema
tributario mexicano: autoridades, marco legal y principios.
• Capacidad de estructurar enunciados sencillos con las diferentes estructuras
gramaticales.
• Capacidad de estructurar enunciados con vocabulario jurídico.

Criterios de acreditación:
Examen final 100%

Duración (horas):

64 horas

Elaborador de la guía:
Lic. Javier Simitrio Mociño Gómez

Actualización:
Lic. Carmen Valencia Anaya

Objetivo general:

Al concluir el curso el alumno comprenderá textos auténticos en inglés, mediante el uso


de estrategias de comprensión de la lectura; identificará las partes que componen una
oración, así como las funciones que tienen cada una de ellas.

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

Índice temático
Unidad 1. Parts of speech.
1.1 Sustantivos (Nouns).
1.2 Verbos(Verbs)
1.2.1.1 Regular verbs.
1.3 Irregular verbs.
1.4 Adjetivos (Adjectives).
1.5 Adverbios (Adverbs).
1.6 Preposiciones (Prepositions).
1.7 Formulación de oraciones.

Unidad 2. Simple Present tense and Present continuous.


2.1 Simple present tense.
2.1.1 Third singular person.
2.1.2 Questions and negatives.
2.1.3 Do and does in questions
2.1.4 Don’t and doesn’t negative forms.
2.1.5 Continuous present tense.
2.1.6 Verb to be (am, are, is).
2.1.7 Question and negatives.
2.1.8 Present tense questions and negative forms.
2.1.9 Simple present tense and Present continuous.

Unidad 3. Simple Past tense and Past continuous.


3.1 Simple past tense.
3.1.1 The past tense of be.
3.1.2 The past tense (regular verbs).
3.1.3 The past tense (irregular verbs).
3.1.4 Review of the past tense.
3.1.5 Questions in past tense.
3.1.6 Negatives in past tense.
3.1.7 Irregular verb quiz.
3.1.8 Reading comprehension.
3.1.9 Reading comprehension.
3.1.10 The continuous past tense.
3.1.11 The verbs was and were.
3.1.12 Questions and negatives.

Unidad 4. Future “will” y Future “going to”.


4.1 The future tense will.
4.1.1 Using future tense.
4.1.2 Question future will.
4.1.3 Negatives future will.
4.1.4 The future tense “going to”.
4.1.5 Question future “going to”.
4.1.6 Negatives future “going to”.
4.1.7 Reading “A tip to New York”.

Unidad 5. Técnicas de comprensión de lectura.


5.1 Skills of Reading.
5.1.1 Skimming.
5.1.2 Scanning.

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

5.1.3 Inferring meaning.


5.1.4 Identifying the topic.
5.1.5 Identifying text organization.
5.1.6 Understanding the main idea.
5.1.7 Separating fact and opinion.

Unidad 6. Textos jurídicos en inglés.


6.1 Textos Jurídicos en Inglés
6.1.1 Introducción al Sistema Legal Norteamericano.
6.1.2 Introducción al Sistema Legal en Inglés.
6.1.3 Corte Penal Internacional.
6.1.4 Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos.
6.1.5 Tratado de Libre Comercio.

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

Introducción a la asignatura

En un mundo globalizado en que el auge de la comunicación e interdependencia es


mayor hoy en día, es importante el conocimiento y el dominio del idioma inglés.

Esto implica una mejor preparación para los estudiantes de derecho y futuros abogados,
quienes tendrán que enfrentar retos de alto nivel de competencia con los profesionistas de
otros países.

Es importante resaltar que la herramienta del jurista no sólo es su conocimiento jurídico,


sino el correcto uso del idioma de manera escrita y hablada para lo cual el estudiante
debe leer mucho para poder escribir, practicar las cuatro habilidades del inglés e
incorporar vocabulario jurídico que le permita desarrollar la competencia en materia legal.

De esta manera las entrevistas de trabajo, las presentaciones en juzgados, juicios orales
entre otras actividades podrán hacerlo con certera habilidad en cualquier parte del mundo
que vaya.

Finalmente, el tener la oportunidad de realizar prácticas en otro idioma abrirá el panorama


de los futuros abogados

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

Forma de trabajo (metodología)

Para comprender de forma eficaz y contundente textos en Inglés, le recomendamos que


tome nota de las siguientes actividades que conforman técnicas y procedimientos
específicos, a efecto de obtener resultados óptimos en el presente curso, consistente en
la comprensión de lectura de la lengua inglesa.

§ Deberá realizar constantemente ejercicios gramaticales, a efecto de conocer e


identificar las partes que componen una oración.

§ Efectuará las actividades de aprendizaje indicadas en cada unidad, como forma


de incrementar su conocimiento.

§ Estudiará los diversos tiempos gramaticales, a efecto de distinguir las


circunstancias y hechos que se verifican en textos en inglés.

§ Analizará y practicará las técnicas de comprensión de lectura, en textos de libros


periódicos revistas e internet.

§ Incrementará su vocabulario, realizando oraciones que contengan sinónimos y


antónimos, en fichas tamaño media carta, conocidas como “spiders”.

Cabe aclarar que esta guía, como su nombre lo indica, es un recurso de apoyo para el
estudio de esta asignatura, por tanto, es muy importante que realicen las lecturas,
actividades y autoevaluaciones PREVIO a las sesiones presenciales (en caso de asistir a
ellas), ya que el objetivo de estas sesiones es únicamente aclarar las dudas y enriquecer
el estudio de los temas mediante la retroalimentación con su profesor(a) y
compañeros(as).

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

Temario

Unidad 1. Parts of the speech.

Introducción En esta unidad se presentan las diversas partes de las que se


compone un enunciado.

A partir de la función que desempeñan las diferentes partes


dentro de un enunciado se obtendrá una mejor comprensión
de textos auténticos en inglés.
Objetivo Al concluir el estudio de esta unidad el alumno será capaz de:

• Identificar diferentes partes de la oración, a efecto de


tener una mejor comprensión en la lectura de textos en
inglés.  
Bibliografía básica Actividad de aprendizaje 1
A partir de la siguiente lectura “Custom”, extraída del libro
Cornelsen Verlag “English for Law”, realice las siguientes actividades,
Gmbh. (2010). recomendamos el uso del diccionario New Oxford Advanced
Advanced learner’s Learner’s Dictionary como apoyo:
dictionary.Reino
Unido: New oxford. Custom
The life of a primitive people is totally regulated by customs.
Riley Alison. There are customary norms for the procedure of
(1995).English for hurting, fishing and making war, for the sharing of booty,
law. Reino Unido: sexual relations, social intercourse, good manners, the
Prentice-hall performance of magical and religious ceremonies. Custom is a
international edition. way of behavior that is generally followed and which is
experienced as “binding”; any contravention provokes a
reaction of disapproval by the tribe. These reactions originally
proceed from the group as a whole, and can assume a great
variety of forms-from putting to death, corporal punishment,
expulsion from the tribe, to the expression of public scorn and
ridicule.
Even among very primitive people there is generally
found a chieftain, a group of elders, a council of priests or a
tribunal of some kind, who in cases of doubt decide whether
sanctions shall be applied. This might be considered the first
germ of a “public authority”. Out of this an organized and
established judiciary power gradually develops, followed by
especial bodies whose function is to legislate and to execute
judgments by force. In this way is gradually created and
machinery of the law and a system of public authorities who
claim a monopoly of the exercise of force. Thus, gradually, law
and custom are differentiated, that is, the norms which are
maintained by the organized exercise of force, and those
maintained only by spontaneous non-violent reactions
(contempt, ridicule, etc.)
Judiciary power evidently preceded legislative power.
The judge originally formed his judgment according to the

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

traditional rules of custom. Gradually, as fresh situations


arose, the judge gave his verdict on what was right, that is, the
traditional rules were adapted and developed in the traditional
spirit to meet the pressure of fresh needs. Through the
practice of the courts an inheritance of operative legal ideas
became formulated and established in the course of time
flourishing in the consciousness of the people or at least in the
consciousness of legal experts.

Ahora resuelva lo siguiente:

1. Identifique los artículos, sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos,


adverbios y preposiciones de una oración, subrayando
cada una de estos. A efecto de pueda distinguirlos, se
recomienda el uso de distintos colores.

2. Answer the questions:

1. “which” in the line 5, refers to: _______________

2. “who” in the line 11, refers to: ________________

3. “this” in the line 12, refers to: _________________

4. “this” in the line 13 refers to: __________________

5. “this way” in the line 15 refers to: ______________

6. “those” in the line 18 refers to: ________________

3. Lea las siguientes oraciones. Indique si, de acuerdo al


texto son falsas (F) o verdaderas (V). Indique usted,
la parte del texto en que fundamenta usted, su
posición.

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

1. Las costumbres tienen una ligera F / V


influencia en la vida de los pueblos
primitivos.

2. Cuando surge alguna contravención a F / V


las normas establecidas las personas
importantes del grupo son las que
reaccionan inicialmente.

3. Según el texto el escarnio y el ridículo F / V


son peores castigos que la expulsión de la
tribu.

4. El romper con una costumbre F / V


establecida puede llegar a ocasionar la
muerte del defensor.

5. En los pueblos primitivos se puede F / V


encontrar un tribunal que en caso de duda
decide si se deben aplicar o no,
sanciones.

6. El poder legislativo precedió al poder F / V


Judicial.

7. Las reglas tradicionales se adaptaron y F / V


modificaron conforme surgieron
necesidades nuevas.

8. Según el autor hay tres etapas en el F / V


desarrollo del sistema legal.

Actividad de aprendizaje 2
Convention on the A partir de la lectura “Convention on the Elimination of all
elimination of all Forms of Discriminations Against Women”, disponible en:  
forms of
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw27/tun3-
discrimination against
women. Consultado 4.pdf, insertar en los espacios en blanco de los enunciados los
el 25 de enero del sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos y adverbios en verde, según
2016, en: corresponda.
http://www.un.org/wo
menwatch/daw/ceda Part 1
w/cedaw27/tun3-4.pdf Article 1
equality - cultural - convention - sex
marital - Political - distinction
For the purposes of the present ______________ the term
“discrimination” against women” shall mean any
______________, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of
______________ which has the effect or purpose of impairing
or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women,

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Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

irrespective of their ______________ status on a basis of


______________ of men and women, of human rights and
fundamental freedoms In the ______________, economic,
social______________ ,civil or any other field.

Article 2
eliminating- condemn- forms
State Parties ______________ discrimination against women
in all its ______________ agree to pursue by all appropriate
means and without delay a policy of ______________
discrimination against women and to this, end.

constitutions - quality - legislation - principle


a) To embody the ______________ of
the______________ of men and women in their national
______________ or other appropriate ______________if not
yet incorporated there in and to ensure, through law and other
appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle;

sanctions - adopt - prohibiting


b) To______________ appropriate legislative and other
measures, including______________ where appropriate
______________ all discrimination against women;

protection - institutions - establish


tribunals - competent
c) To ______________ legal protection of the rights of
women on an equal basis with men and to ensure
through______________ national_____________ and other
public _______________the effective ______________of
women against any act of discrimination.

obligation - refrain - authorities


d) To ______________ from engaging in any act or practice
of discrimination against women and to ensure that public
______________ and institutions shall act in conformity with
this_________________.

person - organization - eliminate


e) To take all appropriate measures to ______________
discrimination against women by any______________,
______________ or enterprise.

abolish - practices - modify - regulations


f) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation to
______________ or ______________ existing laws,
______________ customs and______________ which
constitute discrimination against women;

repeat - constitute - penal


g) To______________ all national_____________

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

provisions which ______________ discrimination against


women;

Article 3
guaranteeing - economic - exercise
States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the
political, social, ______________ and cultural fields, all
appropriate measures, including legislation, to ensure the full
development and advancement of women, for the purpose of
______________ them the______________ and enjoyment of
human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality
with men.
Autoevaluación
You have to read the following sentences and underline the word or words that belong
to the part of speech specified in the bracket.
An example is given below.

Question: She must have reached home. (verb)


Answer: She must have reached home.

1. She went to the market and bought some eggs. (verb)

2. I want to go now. (adverb)

3. What are you doing there? (adverb)

4. There is a mouse underneath the piano. (preposition)

5. Masons build houses. (noun)

6. John is my best friend. (proper noun)

7. She looked up but didn’t see anything. (adverb)

8. My family live in different parts of India. (collective noun)

9. That was a difficult question. (adjective)

10. She was very impressed with her results. (adverb)

11. Although she is poor, she is happy. (conjunction)

12. Have we bought enough chairs? (adjective)

13. The policeman didn’t run fast enough to catch the thief. (adverb).

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División de Universidad Abierta
Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

Unidad 2. Simple Present tense and Present continuous.

Introducción En esta unidad se observan los tiempos gramaticales


presente simple y presente continuo. En la práctica podremos
distinguir que el primero se refiere a las actividades que
realizamos de manera cotidiana y en cuanto al segundo se
utiliza para referirnos a acciones que estamos realizando en
este momento.
Objetivo Al concluir el estudio de esta unidad el estudiante podrá:
• Elaborar oraciones en las diferentes formas,
afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa dentro de textos
jurídicos.
Bibliografía básica Actividad de aprendizaje 1

Grant Taylor. Lea lectura “Every Day”, extraída del libro Mastering American
(1956). Mastering English:
American English.
EVERY DAY
United States:
James Johnson is my name. I work in the main office of a big
McGraw-Hill. P. 1. company.
Twenty people work in that office every day. Mr. Wilson
  is my boss.
He works very hard. Almost everyone works hard. Of
course, a few people don’t work hard.
Mr. Wilson has a private office. He also has a
secretary. Miss Stewart is his secretary. She helps Mr. Wilson.
She doesn’t help me. I don’t have a private office. But I have
my own secretary. My secretary is Mary Peters. Mr. Wilson
meets all of the important visitors. I don’t meet visitor. Miss
Stewart doesn’t meet visitors either. Mr. Wilson talks to
visitors. I occasionally talk to visitors too.
But I don’t usually talk to visitors. Mr. Wilson writes
many letters every day.
He sends many letters to customers. I write letters too.
I send letters to other companies. But I don’t send letters to
customers. I often study statistics.
Then I write reports for Mr. Wilson. He studies the
reports carefully. I get the statistics from my assistants. I have
two assistants, Smith and Green. They help me very much.
They don’t write letters. They collect information from other
people. Then they give the information to my secretary. She
collects information from other people too. Then she gives the
information to me. My secretary doesn’t write reports. But she
writes many letters for me. She also opens my mail.
She reads the mail carefully. She gives me important
letters. She doesn’t give me the other letters. I read the
important letters too. Then I answer the letters.
My secretary answers the other letters.

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Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

Ahora, realice lo siguiente:

1. Deberá insertar en los espacios en blanco el verbo


correspondiente; asimismo cambiará el pronombre “I”
por “he” o “she” según corresponda.

Use the simple present tense of each verb. Write the verb
in the blank space.

1. (work) I __________ in the main office.


2. (work) Mr. Wilson _______ very hard.
3. (work) Almost everyone __________very hard.
4. (work) We _____________from 9.00 a.m. to 5:00
p.m.
5. (have) Mr. Pitt _____________a private office.
6. (have) I ________________ my own secretary.
7. (write) Miss Anderson ______________ letters for
me.
8. (write) I ______________reports for Mr. Wilson.
9. (study) Mr. Davis ______________ the reports.
10. (read) My secretary ______________ all of the mail.

2. Responda las preguntas referentes a la lectura


utilizara “don’t” o “doesn’t”.

Answer these questions about the story “Every Day”


Answer the questions with a full sentence.

1. Does Mr. Johnson have a private office?


2. Do the two men have secretaries?
3. Does Miss Davis help Mr. Johnson?
4. Does she help Mr. Wilson or Mr. Johnson?
5. Do Mr. Costner and Mr. Johnson work hard?
6. Does Mr. Wilson meet important visitors?
7. Does Mr. Johnson talk to the visitors too?
8. Do Mr. Wilson and Mr. Johnson write many letters?
9. Do the two secretaries write letters too?
10. Does Mr. Johnson send letters to customers?

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Actividad de aprendizaje 2
Realice la lectura de “Right Now:

Right Now
My name is James Johnson. I am in the office manager of the
Ajax Company.
I am in the office of the company now. I am sitting at my desk
right now.
I am working on a report for Mr. Wilson. He is my boss. Miss
Peters is helping me with the report. She is my secretary. She
is sitting beside my desk.
But she isn’t writing in her notebook. I am not dictating to her
this moment.
We are not working. We are resting for a few minutes. I am
looking around the office right now.

Mr. Wilson isn’t working in this office. I see four people at the
end of the room. Mr. Wilson is with the people. He is taking
the people through our office.
He is telling the people about our methods. They are listening
to Mr. Wilson carefully.
Miss Stewart is wearing a blue dress today. She is sitting at
her desk. She is talking over the telephone. She is writing in
her notebook at the same time. Someone is giving important
information to her over the telephone right now.

There are twenty people in the room. Everyone is working


hard right now.
Three or four people are writing letters. Some people are
studying important papers. Smith and Green are not here right
now. They are not writing reports. They are collecting
information for me.

I hear some noise in the hall. There are three workers there.
The three men are fixing the floor in the hall. They are talking
and laughing. They are also hitting the floor with hammers.

Ahora resuelva las siguientes actividades:

1. Questions and Negatives. Answer these questions.

1. Is Miss Davidson helping Mr. Johnson right now?


2. Is Miss Anderson sitting at her own desk now?
3. Is Mr. Johnson dictating to Miss Peters now?
4. Is Miss Peters writing in her notebook right now?
5. Are Mr. Johnson and Miss Peters working on a report?
6. Are they working on the report right at this moment?

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Guía de estudio para la asignatura Idioma

7. Are they resting for a few minutes?


8. Is Mr. Johnson looking around the office now?
9. Is Mr. Wilson in his private office right now?
10. Does Mr. Johnson see many people in the office?
11. Are the four customers with Mr. Wilson now?
12. Is Mr. Wilson with the four visitors now?
13. Is Mr. Wilson talking to the four people right now?
14. Are the people listening to Mr. Wilson carefully?
15. Is Miss Davidson sitting beside Mr. Johnson right now?
16. Is Miss Stewart talking to someone at this moment?
17. Are there very many people in the office now?
18. Are Pete and Brian in the main office now?
19. Are Kevin and Jenny helping Mr. Johnson now?
20. Does Mr. Johnson hear noise in the hall?

2. Lay the verbs Am, Are, Is. Fill in the blanks with
am, are or is.

1. Mr. Lee __________________ talking to visitors right now.


2. I ____________ sitting at my desk right at this moment.
3. Miss Peters __________________ helping me with a report
now.
4. We ___________________ working on the report right
now.
5. I _____________________ looking around the office at this
moment.
6. The people ___________________ listening to Mr. Wilson
carefully.
7. He ___________________ telling the people about our
methods.
8. Everyone ______________ working very hard right now.
9. Some people ________________ studying important
papers now.
10. Smith and Green_____________ collecting information
now.

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11. The men ___________________ fixing the floor in the hall


right now.
12. They __________________ also making much noise at
this moment.

3. Present Continuous Tense. Use the continuous


present tense of each verb. Write in the blank
space.

1. (work) He ______________ on a report right now.


2. (study) We ______________ some important papers.
3. (help) She ______________ me with the report now.
4. (sit) The men ______________at their desks now.
5. (write) The two girls ____________________ letters.
6. (work) Everyone ______________ very hard right now.
7. (watch) I ____________________ my boss and the
visitors.
8. (listen) They _________________ to Mr. Wilson carefully
9. (talk) Someone ________________to Miss Stewart
now.
10. (dictate) Mr. Adams ______________ letters right now.
11. (collect) Smith and Green______________ information.
12. (talk) She ________________and ________________
at the same time (write)
13. (talk) The men ______________ and ____________right
now. (laugh)

4. Simple Present VS Continuous Present. Use the


correct tense of the verb in each sentence. Choose
simple present tense or present continuous tense.

1. She (work) hard every day.


2. He (talk) to Tom now.
3. Miss Thompson (look) at the newspaper now.
4. The children (sleep) for two hours every afternoon.
5. Those two fellows (fix) the car right now.
6. That Japanese girl (speak) English very well.

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7. Uncle Pete (eat) dinner with us every Sunday.


8. My friends (enjoy) hamburgers very much.
9. Pete and Frank (write) letters at this moment.
10. Mr. Davis (work) thirty-five hours a week.
11. My sister (need) some money for her books.
12. It (rain) very much in the United States.
13. Mr. Brown (pay) his bills once a month.
14. The students (look up) that new word right now.
15. Mr. Moore (teach) English from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m.
16. Mr. Moore (begin) the new lesson right now.
17. I (owe) my friend two dollars and fifty cents.
18. Smith (watch) a baseball game every Saturday.
19. Miss Peters (talk) to Mr. Johnson right now.
20. Pierre (know) all of the new words very well.
21. We always (do) our English lesson carefully.
22. We (do) exercise thirteen at the moment.

5. Present Tense Negative Forms. Fill in the blanks


with don’t, doesn’t, isn’t, aren’t.

Examples:
1. He isn’t listening to the radio right now.
2. He doesn’t listen to the radio every evening.

3. We _____________ watching a tv program now.


4. We_____________ watch television every day.
5. They____________ study their lesson after class.
6. They____________ studying their lesson right now.
7. It_______________ raining very hard right at the moment.
8. It_______________ rain very much during the summer.
9. Mr. Johnson _____________ eating his lunch now.
10. Mr. Johnson _____________ always eat at that place.
11. I ____________________ see any students in that room.
12. They________________ like milk with their meals.

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6. Present Tense Question Forms. Fill in the blanks


with do, does, is, are.

Examples:
1. Do the men come to work at 9.00 every morning?
2. Are the men coming into the room right now?

3. ___________ you learn the new words in each lesson?


4. ___________ you learning the new words right now?
5. ___________ Mr. Johnson work for the Ajax Company?
6. ___________ Mr. Johnson working on a report right now?
7. ___________ she usually sit in the third row?
8. ___________ she sitting in the fourth row now?
9. ___________ you read many books every year?
10. ___________you reading an interesting book now?
11. ___________ the students need help with their lesson?
12. ___________ this lesson seem very difficult to you?
13. ___________ you remember the name of that book?
14. ___________ you understand all of the words very well?

Autoevaluación
Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Use the
simple present or the present continuous tense.

1 My brother __________________________ (like) this CD very much.


2 He __________________________ (travel) in China this summer.
3 We __________________________ (go) to lunch now. Would you like to join us?
4 We always __________________________ (visit) Grandma on Sundays.
5 In this photo, we __________________________ (play) volleyball on the beach.
6 I __________________________ (play) tennis every day.
7 My father can’t come to the phone now. He ________________ (take) a shower.
8 My father __________________________ (work) as an accountant in a big
company.
9 I think this pen __________________________ (cost) $8.
10 I can’t play online games now. My brother __________________________ (use)
the computer to do his homework.
11 A: ______________ you ___________________ (do) your homework now?

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B: Yes, I __________________________.
12 This photo was taken when I was three. My father __________________________
(carry) me on his shoulders.
13 People ______________ always ________________ (buy) new mobile phones.
14 Can you see Anna? She _________________ (stand) at the bus stop.
15 ______________ you still ___________________ (watch) TV?
16 A: ______________ they _________________ (go) to Ocean Park on Sunday?
B: No, they __________________________.
17 She often __________________________ (miss) class because of illness.
18 A: ______________ you _________________ (like) Kelly Chan’s songs?
B: Yes, I ______________, but my brother _________________.

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Unidad 3. Simple Past tense and Past continuous


Introducción En esta unidad se observan los tiempos gramaticales: pasado
simple y pasado continuo. El tiempo pasado expresa que la
acción terminó y se utiliza el auxiliar “did” tanto en los verbos
regulares como en verbos irregulares, y el segundo se refiere
a una actividad singular en el pasado que estaba en progreso
cuando otra acción hecho ocurrió.
Objetivo Al concluir el estudio de esta unidad el estudiante podrá:
• Elaborar oraciones afirmativas, negativas e
interrogativas y atenderá el uso del verbo auxiliar, a
efecto de tener una mejor comprensión en la lectura
de textos en inglés.
Bibliografía básica Actividad de aprendizaje 1

Grant Taylor. Para trabajar el tema “Past tense of be” y “Reading


(1956).Mastering comprehension”, deberá apoyarse en los ejercicios del libro
American Mastering American English, de la página 26, en los cuales
English.United deberá cambiar el presente del verbo “to be” al pasado del
States:McGraw- verbo “to be”; de los verbos regulares e irregulares que se le
Hill.Pp. 26 y 75. indican en cada oración. De igual forma cambiará, con el uso
del auxiliar “did”, las oraciones a preguntas y a negaciones.
Insertará en los espacios en blanco verbos irregulares, de
acuerdo al contexto de cada oración.

A partir de las lecturas “William Howard Holt” y “Chaning


Places” de la página 75, conteste las preguntas que se
indique.

En lo referente a los temas “The continuous past tense”,


“Verb to be in past tense: was and were” y “Questions and
negatives”, remitirse al libro File Intermediate y buscar la
lectura making changes e identificar las oraciones en pasado
continuo. Se entenderá la estructura y características
esenciales del pasado continuo.

Actividad de aprendizaje 2
Madeline Mchugh. A partir de la lecturas de los libros; Mastering American
(1998). File English y File intermédiate, realice las actividades siguientes:
Intermediate. Madrid:
Santillana.
Use the past tense form.
Example:
1. We (finish) the work yesterday. We finished the work
yesterday.

2. Frank (borrow) some money from his friend last night.

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3. I (like) that movie about President Wilson’s life.


4. That company (hire) twenty new workers last years.
5. Mr. Harris (explain) the lesson to us very carefully.
6. The students (study) those two lessons yesterday.
7. Everyone (enjoy) the party very much last night.
8. The driver (stop) the bus very quickly.
9. The clerk (count) the money two or three times.
10. My friends (help) me with my homework this afternoon.
11. Mr. Berg (describe) his trip to us after class yesterday.
12. My sister (stay) in Europe for two and half months.
13. All of the students (copy) the assignment carefully.
14. The secretary (omit) two or three names from the list.

Irregular Verb Quiz (1)

2. Select the correct verbs for each sentence. Use each


verb only once. Use only the past tense form of the verb.

choose 1. The boys went home an hour ago.

feel 2. That tree ____________ three feet last year.

take 3. Bill ____________ a pretty tie from the rack.

send 4. I ____________ a course in American history.

go 5. The little boy ____________ the glass window.

meet 6. Alice __________ her pen at school yesterday.

lose 7. Mother ____________ very sick this morning.

stand 8. They ___________ a letter to Walter


yesterday.

fall 9. We ____________ his speech on the radio.

blow 10. The wind ____________ very hard last night.

grow 11. I ___________ on the corner for half an hour.

break 12. We __________ our friends there at 5:00 p.m.

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hurt 13. He __________ on the ice and __________


his arm.

Irregular Verb Quiz (2)

3. Select the correct verb for each sentence. Use each


verb only once. Use only the past tense form of the verb.

build 1. Last year, this class began at 8:30 p.m.

put 2. Mary _________ on the slippery steps today.

fall 3. The Browns ________ a new house last


year.

feel 4. The thief __________ jewelry from that store.

fly 5. Miss Davis ________ to Cuba with her sister.

bite 6. Frank __________ us a long letter last week.

steal 7. He ___________ his hand with a sharp knife.

tear 8. Mary __________ her new dress to the party.

cut 9. Bill __________ me fifteen dollars yesterday.

begin 10. The man __________ the door very quietly.

write 11. Mr. Wilson ___________ the car carefully.

drive 12. She ___________ the dictionary beside the


typewriter.

lend 13. We _________ happy because of the news.

shut 14. The dog ___________ me and __________


my clothes.

Irregular Verb Quiz (3)

4. Select the correct verb for each sentence. Use each


verb only once. Use only the past tense form of the verb.

teach 1. The men _________ for Chicago last Tuesday.

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win 2. Frank __________ on the slippery steps today.

fall 3. The Browns _________ a new house last year.

feel 4. The thief __________ jewelry from that store.

fly 5. Miss Davis__________ to Cuba with her sister.

bite 6. Frank ___________ us a long letter last week.

steal 7. He ____________ his hand with a sharp knife.

tear 8. Mary ___________ her news dress to the


party.

cut 9. Bill ___________ me fifteen dollars yesterday.

begin 10. The man ____________ the door very


quietly.

write 11. Mr. Wilson ____________ the car carefully.

drive 12. She ____________ the dictionary beside the


beside typewriter.

lend 13. We happy __________ because of the news.

shut 14. The dog __________ me and my _________


clothes.

Question in the Past Tense

5. Change the following statements to questions. Study


the first two examples carefully.

Examples:
1. They finished the work. Did they finish the work?
2. They were in their office. Were they in their office?

3. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson visited their friends in Detroit.


4. The teacher told the students the answer to the question.
5. That movie about Wilson’s life was interesting.
6. Mr. Harris explained the meaning of the word to her.
7. Those men from South America were at the meeting.

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8. The student studied carefully for the examination.


9. The Wilsons sold their house at a low price.
10. The last lesson was very difficult for the students.
11. Their friends watched that television program last night.
12. The man read the instructions in the book very carefully.
13. There were many people at the party last Friday night.

Negatives in the Past Tense

6. Change the following statements to negatives.


1. They worked very hard.
2. He was at the meeting.
3. The secretary copied the names from the list carefully.
4. Alice ate lunch at the cafeteria with her friends.
5. The students were ready for the examination.
6. Mr. Harris taught at New York University last summer.
7. The teacher noticed the mistake in that sentence.
8. The last two lesson were very difficult for me.
9. The students brought their dictionaries to class yesterday
10. The director agreed with his assistants to that matter.
11. There were many people in the audience last night.
12. Mr. Johnson prepared that report for Mr. Wilson.
13. Our friends went to the movies with us of Saturday night.

Autoevaluación
Choose which verb tense (simple past or past continuous) fits better.

1. I ________ - I didn't hear you come in.


a) was sleeping b) slept
2. I ________ to see her twice, but she wasn't home.
a) was coming b) came
3. What ________? I was watching TV.
a) did you do b) were you doing
4. Robin Hood was a character who ________ from the rich and gave to the poor.
a) stole b) was stealing
5. Hey, did you talk to her? Yes, I ________ to her

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a) was talking b) talked


6. I ________ home very late last night.
a) came b) was coming
7. How long ________ the flu?
a) did you have b) were you having
8. ________ a good time in Brazil? Yes, I had a blast!
a) Were you having b) Did you have
9. We ________ breakfast when she walked into the room.
a) had b) were having
10. Last month I decided to buy a new car, and today I finally ________ it.
a) bought b) was buying

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Unidad 4. Future “will” y Future “going to”

Introducción En esta unidad se observan los tiempos gramaticales; futuro


con el modal verbal “will” y futuro con “going to” tiene dos
usos principales consistentes en:
1.- Se usa en predicción acerca de eventos que
puedan ocurrir.
2.- En promesas o decisiones.
3.- El will se utiliza además con “if”, en los 3
condicionales.
Objetivo Al concluir el estudio de esta unidad el estudiante podrá:

• Formular oraciones afirmativas, negativas e


interrogativas y entenderá el uso del modal verb “will”
asimismo conocerá la estructura del futuro con “going
to” a efecto de tener una mejor comprensión en la
lectura de textos en Inglés.
Bibliografía básica Actividad de aprendizaje 1

Grant Taylor. Para realizar las actividades de ésta unidad, deberá apoyarse
(1956).Mastering en los ejercicios del libro Mastering American English, en los
American English. cuales deberá usar el modal verb “will” y cambiara oraciones
United States: en pasado a futuro, asimismo cambiara oraciones en futuro a
preguntas y a negaciones. A partir de la lectura “A trip to New
McGraw-Hill. P. 59.
York” de la página 59, conteste las preguntas que se le
indiquen.

Actividad de aprendizaje 2

A partir de la lecturas indicadas del libro Mastering American


English, realice las actividades siguientes:

Future Tense with Will


1. Use the future tense of the verb in parentheses in
each sentence. Use only the future tense with will.

1. He (leave) early tomorrow.


2. We (see) him next week.
3. They (be) here in ten minutes.
4. They meeting (begin) at nine o’clock tonight.
5. I (give) Mr. Brown your message tomorrow night.
6. Mr. Moore (read) that story to the students next Monday.
7. The Janitor (lock) the door the office at 6:30 p.m.
8. We (have) and important holiday two months from now.
9. The men (be) here at one-thirty this afternoon.

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10. I (remind) Mr. Wilson of his appointment with you tonight.


11. Mr. Johnson’s wife (buy) refreshments for the party.
12. All of the people (be) ready at ten o’clock tomorrow
morning.
13. Mr. Penny Weight (return) to England tomorrow.
14. Our friends (meet) us at the subway station at five o’clock.

Using the Future Tense


2. Change the verb in each sentence to the future
tense with will. If it is necessary, you can change
the time expression (change yesterday to
tomorrow) and so forth.

1. We ate lunch with john.


2. I returned and asked him.
3. John spoke to the director’s secretary about that matter.
4. Charles went to the movies with his friends last night.
5. The Wilsons flew to Brazil and Argentina last year.
6. The clerk wrapped the package and gave her the change.
7. Our guests saw almost all of the city during their vacation.
8. The student wrote a description of this city for the teacher.
9. My friend Eduard lent me the money a week ago.
10. Bill sold his camera to Fred and bought a new one.
11. They read that historical novel three weeks ago.
12. Mr. Johnson wore his new winter overcoat to work.
13. My secretary got to the office on time this morning.
14. We got up early and had our breakfast at 7:30.

The Future Tense “Going To”


3. Use the future tense of the verb in parentheses in
each sentence. Use only the future tense with
“going to”.

1. I (finish) it next week.


2. He (go) there tomorrow.
3. We (be) at the meeting.
4. I (return) and (ask) him.

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5. The teacher (explain) the next lesson to us tomorrow.


6. We (attend) that conference in St. Louis next month.
7. I (study) my English lessons with my friends tonight.
8. Mr. Wilson and Mr. Johnson (be) in the office all afternoon.
9. We (go) to the movies with our friends tomorrow night.
10. Miss Anderson (invite) all of her friends to her party.
11. Mr. Harris (teach) a different English class next week.
12. My brother (go) to Baltimore with me next week.
13. The men (repair) the roof of the house the day after
tomorrow.
14. There (be) and important meeting here next Thursday
evening.

Using The Future Tense


4. Change the verb in each sentence to the future
tense with “going to”. If it is necessary, you can
change the time expression (change yesterday to
tomorrow).

1. We went there last night.


2. I saw him two days ago.
3. The students read the assignment carefully yesterday.
4. John spoke to Professor Taylor about that last Thursday.
5. Mr. and Mrs. Brown bought a new house last year.
6. Mr. Foster quit his job with the Ajax Company.
7. I sent my friends a letter and told him about everything.
8. Mr. Moore was the teacher of this class last year.
9. She pick up the paper and threw it into the wastebasket.
10. Tom and Bill had dinner with Mr. Moore and Mr. Harris.
11. Mrs. Johnson wore her new spring coat to the party
yesterday.
12. The president made an important announcement over the
radio.
13. My wife bought a new winter overcoat this week.
14. The Browns sold their old house last year and bought a
new one.

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Question The Future With Going To.


5. Change the following statements to questions.
Notice the examples.

1. He is going to leave early. Is he going to leave early?


2. They are going to be there. Are they going to be here?
3. Bill Brown is going to eat lunch with us today.
4. Mr. Foster is going to quit his job with the Ajax Company.
5. All of the students are going to the lecture tonight.
6. You are going to accept his offer for a job with that
company.
7. There is going to be a party here next Friday night.
8. His friends are going to leave here the day after tomorrow.
9. Professor Moore is going to explain that lesson to them.
10. We are going to watch that television program tonight.
11. Both Fred and Tom are going to be at the meeting
tomorrow.
12. Mrs. Johnson is going to wear her new dress this evening.
13. Mr. Brown is going to take his vacation in August.
14. Frank’s friends are going to go to the movies with us
tonight.

Real Conditions: Future


6. Change the verb in each sentence. Notice the
example.

1. The teacher will explain that part if you ask him.


2. If Harry (invite) me, I will probably go to the party.
3. You will have enough time to eat lunch if you (get) here
early.
4. If Tom (see) Miss Irwin, he’ll give her your message.
5. If (decide) to join the club, I will fill out this applications
blank.
6. We will get there before midnight if the rain (arrive) on time.
7. If Mr. Burton (need) any assistance, I will tell you right away.
8. Father will surely get wet today if he (take, not) his umbrella.

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9. If you (be, not) more careful in the future, you’ll have an


accident.
10. If Betty (like, not) this sweater, can she exchange it at the
store?

Unreal Condition: Present and Future


7. Fill in the blanks whit the correct form of the verbs.
1. If I (have) the day off tomorrow, I _____________________
go to beach.
2. If I (have) a million dollars right now, I _________________
around the world.
3. If I (be) the president of this country, I _________________
change certain things.
4. If that man (work) _____________________ harder, he
could earn more money.
5. If I (be) _____________________ in you place, I would
accept Mr. Anderson’s offer.
6. The world would be a better place if __________________
7. If everybody dressed the same way, __________________
8. I wouldn’t do that if _____________________
9. If I had more free time, _____________________
10. If I spoke Japanese fluently, _____________________.

Autoevaluación 1
Put the verbs into the correct form (future I progressive).

1. At midnight we (sleep). ___________________________________________


2. This time next week we (sit) at the beach._____________________________
3. At nine I (watch) the news._________________________________________
4. Tonight we (cram up) for our English test._____________________________
5. They (dance) all night.____________________________________________
6. He (not / play) all afternoon.________________________________________
7. I (not / work) all day.______________________________________________
8. (eat / you) at six?________________________________________________
9. (drive / she) to London?___________________________________________

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10. (fight / they) again?______________________________________________

Autoevaluación 2
Put the verbs into the correct form (future I simple). Use will.

1. You (earn) a lot of money.______________________________________


2. You (travel) around the world.___________________________________
3. You (meet) lots of interesting people._____________________________
4. Everybody (adore) you.________________________________________
5. You (not / have) any problems.___________________________________

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Unidad 5. Técnicas de comprensión de lectura

Introducción En esta unidad se presentan las diversas técnicas de


comprensión de lectura, tales como: “skimming”, la cual
consiste en leer rápidamente el texto y de esta manera obtener
una idea general del mismo.

En relación a la técnica de lectura “scanning”, consiste en


saber que clase información necesitamos encontrar antes de
comenzar a leer el texto, toda vez que debemos mover
rápidamente nuestros ojos para encontrar información
particular, como por ejemplo un hecho, algún detalle o palabra
dentro del texto.
Objetivo Al concluir el estudio de esta unidad el estudiante podrá:
• Utilizar las diversas técnicas de comprensión de
lectura, para que pueda obtener de una manera más
eficaz la idea general o principal de un texto y/o
información específica.
Bibliografía básica Actividad de aprendizaje 1

Craven Miles. (2002). Lee la siguiente lectura extraída del libro Reading keys
Reading keys developing y resuelve lo que se indica:
developing. México:
Mcmillan. You Judge
Read the biographies of these two people and the crimes
each one has committed. In groups, discuss the crimes
and decide on the sentence you would give if you were the
judge.

Case 1
Biography: Karen Michel a 19 year-old-woman. She is not
very well-educated and has a boyfriends who seems to have a
lot of money and travels abroad lot. She is very impressed with
her boyfriend, but she knows he has been to prison twice
before. Karen’s boyfriends asks her to go to Turkey to bring
back a suitcase he left there on this last visit. He tells her it
contains important papers for his business and she can earn $
5,000 for collecting the suitcase.

Karen thinks it is a little strange that her boyfriends asks her to


go, but she goes without asking questions. She does not want
to ask too many questions because she wants the money.

Crime: Drug smuggling –She smuggled $ ½ million worth of


heroine from Turkey in a suitcase. She was caught at
Heathrow Airport, London, as she returned but she said she
did not know what was in the suitcase.

Sentences: no sentence, but a warning not to do it again a fine

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of $__________________ years community service


___________________, ________________ years in prison.

Case 2
Biography: Mrs. Theresa Arlott has five children. She is
unemployed and her husband left her three years ago. He is
much better –off than she is, but he does not give much money
to her for the upbringing of her children. Mrs. Arlott would like
to go on holiday with her children but she has no money. She
spends all her money on food and clothes for the family.
Last week she committed a crime.

Crime: Shoplifting –she stole $ 100 worth of food and clothes


from a supermarket.

Sentence:___________________________________

Autoevaluación
Correctly order the paragraphs according to the text from 1 to 5.

1. ( ) Since April 1946, the seat of the Court has been at the Peace Palace in The
Hague (Netherlands). Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one
not located in New York (United States of America).

2. ( ) The ICJ role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes
submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it
by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencie.

3. ( ) The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United
Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and
began work in 1946.

4. ( ) Finally, the Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of
nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. It is
assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and
French.

5. ( ) Therefore the International Court of Justice acts as a world court. The Court has
a dual jurisdiction: it decides, in accordance with international law, disputes of a legal
nature that are submitted to it by States (jurisdiction in contentious cases); and it gives
advisory opinions on legal questions at the request of the organs of the UN. Or
specialized agencies authorized to make such a request (advisory jurisdiction).

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Unidad 6. Textos Jurídicos en Inglés

Introducción En esta unidad abordaremos textos jurídicos en Inglés, a partir


de lecturas relacionadas con el funcionamiento del sistema
legal norteamericano y sistema legal en Inglés, la Corte Penal
Internacional y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos
así como el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Estados Unidos.
Canadá y México.
Objetivo Al concluir el estudio de esta unidad el estudiante podrá:
• Conocer e identificar términos jurídicos en inglés; así
como, comprenderá textos relacionados con el sistema
legal norteamericano, sistema legal inglés, Corte Penal
Internacional, Corte Interamericana de Derechos
Humanos y tratado de Libre Comercio.
Bibliografía básica Actividad de aprendizaje 1
A partir de la lectura “The International Criminal Court (ICC)”,
conteste lo siguiente:

The International Criminal Court (ICC)


The International Criminal Court (ICC) is an independent,
permanent court that tries persons accused of the most
serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide,
crimes against humanity and war crimes. The ICC is based on
a treaty, joined by 100 countries.
The ICC is a court of last, resort. It will not act if a case
is investigated or persecuted by a national judicial systems
unless the national proceedings are not genuine, for example if
formal proceedings were undertaken solely to shield a person
from criminal responsibility. In addition, the ICC only tries
those accused of the gravest crimes.
In all of its activities the ICC observes the highest
standards of fairness and due process. The jurisdiction and
functioning of the ICC are governed by the Rome Statute.

Establishment of the Court:


The International Criminal Court was established by the Rome
Statute of the International Criminal Court, so called because it
was adopted in Rome, Italy on 17 July 1998 by the United
Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the
Establishment of an International Criminal Court.
The Rome Statute is an International treaty, binding
only on those States which formally express their consent to
be bound by its provisions. These States then become “Parties
“to the Statute. In accordance with its terms, the Statute
entered into force on 1 July 2002, once 60 States had become
Parties. Today 100 States have become Parties to the Statute.
The States Parties meet in the Assembly of States Parties
which is the management oversight and legislative body of the
court.
Following the adoption of the Rome Statute, the United

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Nation convened the Preparatory Commission for the


international Criminal Court. As With the Rome Conference, all
States were invited to participate in the Preparatory
Commission. Among its achievements, the Preparatory
Commission reached consensus on the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence and the elements of the crimes.
These two texts were subsequently adopted by the
Assembly of States Parties. Together with the Rome Statute
and the Regulations of the Court adopted by the judges they
comprise the Court’s basic legal texts, setting out its structure,
jurisdiction and functions.

Structure of the Court:


The Court is and independent institution. The Court is not part
of the United Nations, but it maintains a cooperative
relationship with the U. N. The Court is based in The Hague,
the Netherlands, although it may also sit elsewhere.
The Court is composed of four organs. These are the
Presidency, the judicial Divisions, the office of the Prosecutor
and the Registry.
• PRESIDENCY
• JUDICIAL DIVISIONS
• OFFICE OF THE PROSECUTOR
• REGISTRY
• OTHER OFFICES

Presidency:
The Presidency is responsible for the overall administration of
the Court, with the exception of the office of the Prosecutor,
and for specific functions assigned to the Presidency in
accordance with the Statute. The Presidency is composed of
three judges of the Court, elected to the Presidency by their
fellow judges, for a term of three years. The President of the
Court is Judge Philippe Kirsch (Canada). Judge Akua
Kuenyehia (Gana) is first Vice-President, and Judge René
Blattmann (Bolivia) is Second Vice-President.

Judicial Divisions:
The Judicial Divisions consist of eighteen judges organized
into the Pre-Trial Division, the Trial Division and the Appeals
Division. The Judges of each Division sit in Chambers which
are responsible for conducting the proceedings of the Court at
different stages. Assignment of judges to Divisions is made on
the basis of the nature of the functions each Division performs
and the qualifications and experience of the judge. This is
done in a manner ensuring that each Division benefits from an
appropriate combination of expertise in criminal law and
procedure and international law. The judges of the Court are:
Philippe Kirsch (Canada), Akua Kuenyehia (Gana), Judge
René Blattmann (Bolivia), Karl T. Hudson-Pillips (Trinidad and

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Tobago), Claude Jorda (France), Georghios M. Pikis (Cyprus),


Elizabeth Odio Benito (Costa Rica), Navanethem Pillay (South
Africa), Sang-Hyun Song (Republic of Korea), Hans-Peter Kaul
(Germany), Mauro Politi (Italy), Maureen Harding Clark
(Ireland), Erkki Kourula (Finland), Fatoumata Dembele Diarra
(Mali), Anita Uscka (Latvia), Adrian Fulford (United Kingdom),
Syvia Steiner (Brazil) and Ekaterina Trendafilova (Bulgaria).

Office of the Prosecutor:


The Office of the Prosecutor is responsible for receiving
referrals and any substantiated information on crimes within
the jurisdiction of the Court, for examining them and for
conducting investigations and prosecutions before the Court.
These office is headed by the Prosecutor, Luis Moreno
Ocampo (Argentina), who was elected by the states Parties for
a term of nine years. The Prosecutor is assisted by two Deputy
Prosecutors, Serge Brammertz (Belgium), with responsibility
for investigations and Fatou Bensouda (The Gambia) with
responsibility for prosecutions.

Registry:
The Registry is responsible for the non-judicial aspects of the
administration and servicing of the Court. The Registry is
headed by the Registrar who is the principal administrative
officer of the Court. The Registrar exercises his or her
functions under the authority of the President of the Court. The
current Registrar, elected by the judges for a term of five
years, is Bruno Cathala (France).

Other offices:
The Court also includes a number of semi-autonomous offices
such as the office of Public Counsel for victims and the Office
of Public Counsel for Defense. These Offices fall under the
Registry for administrative purposes but otherwise function as
wholly independent offices. The Assembly of States Parties
has also established a Trust Fund for the benefit of victims of
crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court and the families of
these victims.

Answer the Questions


1.- How many organs does the Court have?
2.- Which are these?
3.- How much time do the judges stay in the Presidency?
4.- Who is the First Vice-President?
5. - What is the structure of the Judicial Divisions?
6.The word “which” in line three, on the paragraph of judicial

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Divisions, refers to:


7.- What is the function of the office of the Prosecutor?
8.- What are the functions of the two Deputy Prosecutors?
9.- The word “Who” in line two, on the paragraph of Registry,
refers two?
10.-The word “these” in line two, on the paragraph of “other
Offices” refers to:

Actividad de aprendizaje 2

A partir de la lectura “North American Free Trade Agreement”,


responda lo siguiente:

North American Free Trade Agreement


The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was
implemented on January 1, 1994. It is designed to remove
tariff barriers between the U.S. Canada and Mexico over the
next fifteen years NAFTA includes two important side
agreements on environmental and labor issues that extend
into cooperative efforts to reconcile policies, and procedures
for dispute resolution between the member states.
NAFTA was preceded by an agreement between
Canada and the Unites States called the U.S-Canada Free-
Trade Agreement (FTA) which was effective on January 1,
1989, and is suspended due to NAFTA.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
eliminated the majority of tariffs between products traded
among the United States, Canada and Mexico, and gradually
phases out other tariffs over a 10-years period. Restrictions
were to be removed from many categories, including motor
vehicles, computers, textiles and agriculture. The treaty also
protects intellectual property rights (patents, copyrights and
trademarks), and outlines the removal of investment
restrictions among the three countries. The agreements is
trilateral in nature (that is, the terms apply equally to all
countries) in all areas except agriculture, in which stipulations,
tariff reduction phase-out periods and protection of select
industries, were negotiated on a bilateral basis. Provisions
regarding worker and environmental protection were added
later as a result of supplemental agreements signed in 1993.
Under NAFTA all non-tariff barriers to agricultural trade
between the United States and Mexico were eliminated. In
addition, many tariff were eliminated immediately, with others
being phased out over 5 to 15 years. All agricultural provisions
will be implemented by the year 2008. For import-sensitive
industries, long transition periods and special safeguards

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allowed for and orderly adjustment to free trade with Mexico.


The agricultural provisions of the U.S. –Canada Free
Trade Agreement (CFTA), in effect since 1989, were
incorporated into NAFTA. Under these provisions, all tariffs
affecting agricultural trade between the United States and
Canada with a few exception for items covered by tariff-rate
quotas (TRQ’s), were removed before Jan. 1, 1998.
Mexico and Canada reached a separate bilateral
NAFTA agreement on market access for agricultural products.
The Mexican-Canadian agreement eliminated most tariff either
immediately or over 5, 10, 15, years. Tariff between the two
countries affecting trade in dairy, poultry, eggs, and sugar are
maintained.

Answer the next questions.


1.- The word “it” in line 2 refers to:_______________________
2.- What was the precedent for NAFTA?
__________________
3.- What agreements dos NAFTA include?
________________
4.- The word “which” in line 8 refers to:
___________________
5.- What did NAFTA eliminate?
_________________________
6.- What does NAFTA also protect? _____________________

According to the next answer true or false


7.-The agreement is bilateral in all areas. _____________
8.-All non-tariff barriers to agricultural trade stay in NAFTA.
____________
9.-Some tariffs were eliminated slowly. _____________
10.- Mexico and Canada keep a separate bilateral NAFTA
agreement on market for agricultural products. ___________

Actividad de aprendizaje 3

A partir de la lectura “Every gesture tells a story” responda lo


que se solicita:

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Every gesture tells a story


When we think about language and communication we usually
think of speaking. But our gestures and movements, in other
words our body language, says much more about us than our
words. Body language tells us what others are really thinking
or felling too.
Psychologist, Susan William, says that words make up
only seven per cent of the communicating we do, while 93 per
cent comes from silent signals. Children understand it
naturally, but as we grow up the emphasis shifts towards
words and we lose the knack of picking up these silent signals.
Adults become very good at saying things they don’t
necessarily mean. Body language works together with verbal
language, but sometimes the two can be contradictory. For
example, people may say they agree with you, at the same
time tilting their chair back and learning away from you. By
physically distancing themselves from you, they are actually
expressing disagreement.
“Some people are extremely good body language liars,”
says Susan William. For example politicians learn to use
certain gestures to create the right impression. But maybe they
are not as successful as the hope. Before believing what you
see in a person’s face you should move further back to see
their whole body. The further you get from their face the more
truthful people become. Feet are a really good indicator.
Tapping feet show restlessness and a desire to escape.
Some facial gestures, however, we do instinctively. For
instance, the pupils in our eyes dilate when we are attracted to
someone. So much body language happens unconsciously. If
we want to use and understand gestures successfully we need
to be aware of them and their different meaning. Watching out
for body language in ourselves and others helps us
communicate better. If you learn to decipher and use body
language well, you will become as fluent with it as you are with
verbal language.

I. What is meaning of the next words? Don’t use a


dictionary.
1.- language ________________________________
2.- communication ____________________________
3.- gestures _________________________________
4.- movements _______________________________
5.- Psychologist ______________________________
6.- silent ____________________________________
7.- emphasis _________________________________

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8.- adults ___________________________________


9.- contradictory ______________________________
10.- physically _______________________________
11.- distancing _______________________________
12.- expressing _______________________________
13.- extremely ________________________________
14.- example _________________________________
15.- politicians ________________________________

II. Find in the text the words that have similar meaning
with the list below.
16.- also (line 4)
17.- moves (line 7)
18.- the ability to (line 8)
19.- leaning (line 11)
20.- people who tell lies (line 14)
21.- a feeling of not wanting to stay still (line 19)
22.- of the face (line 20)
23.- for example (line 20)
24.- become larger (line 21)
25.- without us knowing it (line 22)
26.- be conscious of (line 23)

III. Answer the next questions.


27.- What is the main idea of the text?
28.- When can body language and verbal language be
contradictory?
29.- The word “they” in line 16 refers to:
30.- What part of the body is a good indicator?
31.- What do we need to use and understand gestures?

IV. According to the text, answer true or false.


32.- Our gestures and movements refer to verbal language
______________

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33.- Words make up seventy per cent of the communicating.


______________
34.- Children understand verbal language naturally.
______________
35.- Politicians are not good liars.
______________
36.- Verbal language happens unconsciously
_____________

Autoevaluación
Match the columns on the left with the concepts and meanings provided on the
right.

a. Public Officer with authority to decide cases


1. District Attorney ( )
in a lawcourt.
b. Decision reached by a jury on a question of
2. law ( )
fact in a law case.

3. sentence ( ) c. Person who disobeys the law; criminal.

4. law-breaker ( ) d. The public prosecutor.


e. Rule established by authority or custom
regulating the behavior of members of a
5. veredict ( )
community, country.
6. lawcourt ( ) f. Expert in law.
7. jurist ( ) g. Member of a jury.

h. Group of people in a lawcourt who have


been chosen to listen to the facts in a case
8. lawmaker ( )
and decide whether the accused person is
guilty or not guilty.

9. lawyer ( ) i. Legislator.
j. Person Who is trained and qualified in legal
10. jury ( )
matters.

k. Room or building in which legal cases are


11. juror ( )
heard and judge.

12. judge ( ) l. Punishment given by a lawcourt.

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ANEXO

UNIDAD 1

Parts of Speech

NOUN
A noun is a word that names a person, a place or a thing.

Examples:
Mary, lady, cat, France, Mexico, room, school, football, reading.

Example sentences:

• People like to go to the beach.


• Rosy passed the exam.
• My parents will travel to Hawaii next August.

PRONOUNS
A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. For example:

"Carol is a nice girl."

Then you could replace the noun "Carol" with the word "She" and get the following
sentence: "She is a nice girl."
"She" is a pronoun.

Examples:
I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.

Example sentences:
She doesn't want go with us.
Would you help us?
Her house is bigger than ours.
Who is she?

• Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I,


you, he, she, it, we, they.

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• Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are:


this, that, these, those.

NEAR SINGULAR PLURAL

This is These are

FAR That is Those are


 

Examples:
This is my favorite writer.
That was amazing!
He wanted those, but decided for these.

• Interrogative Pronouns
"Interrogative" means "used in questions."

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns


are: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever

Use "who" and "whom" to talk about people.


Use "which" and "what" to talk about animals and things.

Examples:
Who is your English teacher?
Whom did you wait for?
Which car did you buy?
What are your choices?

• Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The
possessive pronouns are: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

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Examples:
I've lost my Iphone. It was mine.
He married Ana. He loves her
This place is ours.
Is that last car yours?
My car is slow. Yours is faster than mine.

• Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns are pronouns that link different parts of a sentence.
The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.

Examples:
The girl who called yesterday, came to see you.
The teacher whom you wrote has answered your questions.
He lives in Japan, which is the capital city of Tokyo.
I really liked the book that you gave me.

• Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action.
Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural). The reflexive
pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.

Examples:
Maria cut herself while she was sewing.
He could hurt himself!
We must help ourselves.

ADJECTIVES

An adjective is a word that describes a person or thing.

Examples:
long, pretty, expensive, blue, round, French, loud, quick, fat.

Examples:

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My mother has big green eyes.


The new car was stolen.
The young woman was resting at home.

Different Types of adjectives


Adjectives can be divided into several types:

• Opinion
nice, pretty, original, expensive.
• Size
big, small, large, tiny, little, huge.
• Age
young, old, new, ancient, antique.
• Shape
round, square, flat, straight.
• Color
blue, red, white, black, dark, bright, yellowish.
• Origin
Italian, British, Mexican, western, southern.
• Material
metal, wooden, plastic, golden.

Determiners
A determiner is a word that comes before a noun to show which person or thing you are
talking about.

Examples:
a, an, the, my, your, some, any, several, enough, any.

Examples:
I have a blue sweater.
Please give me my coat.
Some people decided to speak Greek.
She doesn't want any sugar.

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They watched several musical programs.

The order of adjectives


There are certain rules on the correct order of those adjectives.

This is the order you should generally follow:

Determiner -> opinion -> size -> age -> shape -> color

-> origin -> material -> a word describing purpose/function

Examples:
A nice little coffee shop
(Determiner -> opinion -> size -> purpose/function word)

My huge new car.


(Determiner -> size -> age -> purpose/function word)

Several Chinese plastic cups


(Determiner -> origin -> material)

The round yellow ball


(Determiner -> shape -> color)

Adjectives from the same type:


When you have several adjectives from the same type, you should separate them with
commas or a conjunction (and, but).

Examples:
A cheap, good meal.
A happy, wise man.
The beautiful, original painting.
My nice and sweet pet.
An expensive but important trip.

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• Comparative adjectives
Comparative adjective show us which thing is better, worse, stronger, weaker, and so
forth.

Examples:
better, worse, bigger, smaller, nicer, fatter, thinner, more dangerous.

Examples:
She is a better student than her brothers.
My test was worse than yours.
You are stronger than me.
He seems healthier.
You are more beautiful than her.

• Superlative adjectives
Superlative adjectives show us which thing is the best, the strongest, and so forth.

Examples:
best, worst, strongest, smallest, cheapest, most expensive.

Examples:
You are my best friend.
This is the worst day of my life.
This is the most expensive restaurant I've ever heard.

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VERBS
A verb is a word or group of words that express an action or a state.

Examples:
speak, love, drive, eat, teach, dream, sign, read

Examples:
You had a nice party.
My little son thinks that he is the best student in his class.
He drove for twelve hours.

Auxiliary Verbs (also called "helping verbs")


Auxiliary verbs are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the
action or state.

Auxiliary verb+ main verb = complete idea

The main auxiliary verbs are:


be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had.

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Example sentences (the auxiliary verb is bold, and the main verb is underlined):
They are jogging.
She was reading.
We were waiting for hours.
Is she sleeping?
He didn't know the answer.
We have gone to Russia recently.
Has she received my letters?
I will go to Europe soon.

PHRASAL VERBS
A phrasal verb is a verb that is combined with an adverb or a preposition. The
combination creates a new meaning.

Examples:
Run = to move very quickly with your legs. ("She could run fast a long time ago")
Into = in the direction of something. ("He looked into my eyes.")
Run into = to meet someone by accident. (I ran into Carmen yesterday.")

Make = to create or do something. (My baby made a lot of noise.)


Up = to a higher point. ("Look up!")
Make up = invent (a story, an excuse). ("It has never happened. He made the whole
thing up!")

Put = to place something somewhere. ("Could you put this upstairs?")


Up = to a higher point. ("Look up!")
With = concerning ("She is happy with her workplace.")

ADVERBS

An adverb is a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, an


adjective, another adverb, or even the entire sentence.

Adverbs usually answer the following questions:

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Where? Home. ("You went home.")


When? Yesterday. (" We met yesterday.")
How? Slowly. ("The turtle moves slowly.")
How often? Sometimes. ("Sometimes it stops responding.")
How long? Temporally. (Mario stays with us temporally.")
How likely? Surely. (Our team will surely win!")
To what degree? Very. ("My sister was very pleased.")
§ An adverb can describe a verb:
My pet runs quickly.

§ An adverb can describe an adjective:


My mother is so beautiful.

§ An adverb can describe another adverb:


He smokes very rarely.

§ An adverb can describe an entire sentence:


Naturally, you don't have to come.

In many cases (but not always!) adverbs have the following form:

Adjective + "-ly"
Examples:
§ Quick + ly = quickly

§ Strange + ly = strangely

§ Dead + ly = deadly

§ Sudden + ly = suddenly

§ Clever + ly = cleverly

§ Brave + ly = bravely

§ Real + ly = really

When an adjective ends with "y" replace the "y" with an "i":
Heavy + ly = heavi + ly = heavily
Happy + ly = happi + ly = happily

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When the adjective ends with an "e" drop the "e":


True + ly = tru + ly = truly

However, there are many adverbs that do not end in "-ly":


fast, very, hard, home, just, too, well, never, sometimes, and so forth.

There are several categories of adverbs:

Adverbs of degree, adverbs of manner, adverbs of place,


adverbs of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of duration,
adverbs of probability, comparative adverbs and superlative adverbs.

§ ADVERBS OF DEGREE

Adverbs of degree show us the strength or degree of the action or state.


They answer the following questions:
How much? To what degree?

Examples:
very, highly, totally, perfectly, partially, almost.

Example sentences:
He is very concerned with you.
You are totally right.
We almost made it to the train.

ADVERBS OF MANNER
Adverbs of manner show us the way the action is done. They answer the following
question:
How?

Examples:
Well, badly, nicely, slowly, loudly, quietly, happily, sadly, secretly, weakly.

Example sentences:
He handled the situation well.

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She listened secretly to their conversation.


The children ran happily to their father.

ADVERBS OF PLACE
Adverbs of place show us the location of the action or state. They answer the following
question:
Where?

Examples:
Home, here, there, outside, inside, away, around, anywhere, abroad, up, down, out.
Example sentences:
We are here.
He went home.
We found him outside.

ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of time show us the time of the action or state. They answer the following
question:When?
Examples:
Now, soon, later, yesterday, tomorrow, early, before, lately, recently.

Example sentence:
Let's talk now.
I will do it later.
He promised to write back soon.
What are you doing tomorrow?
We haven't met before.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Adverbs of frequency show us the frequency of the action or state. They answer the
following question: How often?
Examples:
Always, never, sometimes, often, rarely, usually, occasionally.

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100%
ALWAYS
OFTEN
USUALLY
SOMETIMES
OCCASIONALLY
RARELY 0%
NEVER

Example sentences:
I always brush my teeth .
We often meet and chat.
He is usually here on time.

ADVERBS OF DURATION
Adverbs of duration show us the length of the action or state.
They answer the following question:
For how long?

Examples:
Forever, constantly, temporarily, briefly.

Example sentence:
He works there temporarily.
You spoke briefly.
I will be forever grateful.

ADVERBS OF PROBABILITY
Adverbs of probability show us the chances for the action or state to happen. They
answer the following question:
How likely?

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Examples:
Certainly, maybe, probably, possibly, surely.

Example sentences:
She will certainly forget about it.
Maybe we'll come after all.
It will probably not work.
Surely you are not serious!

PREPOSITIONS
A preposition is a word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to
another word in the sentence. It is usually used to show location, direction, time,
and so forth.

Examples:
on, in, at, by, under, above, beside, to, out, from, for.
Example sentences:
I sat on the floor.
Let's go into the house.
We will meet at four o'clock.
Have a look under the couch.
He went to school.
This letter is for you.

CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a word that joins parts of a sentence together.


Examples: And,
but, or, because, so.

Example sentences:
I want to come, but I can't.
My sister is smart and beautiful.
Would you like a tea or a cup of coffee?

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He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study enough.


We were hungry, so we ordered pizza.

INTERJECTIONS

An interjection is a short sound, word or phrase used to express the speaker's emotion.
Examples:
Oh! Look out! Ow! Hey! Wow! Ah! Um...
Example sentences:
Wow, that's amazing!
Ah, that was a good meal.
Um... I'm not sure what to say.
Oh dear! What happened?
Hello! How are you doing?

Part of
Explanation Examples
Speech

girl, Sam,
Nouns A word that names a person, a place or a thing
dog, Rome

I, your,
Pronouns A word that is used instead of a noun
yourself, ours

Slim, fat,
Adjectives A word that describes a person or thing
pretty

A word or group of words that express an action or a Be, go,swim,


Verbs
state dance

A word that describes or gives more information about


slowly,
Adverbs a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even the entire
outside
sentence

A word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to


Preposition on, in, to,
connect it to another word in the sentence. It is usually
s from, of
used to show location, direction, time, and so forth.

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Conjunction
A word that joins parts of a sentence together and, or, but
s

Interjection A short sound, word or phrase used to express the Wow, hmm,
s speaker's emotion. ah, oh, dear

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


AFIRMATIVE FORM
I
You go
We play
They to school from Monday to Friday.
He goes In the park everyday
She plays Add s, es, ies
He only the third
person.
NEGATIVE FORM
I
You go
We don’t play
They to school from Monday to
Friday.
He doesn’t go In the park everyday
She play
It

INTERROGATIVE FORM
I
Do
we
you go
play

USE OF FREQUENCY WORDS IN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


?

Fuente:
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_1WacAt6U0Vo/SaCjFuN8AkI/AAAAAAAAAB8/spCdSpm0QQk/s400/frequency+adverbs.jpg

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USE OF FREQUENCY WORDS IN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE with the verb “TO
BE”.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I am
You
We are driving a car in this moment
They writing poems now
He swimming in the pool right now
She is
It

NEGATIVE FORM
I am not
You
We are not driving a car in this moment
They writing poems now
He swimming in the pool right now
She is not
It

INTERROGATIVE FORM
Am I

Are
You
We
They
driving
writing
a car
poems
in this moment
now ?
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He swimming in the pool right now


Is She
It

UNIDAD 3
PAST TENSE OF REGULAR and IRREGULAR VERBS

close VERBS
REGULAR closed IRREGULAR VERBS
drive drove
learn learned
go went
play played
run ran
study studied
teach taught
work worked
write wrote

AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I
You wrote love letters last week
We
They studied my English lessons yesterday
He
She worked in a good company a long time ago.
It

NEGATIVE FORM
I
You wrote love letters last week.
We
They study my English lessons yesterday.
He
She didn’t work in a good company a long time ago.
It

INTERROGATIVE FORM

I
You write love letters last week.
We
Did They study my English lessons yesterday.
He
She work in a good company a long time ago.
It

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PAST CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE FORM Sentence in past tense

I Was
You
We Were driving a car
They writing Poems while the phone rang
He swimming in the pool
She was
It

NEGATIVE FORM
I was
not
You
We were driving a car while the phone rang
not
They writing Poems
He swimmin in the pool
g
She was
not
It

INTERROGATIVE FORM
Was I
You
Were We
The
y
He
driving
writing

swimmi
a car
poems

in the
while the phone rang
?
ng pool
Was She
It

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UNIDAD 4

FUTURE TENSE WITH WILL

AFFIRMATIVE FORM

I
You go to the dentist tomorrow.
We play in the playground in twenty minutes.
They will be on time.
He travel around the world next year.
She have a new house when she gets marry
It

NEGATIVE FORM

I
You go to the dentist tomorrow.
We play in the playground in twenty minutes.
They will not be on time.
He or travel around the world next year.
She won’t have a new house when she gets marry
It

INTERROGATIVE FORM

I
You go to the dentist tomorrow.

?
We play in the playground in twenty
Will minutes.
They be on time.
He travel around the world next year.
She have a new house when she gets marry
It

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FUTURE TENSE WITH “going to”

AFFIRMATIVE FORM

I am study for next exams.


You
We are
They going to get good grades
He
She is get marry soon.
It

NEGATIVE FORM

I am study for next exams.


You
We are
They not going to get good grades
He
She is get marry soon.
It

INTRROGATIVE FORM

Am I study for next exams.


You
Are We
The
y
He
going to
get good grades
?
Is She get marry soon.
It

TIME EXPRESSIONS TO USE IN FUTURE TENSE

• tomorrow      
• in  ten  minutes  
• in  2020                                            
• next    year  
• next  month  
• next  week  

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REAL CONDITIONS: FUTURE


CONDITIONALS

0 CONDITIONAL

IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

Present simple Present simple

1ST CONDITIONAL
Real possible

IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

Present simple will / can + infinitive

UNREAL CONDITION: PRESENT AND FUTURE

2ND CONDITIONAL
Unreal
MAIN CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

Would / can + infinitive Would / can + infinitive

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Estrategias de aprendizaje

La habilidad de la comprensión de la lectura de diferentes textos

a través de

Estrategias

Predicción Vocabulario Contenido

Distribución
del texto
Conceptos
Iconos Tipografía Cognados
Relevantes

•Imágenes.    
•Diagramas.     •Tamaño  y   Palabras   que   se  
Palabras
tipo  de  letra.   repiten   y   hacen  
•Mapas.     parecidas al
  español. referencia   a  
•Dibujos.      
•Signos  de   conceptos  
•Esquemas.
puntuación.     importantes  
•Fotografías.
dentro  del  texto.  

Clasificación de
textos
Instructivo Narrativo Informativo Argumentativo
Especulativo
Descriptivo

Su función

Ordenar-instruir-clasificar-narrar-informar-definir-describir-divertir-
especular-argüir-narrar-polemizar-guiar-entretener-orientar-discernir.

Elaborado por: Lic. Carmen Valencia Anaya.

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Bibliografía complementaria

Aarts, Bas. (2011). Oxford Modern English Grammmar. New York. Oxford University
Press.

Chamot, Anna Uhl, et al. (2008).The learning strategies. New York. Longman.

Eales, F., y Oakes, S. Speak Out Elementary. Pearson Education. 2012.

Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas:


http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/marco/cvc_mer.pdf

Oxeden, C., Latham-Koenig, C. y Seligson, P. American English File 1. Oxford University


Press. 2008.

Saslow, J., Ascher, A. y Morsberger, R. Top Notch 1. Pearson Longman. 2011.

Soarz, J. y Soarz, L. American Headway 1. Oxford Univerity Press. 2001.

Swan, M. (2010). Good grammar book. New York. Oxford University Press.

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Respuesta de las autoevaluaciones


Unidad 1
1. went, bought (verb)
2. now. (adverb)
3. there? (adverb)
4. underneath (preposition)
5. Masons, houses. (noun)
6. John (proper noun)
7. up (adverb)
8. family (collective noun)
9. difficult (adjective)
10. very (adverb)
11. Although (conjunction)
12. enough (adjective)
13. enough (adverb)

Unidad 2
1. likes
2. is traveling
3. are going
4. visit
5. are playing
6. play
7. is taking
8. works
9. costs
10. is using
11. A: Are, doing
B: am
12. is carrying
13. are, buying
14. is standing
15. Are, watching
16. A: Are, going
B: aren’t.
17. misses
18. A: Do, like
B: do, doesn’t.

Unidad 3
1. a) was sleeping
2. b) came
3. b) were you doing
4. a) stole
5. b) talked
6. a) came
7. a) did you have
8. b) Did you have
9. b) were having
10. a) bought

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Unidad 4
A1. Put the verbs into the correct form (future I progressive).
1. At midnight we are going to sleep.
2. This time we are going to sit at the beach.
3. At nine I am going to watch.
4. Tonight she is going to cram up for our English test.
5. They are going to dance all night.
6. He isn’t going to play all afternoon.
7. I am not going to work all day.
8. Everybody is going to eat
9. She is going to drive to London.
10. They are going to fight again.
A2. Put the verbs into the correct form (future I simple). Use will.
1. You will earn a lot of money.
2. You will travel around the world.
3. You will meet lots of interesting people.
4. Everybody will adore you.
5. You won’t have any problems.

Unidad 5.
Correctly order the paragraphs according to the text from 1 to 5.
1. (2) Since April 1946, the seat of the Court has been at the Peace Palace in The Hague
(Netherlands). Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not
located in New York (United States of America).

2. (3) The ICJ role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes
submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by
authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencie.

3. (1) The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United
Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and
began work in 1946.

4. (5) Finally, the Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of
nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. It is assisted
by a Registry, its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and French.

5. (4) Therefore the International Court of Justice acts as a world court. The Court has a
dual jurisdiction: it decides, in accordance with international law, disputes of a legal nature
that are submitted to it by States (jurisdiction in contentious cases); and it gives advisory
opinions on legal questions at the request of the organs of the UN. Or specialized
agencies authorized to make such a request (advisory jurisdiction).

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Unidad 6.
1.- d
2.- e
3.- l
4.- k
5.- b
6.- c
7.- f
8.- i
9.- j
10.- g
11.- h
12.- a

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