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Milk Composition of different species

Milk Composition(GENERAL)
Key components
1. Water - typically the major component

2. Fat - complex mixture of lipids

- triglycerides are the major type
- major energy source of young
- extremely variable between species and within a species

3. Protein - several types found in milk

- major milk proteins unique to milk
- milk proteins have ideal amino acid pattern for growth of young

4. Lactose -major carbohydrate in milk

- disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose
- unique to mammary gland
- major osmole of milk (the primary component that draws water into milk)

5. Minerals (ash)
- necessary for skeletal development of young
- potassium, calcium, & phosphorous present in largest amounts
- secreted in complex with casein

6. Others
- vitamins
- milk cells - mostly leukocytes (white blood cells)

Percentage composition of Holstein cow’s milk

Water 87.8

Total Solids 12.2

Fat 3.5
Solids not fat 9.0
Protein 3.2
Lactose 4.8
Ash 0.7
Ca 0.13
P 0.10
K 0.14
Cl 0.11
Mg 0.01
Na 0.05

Table 1. Composition of milk from various species

Percentage by Weight
Species Water Fat Protein Lactose Ash (kcal/100 g)
Cow 87.8 3.5 3.1 4.6 0.7 66
Human 87.1 4.5 0.9 7.1 0.2 72
Horse 88.8 1.9 2.5 6.2 0.5 52
Sheep 82.0 7.2 4.6 4.8 0.9 102
Whale 48.8 34.8 13.6 1.8 1.6 388

Table 2. Composition of milk from the main breeds

of dairy cattle
Breed Fat % Protein % Lactose %
Ayrshire 4.1 3.6 4.7
Brown Swiss 4.0 3.6 5.0
Guernsey 5.0 3.8 4.9
Holstein 3.5 3.1 4.9
Jersey 5.5 3.9 4.9

Milk of different animals

Today milk - is an obligatory food product of healthy people. It is a part of almost all diets and are widely used
in the nutrition of people who deal with the impact of negative production factors. People use in their food not
only cow milk, but also milk of other animals, both in natural form and in the form of various products.

Goat milk

Milk of goat is widely represented in the food of people in many countries of the world: the Caucasus, Central
Asia and Europe. Many grandmothers in villages of Ukraine also have goats to give it their grandchildren and
treat their family with tasty and healthy product.
The chemical composition of goat milk is not inferior to cow and its proteins are more gentle. The study of
goat milk showed that there is almost no casein - main allergenic protein in cow milk. Goat milk has more
salts of cobalt, a component of vitamin B12, A and D vitamins, which are necessary for children.
Goat milk fats also have its advantages. They consist of essential fatty acids: linoleic and arachidonic,
moreover, the concentration of medium-chain fatty acids are increased (caproic, caprylic, capric) – the
quantities of them are in three times more in cow milk. This explains the good absorption of fat goat milk and
the possibility of products use from it by the reduced activity of enzymes that break down fat. Several studies
have demonstrated that the fat of goat milk contains conjugated linoleic acid, which plays an important role in
the prevention of obesity, atherosclerosis, some cancers and allergy. Linoleic acid is useful for immunity
improving. Amino acid composition of goat milk is also balanced. Amino acids such as lysine and cysteine
improve absorption of minerals - calcium, phosphorus, iron, and copper.
Sheep milk

Sheep milk contains in one and half times more protein than cow milk (up to 6-7%), it has more A, B1, B12
vitamins. Sheep milk - an important attribute of food of many nations in Europe, Asia and the Middle East.
Mostly such milk products as yogurt, kefir, cheese, butter are made from sheep milk. Sheep milk and products
from it, as well as goat, milk contains a lot of medium-chain fatty acids: caprylic and capric.
Deer milk

Deer milk, of course, is used in food by people of the North. The chief thing is that it contains a lot of protein -
up to 17%, rather thick, has high energy value. This milk also has a lot of fats, so it poorly absorbed in natural
form by man, it must be diluted with water.

Camel milk

Camel milk - more salted because of numerous minerals (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, zinc,
phosphorus and sulfur). Its consistency is thicker than cow milk. A number of studies in Israel and the United
Arab Emirates have shown the positive effect of camel milk in case of allergic diseases, and the lack of beta-
lactoglobulin allows its using in cow milk intolerance. In arid and semi-arid countries people drink fresh camel
milk, and also make milk products, such as chal (or shubat). This milk is added to chocolate and tea.
Milk of mares

Milk of mares - is white, with a bluish tinge, sweet, because it contains a lot of lactose, and has a little tart
taste. This is an important product of the nomadic people of the world. Sometimes the ability of these people
for long and difficult hikes was explained by this milk. Aristotle considered it as the most valuable. The
chemical composition of mare milk contains the same amount of fat as the human milk, it is low in protein,
and has vitamin C in six times more, than in cows. The most famous product of a mare milk is koumiss.
People also use milk of other animals: buffalo, female yak, zebu and other mammals. It is defined casein
(cow, goat and sheep) and albumin (mare, deer and donkey) milk by the nature of proteins. If milk of casein
orientation, it has nearly 75% and more percent of casein. Albumin milk contains up to 50% of casein. It is
supposed that the albumin milk is more valuable to assimilation than casein on the amino acids balance.
However, most dairy products are made from casein milk.


Percentage of Composition
Species Water Fat Protein Lactos Ash

Ass 90.0 1.3 1.7 6.5 0.5

Buffalo 84.2 6.6 3.9 5.2 0.8

Camel 86.5 3.1 4.0 5.6 0.8

Cat 84.6 3.8 9.1 4.9 0.6

Cow 86.6 4.6 3.4 4.9 0.7

Dog 75.4 9.6 11.2 3.1 0.7

Elephant 67.8 19.6 3.1 8.8 0.7

Ewe 79.4 8.6 6.7 4.3 1.0

Goat 86.5 4.5 3.5 4.7 0.8

Guinea pig 82.2 5.5 8.5 2.9 0.9

Human 87.7 3.6 1.8 6.8 0.1

Llama 86.5 3.2 3.9 5.6 0.8

Mare 89.1 1.6 2.7 6.1 0.5

Porpoise 41.1 45.8 11.2 1.3 0.6

Reindeer 68.2 17.1 10.4 2.3 1.5

Sow 89.6 4.8 1.3 3.4 0.9

Whale 70.1 19.6 9.5 -- 1.0



Percentage of Composition
Water Fat Protein Lactose Ash

Cow Holstein
87.74 3.40 3.22 4.87 0.68

87.19 3.94 3.32 4.99 0.70

87.10 4.00 3.58 4.67 0.68

Brown Swiss
86.59 4.01 3.61 5.04 0.73

85.39 4.95 3.91 4.93 0.74

85.09 5.37 3.92 4.93 0.71
86.07 4.90 3.42 4.91 0.70

86.44 4.73 3.32 4.85 0.66

86.58 4.55 3.36 4.83 0.68

86.42 4.55 3.33 5.04 0.66

Buffalo Murrah
83.63 6.56 3.88 5.23 0.70