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Name: Mendoza Marquez Anel

MET 4 Ingrid
Teacher: Corro Castro Jessica


Grammar is an important aspect in the English teaching, it means teachers have to

research very well and review the topic before the class. There are some tips for
having a better research like; selecting an specific grammar item, brainstorming,
deciding what learners are supposed to achieve in the class, etc. Substitution tables
are charts where we have a specific grammar structure, here learners can visualize
the whole structure. Students can read from left to the right choosing one word from
each section with a correct sense, and each sentence will be right.
Grammar English includes items like nouns and noun phrases (compound nouns,
noun phrases, pronouns), prepositions which are generally short words that tell us
about where something is, the movement of something, when something happens
and the relationships between things, adjectives which give us more information
about a noun or a noun phrase (here we have the comparative adjectives,
superlative adjectives, and gradable adjectives), determiners which are word that
come in front of noun or noun phrases (it includes articles and quantifiers), adverbs,
relative clause which give us more information about someone or something and
collocations which are word that typically go together with certain other words.
Analyzing the meanings of words: A word can have different meanings which
depend on the context. When a student asks for a meaning of a word, teacher have
to avoid complex terms, focus on the important usages and use examples for
clarifying the explanation.
Analyzing communicative function: Speakers do not usually speak for showing the
grammatical abilities but expressing their purposes of communication. There are
always a certain context and a certain person we are talking to. The correct use of
words and formalisms allows a correct communication. Exponents are examples of
language used to achieve a particular function. Stress and intonation are also
important in this aspect.
Appropriacy is related to common sense and common politeness. Students have to
consider who are they talking to, how well do they know them and how formal or
informal the relationship is.

Lexis is commonly related to vocabulary but it had changed after the years.
Lexis, vocabulary and grammar: Lexis typically refers to the meanings of single
words and sometimes compound nouns like two- or three-word combinations. Lexis
has a bigger concept which is more elaborated the vocabulary, for example, here we
have the traditional single-word vocabulary, the collocations which are “going-
together patterns” and chunks or multiword items which are longer combinations of
words which work as a single word and express an idea. Finally, grammar refers to
the ability to construct new phrases and sentences by using a correct grammar
Lexis and skills work: reading and listening activities facilitate the lexis work because
students see the words in realistic contexts. Co-texts provide important exposure for
learners to samples of language being used. In the pre-teaching lexis, teacher
choose a specific activity which includes the lexis the teacher wants to teach. Some
examples for practicing what students learned are: matching the words with
pictures, checking the meaning of the words in the dictionary, matching the words
with the definitions, brainstorming words on a set topic, labeling the items in a
picture with the right names or discussing a topic using the words learned in class.
During the listening or reading work, teachers should deal with an item when a
student specifically asks about it, give brief explanations or translations rather than
detailed presentations, offer help quietly to the one or two students who ask. After
the activity, students are more familiar with the lexis and teacher could ask them
guessing the meaning of a word from the meaning of the text around it, finding some
words in the text that mean something or finding words in the text that match the list
of synonyms.
Students have to realize the real usage of the lexis they learn and start to use it. For
example: Record lexical items in useful ways, students are encouraged to use the
new lexis by given out blank formats like word lists, collocation grids, etc. Revisit
lexical item pages, teacher motivate students to revise the word collections they
learned before and practice it.

Grammars includes rules about sentence formation, tenses and verb patterns.
Students need to have exposure to the language and then notice and understand
items being used. They need to try using language themselves so they will
remember the things they have learned.
Restricted output (drills, exercises, dialogues and games): After teachers’
explanations of the grammar topic, students need to practice and learn to use the
language by themselves. Drills provide exercises for students where they have to
practice with selected sentences without worrying too much about the meaning, just
about the structure. Transformation drills is based on the students making their own
sentence following a model given by the teacher. True sentences is a kind of
sentence where students give real information following a certain structure of
Clarification: There are three categories. Teacher explanation; the explanation has
to be clear and efficient so students can understand easily what they are supposed
to do, for avoiding long explanation, teachers should prepare carefully a lesson plan.
Guided discovery; teachers help the learner to generate their own discoveries and
explanations, teachers should ask questions that focus on the meaning, ask
questions that focus on the context, ask learners to analyze sentences from texts,
encourage different students to add their ideas, etc. Self-directed discovery, this is
what learners do when studying on their own without a teacher. Teachers have to
make sure that their students have sufficient information and experience to be able
to work out their own rules and explanations.
Present and practice: Presentations refers to how the teacher introduce the new
topic to the students and practice involves the students’ usage of the language

The class stared at 10:30am and the teacher began the class with a warm-up
which consisted in forming two groups, some integrants were “A” and some “B”.
Students “A” had cards with some meaning of a certain words, they had to read
them and the student “B” had to guess the word. Students seemed not
understanding at the beginning, so the teacher made an example and they got it. It
took around 30 minutes. The teacher monitored the activity around the class by
helping doubts and when students did not know something.
Then the teacher worked with the book. In pairs, students had to read and
discuss the activity which consisted in guessing the meanings of the words based
on the context. The topic was traditions of different cultures. After that, some
students wrote the correct words and their definition on the board, the the teacher
correct them in a nice way.
The next activity was personalization, students worked in pairs and answered the
questions by saying their own opinions and they thought about it (it took 5 minutes).
Teacher monitored the activity by walking around the class and listening to the
students but without saying anything. Then teacher asked some students for their
opinions, the students participated by saying their experiences contradicting a
teacher and rejection. After this, students took the listening quizz. It took 10 minutes,
the teacher played the audio and then the students answers the questions of the
The final activity was about prediction, students discussed some new questions in
pairs, the topic was “Buthan”. The teacher played the audio and students marked
the correct option. The students just needed to listen to the audio once because
they all had the answers. Then they compared their answers and the class ended.

Teacher’s Name: Gino Roman, Ingrid Mendoza Date: 25 /01 /2018

Course: I07 Unit/Module: Unit 8 Pages: 95



Students guess the topic of the Students can infer the meanings of
lesson after to watch a video the words in blue related to The
related to the lessons topic. global economy

Students read the article using Students learn new words and increase
skinning skill in order to get specific their lexis.

A: WARM-UP: (Timing: 7 minutes)

 Show a video of Venezuelan migration to the students
 Ask students questions related to migration
- What do you tell me about the video?
- What's happening in the video?

B: PROCEDURES (Timing: 15 minutes)

By reading the text, students have to complete the chart Act. 1A with the information
provided in article. When working on Act.1B, students have to deduce the meanings
of words in blue according to the context. Then, they have to compare their answers
with their partners and compare with the whole class.

 Students read the article on page 95 Individual

 Students complete the chart Act. 1A with the required information


 Teacher call volunteers to share their answers


 Students fill the blank spaces with the words in blue of the Act. 1B

 Students compare their answers in pairs.

 Teacher calls volunteers to share their answers.

 Students discuss the final question in pairs:

 If you had the opportunity to work in another country, where

would you like to go? Pairs

 Teacher call a volunteer to share their opinion.



PPT: (x) ICPNA virtual

Online video: (x)

Online dictionary: (x)

Random name picker: (x)


We consider that the different strategies and techniques are very useful for the
reading because they can guess the meaning of the word in blue according to the
contexts. Although students do not know all the meanings of the words, they can
deduce it from the context, in this way, they develop their capabilities to deduce.

Techers can use a lot of resources for making a class more dynamic, one of
these could be sound-effects recording. These are recordings that have
hardly any words but instead contain a sequence of noises such as crashes,
bumps, bangs, whistles, screams, etc.
Some ways for applying sound-effects recording in class:
 Making your own “sound sequence” tape: It is an own sound-effect.
Here there could be as many sounds as you want, the main important
aspect is that these sounds are recorded by the teacher. For example,
sounds like “shhh”, “noisy footsteps”, “something breaking”, “moving
with difficulty”, “Oh!”, “lots of things dropped”.

 Story-buildings: Students listed to a part of a sequence of a story, then

they discuss and try to guess what about the audio is.

 What’s wrong with my story? : Teacher prepare a story but inside of it

there are sounds which don’t match with the story, students have to
discuss it in pair or in groups where the mistake is.

 Picture from noises: The teacher plays an audio and students have to
draw what they imagine by hearing the noises, then they compare
what they have drawn with their partners, finally the teacher show the
real picture.

 Verb hunting: The tape is played and the students have to mention all
the verbs they think are done on the tape, this exercise could be done
with nouns, adjectives or adverbs.

 Wacky ideas: Teacher asks the students for the most amazing or the
most unlikely interpretation for the sound sequence.

 Tense focus: Teacher prepares an audio with certain grammar the

teacher is going to work