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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
Security monitoring systems are becoming common aspect in our life in recent time. One of
the reasons is the busy life style. In spite of the busy life, people want to monitor the secured
places of home or office.

WatchDog security monitoring System provides 24/7real time monitoring in designated areas.
When any unexpected situation like fire detection, motion detection or faulty of temperature
occur in that place, the WatchDog security monitoring system will response immediately and
notify the respective authority for taking action. In many areas, especially in industries, where
there is need of protecting certain goods or materials, this system could be the better choice
of real time monitoring the security.

1.2 Advantage of watchdog security monitoring system over normal


security monitoring system
 WatchDog Monitoring System provides 24 hours monitoring in designated areas, but
other systems do not provide 24 hours monitoring.
 This system gives three data at a time.
 This system gets ready within 20 to 30 seconds perfectly but normal security system
needs long time to be ready.
 This system could be designed & implemented with low cost and low facility.

1.3 Background Study


1.3.1 Monitoring System
Watch Dog Security Monitoring System is a device that monitoring in real time in secret
place. This system designed observed real time temperature, fire, any object and humidity.

The first smart corporate office was ideas, not actual structures. For decades, science fiction
has explored the idea of corporate office automation. Prolific writers, such as Ray Bradbury,
imagined a future where corporate office were interactive, and seemingly ran themselves. In
Bradbury’s cautionary short story, ―There Will Come Soft Rains‖ he describes an automated
home that continues to function even after humans have died out. It’s all well and frightening,
until you consider the actual benefits of corporate office automation, and then the idea
becomes more comforting than chilling.

Although the idea of home automation has been around for some time, actual smart homes
have only existed a short while. This timeline focuses on hardware; meaning actual inventions
leading up to the smart homes we know today.

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1.3.2 The Security System Time Line
corporate office appliances aren’t what we’d consider ―smart, they were an incredible
achievement in the early twentieth century. These achievements began with the first engine-
powered vacuum cleaner in 1901. A more practical electricity-powered vacuum was invented
in 1907. Throughout two decades refrigerators would be invented, as well as clothes dryers,
washing machines, irons, toasters, and so much more. It was a fantastic time for anyone who
was employed as a maid by a very affluent family.

The Kitchen Computer –Although it was never commercially sold, the ECHO IV was the first
smart device. These clever devices compute shopping lists, control the home’s temperature
and turn appliances on and off. The Kitchen Computer, developed a year later, could store
recipes, but had the unfortunate tagline, If she can only cook as well as Honeywell can
computer and therefore old models. 1991 – Tero technology – Geron technology combines
gerontology and technology and makes the lives of senior citizens easier. In the 1990s, there
was a lot of new research and technology in this sector. Life Alert is one example of
gerontechnology. 1998 – Early 2000s – Smart Homes – Smart homes, or home automation,
began to increase in popularity in the early 2000s. As such, different technology began to
emerge. Smart homes suddenly became a more affordable option, and therefore a viable
technology for consumers. Domestic technologies, home networking, and other gadgets began
to appear on shelves.

1.3.3 Today’s Smart Homes


Today’s smart corporate offices are more about security and living greener. Smart corporate
offices are sustainable, and they help to ensure that our homes aren’t expending unnecessary
energy. They also help alert us to intruders (whether we’re home or not).

1.4 Objective and Possible Outcome

The main aim and objective of the project is to design and implement of a watchdog security
monitoring system for corporate security management in real time

And the possible outcome of this project will be a successful implementation of an automatic
watchdog security monitoring system for corporate security management.

1.5 Chapter Orientation


Chapter 1 presents introduction of Watchdog monitoring system and discusses possible
outcome.
Chapter 2 presents theoretical details about microcontroller GSM module & different sensors
etc.
Chapter 3 presents the basic information about the software development.
Chapter 4 is oriented with the overview of the circuit design, simulation figure and graphical
representations and results.
Chapter 5 gives conclusion of the thesis and relative future work.

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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Security Monitoring System

The most basic definition of any security system is found in its name. It is literally a means
or method by which something is secured through a system of interworking components
and devices.
In this instance, we’re talking about office, bank, home, and research lab security
monitoring systems, which are networks of integrated electronic devices working together
with a central control panel to protect against burglars and other potential office, bank,
home intruders.
A typical office, bank, Covered van and home security monitoring system includes:
 A control panel, which is the primary controller of a home’s security system
 Door and window sensors
 Motion sensors, both interior and exterior
 Wired or wireless security cameras
 A high-decibel siren or alarm
 A yard sign and window stickers

2.2 Microcontroller and its Feature

Like all good things, this powerful component is basically very simple. It is made by mixing
tested and high- quality “ingredients” (components) as per following receipt:

1. The simplest computer processor is used as the “brain” of the future system.
2. Depending on the taste of the manufacturer, a bit of memory, a few A/D converters,
timers, input/output lines etc. are added
3. All that is placed in some of the standard packages.
4. Simple software able to control it all and which everyone can easily learn about has
been developed.

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On the basis of these rules, numerous types of microcontrollers were designed and they
quickly became man’s invisible companion. Their incredible simplicity and flexibility
conquered us a long time ago and if it is tried to invent something about them, it should be
known that it is probably late; someone already has either done it or at least has tried to do
it.

Figure 2.2: Block Diagram of Microcontroller

The following things have a crucial influence on development and success of the
microcontrollers:

 Powerful and carefully chosen electronics embedded in the microcontrollers can


independently or via input/output devices (switches, led, sensors, LCD displays,
relays etc.); control various processes and devices such as industrial automation,
electric current, temperature, engine performance etc.
 Very low prices enable them to be embedded in such devices in which, until recent
time it was not worthwhile to embed anything. Thanks to that, the world is
overwhelmed today with cheap automatic devices and various “smart” appliances.
 Prior knowledge is hardly needed for programming. It is sufficient to have a PC
(software in use is not demanding at all and is easy to learn) and a simple device
(called the programmer) used for “loading” ready-to-use programs into the
microcontroller.

2.2.1 Operation of Microcontroller


Even though there are a large number of different types of microcontrollers and even more
programs created for their use only, all of them have many things in common. Thus, if you
learn to handle one of them you will be able to handle them all. A typical scenario on the
basis of which it all functions is as follows:
1. Power supply is turned off and everything is still, the program is loaded into the
microcontroller, nothing indicates what is about to come.
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2. Power supply is turned on and everything starts to happen at high speed! The control
logic unit keeps everything under control. It disables all other circuits except quartz
crystal to operate. While the preparations are in progress, the first milliseconds go
by.
3. Power supply voltage reaches its maximum and oscillator frequency becomes stable.
SFRs are being filled with bits reflecting the state of all circuits within the
microcontroller. All pins are configured as inputs. The overall electronics starts
operation in rhythm with pulse sequence. From now on the time is measured in micro
and nanoseconds.
4. Program Counter is set to zero. Instruction from that address is sent to instruction
decoder which recognizes it, after which it is executed with immediate effect.
5. The value of the Program Counter is incremented by 1 and the whole process is
repeated, several million times per second.

2.2.2 Features of Microcontroller


High Performance, Low Power Atmel®AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller Family
• Advanced RISC Architecture
– 131 Powerful Instructions
– Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 20 MIPS Throughput at 20MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
• High Endurance Non-volatile Memory Segments
– 32KBytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash program
– Memory
– 1KBytes EEPROM
– 2KBytes Internal SRAM
– Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
– Data Retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1)
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
• In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
• True Read-While-Write Operation – Programming Lock for Software Security
• Atmel® Q-Touch® Library Support:
– Capacitive Touch Buttons, Sliders and Wheels
– Q-Touch and Q-Matrix® Acquisition
–Up to 64 sense channels Atmel-42735B
-ATmega328/P_Datasheet_Complete-11/2016
• Peripheral Features:
– Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate presale and Compare Mode
– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Presale, Compare Mode, and
Capture Mode
– Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
– Six PWM Channels

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– 8-channel 10-bit ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
• Temperature Measurement: 6-channel 10-bit ADC in PDIP Package
• Temperature Measurement:
– Two Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
– One Programmable Serial USART
– One Byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface (Philips I2C compatible)
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
– One On-chip Analog Comparator
– Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
• Special Microcontroller Features:
– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
– Internal Calibrated Oscillator
– External and Internal Interrupt Sources
– Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down,
Standby, and Extended Standby
• I/O and Packages – 23 Programmable I/O Lines
– 28-pin PDIP, 32-lead TQFP, 28-pad QFN/MLF and 32-pad QFN/MLF
• Operating Voltage: 1.8 - 5.5V
• Temperature Range: 40°C to 105°C
• Speed Grade: – 0 - 4MHz @ 1.8 - 5.5V
– 0 - 10MHz @ 2.7 - 5.5V
– 0 - 20MHz @ 4.5 - 5.5V
• Power Consumption at 1MHz, 1.8V, 25°C
– Active Mode: 0.2mA
– Power-down Mode: 0.1μA
– Power-save Mode: 0.75μA (Including 32kHz RTC)

2.2.3 Microcontroller and its works


Microcontroller consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as
a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment)
that runs in computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board [3].

Microcontroller is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-


to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone
interested in creating interactive objects or environments.

2.2.4 Programming Language of Microcontroller


In fact, the Microcontroller language is merely a set of C/C++, though the sketch undergoes
minor changes (e.g. automatic generation of function prototypes) and then is passed directly
to a C/C++ compiler (avr-C++).

2.2.5 Microcontroller IDE Software


The open-source Microcontroller Software (IDE) makes it easy to write code and upload it
to the board. It runs on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. The environment is written in Java
and based on Processing and other open-source software.
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2.2.6 Read Only Memory (ROM)
It's a rewritable non-volatile memory. This means that its content will still be there if you
turn off the power. It's a bit like the hard disk on the Arduino board. Your program is stored
here. The ATmega8 on the Arduino board has 8 KB of Flash memory (1 KB = 1024 bytes),
with 1 KB taken up by the boot loader. The ATmega168 used on Decimal (or optional on
earlier Arduino Boards) has 16 KB of Flash program memory, with 2 KB used by the boot
loader. The ATmega328 has 32 KB of Flash program memories. These memories support at
least 10,000 writes or upload cycles.

2.2.7 Random Access Memory (RAM)


It's like the RAM in computer. Its content disappears when you turn off the power, but it can
be read and written really fast. Every normal variable in your sketch is held in RAM while
your sketch runs. Both the ATmega8 and ATmega168 have 1 KB of RAM. The ATmega328
has 2 KB of RAM.

2.2.8 Electrically Erasable Programmable (EEPROM)


It's an older technology to implement rewritable non-volatile memory. It's normally used to
store settings and other parameters between resets. Both the ATmega8 and ATmega168 have
512 bytes of EEPROM. The ATmega328 has 1 KB of EEPROM. This memory supports at
least 100,000 writes. You can use the EEPROM library in the stock Arduino library to read
from and write to this memory.

2.2.9 Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Figure 2.2.9: Central Processing Unit (CPU)

2.2.10 CPU Programmability and Reprogram Ability


At this point in time, I would say that a hobbyist should only consider microcontrollers that
have internal flash or program memory and can be erased and reprogrammed a substantial
number of times. There are also micros that can be used with external memory (adds
complexity and expense), UV erasable micros (usually quite expensive due to the special
packaging), one-time programmable chips (potentially usable after you have a working
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design, but losing their price advantage anyway), and mask-programmed chips (essentially
useless.)

2.2.11 Peripherals
If you want your microcontroller to have built in Ethernet, CAN, USB, or even multiple
serial ports, many common choices are going to be eliminated. Some peripherals can be
handy to have: UARTs, SPI or I2C controllers, PWM controllers, and EEPROM data
memory are good examples, even though similar functionality can frequently be
implemented in software or external parts. It's convenient if output pins can supply
reasonable amounts of current for driving LEDs or transistors directly; some chips have 5mA
or less drive capability.

2.2.12 Physical Packaging


Hobbyists are somewhat limited is the packages they are able to deal with, from a
prototyping, PCB fabrication, and/or soldering. That 256 ball BGA cold fire CPU may be
sweet, but it's effectively unusable by mere mortals. Microcontrollers available in 0.1in DIP
packages are much easier to deal with. Probably anything with a pin spacing smaller than
0.05in should be viewed with some skepticism.

2.2.13 Crystal Oscillator


Crystal oscillators can be manufactured for oscillation over a wide range of frequencies, from
a few kilohertz up to several hundred megahertz. Many applications call for a crystal
oscillator frequency conveniently related to some other desired frequency, so hundreds of
standard crystal frequencies are made in large quantities and stocked by electronics
distributors. Using frequency dividers, frequency multipliers and phase locked loop circuits,
it is practical to derive a wide range of frequencies from one reference frequency.

Figure 2.2.13: Crystal Oscillator

2.3 GSM/GPRS Module


SIM800C is a complete Quad-band GSM/GPRS solution in a SMT type, which can be
embedded in the customer applications.SIM800C supports Quad-band
850/900/1800/1900MHz, it can transmit Voice, SMS and data information with low power

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consumption. With tiny size of 17.6*15.7*2.3mm, it can smoothly fit into slim and compact
demands of customer design.

Figure 2.3: GSM Module SIM800C

The GPRS/GSM Shield provides you a way to use the GSM phone network to receive data
from a remote location and it is compatible with all boards which have the same form factor
(and pin out) as a standard Arduino Board. This shield can also be applied to DIY phones
for calling, receiving and sending messages, making GPS tracker or other applications like
Smart home etc. SIM800C GPRS/GSM Shield delivers
GSM/GPRS850/900/1800/1900MHz signals for Audio, SMS and GPRS Service. Also, it
runs at low power consumption of about 0.6mA in sleep mode but acts compliant to GSM
phase 2/2+: Class 4 (2 W @850/ 900 MHz), Class 1 (1 W @ 1800/1900MHz) with two-in-
one headset jack. There are two different antennas; one is the traditional GPRS antenna
which is more sensitive while another one is on-board antenna which is more compact and
easy to install.

2.3.1 General features


• Quad-band 850/900/1800/1900MHz
• GPRS multi-slot class 12/10
• GPRS mobile station class B
• Compliant to GSM phase 2/2+
–Class 4 (2 W @ 850/900MHz)
–Class 1 (1 W @ 1800/1900MHz)
• Dimensions: 17.6*15.7*2.3mm
• Weight: 1.3g
• Control via AT commands
(3GPP TS 27.007, 27.005 and SIM Com enhanced AT Commands)
• Supply voltage range 3.4 ~ 4.4V
• Low power consumption
• Operation temperature:-40℃ ~85℃

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2.3.2 Specifications for GPRS Data
• GPRS class 12: max. 85.6 kbps (downlink/uplink)
• PBCCH support
• Coding schemes CS 1, 2, 3, 4
• PPP-stack
• USSD

2.3.3 Specifications for SMS via GSM/GPRS


• Point to point MO and MT
• SMS cell broadcast
• Text and PDU mode

2.3.4 Software features


• 0710 MUX protocol
• Embedded TCP/UDP protocol
• FTP/HTTP
• MMS
• POP3/SMTP
• DTMF
• Jamming Detection
• Audio Record
• SSL

2.4 Sensor
A device which detects or measures a physical property and records, indicates, or otherwise
responds to it.

A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical
environment. The specific input could be light, heat, motion, moisture, pressure, or any one
of a great number of other environmental phenomena. The output is generally a signal that
is converted to human-readable display at the sensor location or transmitted electronically
over a network for reading or further processing.

2.4.1 DHT22 Temperature & Humidity Sensor


A Thermostat is actually a variable resistor that changes its resistance with change of the
temperature. These sensors are made by sintering of semi-conductive materials such as
ceramics or polymers in order to provide larger changes in the resistance with just small
changes in temperature.
DHT22 is a compound digital temperature and humidity sensor which outputs calibrated
digital signals. Thanks to the dedicated digital module acquisition technology and
temperature and humidity sensing technology applied to the module, DHT22 comes with

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very high reliability and excellent long-term stability. DHT22 includes a capacitive moisture
sensor and a NTC temperature measuring element which is connected to a high-performance
8-bit microcontroller, resulting an excellent quality, superfast response time, strong anti-
interference ability and extremely cost-efficient.

Figure 2.4.1: DHT22 Temperature & Humidity Sensor

2.4.1.1 Specification
1. Type:AM2302
2. Accuracy resolution:0.1
3. Humidity range:0-100%RH
4. Temperature range:-40~80?
5. Humidity measurement precision:±2%RH
6. Temperature measurement precision: ±0.5?
7. 4-pin package
8. Ultra-low power
9. No additional components
10. Excellent long-term stability
11. All calibration, digital output
12. Completely interchangeable
13. Long distance signal transmission

2.4.2MQ-135 Gas Sensor

2.4.2.1 General Description: A smoke sensor is a device that senses smoke, typically as an
indicator of fire. Commercial and residential security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm
control panel as part of a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known as smoke
alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. The Analog
Smoke/LPG/CO Gas Sensor (MQ-135) module utilizes an MQ-135 as the sensitive
component and has a protection resistor and an adjustable resistor on board. The MQ-135
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gas sensor is sensitive to LPG, i-butane, propane, methane, alcohol, Hydrogen and smoke. It
could be used in gas leakage detecting equipment in family and industry. Resistance of the
sensitive component changes as the concentration of the target gas changes.

Figure 2.4.2: MQ-135 Gas Sensor

2.4.2.2 Pin Configuration:


1. VCC
2. D0 pin
3. A0 pin
4. Ground

2.4.2.3 Specifications:
1. Dimension: 32mm x 22mm x 30mm Specification
2. Operating voltage: 5v
3. Detection Zone: 300 - 10000ppmm
4. Characteristic Gas: 1000ppmm
5. Sensitivity: R in air/ R in typical gas > 5
6. Response Time: <10s
7. Recovery time: <30s
8. Heating Resistance: 31ohm
9. Heating Current: <181mA
10. Heating Power: <900mW
11. Measuring Voltage: <24
12. Ambient Temperature: -20C - 55C
13. Humidity: <95%
14. Oxygen Content: 21%

2.4.2.4 Applications:
Detects or measure Gases like LPG, Alcohol, Propane, Hydrogen, CO and even methane,
Air quality monitor,
Gas leak alarm,
Safety standard maintenance,
Maintaining environment standards in hospitals

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2.4.3 PIR Sensor

2.4.3.1 Product Description:


PIR SR501 is based on infrared technology, automatic control module, using Germany
imported LHI778 probe design, high sensitivity, high reliability, ultra-low-voltage operating
mode, widely used in various auto-sensing electrical equipment, especially for battery-
powered automatic controlled products.

2.4.3.2 Specification:
◦ Voltage: 5V – 20V
◦ Power Consumption: 65mA
◦ TTL output: 3.3V, 0V
◦ Lock time: 0.2 sec
◦ Trigger methods: L – disable repeat trigger, H enable repeat trigger
◦ Sensing range: less than 120 degree, within 7 meters
◦ Temperature: – 15 ~ +70
◦ Dimension: 32*24 mm, distance between screw 28mm, M2, Lens dimension in diameter:
23mm

2.4.3.3 Application:
Automatically sensing light for Floor, bathroom, basement, porch, warehouse, Garage, etc,
ventilator, alarm, etc.

2.4.3.4 Features:
◦ Automatic induction: to enter the sensing range of the output is high, the person leaves the
sensing range of the automatic delay off high, output low.
◦ Photosensitive control (optional, not factory-set) can be set photosensitive control, day or
light intensity without induction.
◦ Temperature compensation (optional, factory reset): In the summer when the ambient
temperature rises to 30 ° C to 32 ° C, the detection distance is slightly shorter, temperature
compensation can be used for performance compensation.
◦ Triggered in two ways: (jumper selectable)
◦ non-repeatable trigger: the sensor output high, the delay time is over, the output is
automatically changed from high level to low level;
◦ repeatable trigger: the sensor output high, the delay period, if there is human activity in its
sensing range, the output will always remain high until the people left after the delay will be
high level goes low (sensor module detects a time delay period will be automatically
extended every human activity, and the starting point for the delay time to the last event of
the time).
◦ With induction blocking time (the default setting: 2.5s blocked time): sensor module after
each sensor output (high into low), followed by a blockade set period of time, during this
time period sensor does not accept any sensor signal. This feature can be achieved sensor
output time “and” blocking time “interval between the work can be applied to interval
detection products; This function can inhibit a variety of interference in the process of load
switching. (This time can be set at zero seconds – a few tens of seconds).
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◦ Wide operating voltage range: default voltage DC4.5V-20V.
◦ Micro power consumption: static current <50 micro amps, particularly suitable for battery-
powered automatic control products.
◦ Output high signal: easy to achieve docking with the various types of circuit.

2.4.3.5 Adjustment:
◦ Adjust the potentiometer clockwise rotation, increased sensing distance (about 7 meters),
on the contrary, the sensing distance decreases (about 3 meters).
◦ Adjust the delay potentiometer clockwise rotation sensor the delay lengthened (300S), on
the contrary, shorten the induction delay (5S). Instructions for use:
◦ Sensor module is powered up after a minute, in this initialization time intervals during this
module will output 0-3 times, a minute later enters the standby state.
◦ Should try to avoid the lights and other sources of interference close direct module surface
of the lens, in order to avoid the introduction of interference signal malfunction; environment
should avoid the wind flow, the wind will cause interference on the sensor.
◦ Sensor module with dual probe, the probe window is rectangular, dual (A B) in both ends
of the longitudinal direction
◦ so when the human body from left to right or right to left through the infrared spectrum to
reach dual time, distance difference, the greater the difference, the more sensitive the sensor,
◦ when the human body from the front to the probe or from top to bottom or from bottom to
top on the direction traveled, double detects changes in the distance of less than infrared
spectroscopy, no difference value the sensor insensitive or does not work;
◦ The dual direction of sensor should be installed parallel as far as possible in line with human
movement. In order to increase the sensor angle range, the module using a circular lens also
makes the probe surrounded induction, but the left and right sides still up and down in both
directions sensing range, sensitivity, still need to try to install the above requirements.

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Figure 2.4.3: PIR HC-SR501

2.4.3.6 Application scope:


•Security products
•Body induction toys
•Body induction lamps
•Industrial automation control etc.

2.5 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)


LCD screen needs to display the current value of temperature and humidity. Based on LCD
module of the industry standard Hitachi HD44780, it connects to 7 pins of one port, and
operates in 4 bit 'nibble' mode to save I/O pins. For this project, the LCD is connected to Port
B. By connecting to Port B we have to use a pull-up resistor (R1) on RB4, and are unable to
use RB5 (which is only an input), however this frees all of Port B which will allow us to use
some of the extra hardware available on Port B, along with the LCD. The potentiometer P1
is for adjusting the contrast of the display, and if incorrectly adjusted can cause the display
to be invisible. By using 4 bits mode we can connect the entire LCD module to one port, it
uses exactly 10 pins (just right for our Molex connectors). In 4 bits mode we don't use pins
7-10, which are used as the lower 4 data bits in 8 bit mode, instead we write (or read) to the
upper 4 pins twice, transferring half of the data each time.

Figure 2.5: Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

2.5.1 Description
This is a 16x4 Character LCD module based on SPLC780D IC compatible with HD44780.

2.5.2 Pin Configuration

PIN NO. SYMBOL DESCRIPTION FUNCTION


1 VSS Ground 0V (GND)
Power Supply For Logic
2 VCC +3.3V
Circuit

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Recommends 10K Potentiometer
3 V0 LCD Contrast Adjustment
between V0 and GND
Instruction/Data Register RS = 0 : Instruction Register
4 RS
Selection RS = 1 : Data Register
R/W = 0 : Register Write
5 R/W Read/Write Selection
R/W = 1 : Register Read
Active when High-level turns to Low-
6 E Enable Signal
level
7 D0
8 D1
9 D2
10 D3
Data Input/output Lines 8 BIT: D0-D7
11 D4
12 D5
13 D6
14 D7
15 A Supply Voltage For LED+ +3.3V
16 K Supply Voltage For LED- 0V (GND)

2.5.3 Specification

Display construction 16 Characters * 4 Lines


Display mode TN/STN
Display type Positive Transflective
Backlight LED(B/5.0V)
Viewing direction 6 o'clock
Operating temperature Indoor
Driving voltage Single power
Driving method 1/16 duty,1/5 bias
Type COB (Chip On Board)
Number of data line 8-bit parallel
Connector Pin / ZEBRA
Driver IC SPLC780D (compatible with HD44780)
Interface Parallel
Backlight Blue
Character Color White
Character Set ASCII

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2.6 Relay
A relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a relatively small electric current that can
turn on or off a much larger electric current. The heart of a relay is an electromagnet (a coil
of wire that becomes a temporary magnet when electricity flows through it). You can think
of a relay as a kind of electric lever: switch it on with a tiny current and it switches on
("leverages") another appliance using a much bigger current.

2.6.1 Advantages of Relay


As the name suggests, many sensors are incredibly sensitive pieces of electronic equipment
and produce only small electric currents. But often we need them to drive bigger pieces of
apparatus that use bigger currents. Relays bridge the gap, making it possible for small
currents to activate larger ones. That means relays can work either as switches (turning things
on and off) or as amplifiers (converting small currents into larger ones).

2.6.2 How it Works


Here are two simple animations illustrating how relays use one circuit to switch on a second
circuit.

Figure 2.6: Relay

When power flows through the first circuit (1), it activates the electromagnet (brown),
generating a magnetic field (blue) that attracts a contact (red) and activates the second circuit
(2). When the power is switched off, a spring pulls the contact back up to its original position,
switching the second circuit off again.

This is an example of a "normally open" (NO) relay: the contacts in the second circuit are
not connected by default, and switch on only when a current flows through the magnet. Other
relays are "normally closed" (NC; the contacts are connected so a current flows through them
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by default) and switch off only when the magnet is activated, pulling or pushing the contacts
apart. Normally open relays are the most common.

Here's another animation showing how a relay links two circuits together. It's essentially the
same thing drawn in a slightly different way. On the left side, there's an input circuit powered
by a switch or a sensor of some kind. When this circuit is activated, it feeds current to an
electromagnet that pulls a metal switch closed and activates the second, output circuit (on
the right side). The relatively small current in the input circuit thus activates the larger current
in the output circuit:

Figure 2.6.2: How to Work Relay

The input circuit (black loop) is switched off and no current flows through it until something
(either a sensor or a switch closing) turns it on. The output circuit (blue loop) is also switched
off. When a small current flows in the input circuit, it activates the electromagnet (shown
here as a red coil), which produces a magnetic field all around it. The energized
electromagnet pulls the metal bar in the output circuit toward it, closing the switch and
allowing a much bigger current to flow through the output circuit. The output circuit operates
a high-current appliance such as a lamp or an electric motor.

2.6.3 Applications of Relay:

Relays are used to realize logic functions. They play a very important role in providing safety
critical logic.

Relays are used to provide time delay functions. They are used to time the delay open and
delay close of contacts.

Relays are used to control high voltage circuits with the help of low voltage signals. Similarly
they are used to control high current circuits with the help of low current signals.

They are also used as protective relays. By this function all the faults during transmission
and reception can be detected and isolated.

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2.7 LM2576
2.7.1 Description:
The LM2576 series of regulators are monolithic integrated circuits that provide all the active
functions for a step-down (buck) switching regulator, capable of driving 3-A load with
excellent line and load regulation. These devices are available in fixed output voltages of 3.3
V, 5 V, 12 V, 15 V, and an adjustable output version. Requiring a minimum number of
external components, these regulators are simple to use and include fault protection and a
fixed-frequency oscillator. The LM2576 series offers a high-efficiency replacement for
popular three-terminal line a regulators. It substantially reduces the size of the heat sink, and
in some cases no heat sink is required. A standard series of inductors optimized for use with
the LM2576 are available from several different manufacturers. This feature greatly
simplifies the design of switch-mode power supplies. Other features include a ±4% tolerance
on output voltage within specified input voltages and output load conditions, and ±10% on
the oscillator frequency. External shutdown is included, featuring50-μA (typical) standby
current. The output switch includes cycle-by-cycle current limiting, as well as thermal
shutdown for full protection under fault conditions.

2.7.2 Features
• 3.3-V, 5-V, 12-V, 15-V, and Adjustable Output Versions
• Adjustable Version Output Voltage Range,1.23 V to 37 V (57 V for HV Version) ±4%
• Specified 3-A Output Current
• Wide Input Voltage Range: 40 V Up to 60 V for HV Version
• Requires Only 4 External Components
• 52-kHz Fixed-Frequency Internal Oscillator
• TTL-Shutdown Capability, Low-Power Standby Mode
• High Efficiency
• Uses Readily Available Standard Inductors
• Thermal Shutdown and Current Limit Protection

2.7.3 Applications
• Simple High-Efficiency Step-Down (Buck)Regulator
• Efficient Pre-regulator for Linear Regulators
• On-Card Switching Regulators
• Positive-to-Negative Converter (Buck-Boost)

2.7.4 Pin Configuration

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Figure 2.7.4: Pin Configuration

2.7.5 Overview
The LM2576 SIMPLE SWITCHER® regulator is an easy-to-use, non-synchronous step-
down DC-DC converter with a wide input voltage range from 40 V to up to 60 V for a HV
version. It is capable of delivering up to 3-A DC load current with excellent line and load
regulation. These devices are available in fixed output voltages of 3.3V,5 V, 12 V, 15 V,
and an adjustable output version. The family requires few external components, and the pin
arrangement was designed for simple, optimum PCB layout.

2.7.6 Functional Block Diagram

Figure 2.7.6: Functional Block Diagram

2.7.7 Device Functional Modes

1. Shutdown Mode: The ON/OFF pin provides electrical ON and OFF control for the
LM2576. When the voltage of this pin is higher than 1.4 V, the device is in shutdown mode.
The typical standby current in this mode is 50 μA.
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2. Active Mode: When the voltage of the ON/OFF pin is below 1.2 V, the device starts
switching, and the output voltage rises until it reaches the normal regulation voltage.

3. Current Limit: The LM2576 device has current limiting to prevent the switch current
from exceeding safe values accidental overload on the output. This current limit value can
be found in Electrical and Characteristics: All Output Voltage Versions under the heading of
ICL. The LM2576 uses cycle-by-cycle peak current limit for overload protection. This helps
to prevent damage to the device and external components. The regulator operates in current
limit mode whenever the inductor current exceeds the value of ICL given in Electrical
Characteristics: All Output Voltage Versions. This occurs if the load current is greater than
3 A, or the converter is starting up. Keep in mind that the maximum available load current
depends on the input voltage, output voltage, and inductor value. The regulator also
incorporates short-circuit protection to prevent inductor current run-away. When the voltage
on the FB pin (ADJ) falls below about 0.58 V the switching frequency is dropped to about
11 kHz. This allows the inductor current to ramp down sufficiently during the switch OFF-
time to prevent saturation.

2.8 C817
2.8.1 Features:
1. Current transfer ratio: (CTR: 50~600% at IF =5mA, VCE =5V)
2. High isolation voltage between input and output (Viso=5000 V rms)
3. Cree page distance >7.62 mm
4. Operating temperature up to +110⁰ C
5. Compact small outline package
6. Pb free and RoHS compliant

2.8.2 Description:
1. The C817 series of devices each consist of an infrared emitting diode, optically coupled
to a phototransistor detector.
2. They are packaged in a 4-pin DIP package and available in a wide-lead spacing and an
SMD option.

2.8.3 Applications:
1. Programmable controllers
2. System appliances, measuring instruments
3. Telecommunication equipment
4. Home appliances, such as fan heaters, etc.
5. Signal transmission between circuits of different potentials and impedances

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Figure 2.8: 817C

2.8.4 Pin Configuration:


1. Anode
2. Cathode
3. Emitter
4. Collector

Figure 2.8.1: C817 Structure.

2.9 Inductor
2.9.1 Dimension:

Figure 2.9: Inductor

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2.9.2 Features:
# Ideal as a choke coil for noise filtering and
DC/DC convertor application.
# Lead-free part available.
Note: Taped form is type 8RHT2 spec.
Available with or without heat shrunk
plastic housing.

2.10 Power Supply Circuit

A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four or more diodes in a bridge circuit configuration


which provides the same output polarity for either input polarity. It is used for converting an
alternating current (AC) input into a direct current (DC) output.

Figure 2.10: Power Supply Circuit

Single secondary winding is connected to one side of the diode bridge network and the load
to the other side. When the positive half cycle of the supply goes, D1, D2 diodes conduct in
a series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load.

In a full-wave rectifier, there is no problem due to dc saturation of the core because the dc
current in the two halves of the two halves of the transformer secondary flow in opposite
directions. No centre tap is required in the transformer secondary so in case of a bridge
rectifier the transformer required is simpler.

2.11 Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow,
adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission
lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical
power as heat may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test
loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with

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temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit
elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light,
humidity, force, or chemical activity. Resistors are common elements of electrical
networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical
resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds and forms.
Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. The electrical function of a resistor
is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range
of more than nine orders of magnitude. The nominal value of the resistance falls within
the manufacturing tolerance, indicated on the component.

Figure 2.11: Resistor

2.11.1: Resistor and Color Code

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2.12 Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in


an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While capacitance exists
between any two electrical conductors of a circuit in sufficiently close proximity, a capacitor
is specifically designed to provide and enhance this effect for a variety of practical
applications by consideration of size, shape, and positioning of closely spaced conductors,
and the intervening dielectric material.

Figure 2.12: Capacitor

A capacitor was therefore historically first known as an electric condenser. The physical
form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many capacitor types are in
common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of
metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. The conductors may be foils,
thin films, or sintered beads of metal or conductive electrolyte. The non-conducting dielectric
acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity.

Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica,
and oxide layers. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common
electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. When two
conductors experience a potential difference, for example, when a capacitor is attached
across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net
positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate.
No current actually flows through the dielectric, instead, the effect is a displacement of
charges through the source circuit. If the condition is maintained sufficiently long,
this displacement current through the battery ceases. However, if a time-varying voltage is
applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to
the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. Capacitance is defined as the ratio of
the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference V between them. The
capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the surface area of the plates (conductors) and
inversely related to the gap between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes

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a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, known as
the breakdown voltage.

The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. Capacitors are
widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating
current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies.
In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power
transmission systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow. The property of energy storage
in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in early digital computers.

2.13 Rectifier Diode

A rectifier diode is used to force electricity to flow only in one


direction. These components are commonly used to change
alternating current into direct current. These components are usually
made from silicon and serve as discrete parts or are integrated into
circuits. Rectifier diodes only allow electrical current to flow in one
direction, from AC to DC, in a process called "rectification”

Figure 2.13: Rectifier Diode


2.13.1 Specification:

1N-4007 1000V 1A General Purpose Diode.


 Peak Repeat. Reverse Voltage (Vrrm): 1000V
 Max. RMS Reverse Voltage (Vr): 700V
 Average Rectified Current (Io): 1.0A
 Max. Reverse Current (Ir): 0.01mA
 Max. Forward Voltage Drop (Vf): 1.1V

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CHAPTER III
DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT

This chapter covers the methodology part to build this system with detailed features and
specifications. The hardware part is divided in 3 parts mainly such as – Sensing, Monitoring
and Communication. For controlling purpose ATMEGA32, 8-bit micro controller is used
with 20x4 LCD display. For driving and switching ULN 2003 relay driver IC & relays are
used. SIM800C GSM module is used for wireless communication between cell phone &
controller.

3.1 Block Diagram of the System

Figure 3.1: Block Diagram Representation of the System

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3.2 Circuit Diagram

Figure 3.2: Circuit Diagram

3.3 Operating Principle


This monitoring system is based on ATmega32A microcontroller. To run this security
monitoring system, there are some rated values of temperature, humidity and motion. When
the system is turned on, the sensors sense the environment and send data to microcontroller
to compare with the rated values which were set earlier. DHT22 sensor measures temperature
and humidity, PIR motion sensor detects motion and MQ-135 sensor detects smoke and fire.
Then if the data is below or above the rated value, then microcontroller creates signal. The
data of humidity, temperature, motion and smoke are analog data, so those data are converted
to digital data by respective sensor with their built in ADC system.

At the same time, microcontroller sends a data to LCD display, LCD displays the faulty
conditions like temperature fault, fire detected, humidity fault and motion detected as well
as microcontroller triggers the buzzer and buzzer creates alarm. After that, Microcontroller
sends notification (SMS) to the mobile phone of authority via SIM800C GSM modem. The
faulty data is shown on LCD and alarm will be being buzzed for 30 sec, after then, system
will go to the normal operating mode. Then this process will repeat.

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3.4 Flow chart showing how the System works

Figure 3.4: Flow chart showing how the System works

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3.5 Images of the Project
3.5.1: External Image

Figure 3.5.1: External Image

3.5.2 Internal Image

Figure 3.5.1: Internal Image

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CHAPTER IV
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM

4.1 About Proteus


It is a software suite containing schematic, simulation as well as PCB designing. ISIS is the
software used to draw schematics and simulate the circuits in real time. The simulation
allows human access during run time, thus providing real time simulation. ARES is used for
PCB designing. It has the feature of viewing output in 3D view of the designed PCB along
with components. The designer can also develop 2D drawings for the product.

Figure 4.1: About Proteus

4.2 PCB Layout

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Figure 4.2: PCB Layout

4.3 3D View of PCB Layout

Figure 4.3: 3D View of PCB Layout


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4.4 Features
ISIS has wide range of components in its library. It has sources, signal generators,
measurement and analysis tools like oscilloscope, voltmeter, ammeter etc., probes for real
time monitoring of the parameters of the circuit, switches, displays, loads like motors and
lamps, discrete components like resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, digital and
analog Integrated circuits, semiconductor switches, relays, microcontrollers, processors,
sensors etc.

4.5 Result
WatchDog monitoring system is a security monitoring device, this system has the ability to
monitoring the restricted area. This device show temperature level, fire condition, motion
condition and humidity condition in your restricted area. When create unaccepted condition
tit will notified authorizes person via mobile phone SMS.

4.6 Benefits
The system has the following benefits:
 We can save time.
 User can has 24/7 monitoring your restricted area.
 Less expensive
 It requires a few skills in order to manage and maintain our System.
 This system is portable
 Observed condition

4.7 Limitations
 The System requires continuous power source to work. In most rural and remote
areas, reliable source of power is a major challenge.
 This device is not allowed for Children.
 The electricity bill is a challenge as this system has to be operated 24 hours over a
large period of time.

4.8 Application

 Corporate Office area


 Central Bank
 Hospital restricted area (ICU, ITU, CCU)
 Chemical industry
 Pharmaceutical Cavard van
 Food & beverage Cavard van
 Food industry
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4.9 Cost Estimation to Build the System
Sl No. Name of the Equipment Quantity Price
1 DHT22 Temperature & Humidity sensor 1 480/=
2 Display 16*4 1 370/=
3 Fire Sensor 1 280/=
4 PIR Module 1 360/=
5 Relay 2 80/=
6 Resistor ( 500 ohm) 1 1/=
7 Resistor ( 470 ohm) 2 2/=
8 Resistor ( 10 ohm) 4 4/=
9 Resistor ( 1k ohm) 1 1/=
10 Resistor ( 47k ohm) 1 1/=
11 Capacitor 100 µF 25v 2 30/=
12 Capacitor 470 µF 25v 2 20/=
13 Transistor C817 4 20/=
14 Diode 1N4007 4 10/=
15 PCB Strip Board 28x23cm-1.6mm 2 170/=
16 DEL Light 2 40/=
18 Hard Board 8sq/feet 350/=
19 Adapter 12V/1A 1 180/=
20 Soldering Lead Rosin 1 set 50/=
21 GSM Modem 800c 1 600/=
22 Microcontroller 1 100/=
Total cost 3149/=

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION & FUTURE MODIFICATION

5.1 Conclusion

Generally, this system has been developed successfully and the objective of this project has
been achieved. After a lot of observations made, it can be concluded that this prototype of
WatchDog Monitoring System using microcontroller is functioning almost properly. There
are three sensors, but the sensitivity of PIR HC-SR501 motion sensor is so high; therefore it
could create faulty result some time.

In many sophisticated areas, especially in corporate office, Bank, chemical industry,


pharmaceutical industry and food industry, where there is need of protecting certain goods
or materials, this system could be the better choice of real time monitoring the security. In
addition to that, the performance of this prototype has shown the promising aspect to
implement the real 24/7 security monitoring system for large places, cover van and super
shops or different industries.

5.2 Future Modifications


Some ideas have been thought of in order to enhance this project and make it better. The
recommendations for future developments are listed as below:

5.2.1 IoT based monitoring

The internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other
items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that
enable these objects to collect and exchange data. This security monitoring system can be
integrated to IOT system in future.

5.2.2 Mobile Apps development

The System can be developed by deploying user interface mobile app for both android and
iOS.

5.2.3 Audio-Visual System

The future implications of the project are very great considering the amount of time and
resources it could save. This system can be developed further by integrating the audio-visual
system and sending the captured image/video to the authority by a instant e-mail.

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REFERENCES
1. http://www.alldatasheet.com/view.jsp?Searchword=Atmega32a&gclid=CjwKCAiA0a
jgBRA4EiwA9gFORyrhKTr58KRoPYVhZMc7PYjJsr3v94g3ADtzObDtvqZfl4f3ctu
OsRoCzvkQAvD_BwE
2. http://www.alldatasheet.com/datasheet-pdf/pdf/255661/ATMEL/ATMEGA32A.html
3. https://www.winsen-sensor.com/news/industry-news/smart-home-
pir.html?gclid=CjwKCAiA0ajgBRA4EiwA9gFOR_wrLWcXf2S99m0wAhv6NATe
NykPPCZqdeUUTIyL47jT4y5RJKohGxoCMhoQAvD_BwE
4. https://www.waveshare.com/wiki/MQ-135_Gas_Sensor
5. https://www.adafruit.com/product/385
6. https://www.ndk.com/catalog/AN-CO_GG_e.pdf
7. http://www.uchiembedded.co.in/SIM800C%20MODEM-1.PDF
8. https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Sensors/Temperature/DHT22.pdf
9. https://cdn-learn.adafruit.com/downloads/pdf/pir-passive-infrared-proximity-motion-
sensor.pdf
10. https://www.vishay.com/docs/37306/lcd016n004b.pdf
11. https://www.ablic.com/en/doc/datasheet/voltage_regulator/S817_E.pdf
12. http://www.soloelectronica.net/fuentes/Power%20Supply%20Circuits.pdf
13. https://neurophysics.ucsd.edu/courses/physics_120/resistorcharts.pdf
14. http://www.anglia.com/literature/passiveBooks/CapacitorBookDownload.pdf
15. http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~eas199/B/notes/09/Relays_slides_2up.pdf

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APPENDIX

ProjectCode:

***

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