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EASY

ENGLISH
(A SELF STUDY MATERIAL FOR BASIC LEVEL)

A. RAJENDRA PRASAD

MAHALAXMI PUBLICATIONS
H.No.1-10-189, Kalanagar,
Beside: Govt. Civil Hospital, METPALLY
Karimnagar Dist - 505 325. T.S.

1
This book is dedicated to my father Late Sri
A. Ramchandram and my Easy English students. Also
my special thanks to Professor Dr. Preethi R Kumar
(P.S.T.U.)., Professor Dr. Anne Pothen (O.U) and Professor
Dr. Sabitha (GITAM UNIVERSITY) who taught me English and
made me to write this book . And also my special thanks
for thier contributions to review my editorium,
Dr.E.Rajakumar,KattaVenu (JL inEnglish, Yellareddypet),
Gurrala Prem kumar, G. Kumaraswamy (S.A.in English),
N.Purushottham (S.A.in English),V. Harinath (S.A.in English),
E.Sridhar Kumar (S.A.in English), Suddala Sridhar (S.A.in
English), E.Jayaprada (S.A.in English), Ch. Shobharani (S.A.in
English), Gade Srinivas (S.A. in English),Y. VISWANATH (S.A.in
English), G.Praveen.J.L.in English RJC., Metpally, G.Praveen
SGT and S.Bharathkumar.

Every effort has been made to avoid errors or omissions


in this publication. Inspite of this, Any mistake, error or
discrepancy noted may be brought to our notice which shall be
taken in the next edition. It is notified that neither the publisher
nor the author or sellers will be responsible for any damage or
loss of action to any one, of any kind, in any manner, there from
- A.PUNYAVATHI (PUBLISHER)

MAHALAXMI PUBLICATIONS
H.No.1-10-189, Kalanagar,
Beside: Govt. Civil Hospital, METPALLY
Karimnagar Dist - 505 325. T.S.
2
TABLE OF CONTENT

1. FORE WORD BY AUTHOR 4


2. FORE WORDS BY WELL WISHERS 5,6,7
3. FABLE STORY FOR YOU 8
4. INTRODUCTION 10
5. LIST OF WORDS MOST COMMONLY USED
IN DAILY ENGLISH 14
6. WORD ORDER 22
7. TYPES OF SENTENCES 26
8. STATIVE SENTENCES: STRUCTURE-1 27
9. ARTICLES 29
10. STATIVE SENTENCES: STRUCTURE-2 31
11. WORD CONJUGATIONS 36
12. TENSES 43
13. TENSES FUNCTIONS 44
14. TENSES FOUNDATION 50
15. VOICE ( ACTIVE VOICE) 66
16. PASSIVE VOICE 72
17. MODALS 78
18. BE STRUCTURES 84
19. THE CORRECT USE OF SOME PREPOSITIONS 90
20. DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH 94
21. QUESTION TAGS 100
22. SYNONYMS 101
23. ANTONYMS 103
24. PRONUNCIATION 105
25. POWER ENGLISH MINI STORY LESSONS
1. A WISE KING 109
2. NO GAINS WITHOUT PAINS 112
3. MAMA’S BOYS 114

3
FOREWORD

English uÛ≤wü nH˚~ á s√E\˝À e÷qe J$‘·eTT˝À #ê˝≤ eTTK´ yÓTÆq


bÕÁ‘· b˛wædüTÔqï~. ñ<√´>±\T dü+bÕ~+#·Tø=q{≤ìø√, Profession ˝À dü|òü\‘·
kÕ~Û+#·{≤ìø√, v±Hês¡®q ô|+bı+~+#·Tø=qT≥ø√, Science and Technology ì
develope #˚düT≈£îH˚+<äTø√, düuÛÑ´ düe÷»eTT˝À ÅbÕeTTK´eTT bı+<ä{≤ìø√ ˝Ò<ë ˇø£
e÷eT÷\T >∑èVæ≤DÏ ‘·q |æ\¢\≈£î Primary School kÕúsTT˝À Ç+{À¢ home work
#˚sTT+#·{≤ìøÏ a little bit English knowledge m˝≤>∑÷ nedüs¡eTT e⁄+&Ü*,
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yêø£´ s¡#·q‘√ bÕ≥T Ç+^¢wt˝À ñ|üjÓ÷–+#˚ Vacabulary, Expressions, Idioms,
Pronunciation, Stress, Intonation, Rythem yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$ ‘Ó\T‡ø√yê*. á
|ü⁄düÔø£eTT˝§ Pronunciation >∑T]+∫ ø=+#ÓeTT |ü]#·j·TeTT #˚j·T&Éj·TT »]–+~.

Ç+^¢wqt T @<√ u≤<Ûëø£sy¡ TÓ qÆ , ø£w‘


ºü s· y¡ TÓ qÆ uÛ≤wü>± uÛ≤$+#·≈î£ +&Ü nìï $<Ûë\
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nedüs¡eTT m+‘Ó’Hê e⁄+~. á Easy English nH˚ Basic Level |ü⁄düÔø£eTTqT
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MT
A. RAJENDRA PRASAD.

4
PROFESSOR
Dr. ANNIE POTHEN MADAM
(OSMANIA UNIVERSTY).

5
PROFESSOR
Dr. SABITHA MADAM
Easy English is a resourceful book to the learners who
aspire to learn basic English.The author A.Rajendra Prasad
covers all the necessary basic grammatical ingredients in
learning a language. As the book is bilingually written, the
Telugu speaker can understand the elementary level
languge to learn the nuances of the target language.
It covers both traditional and functional English gram-
mar, the reader can master communication effectively in
English language.

The book is so interesting that the English lan-


guage learner does not drift away from the page but he/
she drives through the page.

I congratulate the author A.Rajendra Prasad for tak-


ing so much effort in writing this book.It would be another
landmark of English language learning book for Telugu speak-
ers.

I wish him all the success in his future endeavours.


I greatly appreciate his zest for English language teaching.

god bless him.

Hyderabad, Professor Sabitha


23/07/2016 . GITAM UNIVERSITY.
6
PINNAMSHETTY SRINIVAS
M.E.O., Mallapur.

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8
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$»j·TeTT kÕ~Û<ë›+.

9
INTRODUCTION

uÛ≤wü eTq uÛ≤yê\qT, Ä˝À#·q\T, ø√]ø£\T yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$ eTÚœø£+>±ì


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ˇø£ Sentence ˝À e⁄+&˚ Words Ä Sentence ˝À ñ|üjÓ÷>∑|ü&çq


rs¡T ˝Ò<ë |üì #˚dæq rs¡TqT ã{Ϻ Words ì ø=ìï uÛ≤>±\T>± $uÛÑõ+#ês¡T.
yê{Ïì uÛ≤cÕ uÛ≤>±\T(Parts of Speech) >± dü÷∫kÕÔs¡T. English uÛ≤wü ˝Àì
Sentence jÓTTø£ÿ Words ì 8 uÛ≤cÕ uÛ≤>±\T (Parts of Speech) >±
$uÛÑõ+#ês¡T.

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n$ 1. NOUN 2. PRONOUN 3. ADJECTIVE 4. VERB
5. ADVERB 6. PREPOSITION 7. CONJUCTION
8. INTERJECTION.
1. NOUN
eTqwüß´\T, edüTÔe⁄\T, »+‘·Te⁄\T, düú˝≤\T, yêsê\T, q<äT\T,
düeTTÁ<ë\T yÓTT<ä\>∑T yêì ù|s¡¢≈£î Noun nì ù|s¡T.
ñ<ë: Raju, Sita, Rama, king, girl, rice, sand yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
Nouns 5 s¡ø±\T: 1. Proper Noun 2. Common Noun
3. Material Noun 4. Collective Noun
5. Abstract Noun.
1. Proper Noun : 2. Common Noun : Proper Noun nq>± ˇø£ eTìwæ
jÓTTø£ÿ >±ì, <˚X¯+ jÓTTø£ÿ ù|s¡T >±ì Specific (Á|ü‘˚´ø£+>±) >± e⁄qï ù|s¡T
qT dü÷∫+#·TqT. Common Noun nq>± düs¡«kÕe÷q´+>± e´eVü≤]+#·T
ù|s¡T qT dü÷∫+#˚~.
ñ<ë: Sunitha is a girl.
ô|’ yêø£´eTT˝À Sunitha nH˚~ Á|ü‘˚´ø£+>± ˇø£ ù|s¡T qT dü÷∫+#·TqT
ø±e⁄q Proper Noun ne⁄‘·T+~ eT]j·TT girl nH˚~ düs«¡ kÕe÷q´+>± n+<ä]
ne÷àsTT\ >∑T]+∫ ñ<˚›•+∫q ù|s¡T ø±e⁄q Common Noun >± e⁄+~.
POSSESSION:- Proper Noun \≈£î ( ’s ) qT ø£*|æ Áyêdæq|ü⁄&ÉT Ä Noun
jÓTTø£ÿ ÄBÛqeTT˝Àì~ ˝Ò<ë Vü≤≈£îÿ nqT ns¡úeTT e#·TÃqT.
ñ<ë: Krishna’s pen. (ÁøÏwüßíì ø£\+)
John’s car.(C≤Hé jÓTTø£ÿ ø±s¡T)
Common Nouns- pen, car; Proper Nouns- Krishna, John
3. Material Noun:- $&ç$&ç u≤>±\T>± ø±≈£î+&É Áb˛>∑T>±H√, eTT<ä›>±H√,
Á<äes¡÷|ü+˝À e⁄qï |ü<ës¡›eTT ù|s¡¢≈£î Material Noun nì ù|s¡T.
ñ<ë: rice (_j·T´+), sand (sTTdüTø£), wool (ñìï), water (˙s¡T).
4. Collective Noun :- eTqwüß´\ jÓTTø£ÿ >±ì, edüTÔe⁄\ jÓTTø£ÿ>±ì,
»+‘·Te⁄\ jÓTTø£ÿ düeTTVü≤\qT ‘Ó*j·TCÒj·TT words ì Collective
Noun n+<äTs¡T.
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5.Abstract Noun :- >∑TDeTT\ ù|s¡T,¢ #·÷&É˝ì
Ò , ‘êø£˝ìÒ , s¡T∫#·÷&É˝ìÒ , dæ‘
∆ T· \
ù|s¡T¢, dü+^‘·eTT, kÕVæ≤‘·´eTT e+{Ï XÊÁdüÔeTT\ ˝Òø£ ø£fi¯\ ù|s¡T¢ yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$
Abstract Noun >± dü÷∫kÕÔs¡T.
ñ<ë: Goodness(eT+∫ ‘·qeTT), Kindness(<äj·T‘·«eTT), Darkness
(Nø£{)Ï , Bravery (kÕVü≤düeTT), Theft(<=+>∑ ‘·qeTT), Youth (j·Te«qeTT)
yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
2. PRONOUN
Noun ≈£î ã<äT\T>± yê&ÉT e÷≥\qT Pronoun n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë: I (H˚qT), WE (y˚TeTT), YOU (˙e⁄/ MTs¡T), SHE(ÄyÓT), HE (n‘·&TÉ ),
IT (n~/Ç~), THEY (yês¡T) yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.

3. ADJECTIVE
ˇø£ Noun jÓTTø£ÿ >∑TDeTTqT >±ì, dü+K´qT >±ì, s¡+>∑Tì >±ì
‘Ó*j·TCÒjT· T e÷≥\qT Adjective n+<äTs¡T. á Adjective Noun jÓTTø£ÿ
ns¡úeTTqT $X¯Bø£]+#·T≥≈£î Noun ‘√ e⁄+&˚ e÷≥. kÕ<ës¡DeTT>± Noun
≈£î eTT+<äT+≥T+~.
ñ<ë: Ram is a brave boy.
ô|’ yêø£´eTT ˝À brave nH˚ adjective, boy nH˚ Noun jÓTTø£ÿ
>∑TDeTTqT ‘Ó\T|ü⁄#·Tqï~.
ñ<ë: Honest, Great, Some yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
4. VERB
ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À |üìì >±ì, dü+|òüT≥q≈£î >±ì, ÅøÏj·TqT dü÷∫+#·T
|ü<ë\qT VERB n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë: Run, Walk, Sleep, Drive, Read yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
5. ADVERB
ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À Verb jÓTTø£ÿ >±ì, Adjective jÓTTø£ÿ >±ì ns¡eú TTqT
$|ü⁄\|üs¡T#·T e÷≥≈£î Adverb nì ù|s¡T.
ñ<ë: The boy runs quickly.
America is a very rich country.
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ADVERBIALS
ADVERB OF TIME:- ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À Äj·÷ |üqT\T »s¡T>∑T
ø±\eTTqT ‘Ó\T|ü⁄q$. Ç$ ‘When’ nqT Å|üX¯ï≈£î düe÷<ÛëqeTT>± e#·TÃqT.
Example: now, then, since, ago, before, already, soon,
presently, immediately, instantly, easy, late, today, tomarrow, yes-
terday, afterwards etc.
ADVERB OF PLACE :- ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À Äj·÷ |üqT\T mø£ÿ&É
»s¡ T >∑ T q~ ‘Ó \ T|ü ⁄ q$. Ç$ ‘Where’ nqT Å|ü X ¯ ï ≈£ î dü e ÷<Û ë qeTT>±
e#·TÃqT.Example: here, There, in, out, within, without, above,
below, far, near, inside, outside et.,
ADVERB OF MANNER :- ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À Äj·÷ |üqT\T @
Ø‹˝À »s¡T–q$ ‘Ó\T|ü⁄q~. Ç$ ‘How and In what matter’ nqT Å|üX¯ï≈£î
düe÷<ÛëqeTT>± e#·TÃqT.Example: this, so, well, ill, badly, probably,
certainly, slowly, sadly etc.
6. PREPOSITION
ˇø£ Noun øÏ >±ì, Pronoun øÏ >±ì eTT+<äT+#·ã&ç Ä yêø£´eTT ˝À
$T–*q Nouns ˝Ò<ë Pronouns øÏ dü+ã+<ÛäeTT ‘Ó*j·TCÒj·TT e÷≥qT
Preposition n+{≤s¡T.
ñ<ë: The book is on the table.
ñ<ë: at, to, till, by, from, in yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
7. CONJUNCTION
¬s+&ÉT e÷≥\qT >±ì, ¬s+&ÉT yêø±´\qT >±ì ø£\T|ü⁄ |ü<ëìï Con-
junction n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë: Krishna and Arjun.
ñ<ë: and, but, or, for, also yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
8. INTERJECTION
ÄX¯Ãs¡´eTT, uÛj
Ñ T· eTT, u≤<Û,ä dü+‘√wüeTT, ø√|üeTT, $#ês¡eTT yÓTT<ä\>∑T
uÛ≤eq\qT ‘Ó\T|ü⁄≥≈£î yê&ÉT e÷≥\qT Interjection n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë: hello, hurrah, ah, alas yÓTT<ä\>∑Tq$.
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LIST OF WORDS MOST COMMONLY USED IN DAILY
ENGLISH

This(~dt) R Ç~ That(<Ûä{Ÿ) R n~
These(BCŸ) R Ç$ Those(<√CŸ) R n$
Some(düyéT) R ø=ìï Any(m˙) R @<Ó’q
No(H=) R ø±<äT, ˝Ò<äT None(qHé) R ø±<äT, ˝Ò<äT
Anybody(mìã&ç) R me¬s’q Somebody(düyéTã&ç) R mes√
Every(mÁM) R Á|ü‹ All(Ä˝Ÿ) R n+<äs¡T
Both(uÀ‘Y) R ñuÛÑj·T, ¬s+&ÉT Many(yÓTì) R nH˚ø£yÓTÆq
Either(á<∏äsY) R Ç~ ˝Ò<ë n~ Neither(˙<∏äsY) R@B ø±<äT
And(n+&é) R eT]j·TT Or(ÄsY) R ˝Òø£
But(ã{Ÿ) R ø±ì Nor(HêsY) R ø±ø£
So(k˛) R n+<äT#˚‘· Because(_ø±CŸ) R m+<äT#˚‘·qq>±
After(Ä|òüºsY) R ‘·s¡Tyê‘· Before(_bò˛sY) R eTT+<äT
For(|òüsY) R ø=s¡≈£î Since(dæHé‡) R qT+&ç
Sincethen(dæHé‡<ÓHé)Rn|üŒ{ÏqT+&ç Although(Ä˝À›) R nsTTq|üŒ{ÏøÏ
Yet(jÓT{Ÿ) R Ç+ø±, Ç|üŒ{ÏøÏ Till({Ï˝Ÿ) R es¡≈£î
Until(nHé{Ï˝Ÿ) R es¡≈£î, eT≥Tº≈£î Still(dæº˝Ÿ) R Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT≈£L&Ü
If(Ç|òt) R nsTT‘˚ Whereas(y˚¬s’CŸ) R nsTT‘˚
Even(áyÓHé) R n|ü⁄&˚, ø£˙düeTT Even if(áyÓì|òt)RnsTTq|üŒ{ÏøÏ, n˝≤
Neverthless(HÓyÓsYÔ˝…dt)RnsTTqqT Due to(&ÉT´≥T) R Ä ø±s¡DeTT>±
Unless(nHÓ¢dt) R ø±≈£îqï Lest(˝…dtº) R n˝≤ ø±≈£î+&Ü
In(ÇHé) R ˝À Into(Ç+≥T) R ˝À|ü*øÏ
On(ÄHé) R MT<ä Onto(Ä+≥T) R MT<ä≈£î
From(Á|òüyéT) R qT+&ç To(≥T) R es¡≈£î
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Have (Vü≤yé)R ø£*Zj·TT+&ÉT≥ Has (Vü≤dt)Rø£*Zj·TT+&ÉT≥
By (u…’)Re\¢,>∑T+&É, <ë«sê At (m{Ÿ)R e<ä›
Up (n|t)Rô|’q, MT<ä Over(ˇesY)R ô|’q, MT<ä
Above(mu§yé)R MT<ä, ô|’q Upon(nbÕHé)R MT<ä, ô|’q
With($‘Y)R ‘√, #˚‘·, ‘√&É Within($‹Hé)R ˝À|ü\, ˝À
Without($‘Í{Ÿ)R ˝Ò≈£î+&É Below(_˝À)R ÅøÏ+<ä
Bottom(u§≥ºyéT)R n&ÉT>∑Tq Beneath(_˙‘Y)R ‘·≈£îÿe, n&ÉT>∑Tq
Beside(_ôd’&é)R Å|üø£ÿq Besides(_ôd’&é‡)R >±ø£
Under(n+&ÉsY)R ÅøÏ+<ä, n&ÉT>∑Tq Inside(Çqôd’&é)R ˝À|ü\
Outside(ne⁄{Ÿôd’&é)R ne‘·\ Out(ne⁄{Ÿ)R ãj·T≥
Towards(≥TesY¶‡)R |üø£ÿ>±,yÓ’|ü⁄>± Through(Å‘·T)R >∑T+&Ü, <ë«sê
Of(Ä|òt)R jÓTTø£ÿ Off(Ä|òt)R MT<ä, qT+∫
Also(Ä˝À‡)R ≈£L&É Among(me÷+>¥)R eT<ä´, q&ÉTeT
Including(Ç+≈£L¢&ç+>¥)R ø£*|æ Excluding(mø˘‡≈£L¢&ç+>¥)R ø£\T|ü≈£î+&É
About(muÖ{Ÿ)R >∑T]+∫ Against(mπ>HÓdtº)R $s¡T<ä›eTT>±
Behind(_ôV’≤+&é)R yÓqTø£ Beyond(_j·÷+&é)R ne‘·\
During(&É÷´]+>¥)R n|ü⁄Œ&ÉT Near(ìj·TsY)R <ä>∑Zs¡
Afterwards(Ä|òüºsYesY¶‡)R ‘·sê«‘· Again(n¬>sTTHé)R eT∞fl
Almost(Ä˝ŸyÓ÷dtº)R <ä]<ë|ü⁄>± Always(Ä˝Ò«dt)R m\¢|ü⁄Œ&ÉT
Later(˝≤≥sY)R ‘·sê«‘· Another(nHÓ<äsY)R eT]jÓTTø£
Anyone(mìeHé)R me¬s’q Anything(mì‹+>¥)R @<Ó’q
anytime(mìf…ÆyéT)R @ düeTj·TyÓTÆq Between(_{°«Hé)R eT<ä´q
Forward(bòÕsê«sY¶)R eTT+<äT≈£î Often(Äô|òHé)R |ü<˚|ü<˚
Everybody(mÅMã&û)R Å|ü‹ˇø£ÿs¡T Everything(mÅM~∏+>¥)R Å|ü‹~
Here(Væ≤j·TsY)R Çø£ÿ&É There(<Û˚sY)R nø£ÿ&É
Inside(ÇHÓ’‡&é)R ˝À|ü\ Outside(ne⁄{Ÿôd’&é)R ne‘·\
Let(˝…{Ÿ)R ÄyÓ÷~+∫q Many(yÓT˙)R nH˚ø£yÓTÆq
Much(eT#Y)R ì+&Ü Must(eTdtº)Re\dæq~(ÄC≤„s¡÷|üø£ |ü<ä+)
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Able(mãT˝Ÿ)R kÕeTs¡úeTT >∑\ Accept(n¬ø‡|tº)R n+^ø£]+#·T
Accompany(nø£+|üì)R≈£L&Éb˛e⁄ Action(Äø£åHé)R |üì, ø±s¡´eTT
Actually(nø£Ã«*¢)R ì»eTT>± Add(Ä&é)R ≈£Ls¡TÃ≥
Afraid(nÅô|ò’&é)Rãj·T|ü&ÉT Agree(nÅ^)R ˇ|ü⁄Œø=qT≥
Allergy(n\Ø®)R $ø±s¡eTT Allow(n˝À)R n+^ø£]+#·T≥
Alone(n˝ÀHé)R ˇ+≥]>± Already(Ä˝Ÿs&
¡ )ç ReTTqTù|
Although(Ä˝À›)RnsTTq|üŒ{ÏøÏ Angry(j·÷+Å^)R ø√|üeTT
Annoy(nHêjYT)R u≤~+#·T≥ Apartment(nbÕsYºyÓT+{Ÿ)R uÛÑeqeTT
Appear(n|æŒj·TsY)R n>∑T|ü&ÉT Approach(nÅb˛#Y)R <ä>∑Zs¡øÏ e#·TÃ≥
Arrive(n¬sy
’ )é Re#·TÃ≥ Ask(Ädtÿ)Rn&ÉT>∑T≥
Back(u≤´ø˘)R yÓqTø£ Bad(u≤´&é)R #Ó&ÉT
Bug(ã>¥)R q*¢ Ball(u≤˝Ÿ)R ã+‹
Basket(u≤ôdÿ{Ÿ)R >∑+|ü Bathe(u≤‘Y)R kÕïqeTT
Batteries(u≤´≥Ødt)R u≤´≥Ø\T Bean(;Hé)R∫≈£îÿ&ÉTø±j·T
Beard(_j·TsY¶)R >∑&ɶ+ Beautiful(ã÷´{Ï|òü⁄˝Ÿ)R n+<äyÓTÆq
Become(_ø£yéT)R n>∑T≥ Begin(_–Hé)R Äs¡+_Û+#·T≥
Believe(_©yé)R qeTàø£eTT Bet(u…{Ÿ)R |ü+<Ó+
Bill(_˝Ÿ)R ˝…øÏÿ+#·T≥ Bite(u…’{Ÿ)R ø=s¡T≈£î≥,ø£s¡T#·T≥
Blind(u¢sTT+&é)R Å>∑T&ç¶ Blood(ã¢&é)R s¡ø£ÔeTT
Borrow(u≤s√)R n|ü⁄ŒrdüTø=qT≥ Bosom(uÀdüyéT)RÄ+‘·s¡´eTT
Bowl(u§e⁄˝Ÿ)R –HÓï Brain(Åu…sTTHé)R yÓT<ä&ÉT
Bring(Å_+>¥)R ‘Ó#·TÃ≥ Broke(ÅuÀø˘)R |ü>∑T\ø=≥Tº≥
Build(_˝Ÿ¶)R ì]à+#·T Burn(ãsYï)R ø±\TÃ≥,ø±\T≥
Busy(_J)R |üì˝Àe⁄+&ÉT Buy(ãjYT)R ø=qT≥
Call(ø±˝Ÿ)R |æ\T#·T≥ Come(ø£yéT)R e#·TÃ≥
Care(πøsY)R uÛÑÅ<ä+>± e⁄+#·Tø=qT≥ Carry(ø±´])R ‘Ó#·TÃ≥
Catch(ø±´#Y)R |ü≥Tºø=qT≥ Certainly(dü¬sº˙¢)R ‘·|üŒ≈£î+&É

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Chance(#êHé‡)R jÓ÷>∑eTT Change(#˚+CŸ)R e÷s¡TŒ
Cheap(NÛ|t)R #·eø£ Check(#Óø˘)R Ä|ü⁄≥
Chase(#Û˚CŸ)R y˚≥ Child(#Ó’˝Ÿ¶)R |æ\¢yê&ÉT
Choose(#·÷CŸ)R @s¡Tø=qT≥ Clean(ø°¢Hé)R X¯óÅuÛÑeTT>± #˚j·TT
Climb(ø£¢sTT+uŸ)R m≈£îÿ≥ Close(ø√¢CŸ)R eT÷j·TT≥
Cloudy(ø£¢e⁄&ç)R eTãT“>± Comb(ø√+uŸ)R <äTyÓ«q
Come(ø£yéT)R e#·TÃ≥ Comfort(ø£+|òüsYº)R düTKyÓTÆq
Common(ø±eTHé)R kÕ<ës¡DyÓTÆq Company(ø£+|üì)R >∑T+|ü⁄
Complain(ø£+ù|¢Hé)R |òæsê´<äT Complete(ø£+|”¢{Ÿ)R |üP]Ô>±
Complicated(ø±+|æ¢πøf…&é)R∫¬ø’ÿq Conform(ø£+|òüsYà)R ìX¯ÃsTT+#·T≥
Confused(ø£Hé|òüP´CŸ¶)R ÅuÛÑeTø£\>∑&ÉeTT Corrupt(ø£s¡|tº)R n$˙‹
Convinient(ø£ì«HÓ+{Ÿ)R nqT≈£L\yÓTÆq Cook(≈£îø˘)R e+&ÉT≥
Correct(ø£¬sø˘º)R düe]+#·T≥ Cost(ø±dtº)R yÓ\, <Ûäs¡
Count(øö+{Ÿ)R ˝…øÏÿ+#·T Course(ø√sY‡)R >∑eTqeTT, ø√s¡T‡
Crash(Åø±wt)R >∑T<äT›ø=qT≥ Create(ÅøÏj˚T{Ÿ)R ì]à+#·T≥
Cry(Ŭø’)R m&ÉTÃ≥ Cut(ø£{Ÿ)R qs¡T≈£î
Dangerous(&˚+»s¡dt)R nbÕj·TyÓTÆq Dark(&ÜsYÿ)R Nø£{Ï
Dead(&Ó&é)R #·ìb˛sTTq Decide(&çôd’&)é R ìX¯Ãj·TeTT #˚jT· T≥
Deep(&û|t)R ˝À‘Ó’q Delete(&ç©{Ÿ)R #Ó]|æy˚j·TT≥
Delicious(&Ó*wæj·Tdt)Re÷<ÛäTs¡´eTT>± Deliver(&Ó*esY)R $&ÉT<ä\ #˚j·TT≥
Dessert(&Ó»sYº)R m&Ü] Develop(&ÓyÓ\|t)R $ø£dæ+∫q
Did(&ç&é)R #˚dæq Different(&ç|òü¬s+{Ÿ)R e´‘ê´düeTT
Dirty(&É]º)R eTT]ø Disappoint(&çdü|üŒsTT+{Ÿ)R ÄXÊuÛÑ+>∑eTT
Disturb(&çdüºsY“)R n\¢] #˚j·TT≥ Divide(&çyÓ’&é)R ¬s+&ÉT>± #˚j·TT≥
Done(&ÉHé)R nsTTb˛sTTq Down(&ÍHé)R øÏ+<äT>±
Downfall(&ÍHébòÕ˝Ÿ)R HêX¯qeTT Dough(&É|òt)R |ædæøÏq |æ+&ç
Drag(Å&Ü>¥)R ˝≤>∑T≥ Dream(Å&ûyéT)R ø£\
Drive(Å&ÉsTTyé)R q&ÉT|ü⁄≥ Dry(Å&Ó’)R m+&çq
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Early(m]¢)R ‘=+<äs¡>± Earning(m]ï+>¥)R dü+bÕ~+#·T≥
Eat(á{Ÿ)R ‹qT≥ Effort(m|òüsYº)R Å|üj·T‘·ïeTT
Elavator(m\yÓ≥sY)R *|òtº Embarrased(m+u≤sY‡&é)R∫ø±≈£î|ü&TÉ ≥
Enough(mq|òt)R dü]b˛jÓT+‘· Enter(m+≥sY)R ˝ÀìøÏÅ|üy˚•+#·T
Entrance(m+Å≥Hé‡)R ˝ÀìøÏ <ë] Envelop(mq«\|t)R ø£es¡T
Excellant(mø£‡˝…+{Ÿ)R ÅX‚wü˜yÓTÆq Expect(mø˘‡ô|ø˘º)R Ä•+#·T≥
Excuse(mø˘‡≈£L´CŸ)R eTìï+#·T Exercise(mø£‡sYôd’CŸ)R nuÛ≤´düeTT
Exit(m–®{Ÿ)RyÓ*¢b˛e&ÜøÏ <ë] Expensive(mø˘‡ô|ì‡yé)RKs¡TÑ√≈£L&çq
Expert(mø˘‡|üsYº)Rì|ü⁄D‘·>∑\ Explain(mø˘‡ù|H ¢ )é Rns¡eú TT #˚sTT+#·T≥
Extremely(mø˘‡Å{°MT¢)Rn‹X¯j·TyÓTÆq Fact(bòÕ´øº̆)Rì»eTT
Fake(ù|òø˘)R ‘·|ü⁄Œ&ÉT Fall(bòÕ˝Ÿ)R |ü&ÉT≥
False(bòÕ˝Ÿ‡)R nã<ä›yÓTÆq Famous(ù|òeTdt)R ù|s¡T>∑\
Farm(bòÕsYà)R bı\eTT Fashion(bòÕ´wüHé)RÄ#ês¡eTT
Feed(|ò”&é)R ÄVü‰s¡eTT ô|≥Tº Feel(|ò”˝Ÿ)RdüŒs¡Ù, ‘Ó\TdüTø=qT≥
Feild(|ò”˝Ÿ¶)R uÛÑ÷$T Fight(ô|ò’{Ÿ)Rø={≤¢≥
Find(ô|ò’+&é)Rø£qT>=qT≥ Finish(|òæìwt)R|üP]Ô#˚j·TT≥
Flag(bòÕ¢>¥)R »+&Ü Flat(bòÕ{¢ )Ÿ R#·<sä y¡ TÓ qÆ
Floor(bò˛¢sY)R H˚\ Flower(|òe ¢ü sY)R|ü⁄wüŒeTT
Fluent(|òüP¢j·T+{Ÿ)R<Ûësêfi¯yÓTÆq Fly(|òs
¢ü TT)Rm>∑Ts¡T≥
Food(|òü⁄&é)RÄVü‰s¡eTT Forget(|òü¬sZ{Ÿ)ReT]Ãb˛e⁄≥
Found(bòÂ+&é)Rø£qT>=qT≥ Funny(|ò˙ ü ï)R$H√<äeTT
Future(|òüP´#·sY)R uÛÑ$wü´‘Y Get(¬>{Ÿ)Rbı+<äT≥
Give(–yé)R Ç#·TÃ≥ Glad(>±¢&é)Rdü+‘√wüô|≥Tº≥
Goal(>√˝Ÿ)R>∑T] Ground(Å>ö+&é)RyÓTÆ<ëqeTT
Group(Å>∑÷|t)R>∑T+|ü⁄,düeTTVü≤eTT Grow(Å>√)Rô|s¡T>∑T<ä\
Guest(¬>dtº)Rn‹~ Happy(Vü≤´|æ)R dü+‘√wüeTT
Heavy(ôV≤$)RuÛ≤s¡yTÓ q Æ Hight(ôV’≤{Ÿ)Rm‘·ÔsTTq

18
Help(ôV≤˝ŸŒ)R düVü‰j·TeTT Hike(ôV’≤ø˘)R ô|s¡T>∑T≥
Hold(ôVQ˝Ÿ¶)R |ü≥Tº≥, ‘ê≈£î≥ Hope(ôVQ|t)R ÄX¯
Hungry(Vü≤+Å^)RÄø£* Hurt(Vü≤sYº)RuÛ≤<äô|≥º&ÉeTT
Idea(◊&çj·T)R Ä˝À#·q Imagine(Çe÷õHé)R uÛ≤$+#·&ÉeTT
Immediately(Ç$Tà&çjÓT{°¢)R‘=+<äs¡>± Important(Ç+bÕ¬sº+{Ÿ)ReTTK´yÓTÆq
Impossible(Ç+bÕdæãT˝Ÿ)RnkÕ<ä´yÓTÆq Impressive(Ç+Åô|dæyé)ReTH√Vü≤s¡yÓTÆq
Indivisual(Ç+&ç$»«˝Ÿ)R ˇø£] Information(ÇHé|òü¬sàwüHé)Rdüe÷#ês¡eTT
Interesting(Ç+Åf…d+ ºæ >¥)RÅX¯<>∆ä \∑ Inturupt(Ç+≥s¡|tº)Rn&ÉT¶ø=qT≥
Introduce(Ç+Å≥&É÷´dt)R|ü]#·j·TeTT #˚j·TT Invent(ÇHÓ«+{Ÿ)Rø£qT>=qT
Jewish(C…$wt)R|ædæHê] Keep(ø°|t)R ñ+#·Tø=qT≥
Kill(øÏ˝Ÿ)R #·+|ü⁄≥ Knife(HÓ’|òt)R ø£‹Ô
Know(H=)R‘Ó\TdüTø=qT≥ Large(˝≤sY®)R ô|<ä›~
Laugh(˝≤|òt)R qe⁄«≥ Lay(˝Ò)R ô|≥Tº≥, ñ+#·T≥
Learn(\sYï)R H˚s¡TÃø=qT≥ Leave(©yé)R ôd\e⁄ rdüTø=qT≥
Left(˝…|)ºtò Re<äT\T≥ Lend(˝…+&é)Rn|ü⁄Œ Ç#·TÃ≥
Lie(˝…)’ Rnã<äe › TT Like(˝…ø’ )˘ RÇwüe ˜ TT
Listen(*»Hé)R $qT≥ Look(\Tø˘)R #·÷#·T≥
Lost(˝≤dtº)R b˛>=≥Tºø=qT≥ Meet(MT{Ÿ)R ø£\TdüT≥
Mistake($Tùdºø˘)R ‘·|ü⁄Œ>∑ Modern(e÷&ÉsïY )Rø=‘·,Ô Ç|üŒ{Ïø±\eTT
Mountain(eTÚ+fÒHé)R ø=+&É Move(eT÷yé)R ø£<äT\T≥
Near(ìj·TsY)R <ä>∑Zs¡ Necessary(HÓdüdü‡Ø)R nø£ÿ¬s’q
Need(˙&é)R nø£ÿs¡ Noise(HêsTTdt)R n\¢], #·|ü⁄Œ&ÉT
Normal(Hês¡à˝Ÿ)RkÕ<ës¡DyÓTÆq Notice(H√{Ïd)t Rdüe÷#ês¡eTT
Object(Äu…®ø˘º)R edüTÔe⁄,ñ<˚›X¯´eTT Occupied(Ä≈£îÿ´ô|’&é)RÄÅø£$T+#·T≥
Open(ˇô|Hé)R‘ÓsT¡ #·T Opportunity(Ä|üs¡TÃì{Ï)Rneø±X¯eTT,‘·s¡TDeTT
Opposite(nbıŒdæ{Ÿ)Re´‹πsø£eTT Order(Äs¡s ¶ )Y RÄv
Ordinary(Ä]¶q])RkÕe÷q´yÓTq Æ Original(ˇ]õq˝Ÿ)Rndü˝q ’…
Participate(bÕ]ºdæù|{Ÿ)R bÕ˝§ZqT Pattern(bÕ´≥sYï)R |ü<䛋, e÷~]

19
Play(ô|¢)R Ä&ÉT≥ Pleasant(|”¢dü+{Ÿ)R eTH√Vü≤s¡yÓTÆq
Poor(|üPsY)R ù|<ä Popular(bÕ|ü⁄\sY)R »qs¡+»ø£yÓTÆq
Possible(bÕdæãT˝Ÿ)R kÕ<Ûä´yÓTÆq Practice(ÅbÕøϺdt)R nuÛ≤´düeTT
Prepare(Å|æù|sY)R‘·j÷ · s¡T#˚jT· T≥ Present(Åô|C…+{Ÿ)RÅ|üdüTÔ‘·eTT
Pretend(Å|æf…+&é)R q{Ï+#·T Pretty(Åô|{Ï)R kı>∑ôd’q
Previous(Å|æ$j·Tdt)ReTT+<äs¡,|üPs¡«eTT Probably(ÅbÕããT*)RãVüQX¯
Problem(ÅbÕu…¢yéT)R düeTdü´ Produce(Åbı&ÉT´dt)R n>∑T|üs¡T#·T≥
Progress(ÅbıŬ>dt)Rn_Ûeè~› Pronounce(ÅbıHÍHé‡)R ñ#êäs¡D
Protect(Åbıf…ø˘º)R ø±bÕ&ÉT≥ Province(Åbı$Hé‡)R <˚X¯eTT, sê»´eTT
Push(|ü⁄wt)R q÷≈£î≥,HÓ≥Tº≥ Put(|ü⁄{Ÿ)R ô|≥Tº≥, e⁄+#·T≥
Quality(ø±«*{Ï)R dü«uÛ≤eeTT Quick(øÏ«ø˘)R ‘=+<äs¡>±
Quiet(ø£«sTT{Ÿ)R ìX¯Ùã›yÓTÆq Really(]j·T*¢)R ì»eTT>±
Receipt(]dæ|tº)R s¡d”<äT Receive(]d”yé)R rdæø=qT≥
Recently(]ôd+{Ï¢)R Ç{°e\ Recommend(]ø£yÓT+&é)R dæbòÕs¡düT #˚j·TT≥
Regret(]Ŭ>{Ÿ)R |üXÊÑêÔ|üeTT Remember(]yÓT+ãsY)R >∑Ts¡TÔ+#·Tø=qT≥
Remind(]yÓTÆ+&é)R>∑Ts¡TÔ+#·Tø=qT≥ Repair(]ù|sY)Ru≤>∑T #˚dæq
Repeat(]|”{)Ÿ ReT[fl#˚jT· T≥ Replace(]ù|¢d)t Rj·T<ëØ‹˝À ô|≥Tº≥
Reply(]|ü¢sTT)RÅ|ü‘·T´‘·Ôs¡eTT #Ó|ü⁄Œ≥ Research(ØdüsÃY )R |ü]XÀ<äq, yÓ‘ø· &
£ eÉ TT
Reserve(]»sY«)Rì*|æ ô|{Ϻq Return(]≥sYï)R‹]– sêe&ÉeTT
Reverse(]esY‡)RyÓqø£ |üø£ÿ Review(]eP´)R|ü⁄q]«eTs¡Ù#˚düT≥
Revise(]yÓ’dt)R dü]#·÷#·T≥ Sad(kÕ&é)RuÛ≤<ä
Safe(ùd|ò)t RdüTs¡ø‘
åÏ e· TT Save(ùdyé)Rs¡øÏå+#·T
Say(ôd)R#Ó|⁄ü Œ≥ Scarf(kÕÿsYŒ¤)ReTTU≤ìøÏ ø£f…º ô|’≥
Scold(k˛ÿ˝Ÿ)¶ R‹≥Tº≥ Scream(Åd”ÿyéT)Rns¡T#·T≥
Secret(d”Åø¬ {Ÿ)R>√|ü´eTT See(dæ)R#·÷#·T≥
Seem(d”yéT)Rø£q|ü&ÉT≥ Sell(ôd˝Ÿ)RneTTà≥
Send(ôd+&é)R|ü+|ü⁄≥ Seperate(ôd|üπs{Ÿ)R$uÛÑõ+#·ã&ɶ
Several(ôdes¡˝Ÿ)Rø=ìï, ø=+<äs¡T Shout(cÂ{Ÿ)Rns¡T#·T≥

20
Shut(wü{Ÿ)R eT÷düTø=qT≥ Sick(dæø˘)R nHês√>∑´eTT bÕ\e&ÉeTT
Situation(dæ#˚«wüHé)Rdæú‹ Skill(dæÿ˝Ÿ)R kÕeTs¡úeTT, ≈£îX¯\‘·
Sleep(d”| ¢ )t R|ü&TÉ ø=q&ÉeTT Slow(k˛¢)RyÓT*¢>±
Smell(ôdà˝Ÿ)Ryêdüq Smile(düàsTT˝Ÿ)R qe⁄«
Smoke(k˛àø˘)R bı>∑ Sneeze(d”ïCŸ)R ‘·TeTTà≥
Sour(k˛e⁄sY)R |ü⁄\¢ì Speak(d”Œø˘)Re÷{≤¢&TÉ ≥
Spell(ôdŒ˝Ÿ)R #Ó|ü⁄Œ≥ Spend(ôdŒ+&é)R Ks¡TÃ#˚j·TT≥
Stay(ùdº)R e⁄+&ÉT≥ Steak(d”ºø˘)R e÷+düK+&ÉeTT
Steal(d”º˝Ÿ)R <=+–*+#·T Still(dæº˝Ÿ)R Ç+ø±
Strange(Åôdº+CŸ)Rn<äT“‘·yÓTÆq Stretch(Åôdº#Y)R kÕ>∑rdüT≥
Subway(düuÒ«)R Å|üø£ÿ <ë] Support(düb˛sYº)R Ä<äs¡D
Surprise(düÅô|’CŸ)R ÄX¯Ãs¡´eTT Take(fÒø˘)R rdüTø=qT≥
Talk({≤ø˘)R e÷{≤¢&ÉT≥ Taste(fÒdtº)R s¡T∫
Teach({°#Y)R H˚s¡TŒ≥ Tell(f…˝Ÿ)R #Ó|ü⁄Œ≥
Terrible(f…Å]ãT˝Ÿ)RuÛÑj·T+ø£s¡yÓTÆq Test(f…dtº)R |üØø£å
Thick(‹ø˘)R <=&ɶsTTq Thin(‹Hé)R düqïì
Think(‹+ø˘)R Ä˝À∫+#·T≥ Thought(‘ê{Ÿ)R Ä˝À#·q
Throat(Å‘√{Ÿ)R >=+‘·T Throw(Å‘=)R $düs¡T≥
Touch(≥#Y)R ‘ê≈£î≥ Translate(Å{≤H釽Ò{Ÿ)R nqTe~+#·T≥
Try (Åf…Æ)R Å|üj·T‘·ïeTT Turn(≥sYï)R ‹s¡T>∑T≥, eT\T¢≥
Understand(n+&ÉsYkÕº+&é)Rns¡úeT>∑T≥ Use(j·T÷CŸ)Rñ|üjÓ÷–+#·T
Visit($õ{Ÿ)R <ä]Ù+#·T Wait(y˚sTT{Ÿ)R Ä>∑T≥
Walk(yêø˘)R q&ÉT#·T≥ Want(yê+{Ÿ)R ø√]ø£
Wash(yêwt)R ø£&ÉT>∑T≥ Watch(yê#Y)R m<äTs¡T#·÷#·T≥
Well(yÓ˝Ÿ)R eT+∫~ Wet(yÓ{Ÿ)R ‘·&ç>∑
Wish($wt)R ø√]ø£ Work(esYÿ)R |üì
Worse(esY‡)R $TøÏÿ* #Ó&ɶ Worst(es¡wtº)R $TøÏÿ* #Ó‘·ÔsTTq
Write(¬s’{Ÿ)R Åyêj·TT≥ Yawn (j·÷Hé)R Äe*+‘·
21
WORD ORDER
@ uÛ≤wü˝ÀHÓq’ ˇø£ yêø£´eTT(Sentence) jÓTTø£ÿ ns¡eú TT Ä yêø£´eTT˝Àì
|ü<äÁø£eTeTT(Word Order) ô|’ Ä<Ûës¡|ü&çj·TT+≥T+~.
yêø£´eTT˝À kÕ<ës¡D+>± 2 uÛ≤>±\T+{≤sTT, n$ SUBJECT
eT]j·TT PREDICATE.
SENTENCE= SUBJECT + PREDICATE.
ñ<ë: SUBJECT PREDICATE
I LOVE MY INDIA.
MY NAME IS RAJU.
SITA IS GOOD GIRL.
HE FELL DOWN.
RAMA KICKED THE BALL
yêø£´eTT(Sentence)˝À e⁄qï SUBJECT eT]j·TT PREDICATE
n+fÒ @$T{À #·÷<ë›+.
SUBJECT (ø£s¡Ô uÛ≤>∑eTT) :- yêø£´eTT˝À me]ì ˝Ò<ë <˚ì >∑T]+∫
e÷{≤¢&ÉT‘·THêïyÓ÷ yêìì ˝Ò<ë <ëìì >∑T]+∫ ‘Ó*j·TCÒj·TT uÛ≤>∑+.
PREDICATE(ÁøÏj·÷ uÛ≤>∑eTT) :- yêø£´eTT˝À SUBJECT
jÓTTø£ÿ |üP]Ô düe÷#ês¡eTT ( dæú‹ (STATE)>∑T]+∫ >±ì, dü+|òüT≥q\
(EVENTS)>∑T]+∫ >±ì ˝Ò<ë ÁøÏjT· \(ACTIONS) >∑T]+∫) ‘Ó*j·T CÒjT· T
uÛ≤>∑eTT.
ñ<ë:- Rama kicked the ball.( sêeTT&ÉT ã+‹ì ‘·HÓïqT)
ô|’ yêø£´eTTqT >∑eTì+∫qf…Æ¢‘˚ Ç+<äT˝À ã+‹ì ‘·qTï≥ nH˚ ÁøÏj·T
»]–+~. á ª‘·qTï≥μ nH˚ |üì mes¡T #˚kÕs¡+fÒ sêeTT&ÉT n+{≤eTT. nq>±
‘·qTï≥ nqT |üìøÏ ªsêeTT&ÉTμ ø£s¡Ô (SUBJECT) nsTT e⁄Hêï&Éqïe÷≥.
sêeTT&ÉT @$T #˚kÕ&É+fÒ ªã+‹ì ‘·HÓïqTμ nì #ÓbÕÔeTT. Ç~ ÁøÏj·÷
uÛ≤>∑eTT(PREDICATE) nqïe÷≥. á PREDICATE uÛ≤>∑eTT˝À ‘·qTï≥
22
nH˚~ ÁøÏj·T (VERB) ne⁄‘·T+~. n+‘˚>±ø£ ‘·qTï≥ e\¢ |òü*‘·eTT me]ô|’q
|ü&ç+~ n+fÒ ªã+‹μ ô|’ n+{≤eTT. Çø£ÿ&É ã+‹ ø£s¡à(OBJECT) >±
nsTTe⁄+~.
kÕ<Ûës¡DeTT>± SUBJECT uÛ≤>∑+˝À PARTS OF SPEECH
˝Àì NOUN >±ì ˝Ò<ë PRONOUN >±ì eTTK´ |ü<ë\T>± e⁄+{≤sTT.
kÕ<Ûës¡DeTT>± PREDICATE uÛ≤>∑+˝À VERB eTTK´ |ü<eä TT>± e⁄+≥T+~.
ø=ìï ø=ìï dü+<Ûäsꓤ\˝À ø=ìï yêø±´\T SUBJECT ˝Ò≈£îqïqT
PREDICATE ‘√ yêø±´\T |üP]Ôø±e#·TÃ. Ç+ø± ø=ìï dü+<Ûäsꓤ\˝À
SUBJECT eT]j·TT PREDICATE uÛ≤>∑eTT˝À ˇø£ VERB ‘√ yêø±´\T
|üP]Ôø±e#·TÃ. Ç+ø± ø=ìï dü+<Ûsä ꓤ\˝À SUBJECT eT]j·TT PREDICATE
uÛ≤>∑eTT˝À VERB e⁄+≥÷ Ç+ø± ø=ìï |ü<ë\‘√ yêø±´\T |üP]Ôø±e#·TÃ. n˝≤
ñqï Ç+ø± ø=ìï |ü<ë\qT OBJECT >±qT, COMPLEMENTS >±
dü÷∫kÕÔsT¡ .
OBJECT:- ˇø£ yêø£´eTT˝À Subject #˚dæq |üìì nqTuÛÑ$+#·T
e÷≥\qT OBJECT n+<äTs¡T.
OBJECT\T eTTK´eTT>± NOUN >±ì, PRONOUN >±ì
j·TT+&Ée#·TÃ.
COMPLEMENTS:- PREDICATE uÛ≤>∑eTT˝À VERB ‘√
bÕ≥T OBJECT e⁄qïqT ˝Ò≈£îqïqT ÅøÏj·T jÓTTø£ÿ ns¡úeTTqT |üP]Ô#˚j·TT≥≈£î
yê&ÉT |ü<ë\qT COMPLEMENTS n+{≤s¡T.
COMPLEMENTS >± ADJECTIVE >±ì, NOUN >±ì,
PRONOUN >±ì, ADVERB OF PLACE OR TIME >±ì,
PREPOSITION PHRASES >±ì e⁄+&Ée#·TÃ.
ˇø£ yêø£´eTT˝À SUBJECT, VERB ‘√bÕ≥T OBJECT e⁄+fÒ Ä
VERB ì TRANSITIVE VERB nì, SUBJECT, VERB ‘√bÕ≥T
OBJECT ˝Òqf…Æ¢‘˚ INTRANSITIVE VERB n+{≤s¡T.

23
ˇø£ yêø£´eTT˝À OBJECT ì m˝≤ ø£qTø√ÿyê*?
ˇø£ yêø£´eTT˝À OBJECT e⁄qï~ ˝Òì~ ‘Ó\TdüTø√yê\+fÒ Ä
yêø£´eTT˝À VERB eTT+<äT WHOM (me]ì), WHAT (<˚ìì, y˚ìì) nqT
yê{Ï‘√ Å|ü•ï+∫q#√ ‘·>∑T dü]jÓÆTq »yêãT eùdÔ OBJECT e⁄+<äqïe÷≥.
ñ<ë: 1. Sachin plays cricket.(dü∫Hé ÅøϬø{Ÿ Ä&ÉT‘ê&ÉT)
ô|’ yêø£´eTT˝À VERB eTT+<äT <˚ìì Ä&ÉT‘ê&ÉT n+fÒ CRICKET
nì »yêãT edüTÔ+~ n+fÒ OBJECT ‘CRICKET’nqïe÷≥
ñ<ë: 2. Sachin goes to school.(dü∫Hé dü÷ÿ˝ŸøÏ yÓfi¯‘ê&ÉT)
ô|’ yêø£´eTT˝À VERB eTT+<äT <˚ìì, y˚ìì, me]ì nqï Å|üX¯ï eùdÔ
dü]jÓTÆ q »yêãT sêe≥eTT ˝Ò<Tä n+fÒ á yêø£´eTT˝À OBJECT ˝Ò<qä ïe÷≥.
ñ<ë: 3. Hyderabad is a city.(ôV’≤<äsêu≤<é ˇø£ q>∑s¡+)
ô|’ yêø£´eTT˝À ≈£L&Ü OBJECT ˝Ò<äT.
ñ<ë: 4. They elected Rama.(yês¡T sêeTqT mqTïø=Hêïs¡T)
ô|’ yêø£´eTT˝À me]ì Elect #˚kÕs¡T n+fÒ Rama nì »yêãT
edüTÔ+~ n+fÒ Object e⁄+~ ø±ì yêø£´eTT dü+|üPs¡í+>± ˝Ò<äT. á yêø£´eTT
|üP]Ôø±yê\+fÒ BìøÏ CAPTAIN nH˚ COMPLEMENT #˚]Ñ˚ n~
dü+|üPs¡í ns¡úeTT edüTÔ+~.
ô|’ q $wü j · ÷ \T #· ~ yêø£ SUBJECT, VERB, OBJECT eT]j· T T
COMPLEMENT >∑÷]Ã |üP]Ô>± ne>±Vü≤q nsTT+~ ø£<ë!
‘Ó\T>∑T, Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü\˝À >∑\ yêø£´ s¡#·q uÛÒ<ä+ :-
ñ<ë:- Raju kicked the ball.
Subject Verb Object
sêE ã+‹ì ‘·HÓïqT.
Subject Object Verb

24
ñ<äVü≤]+∫q ¬s+&ÉT yêø±´\qT |ü]o*ùdÔ ‘Ó\T>∑T uÛ≤wü˝À Subject
‘√ yÓTT<ä˝…’ Verb ‘√ n+‘·eTe⁄‘·T+~. n<˚ yêø£´eTT Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü˝À Subject
‘√ yÓTT<ä˝’… Object ‘√ n+‘·eTe⁄‘·T+~ n+fÒ Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü bÕ<ës¡D yêø£´s¡÷|ü+
Subject+ Verb+Object(S+V+O) nqïe÷≥. yêø£´s¡#·q˝À #ê˝≤ ‘˚&Ü
e⁄+~ >∑<ë ! n+<äTπø Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wüqT eTq ‘Ó\T>∑T uÛ≤wü e÷~]>± ø±≈£î+&É
e÷{≤¢&˚≥|ü⁄&ÉT, Åyêùd≥|ü⁄&ÉT S+V+------------ yêø£´s¡÷|üeTT˝À eT]j·TT
ns¡úeTT #˚düTø£HÓ≥|ü⁄&ÉT S+O+------------ yêø£´s¡÷|üeTT˝À #·÷&Ü*.

BASIC WORD ORDER( |ü<äÅø£eTeTT)


English Sentence jÓTTø£ÿ ns¡úeTT Ä Sentence ˝Àì
|ü<äÅø£eTeTT ô|’ Ä<Ûës¡|ü&çj·TT+&ÉTqT.
1. düs¡«kÕ<ës¡DeTT>± Verb eTT+<äT Subject eT]j·TT Verb
‘·sê«‘· Object e#·TÃqT.
2. Adverbials( Adverb of time or place)\T kÕ<ës¡DeTT>±
Verb >±ì ˝Ò<ë Object ‘·sê«‘· e#·TÃqT.
3. á Basic Word Order ì Questions (Å|üX¯ï\≈£î >±ì),
Command(Äv„\≈£î) >±ì ñ|üjÓ÷–+#·sê<äT.

Sub Verb Object Adverbials


How Where When

I bought a hat _ _ _
I bought a hat _ _ Yesterday
We ate our meal in silence
We ate our meal in silence at home
We ate our meal in silence at home last night
He drove __ carefully
He drove the car carefully

25
TYPES OF SENTENCES ( yêø±´\ s¡ø±\T)
Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü˝À yêø±´\qT Hê\T>∑T s¡ø±\T>± $uÛÑõ+#ês¡T. n$
1. Assertive Sentence 2. Imperative Sentence 3.Interrogative
Sentence 4.Exclamatory Sentence.
Assertive Sentence :- ˇø£ $wüj·TeTT ne⁄qìjÓ÷, ø±<äìjÓ÷
ìsê∆s¡D>± ‘Ó\T|ü⁄q|ü⁄&ÉT n{Ϻ yêø£´eTTqT Assertive Sentence n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë:- Cow eats grass.( Äe⁄ >∑&ç¶ y˚Tj·TTqT)
I don’t take Tea.( H˚qT {° rdüTø=qT)
Imperative Sentence :- Imperative n+fÒ Äv±„|æ+#Ó&ç,
$<ëj·Tø£eT>∑T $<ä´s¡úø£eT>∑T nì ns¡úeTT.
ñ<ë:- Stop there.(nø£ÿ&É Ä>∑T)
Please give me your pen.(<äj·T#˚dæ MT ô|Hé Çe«+&ç)
Interrogative Sentence :- Interrogate n+fÒ Å|ü•ï+#·T≥ nì
ns¡úeTT. Å|üX¯ïyê#·ø±\qT Interrogative Sentence n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë::- What is your name?(˙ ù|s¡T @$T{Ï?)
Exclamatory Sentence :- ÄX¯Ãs¡´eTTqT >±ì, Vü≤sƒê‘·TÔ>± >∑*Zq
dü+‘√wüeTT, $#ês¡eTT yÓTT<ä\>∑T @ Ç‘·s¡ uÛ≤eeTTHÓ’qqT Exclamation
n+<äTs¡T.
FORMS OF SENTENCES
1. AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE : ˇø£ kÕ<ës¡ D yêø£ ´ eTTqT
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE n+<äTs¡T. ñ<ë: I eat.
2. NEGATIVE SENTENCE : ˇø£ kÕ<ës¡D yêø£´eTT˝À ˝Ò<äT, ø±<äT
nì eùdÔ n~ NEGATIVE SENTENCE ne⁄‘·T+~. ñ<ë: I don’t eat.
3. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE : ˇø£ kÕ<ës¡D yêø£´eTT Å|üX¯ï
s¡÷|üeTT˝À e⁄+fÒ <ëìì INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE n+<äTs¡T.
ñ<ë:. Do I eat ?
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE: Å|üXï¯ s¡÷|üeTT˝À
yêø£´eTT ø±<ë ? , ˝Ò<ë ? \ì eùdÔ n~ NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
SENTENCE ne⁄‘·T+~. ñ<ë:. Don’t I eat ?
26
Ç|ü⁄&ÉT ø=ìï dæú‹øÏ dü+uÛÑ+~+∫q
yêø±´\T H˚s¡TÃ≈£î+<ëeTT.
STRUCTURE 1 : - I am, You are, Are you? How?, He is, She is,
We are, They are..............

I am Raju.(H˚qT sêEqT)
I am Sita.(H˚qT d”‘·qT) You are Rani.(˙e⁄ sêDÏ$)
I am John.(H˚qT C≤HéqT)

Are you sita? No, I am Rani.


˙e⁄ d”‘·yê? ø±<äT, H˚qT sêDÏì.
Are you sita? Yes, I am sita.
˙e⁄ d”‘·yê? ne⁄qT, H˚qT d”‘·H˚.
Are you Raju? No, I am not Raju. I am John.
˙e⁄ sêEyê? ø±<äT, H˚qT sêEqT ø±qT H˚qT C≤HéqT.
Are you john? Yes, I am john.
˙e⁄ C≤Héyê? ne⁄qT H˚qT C≤HéqT.
How are you? I am fine, thanks and you?
MTs¡T m˝≤ e⁄Hêïs¡T? H˚qT u≤>∑THêïqT MT¬s˝≤ e⁄Hêïs¡T?
Where are you From? I am from Hyderabad.
MT¬sø£ÿ&ç yês¡T? H˚qT ôV’≤<äsêu≤<é yêìì.

He is Raju.(n‘·&ÉT sêE)
She is sita.( Äy˚T d”‘·)

Is he Raju? Yes, he is Raju.


n‘·&ÉT sêEHê? ne⁄qT n‘·&ÉT sêE.
No, he isn’t Raju.
ø±<äT, n‘·&ÉT sêE ø±<äT.

28
Is she sita?( Äy˚T d”‘·Hê? ) Yes, she is.( ne⁄qT, ÄyÓTH˚)
No she isn’t sita.(ø±<äT ÄyÓT d”‘· ø±<äT)
She is Rita.( ÄyÓT Ø{≤)
We are friends.( y˚TeTT ùdïVæ≤‘·T\eTT)

Are you Raju, Sita and Rita?( MTs¡T sêE, d”‘· eT]j·TT Ø{≤Hê?)
Yes, we are Raju, Sita and Rita.(ne⁄qT y˚TeTT sêE,d”‘·, Ø≥\eTT)
No, we are not.(ø±<äT y˚TeTT ø±eTT)

They are friends.(yês¡T ùdïVæ≤‘·T\T)

Are they Raju, Sita and Rita?( yês¡T sêE, d”‘· eT]j·TT Ø{≤Hê?)
Yes, They are Raju, Sita and Rita.(ne⁄qT yês¡T sêE,d”‘·, Ø≥\T)
No, They are not Raju, Sita and Rita.(ø±<äT yês¡T sêE,d”‘·, Ø≥\T
ø±s¡T)

This is John.(áj·Tq C≤Hé)


John is from America.( C≤Hé nyÓT]ø± yêdæ)

Who is this?( áj·Tq mes¡T?) This is John.(áj·Tq C≤Hé)


Where is he from? He is from America.
Ç‘·&ÉT mø£ÿ&ç qT+&ç e#êÃs¡T? Ç‘·ì~ nyÓT]ø±.

This is Swetha.( áy˚T ùd«‘·)


She is from India.( ÄyÓT uÛ≤s¡‘·<˚X¯ yêdæ)

Who is this?( áyÓT mes¡T?) This is Swetha.(áyÓT ùd«‘·)


Is she from America? No, she isn’t from America.She is
áyÓT~ nyÓT]ø±Hê? Indian.( ø±<äT, áyÓT nyÓT]ø± qT+&ç
sê8Ò
29 <äT, áyÓT~ uÛ≤s¡‘·<˚X¯eTT)
ARTICLES
edüTÔe⁄\, düú˝≤\, e´≈£îÔ\ uÛ≤yê\qT dü÷∫+#˚ Noun @<√ ˇø£{>Ï ±H√
˝Ò<ë Å|ü‘˚´ø£yÓTÆq~ >±qT dü÷∫+#˚ English Words ì Articles n+<äTs¡T.
n$ a, an eT]j·TT the \T, M{ÏH˚ Special Adjectives nì≈£L&É n+{≤s¡T.
á Articles ˝À a, an \qT Indifinite Articles nì, the ì
Definite Articles nì n+<äTs¡T.
á Articles #·~y˚ eTT+<äT Noun- Number H˚s¡TÃ≈£î+<ëeTT
Number n+fÒ e#·qeTT ˝Òø£ dü+K´ n+{≤s¡T.Ç$ 2 s¡ø±\T n$
1. Singular Number (@ø£e#·qeTT)
ˇπø ˇø£ edüTÔe⁄qT >±ì, dü+K´qT >±ì >∑÷]à #Ó|ü⁄Œq|ü⁄&ÉT <ëìì
Singular Number (@ø£e#·q])
2. Plural Number (ãVüQe#·qeTT)
ˇø£{Ïø£qï m≈£îÿe edüTÔe⁄\qT>±ì, dü+K´\qT >±ì <ëì >∑÷]Ã
#Ó | ü ⁄ Œq|ü ⁄ &É T <ëìì Plural Number (@ø£ e #· q eTT) n+<ä T s¡ T .
düs«¡ kÕ<ës¡DeTT>± Singular Number(@ø£e#·qeTT) ˝ÀqTqï #ê˝≤ Nouns
≈£î ‘S’ #˚s¡TÃ≥#˚‘· ·Plural Number(ãVüQe#·qeTT) @s¡Œ&ÉTqT.
Example: boys, girls
Indefinite Article(a, an) :- “a, an ” \T ˇπø Article jÓTTø£ÿ ¬s+&ÉT
y˚s¡T y˚s¡T s¡÷bÕ\T. |òü˝≤Hê edüTÔe⁄qT ìπs›•+∫ #Ó|üŒ˝Òø£b˛e&ÉeTT #˚‘· a or an
qT Indifinite Articles nì n+<äTs¡T.
‘a’:- 1.Consonant(Vü≤\T¢\) <Ûä«qT\‘√ ÅbÕs¡+_Û+#˚ Singular Noun
Words eTT+<äT ‘a’ qT ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê*.
ñ<ë:- a car, a man, a boy, a pencil, a dozen etc.
2. a,e,i,o,u nH˚$ Vowels(n#·TÃ\T) n+{≤s¡T.á n#·TÃ\‘√
ÅbÕs¡+uÛeÑ TT nsTTq Singular Noun |ü<ë\ ñ#êäsD ¡ Consonant(Vü≤\T¢\)
<Ûä«ì‘√ |ü*øÏq|ü⁄&ÉT Ä Singular Noun WordseTT+<äT ‘a’ qT ñ
|üj÷Ó –+#ê*.
ñ<ë:- a university, a union, a uniform, a one rupee, a European
etc.
29
‘an’:--“an” nH˚~ Vowel Sound (n#·TÃ\ <ä«qT\) ‘√ yÓ÷<ä\j˚T´ Noun
Words eTT+<äT ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T. eT]j·TT n+‘˚ø±ø£ Consonant(Vü≤\T¢\)‘√
ÅbÕs¡+uÛyÑ TÓ qÆ Singular Noun ñ#êäsD
¡ Vowel (n#·TÃ) <Û«ä ì‘√ |ü*øÏq“an”
ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T.
ñ<ë:- an apple an honest an eye
an elephant an SMS an orange
an issue an MP an umbrella
an hour an MLA an India
Definite Article:- “ the” ì Å|ü‘˚´ø£yÓTÆq~>± dü÷∫+#·T |òü˝≤Hê
edüTÔe⁄, |òü˝≤Hê e´øÏÔ nì ìπs›•+∫ #Ó|üŒã&˚ @ø£e#·qeTT( Singular) >±ì,
ãVüQe#·qeTT( Plural ) >±ì e⁄qï Noun Words eTT+<äT ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T.
ñ<ë: - The roses The Red Sea The Sweet
The Godavari The Cows The Himalayas
The Ramayana The Sun The U.S.A.
The Hyderabad The Moon The U.K.
Example:--
I saw a small boy smoking. He was not even nine. I went
to the boy asked him why he was smoking. He said he saw his
father smoke and he did same thing. I bought him an apple from
nearby shop. He looked at the apple and kept in the small bag he
was carrying. I told him how injurious smoking was to his health.
He promised not smoke again.
yÓTT<ä{Ï yêø£´eTT˝À a small boy \H˚~ |òü˝≤Hê e´øÏÔì ì¬s›•+∫q~
ø±<äT ø±e⁄q Ç~ Indifinite Article >± e⁄+~.¬s+&Ée Article ñqï the
boy (I went to the boy) Çø£ÿ&É boy \H˚~ |òü˝≤Hê nì dü÷∫düTÔ+~
ø±e⁄qÇ~ Definite Article. eT÷&ÉT, Hê\T>∑T Article\T ñqï yêø£´eTT\T
an apple from nearby shop Çø£ÿ&É apple \H˚~ Å|ü‘´˚ ø£eTT>± dü÷∫+∫q
|òü˝≤Hê \ì ‘Ó\T|ü⁄≥˝Ò<äT ø±e⁄q Ç~ Indifinite Article >± e⁄+~.the
apple(He looked at the apple )Çø£ÿ&É |òü˝≤Hê nsTTb˛sTT+~ ø±e⁄q
n~ Definite Article.the small bag( the small bag he was
carrying)Çø£ÿ&É |ò˝
ü ≤Hê bag nsTTq+<äTe\¢ Ç~ Definite Article nsTT+~.
30
Ç|ü⁄&ÉT Ç+ø± ø=ìï dæú‹øÏ dü+ã+~+∫q yêø±´\T H˚s¡TÃ≈£î+<ëeTT
STRUCTURE 2 :- This is, These are, Is this, It is, Is it, That is, Is
that, There is, Is there, have, has ..............
This is a book. These are books.
Ç~ ˇø£ |ü⁄düÔø£eTT. Ç$ |ü⁄düÔø±\T.
This is a pen. These are pens.
Ç~ ˇø£ ø£\eTT. Ç$ ø£\eTT\T.
This is a black dog. These are black dogs.
Ç~ ˇø£ q\¢ì ≈£îø£ÿ. Ç$ q\¢ì ≈£îø£ÿ\T.
This is a computer. It is new. It is good computer.
Ç~ ˇø£ ø£+|üP´≥sY. Ç~ ø=‘·Ô~. Ç~ eT+∫ ø£+|üP´≥sY.
Is this a T.V.? This is not T.V. It is a computer.
Ç~ {°.$Hê? Ç~ {°.$ ø±<äT. Ç~ ø£+|üP´≥sY.
Is this a magazine? This is not magazine. It is a book.
Ç~ yês¡ |üÅ‹ø£Hê? Ç~ yês¡ |üÅ‹ø£ ø±<äT. Ç~ ˇø£ |ü⁄düÔø£eTT.
Is it new? No, It is not new.
Ç~ ø=‘·Ô<ë? ø±<äT, Ç~ ø=‘·Ô~ ø±<äT.
Is it your book? Yes, It is.
Ç~ ˙ jÓTTø£ÿ |ü⁄düÔø£e÷? ne⁄qT, Ç~ Hê<˚.
There is a book on the table.
ã\¢ ô|’ ˇø£ |ü⁄düÔø£eTT e⁄+~.
There are three books on the table.
ã\¢ ô|’ eT÷&ÉT |ü⁄düÔø±\T e⁄HêïsTT.
There is a chair in the study room.
düº&û s¡÷yéT ˝À ˇø£ ≈£îØà e⁄+~.
There are four chairs in the study room.
düº&û s¡÷yéT ˝À Hê\T>∑T ≈£îØÃ\T e⁄HêïsTT. Is there a bed in the
bedroom?(u…&és¡÷yéT ˝À u…&é e⁄+<ë?)
Yes, there is a bed in the bedroom.(ne⁄qT, u…&és¡÷yéT ˝À u…&é
e⁄+~)
Is there a chair in the study room? (düº&û s¡÷yéT ˝À ≈£îØà e⁄+<ë?)
Yes, there is.(ne⁄qT, e⁄+~)
31
Are there books in the book shelf?
ãTø˘ ôw˝ŸŒ¤ ˝À ãTø˘‡ e⁄Hêïj·÷?
Yes, There are books in the book shelf.
ne⁄qT, ãTø˘ ôw˝ŸŒ¤ ˝À ãTø˘‡ e⁄HêïsTT.
Are there books in the bedroom?
u…&é s¡÷yéT¤ ˝À ãTø˘‡ e⁄Hêïj·÷?
No, There are not books in the bedroom.
˝Ò<äT, u…&é s¡÷yéT¤ ˝À ãTø˘‡ ˝Òe⁄.
That is a book.( n~ ˇø£ |ü⁄düÔø£eTT)
Those are books.( n$ |ü⁄düÔø±\T)
That is the American flag.( n~ nyÓT]ø± »+&É)
Those are flags.( n$ »+&Ü\T)
Is that a book? Yes, That is a book.
n~ |ü⁄düÔø£e÷? ne⁄qT, n~ |ü⁄düÔø£eTT.
Is that a computer? No, That is not a computer.
n~ ø£+|üP´≥sê? ø±<äT, n~ ø£+|üP´≥sY ø±<äT.
Is that a flag? No, That is not a flag.
n~ »+&ÜHê? ø±<äT, n~ »+&Ü ø±<äT.
Are those books? Yes, Those are books.
n$ |ü⁄düÔø±˝≤? ne⁄qT, n$ |ü⁄düÔø±˝Ò.
I have a computer.
H˚qT ø£+|üP´≥sY ì ø£*Zj·TTHêïqT.
I have a book.
H˚qT ˇø£ |ü⁄düÔø£eTTqT ø£*Zj·TTHêïqT.
I have a car.
H˚qT ø±s¡Tì ø£*Zj·TTHêïqT.
Ram has a computer.
sêyéT ø£+|üP´≥sY ì ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.
Sita has a book.
d”‘· ˇø£ |ü⁄düÔø£eTTqT ø£*Zj·TTqï~.
Krishna has a car.(ÅøÏwüí ø±s¡Tì ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.)
32
I HE

YOU SHE
HAVE HAS
WE IT

THEY RAM

Ram has a beautiful house.sêyéT n+<äyÓTÆq Ç\T¢ ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.


Ram’s house is beautiful. sêyéT jÓTTø£ÿ Ç\T¢ n+<ä+>±e⁄+~.
Swetha has a black dog. X‚«‘· q\¢ì ≈£îø£ÿì ø£*Zj·TT+~.
Swetha’s dog is black. X‚«‘· jÓTTø£ÿ ≈£îø£ÿ q\¢>± e⁄+~.
Krishna has a new car. ÅøÏwüí Åø=‘·Ô ø±s¡Tì ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.
Krishna’s car is new.ÅøÏwüí jÓTTø£ÿ ø±s¡T Åø=‘·Ô~.
I have a magazine. He has a magazine.
H˚qT yês¡ |üÅ‹ø£qT ø£*Zj·TTHêïqT. n‘·&ÉT yês¡ |üÅ‹ø£qT ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.
We have computers. She has a computer.
y˚TeTT ø£+|üP´≥s¡¢ì ø£*Zj·TTHêïeTT. ÄyÓT ø£+|üP´≥]ï ø£*Zj·TTqï~.
You have gold chain. It has long tail.
˙e⁄ ã+>±s¡T >=\TdüT ø£*Zj·TTHêïe⁄. Ç~ ô|<ä› ‘√ø£qT ø£*Zj·TT+~.
They have a map. Ram has a pen.
yês¡T ∫Å‘êìï ø£*Zj·TTHêïs¡T. sêeTT ô|qTïqT ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT

I HE
WE SHE
THEY DO/ DON’T IT DOES/ DOESN’T
HAVE HAVE
YOU RAM

33
I have the wrong number.

H˚qT ‘·|ü⁄Œ dü+K´ ø£*Zj·TTHêïqT.


I don’t have the wrong number.
H˚qT ‘·|ü⁄Œ dü+K´ qT ø£*Z˝ÒqT.

Do I have the wrong number? Yes, You do.


H˚qT ‘·|ü⁄Œ dü+K´ ø£*Zj·TTHêïHê? ne⁄qT, ˙e⁄ ø£*Zj·TTHêïe⁄.
Do I have the right number? No, You don’t.
H˚qT dü]jÓÆTq dü+K´ ø£*Zj·TTHêïHê? ˝Ò<äT, ˙e⁄ ø£*Z˝Òe⁄.

You have two children.


˙e⁄ Ç<ä›s¡T |æ\¢\qT ø£*Zj·TTHêïe⁄.
You don’t have two children.
˙e⁄ Ç<ä›s¡T |æ\¢\T ø£*Z˝Òe⁄.

Do you have two children? Yes, I do.


˙e⁄ Ç<ä›s¡T |æ\¢\T ø£*Zj·TTHêïyê? ne⁄qT, H˚qT ø£*Zj·TTHêïqT.
Do you have three children? No, I don’t.
˙e⁄ eTT>∑TZs¡T |æ\¢\T ø£*Zj·TTHêïyê? ˝Ò<äT, H˚qT ø£*Z˝ÒqT.

We have Radio.
y˚TeTT πs&çjÓ÷ ø£*Zj·TTHêïeTT.
We don’t have Radio.
y˚TeTT πs&çjÓ÷ ø£*Z˝ÒeTT.

Do we have Radio? Yes, We do.


y˚TeTT πs&çjÓ÷ ø£*Zj·TTHêïe÷? ne⁄qT, y˚TeTT ø£*Zj·TTHêïeTT.
Do we have T.V.? No, We don’t.
y˚TeTT {°.$ ø£*Zj·TTHêïe÷? ˝Ò<äT, y˚TeTT ø£*Z˝ÒeTT.

34
They have a big hall.
yês¡T ˇø£ ô|<ä› Vü‰˝Ÿ ø£*Zj·TTHêïs¡T.
They don’t have a big hall.
yês¡T ˇø£ ô|<ä› Vü‰˝Ÿ ø£*Z˝Òs¡T.

Do they have a big hall? Yes, They do.


yês¡T ˇø£ ô|<ä› Vü‰˝Ÿ ø£*Zj·TTHêïsê? ne⁄qT, yês¡T ø£*Zj·TTHêïs¡T.
Do they have a small hall? No, They don’t.
yês¡T ˇø£ ∫qï Vü‰˝Ÿ ø£*Zj·TTHêïsê? ˝Ò<äT, yês¡T ø£*Z˝Òs¡T.
He has a computer.
n‘·&ÉT ø£+|üP´≥sY ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.
He doesn’t have a computer.
n‘·&ÉT ø£+|üP´≥]ï ø£*Z˝Ò&ÉT.
Does he have a computer? Yes, He does.
n‘·&ÉT ø£+|üP´≥sY ø£*Zj·TTHêï&Ü? ne⁄qT, n‘·&ÉT ø£*Zj·TTHêï&ÉT.
Does he have T.V.? No, He doesn’t.
n‘·&ÉT {°.$ì ø£*Zj·TTHêï&Ü? ˝Ò<äT, n‘·&ÉT ø£*Z˝Ò&ÉT.
She has a book
ÄyÓT |ü⁄düÔø£eTT ø£*Zj·TT+~.
She doesn’t have a book.
ÄyÓT |ü⁄düÔø£eTT ø£*Z˝Ò<äT.
Does she have a book? Yes, She does
ÄyÓT |ü⁄düÔø£eTT ø£*Zj·TT+<ë? ne⁄qT, ÄyÓT ø£*Zj·TT+~.
Does she have a magazine? No, She doesn’t.
ÄyÓT yês¡ |üÅ‹ø£ ø£*Zj·TT+<ë? ˝Ò<äT, ÄyÓT ø£*Z˝Ò<äT.

35
WORD CONJUGATIONS
Verb Table ì ø£+sƒ¡düÔeTT #˚j·T+&ç

Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tense(V2) Past Participle(V3)

abide ì*∫e⁄+&ÉT≥ abode abode


abuse ‹≥Tº≥ abused abused
alight ~>∑T≥ alight alight
arise y˚T˝§ÿqT≥ arose arisen
awake ˝Ò#T· ≥ awoke awoken
be e⁄+&ÉT≥ was/ were been
bear uÛ]Ñ +#·T bore borne
beat ø=≥Tº≥ beat beaten
become n>∑T≥ become became
beget ø£\T>∑CdÒ Tü ≥ begot begotten
begin ÅbÕs¡+_Û+#·T began begun
begird #·T≥Tºø=qT≥ begirt begirt
behold #·÷#·T≥ beheld beheld
belay ø£≥Tº≥ belaid belaid
bend e+#·T≥ bent bent
bereave qwü|º sü T¡ #·T≥ bereaved bereaved
beseech Åã‹e÷\T besought besought
beset q\TÅ|üøÿ£ \ beset beset
#·÷#·T≥
bestrew sTT#·TÃ≥ bestrwed bestrwed
bet |ü+<ÓeTT bet bet
bid y˚\+bÕ≥ bid bid
bind ìs¡“~¤ +#·T bound bound

36
WORD CONJUGATIONS
Verb Table ì ø£+sƒ¡düÔeTT #˚j·T+&ç

Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tense(V2) Past Participle(V3)

bite ø£sT¡ #·T bit bitten


blend ø£\T|ü⁄ blent blent
bless B$+#·T blessed blessed
blow >±*M#·T blew blown
break |ü>T∑ \>=≥Tº broke broken
breed ø£qT, ô|+#·T bred bred
bring ‘Ó#T· Ã≥ brought brought
broadcast Å|ükÕs¡eTT #˚j·TT broadcasted broadcasted
build ì]à+#·T built built
burn eT+&ÉT≥ burned burned
buy ø=qT≥ bought bought
cast z≥Ty˚jT· T cast cast
catch |ü≥Tº≥ caught caught
chide ‹≥Tº≥ chid chidden
choose m+#·Tø=qT chose choosen
cleave |ü>T∑ \>=≥Tº clove cloven
climb m≈£îÿ≥ climbed climbed
cling n+≥Tø=ìj·TT+&ÉT clung clung
come e#·TÃ≥ came come
cost Ks¡TÃ#˚jT· T≥ cost cost
creep ÅbÕ≈£î≥ crept crept
cut ø√j·TT≥ cut cut
dare kÕVü≤dæ+#·T dared dared
deal es¡Ôø£eTT #˚j·TT dealt dealt
dig Å‘·e⁄«≥ dug dug

37
Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tences)V2) Past Patyivipslr(V3)

discribe e]¿+#·T discribed discribed


disprove ø={Ïyº j ˚ T· T≥ disproved disproved
dive eTTì– ˝À‘·T˝§b˛e⁄ dived dived
do #˚jT· T≥ did done
draw ^j·TT≥ drew drawn
dream ø£\>∑qT dreamt dreamt
drink Å‘ê>∑T≥ drank drunk
drive q&ÉT|ü⁄≥ drove driven
dwell ìedæ+#·T dwelt dwelt
eat ‹qT≥ ate eaten
engird q&ÉTeTT ø£≥Tº≥ engirt engirt
escape ‘·|æŒ+#·T ø=qT≥ escaped escaped
fall |ü&TÉ ≥ fell fallen
feed ‹ì|æ+#·T≥ fed fed
feel uÛ≤$+#·T felt felt
fight b˛sê&ÉT fought fought
find ø£qT>=qT found found
flay $eT]Ù+#·T≥ flayed flayed
flee bÕ]b˛e⁄ fled fled
fling bÕs¡yj ˚ T· T flung flung
fly m>∑Ts¡T≥ flew flown
forecast eTT+<äT>± }Væ≤+∫ forecasted forecasted
#Ó|⁄ü Œ≥
forget eT]∫b˛e⁄≥ forgot forgotten
forgive ø£$å T+#·T forgave forgiven
forsake e~* y˚jT· T≥ forsook forsaken
fraught ì+&çq fraughted fraughted

38
Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tences)V2) Past Patyivipslr(V3)
freeze >∑&ø¶É ≥£ Tº froze frozen
get bı+<äT got gotten
give Ç#·TÃ≥ gave given
go yÓfió¯ fl≥ went gone
grind s¡TãT“≥ ground ground
grow ô|s¡T>∑T≥ grew grown
hang Åy˚˝≤&ÉT hung hung
have/has ø£*–j·TT+&ÉT had had
hear $qT≥ heard heard
hide <ë>∑T+&ÉT≥ hid hidden
hit ø=≥Tº hit hit
hold |ü≥Tºø=qT≥ held held
hurt >±j·T|üsT¡ #·T hurt hurt
inspire dü÷Œ]Ôì#·Tà inspired inspired
involve CÀø£´eTT #˚düTø=qT involved involved
keep e⁄+#·T≥ kept kept
kneel yÓ÷ø£]+#·T knelt knelt
knit eTT&çyj ˚ T· T knit knit
know ‘Ó\TdüT≥ knew known
lay y˚jT· T≥ laid laid
lead Å‘√e#·÷|ü⁄ led led
lean ÄqTø=qT leaned leaned
lie nã<äe› ÷&ÉT lay lain
lose b˛>=≥Tºø=qT lost lost
make #˚jT· T≥ made made
mean ns¡$ú T#·TÃ meant meant

39
Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tences)V2) Past Patyivipslr(V3)

melt ø£sT¡ –+#·T melted melted


mistake bıs¡bÕ≥T mistook mistaken
pay #Ó*+¢ #·T paid paid
plead yê~+#·T≥ pled pled
praise yÓT#·TÃø=qT praised praised
pray ÅbÕ]ú+#·T prayed prayed
prove ìs¡÷|æ+#·T≥ proved proved
put ñ+#·T≥ put put
quit $&ç∫ô|≥Tº≥ quit quit
read #·<Tä e⁄≥ read read
reeve <ä÷s¡TÃ≥ reaved reaved
remake eT∞fl#˚jT· T≥ remade remade
ride düyêØ#˚jT· T≥ rode ridden
ring ÅyÓ÷>∑T≥ rang rung
rise ˝…>T∑ ≥,˝Ò#T· ≥ rose risen
run |üsT¡ >¬ ‘·T≥Ô ran run
saw #·÷#·T≥ sawed sawed
say #Ó|⁄ü Œ≥ said said
see #·÷#·T≥ saw seen
seek ø√s¡T≥ sought sought
sell neTTà≥ sold sold
send |ü+|ü⁄≥ sent sent
set neTs¡TÃ≥ set set
shake eDT≈£î≥ shook shaken
shine Å|üø±•+#·T≥ shone shone
shut eT÷dæyj ˚ T· T shut shut

40
Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tences)V2) Past Patyivipslr(V3)

show #·÷|ü⁄≥ showed shown


shrink eTT&ÉT#·Tø=qT≥ shrank shrunk
shrive bÕ|ü $eTT≈£îÔìï#˚j·TT shrove shriven
shift e÷]Ãy˚jT· T shifted shifted
sing bÕ&ÉT≥ sang sung
sit ≈£Ls=ÃqT sat sat
slay #·+|ü⁄, e~+#·T slew slain
sleep ìÅ~+#·T slept slept
sling $düTs¡T≥ slung slung
slit ø√j·TT, N\TÃ slit slit
smell yêdüq #·÷#·T smelled smelled
soothsay n\T¢|≥ü Tº≥ soothsaid soothsaid
speak e÷{≤¢&TÉ ≥ spoke spoken
speed y˚>∑+>± b˛e⁄ speeded speeded
spell ñ#·Ã]¤ +#·T spelled spelled
spend Ks¡TÃ#˚jT· T spent spent
spin e&ÉT≈£î≥ span spun
spit ñ$Tày˚jT· T spitted spitted
split N\TÃ split split
spread $dü]Ô +#·T spread spread
spring yÓTT\#·T≥ sprang sprung
stand ì\ã&ÉT stood stood
steal <=+–*+#·T stole stolen
stick n+{Ï+#·T stuck stuck
sting ø=+&ç‘√ ≈£î≥Tº stung stung
strew #·\T¢≥ strewed strewed

41
Verb(V1) Meaning Past Tences)V2) Past Patyivipslr(V3)

stide Å‘=≈£îÿ≥ strode sridden


strike düyTÓ à#˚jT· T struck stricken
strip ~>∑+uÛsÑ e¡ T>∑T≥ stripped stripped
strive rÅeeTT>± strove striven
Å|üjT· ‹ï+#·T
sweep }&ÉTÃ swept swept
swell yê#·T≥ swelled swollen
swing }>∑T≥ swung swung
take rdæø=qT took taken
teach uÛÀ~+#·T tought tought
tear ∫+#·T≥ tore torn
tell #Ó|⁄ü Œ≥ told told
think Ä˝À∫+#·T thought thought
thrive u≤>∑T|ü&TÉ ≥ throve thriven
throw $düTs¡T≥ throw thrown
tread Å‘=≈£îÿ trod trodden
wake y˚T˝§ÿqT≥ woke woken
weave H˚jT· T≥ wove worn
weep @&ÉTÃ≥ wept wept
win >¬ \T|ü⁄ won won
wit H˚HsÓ T¡ >∑T<äT wist wist
withdraw yÓqøÏÿ rdüTø=qT withdrew withdrawn
work |üì#˚jT· T worked worked
wrap #·T≥Tº≥ wrapped wrapped
wreak rs¡TÃø=qT≥ wreaked wreaked
write Åyêj·TT≥ wrote written

42
Dear Friends .......Ç|ü⁄&ÉT #ê˝≤ C≤Å>∑‘>
Ô· ± Observe
#˚ j · T +&ç m+<ä T ø£ + fÒ MT≈£ î SPOKEN ENGLISH
CONFIDENT >± edüT+ Ô <√, sê<√ ‘Ó*j·TCÒjT· T WONDER
TOPIC yÓTT<ä\>∑T‘·T+~. SPOKEN ENGLISH øÏ eT+∫
|ü⁄Hê~ y˚j·TT≥≈£î TENSES FUNCTIONS ì ns¡úeTT
#˚ d ü T ø=ì TENSES FOUNDATIONS ì ø£ + sƒ ¡ d ü Ô e TT
#˚j·T+&ç.

TENSES

TENSE n+fÒ ø±\eTT‘√ bÕ≥T ÅøÏj·T e÷s¡T≥


(Change of Verb according to Time)nì ns¡úeTT.Å|ü‹
Verb øÏ 3 Tenses e⁄+{≤sTT. n$ Present Tense (Å|üdüTÔ‘·
ø±\eTT), Past Tense (»]–q / uÛÑ÷‘· ø±\eTT) eT]j·TT
Future Tense (»s¡T>∑uÀj˚T / uÛÑ$wü´ ø±\eTT). eTs¡\ á
eT÷&ç + {Ï ø Ï 4 s¡ ÷ bÕ\T e⁄+{≤sTT n$ Simple,
Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous.

Present Tense Past Tense Past Tense


Simple (1.1) Simple (2.1) Simple (3.1)
Continuous(1.2) Continuous(2.2) Continuous(3.2)
Perfect (1.3) Perfect (2.3) Perfect (3.3)
Perfect Perfect Perfect
Continuous(1.4) Continuous(2.4) Continuous(3.4)

43
TENSES FUNCTIONS
eTqeTT eTT+<äT>±H˚ H˚sT¡ Ã≈£îHêïeTT>± English Language jÓTTø£ÿ
Structure S+V+O s¡÷|ü+˝À e⁄+≥T+<äì ø±ì Tenses Function, Tenses
Foundations ˝À Subject+Verb \H˚ rqT≈£î+<ëeTT. Object ì Next
Topic ˝À rdüT≈£îì Practice #˚<ë›eTT. Okay..
V1---V2---V3
(take rdæø=qT≥ - took rdæø=HÓqT - taken rdæø=ì)
1.1 Function :n\yê≥T>± ˝Ò<ë Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT/m\¢|ü⁄&ÉT »s¡Tπ>
$wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(rdæø=+{≤qT, rdæø=+{≤s¡T, rdæø=+{≤&ÉT,
rdæø=+≥~)
Negative
S V O S V O
I I
We V1 -- We don’t V1 --
They They
You You
He He
She She
It V1+S -- It doesn’t V1 --
Raj or ES Raj
Rani Rani
ñ<ë:- I take. I don’t take.
He takes. He doesn’t take.
1.2 Function : Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT »s¡T>∑T‘·Tqï $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üüjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.
(rdæø=+≥THêïqT, rdæø=+≥THêïs¡T, rdæø=+≥THêïe⁄, rdæø=+≥Tqï~)
S V O S V O
I am V1+ing - He
She
We It is V1+ing -
They are V1+ing - Raj
you Rani
ñ<ë:- I am taking ñ<ë:- He is taking
44
1.3 Functin : Ç|ü ⁄ Œ&˚ »]–q $wü j · ÷ \ yê{Ï ø Ï ñ|ü j Ó ÷ –kÕÔ e TT.
(rdæ ø =HêïqT(Ç|ü ⁄ Œ&˚ ) , rdæ ø =HêïeTT(Ç|ü ⁄ Œ&˚ ) , rdæ ø =Hêïe⁄(Ç|ü ⁄ Œ&˚ ) ,
rdæø=Hêï&ÉT(Ç|ü⁄Œ&˚),rdüTø=+~(Ç|ü⁄Œ&˚))
S V O S V O
I He
We She
They have V3 -- It has V3 --
You Rani
Raju

ñ<ë:- I have taken. He has taken.


1.4 Function : Ç+‘·≈£î eTT+<äT m|ü⁄&√ yÓTT<ä˝…’ Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT≈£L&Ü »s¡T>∑T‘·Tqï
$wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT. (rdæø=+≥÷H˚ e⁄HêïqT, rdæø=+≥÷H˚
e⁄HêïeTT,rdæø=+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T,rdæø=+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêï&ÉT,rdæø=+≥÷H˚ e⁄qï~ )
S V O S V O
I He
We She
They have been V1+ing __ It has been V1+ing __
You Rani
Raju
ñ<ë:- I have been taking. He has been taking.
2.1 Function : ìqï, yÓTTqï n˝≤ »]–q $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔ+.
(rdæ¬øfi≤flqT, rdæ¬øfi≤fleTT, rdæ¬øfi≤fle⁄, rdæ¬øfi≤fl&ÉT,rdæ¬ø[fl+~)
S V O
I
We
They
You V2 ___
He
She
It
ñ<ë:- I took., We took., They took., He took., Rani took
45
2.2 Function : >∑‘·eTT˝À @<√ düeTj·÷ìøÏ »s¡T >∑T‘·Tqï≥T¢ #Óù|Œ $wüj·÷\
yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(rdæø=qT#·T+{Ïì ,rdæø=qT#·T+{Ï$T, rdæø=qT#·T+{Ï],
rdæø=qT#·T+{Ï$)
S V O S V O
I We
He They were V1+ing --
She was V1+ing -- You
It
Rani

ñ<ë:- I was taking. We were taking.

2.3 Function : (ìØí‘· düeTj·TeTT ø£+fÒ eTT+<˚)>∑‘·eTT˝À n+‘·≈£îeTT+<˚


»]–q $wüj÷· \ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üj÷Ó –kÕÔeTT.(rdæø=ìj·TT+{Ïì, rdæø=ìj·TT+{Ï$T,
rdæø=ìj·TT+{Ï], rdæø=ìj·TT+{Ï$)
S V O
I
We
They
You had V3 --
He
She
It

ñ<ë:- I had taken. He had taken.

46
2.4 Function : >∑‘·eTT˝À n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ yÓTT<ä˝…’ n|ü⁄&ÉT ≈£L&Ü »s¡T>∑T‘·÷
H˚ e⁄qï »s¡T>π $wüj÷· \ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üj÷Ó –kÕÔeTT.(rdü÷HÔ e˚ ⁄+{Ïì, rdü÷HÔ e˚ ⁄+≥$T,
rdü÷ÔH˚e⁄+{Ï], rdü÷ÔH˚e⁄+{Ï$)

S V O
I
We
They
You had been V1+ing --
He
She
It
Rani

ñ<ë:- I had been taking. They had been taking.

3.1 Function : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À »s¡T>∑T‘êsTT nH˚ $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷


–kÕÔeTT.(rôd<äqT, rôd<äeTT, rôd<äs¡T, rôd<äe⁄)
S V O
I
We shall V1 --
They
You will V1 --
He
She
It

ñ<ë:- I shall take.


They will take.

47
3.2 Function : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À »s¡T>∑T‘·÷ e⁄+{≤sTT nH˚ $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ
ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(rdü÷Ôe⁄+&É>∑\qT, rdü÷Ôe⁄+&É>∑\eTT, rdü÷Ôe⁄+&ÉÉ>∑\s¡T,
rdü÷Ôe⁄+&É>∑\e⁄, rdü÷Ôe⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT, rdü÷Ôe⁄+&É>∑\<äT.)
S V O
I
We shall be V1+ing --
They
You will be V1+ing --
He
She
It

ñ<ë:- I shall be taking.


They will be taking.

3.3 Function : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ »]–e⁄+{≤sTT nH˚ $wüj·÷\


yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üj÷Ó –kÕÔeTT.(rdæjT· T+&É>\∑ qT, rdæjT· T+&É>\∑ eTT, rdæjT· T+&É>\∑ s¡T,
rdæj·TT+&É>∑\e⁄, rdæj·TT+&É>∑\&ÉT, rdæj·TT+&É>∑\<äT.)
S V O
I
We shall have V3 --
They
You will have V3 --
He
She
It

ñ<ë:- I shall have taken.


They will have taken.

48
3.4 Function : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ m|ü⁄&√ yÓTT<ä˝…’ n|ü⁄Œ&ÉT ≈£L&Ü
»s¡T>∑T‘·T+{≤sTT nH˚ $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(rdü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&É>∑\qT,
rdü÷HÔ e˚ ⁄+&É>\∑ eTT, rdü÷HÔ e˚ ⁄+&É>\∑ s¡T, rdü÷HÔ e˚ ⁄+&É>\∑ e⁄, rdü÷HÔ e˚ ⁄+&É>\∑ &ÉT,
rdü÷ÔHe˚ ⁄+&É>∑\<äT.)
S V O S V O
I shall have been V1+ing _ They
We You will have been V1+ing --
He
ñ<ë:- I shall have been taking. She
They will have been taking. It

49
TENSES FOUNDATIONS

1.PRESENT TENSE : ( Å|üdüTÔ‘· ø±\eTT )


1.1 SIMPLE PRESENT : n\yê≥T>± ˝Ò<ë Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT/m\¢|ü⁄&ÉT
»]π> $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfi¯‘êqT, yÓfi¯‘ês¡T, yÓfi¯‘ês¡T,
yÓfi¯‘·~)

1.1 FOUNDATION : I,WE,THEY,YOU øÏ V1,


HE, SHE, IT V1+S øÏ e#·TÃqT.
(GO-WENT-GONE)

ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I go.(H˚qT yÓfi¯‘êqT) I don’t go.(H˚qT yÓfi¯flqT)
We go.(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯‘êeTT) We don’t go.(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯fleTT)
They go.(yês¡T yÓfi¯‘ês¡T) They don’t go.(yês¡T yÓfi¯fls¡T)
You go.(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯‘êe⁄) You don’t go.(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯fle⁄)
He goes.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯‘ê&ÉT) He doesn’t go.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl&ÉT)
She goes.(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯‘·~) She doesn’t go.(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯fl<äT)
It goes.(n~ yÓfi¯‘·~) It doesn’t go.(n~ yÓfi¯fl<äT)

ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Do I go?(H˚qT yÓfi¯‘êHê?) Don’t I go?(H˚qT yÓfi¯flHê?)
Do we go?(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯‘êe÷?) Don’t we go?(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯fle÷?)
Do they go? (yês¡T yÓfi¯‘êsê?) Don’t they go?(yês¡T yÓfi¯flsê?)
Do you go?(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯‘êyê?) Don’t you go?(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯flyê?)
Does he go?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯‘ê&Ü?) Doesn’t he go?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl&Ü?)
Does she go?(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯‘·<ë?) Doesn’t she go?(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯fl<ë?)
Does it go?(n~ yÓfi¯‘·<ë?) Doesn’t it go? (n~ yÓfi¯fl<ë?)

50
1.2 PRESENT CONTINUOUS : Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT »s¡T>∑T‘·Tqï $wüj÷· \
yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfi¯óÔHêïqT, yÓfi¯óÔHêïs¡T, yÓfi¯óÔHêïe⁄, yÓfi¯óÔqï~)

1.2 FOUNDATION :
I øÏ am e∫à V1+ing e#·TÃqT.
WE,THEY,YOU øÏ are e∫à V1+ing e#·TÃqT
HE, SHE, IT øÏ is e∫à V1+ing e#·TÃqT

ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I am going.(H˚qT yÓfi¯óÔHêïqT) I am not going.(H˚qT yÓfi¯fl&ÉeTT˝Ò<äT)
We are going.(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯óÔHêïeTT) We are not going.(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯fl&ÉeTT˝ÒeTT)
They are going.(yês¡T yÓfi¯óÔHêïs¡T) They are not going.(yês¡TyÓfi¯fl&ÉeTT ˝Òs¡T)
You are going.(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯óÔHêïe⁄) You are not going.(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯fl&ÉeTT˝Ò<äT)
He is going.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯óÔHêï&ÉT) He is not going.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl&ÉeTT˝Ò<äT)
She is going.(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯óÔ+~) She is not going.(ÄyÓ yÓfi¯fl&ÉeTT˝Ò<äT)
It is going.(n~ yÓfi¯óÔ+~) It is not going.(n~ yÓfi¯SÔ˝Ò<äT)

ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Am I going? (H˚qT yÓfi¯óÔHêïHê?) Am not I going? (H˚qT yÓfi¯óÔ˝ÒHê?)
Are we going?(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯óÔHêïe÷?) Aren’t we going? (y˚TeTT yÓfi¯óÔ˝Òe÷?)
Are they going?(yês¡T yÓfi¯óÔHêïsê?) Aren’t they going? (yês¡T yÓfi¯óÔ˝Òsê?)
Are you going?(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯óÔHêïyê?) Aren’t you going? (˙e⁄ yÓfi¯óÔ˝Òyê?)
Is he going?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯óÔHêï&Ü?) Isn’t he going? (n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯óÔ˝Ò&Ü?)
Is she going?(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯óÔ+<ë?) Isn’t she going? (ÄyÓT yÓfi¯óÔ˝Ò<ë?)
Is it going?(n~ yÓfi¯óÔ+<ë?) Isn’t it going? (n~ yÓfi¯óÔ˝Ò<ë?)

51
1.3 PRESENT PERFECT : Ç|ü⁄Œ&˚ »]–q $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ
ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfi≤flqT, yÓfi≤fleTT, yÓfi≤fle⁄, yÓfi≤fl&ÉT,yÓ[fl+~)

1.3 FOUNDATION :
I,WE,THEY,YOU haveV3, øÏ
øÏ
HE, SHE, IT have V3 e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I have gone.(H˚qT yÓfi≤flqT) I haven’t gone.(H˚qT yÓfi¯fl˝ÒqT)
We have gone .(y˚TeTT yÓfi≤fleTT) We haven’t gone.(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯fl˝ÒeTT)
They have gone .(yês¡T yÓfi≤fls¡T) They haven’t gone.(yês¡T yÓfi¯fl˝Òs¡T)
You have gone.(˙e⁄ yÓfi≤fle⁄) You. haven’t gone(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯fl˝Òe⁄)
He has gone.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi≤fl&ÉT) He hasn’t gone.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl˝Ò&ÉT)
She has gone.(ÄyÓT yÓ[fl+~) She hasn’t gone.(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯fl˝Ò<äT)
It has gone .(n~ yÓ[fl+~) It hasn’t gone.(n~ yÓfi¯fl˝Ò<äT)

ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Have I gone?(H˚qT yÓfi≤flHê?) Haven’t I gone?(H˚qT yÓfi¯fl˝ÒHê?)
Have we gone?(y˚TeTT yÓfi≤fle÷?) Haven’t we gone?(y˚TeTTyÓfi¯fl˝Òe÷?
Have they gone? (yês¡T yÓfi≤flsê?) Haven’t they gone?(yês¡TyÓfi¯fl˝Òsê?)
Have you gone?(˙e⁄ yÓfi≤flyê?) Haven’t you gone?(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯fl˝Òyê?)
Has he gone?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi≤fl&Ü?) Hasn’t he gone?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl˝Ò&Ü?)
Has she gone?(ÄyÓT yÓ[fl+<ë?) Hasn’t she gone?(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯fl˝Ò<ë?)
Has it gone?(n~ yÓ[fl+<ë?) Hasn’t it gone? (n~ yÓfi¯fl˝Ò<ë?)

52
1.4 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS : Ç+‘·≈£î
eTT+<äT m|ü⁄&√ yÓTT<ä˝…’ Ç|ü⁄Œ&ÉT≈£L&Ü »s¡T>∑T‘·Tqï $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ
ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT. (yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄HêïqT, yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄HêïeTT,yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T,
yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêï&ÉT,yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄qï~ )
1.4 FOUNDATION :
I,WE,THEY,YOU øÏ V1,
HE, SHE, IT øÏV1+S e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I have been going. I haven’t been going.
H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄HêïqT. H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚˝ÒqT.
We have been going. We haven’t been going.
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄HêïeTT. y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝ÒeTT.
They have been going. They haven’t been going.
yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T. yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Òs¡T.
You have been going. You haven’t been going.
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêïe⁄. ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Òe⁄.
He has been going. He hasn’t been going.
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêï&ÉT. n‘·&TÉ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Ò&ÉT.
She has been going. She hasn’t been going.
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄qï~. ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Ò<äT.
It has been going. It hasn’t been going.
n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄qï~. n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Ò<äT.
ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Have I been going? Haven’t I been going?
H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄HêïHê? H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝ÒHê?
Have we been going? Haven’t we been going?
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêïe÷? y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Òe÷?
Have they been going? Haven’t they been going?
yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêïsê? yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Òsê?
Have you been going? Haven’t you been going?
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêïyê? ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Òyê?
Has he been going? Hasn’t he been going?
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄Hêï&Ü? n‘·&ÉTyÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Ò&Ü?
Has she been going? Hasn’t she been going?
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄qï<ë? ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ ˝Ò<ë?
Has it been going? Hasn’t it been going?
53
2. PAST TENSE : uÛÑ÷‘· ø±\eTT :
2.1 PAST SIMPLE : ìqï, yÓTTqï n˝≤ »]–q $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ
|üjÓTT–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfi≤flqT, yÓfi≤fleTT, yÓfi≤fle⁄, yÓfi≤fl&ÉT,yÓ[fl+~)

2.1 FOUNDATION : I,WE,THEY,YOU,


HE, SHE, IT V2 øÏ e#·TÃqT.

ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I went.(H˚qT yÓfi≤flqT) I didn’t go.(H˚qT yÓ[fl˝ÒqT)
We went.(y˚TeTT yÓfi≤fleTT) We didn’t go.(y˚TeTT yÓ[fl˝ÒeTT)
They went.(yês¡T yÓfi≤fls¡T) They didn’t go.(yês¡T yÓ[fl˝Òs¡T)
You went.(˙e⁄ yÓfi≤fle⁄). You didn’t go.(˙e⁄ yÓ[fl˝Òe⁄)
He went.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi≤fl&ÉT) He didn’t go.(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[fl˝Ò&ÉT)
She went.(ÄyÓT yÓ[fl+~) She didn’t go.(ÄyÓT yÓ[fl˝Ò<äT)
It went.(n~ yÓ[fl+~) It didn’t go.(n~ yÓ[fl˝Ò<äT)

ne⁄qT? ø±<ë?
Did I go?(H˚qT yÓ[flHêHê?) Didn’t I go?(H˚qT yÓ[fl˝ÒHê?)
Did we go?(y˚TeTT yÓ[flHêe÷?) Didn’t we go?(y˚TeTT yÓ[fl˝Òe÷?)
Did they go? (yês¡T yÓ[flHêsê?) Didn’t they go?(yês¡TyÓ[fl˝Òsê?)
Did you go?(˙e⁄ yÓ[flHêyê?) Didn’t you go?(˙e⁄ yÓ[fl˝Òyê?)
Did he go?(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flHê&Ü?) Didn’t He go?(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[fl˝Ò&Ü?)
Did she go?(ÄyÓT yÓ[flq<ë?) Didn’t She go?(ÄyÓT yÓ[fl˝Ò<ë?)
Did it go?(n~ yÓ[flq<ë?) Didn’t It go? (n~ yÓ[fl˝Ò<ë?)

54
2.2 PAST CONTINUOUS : >∑‘·eTT˝À @<√ düeTj·÷ìøÏ »s¡T
>∑T‘·Tqï≥T¢ #Óù|Œ $wüj÷· \ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üj÷Ó –kÕÔeTT.(yÓfió¯ fl#·T+{Ïì ,yÓfió¯ fl #·T+{Ï$T,
yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ï], yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ï$, yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓqT)

FOUNDATION : I,HE,SHE,IT WAS V1+ing øÏ e∫Ã


eT]j·TT WE,THEY,YOU WERE øÏ
V1+ing e∫Ã
. e#·TÃqT
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I was going. I wasn’t going .
H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ïì. H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·T˝ÒqT.
He was going. He wasn’t going.
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓqT. n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Ò&ÉT.
She was going She wasn’t going.
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓqT. ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Ò<äT.
It was going. It wasn’t going.
n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓqT. n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Ò<äT.
We were going. We weren’t going.
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ï$T. y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝ÒeTT.
They were going. They weren’t going.
yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ï]. yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Òs¡T.
You were going. You weren’t going.
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ï$. ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Òe⁄.
ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Was I going? Wasn’t I going?
H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{ÏHê? H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝ÒHê?
Was he going? Wasn’t he going?
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓHê? n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Ò&Ü?
Was she going? Wasn’t she going?
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓHê? ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Ò<ë?
Was it going? Wasn’t it going?
n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ÓHê? n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Ò<ë?
Were we going? Weren’t we going?
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ïe÷? y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ï˝Òe÷?
Were they going? Weren’t they going?
yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&çsê? yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Òsê?
Were you going? Weren’t you going?
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+{Ïyê? ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·T+&ç˝Òyê?
55
2.3 PAST PERFECT : >∑‘·eTT˝À n+‘·≈£îeTT+<˚ »]–q $wüj·÷\
yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓ[flj·TT+{Ïì, yÓ[flj·TT+{Ï$T, yÓ[flj·TT+{Ï],
yÓ[flj·TT+{Ï$, yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓqT)

2.3 FOUNDATION : I,WE,THEY,YOU ,


HE, SHE, IT HAD øÏV3 e∫à e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I had gone.(H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+{Ïì) I hadn’t gone.(H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝ÒqT)
We had gone.(y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+{Ï$T) We hadn’t gone.(y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝ÒeTT)
They had gone.(yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+{Ï]) They hadn’t go.(yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Òs¡T)
You had gone.(˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+{Ï$). You hadn’t gone.(˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Òe⁄)
He had gone.(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓqT) He hadn’t gone.(n‘·&TÉ yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝&Ò TÉ )
She had gone.(ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓqT) She hadn’t gone.(ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Ò<äT)
It had gone.(n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓqT) It hadn’t gone.(n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Ò<äT)

ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Had I gone?(H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+{ÏHê?) Hadn’t I gone?(H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝ÒHê?)
Had we gone?(y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+{Ïe÷?) Hadn’t we gone?(y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Òe÷?)
Had they gone? (yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+{Ïsê?) Hadn’t they gone?(yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Òsê?)
Had you gone?(˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+{Ïyê?) Hadn’t you gone?(˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Òyê?)
Had he gone?(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓHê?) Hadn’t he gone?(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Ò&Ü?)
Had she gone?(ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓHê?) Hadn’t she gone?(ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Ò<ë?)
Had it gone?(n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&ÓHê?) Hadn’t it gone? (n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&ç˝Ò<ë?)

56
2.4 PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS: >∑‘·eTT˝À n+‘·≈£î
eTT+<˚ yÓTT<ä˝…’ n|ü⁄&ÉT ≈£L&Ü »s¡T>∑T‘·÷H˚ e⁄qï »s¡Tπ> $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ
ñ|üj÷Ó –kÕÔeTT. (yÓfió¯ fl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ïì,yÓfió¯ fl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ï$T,yÓfió¯ fl#·÷H˚ e⁄+&ç], yÓfió¯
fl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ï$, yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓqT)
2.4 FOUNDATION : I,WE,THEY,YOU,HE,SHE,
IT øÏ HAD BEEN e∫ÃV1+ing e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I had been going. I hadn’t been going.
H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ïì. H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝ÒqT.
We had been going. We hadn’t been going.
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ï$T. y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝ÒeTT.
They had been going. They hadn’t been going.
yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç]. yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Òs¡T.
You had been going. You hadn’t been going.
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ï$. ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Òe⁄.
He had been going. He hadn’t been going.
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓqT. n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò&ÉT.
She had been going. She hadn’t been going.
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓqT. ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò<äT.
It had been going. It hadn’t been going.
n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓqT. n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò<äT.
ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Had I been going? Hadn’t I been going?
H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{ÏHê? H˚qT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝ÒHê?
Had we been going? Hadn’t we been going?
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ïe÷? y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Òe÷?
Had they been going? Hadn’t they been going?
yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ïsê? yês¡T yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Òsê?
Had you been going? Hadn’t you been going?
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+{Ïyê? ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Òyê?
Had he been going? Hadn’t he been going?
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓHê? n‘·&TÉ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò&Ü?
Had she been going? Hadn’t she been going?
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓHê? ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò<ë?
Had it been going? Hadn’t it been going?
n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓHê? n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò<ë?
57
Had She been going? Hadn’t Shebeen going?
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓHê? ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò<ë?
Had It been going? Hadn’t It been going?
n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ÓHê? n~ yÓfi¯ófl#·÷H˚e⁄+&ç˝Ò<ë?
3.FUTURE TENSE :
3.1 SIMPLE FUTURE : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À »s¡T>∑T‘êsTT nH˚
$wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfiËfl<äqT, yÓfiËfl<äeTT, yÓfiËfl<äs¡T, yÓfiËfl<äe⁄)
3.1 FOUNDATION : I,WE øÏ SHALL e∫à V1, THEY,
YOU,HE,SHE,IT WILL øÏ e∫à V1 e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I shall go.(H˚qT yÓfiËfl<äqT) I shan’t go.(H˚qT yÓfi¯flqT)
We shall go.(y˚TeTT yÓfiËfl<äeTT) We shan’t go.(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯fleTT)
They will go.(yês¡T yÓfiËfl<äs¡T) They won’t go.(yês¡T yÓfi¯fls¡T)
You will go.(˙e⁄ yÓfiËfl<äe⁄) You won’t go.(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯fle⁄)
He will go.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfiËfl<ä&ÉT) He won’t go.(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl&ÉT)
She will go.(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯‘·~) She won’t go.(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯fl<äT)
It will go.(n~ yÓfi¯‘·~) It won’t go.(n~ yÓfi¯fl<äT)

ne⁄Hê? ø±<ë?
Shall I go?(H˚qT yÓfi¯‘êHê?) Shan’t I go?(H˚qT yÓfi¯flHê?)
Shall we go?(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯‘êe÷?) Shan’t we go?(y˚TeTT yÓfi¯fle÷?)
Will they go? (yês¡T yÓfi¯‘êsê?) Won’t they go?(yês¡T
yÓfi¯flsê?)
Will you go?(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯‘êyê?) Won’t you go?(˙e⁄ yÓfi¯flyê?)
Will he go?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯‘ê&Ü?) Won’t he go?(n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯fl&Ü?)
Will she go?(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯‘·<ë?) Won’t she go?(ÄyÓT yÓfi¯fl<ë?)
Will it go?(n~ yÓfi¯‘·<ë?) Won’t it go? (n~ yÓfi¯fl<ë?)

58
3.2 FUTURE CONTINUOUS : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À »s¡T>∑T‘·÷
e⁄+{≤sTT nH˚ $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\qT, yÓfi¯ó
‘·÷ e⁄+&É>\∑ eTT, yÓfió¯ ‘·÷e⁄+&É>\∑ s¡T, yÓfió¯ ‘·÷e⁄+&É>\∑ e⁄, yÓfió¯ ‘·÷e⁄+&É>\∑ &ÉT,
yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\<äT.)
3.1 FOUNDATION : I,WE SHALL BE øÏ e∫Ã
V1+ing eT]j·TT
THEY,YOU,HE,SHE,IT øÏ
WILL BE e∫Ã
V1+ing e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I shall be going. I shan’t be going.
H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\qT. H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&ÉqT.
We shall be going. We shan’t be going.
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\eTT. y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&ÉeTT.
They will be going. They won’t be going.
yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\s¡T. yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&És¡T.
You will be going. You won’t be going.
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\e⁄. ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&Ée⁄.
He will be going. He won’t be going.
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT. n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É&ÉT.
She will be going. She won’t be going.
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\<äT. ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É~.
It will be going. It won’t be going.
n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\<äT. n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É~.
ne⁄Hê?
Shall I be going? Shall we be going?
H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\Hê? y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\e÷?
Will they be going? Will you be going?
yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+{≤sê? ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\yê?
Will he be going? Will she be going?
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\&Ü? ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\<ë?
Will it be going?
n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷e⁄+&É>∑\<ë?
Future Continuous, Future Perfect, Future Perfect
Continuous \øÏ ø±<ë nì Å|ü•ï+#˚ yêø£´eTT kÕ<ës¡DeTT>± ñ|üj÷
Ó –+#·eTT
ø±e⁄q e~˝Ò<ë›eTT.
59
3.3 FUTURE PERFECT : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚
»]–e⁄+{≤sTT nH˚ $wüj·÷\ yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\qT,
yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\eTT, yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\s¡T, yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\e⁄, yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\&ÉT,
yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\<äT.)

3.3 FOUNDATION: I,WE øÏ SHALL HAVE


e∫à V3 e#·TÃqT,
THEY,YOU,HE, SHE, IT øÏ WILL HAVE
e∫à V3 e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I shall have gone. I shan’t have gone.
H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\qT. H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+&ÉqT.
We shall have gone. We shan’t have gone.
y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\eTT. y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+&ÉeTT.
They will have gone. They won’t have gone.
yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\s¡T. yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+&És¡T.
You will have gone. You won’t have gone.
˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\e⁄. ˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+&Ée⁄.
He will have gone. He won’t have gone.
n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\&ÉT. n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flj·TT+&É&ÉT.
She will have gone. She won’t have gone.
ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\<äT. ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&É<äT.
It will have gone. It won’t have gone.
n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\<äT. n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&É<äT.
ne⁄Hê?
Shall I have gone? (H˚qT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\Hê?)
Shall we have gone?(y˚TeTT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\e÷?)
Will they have gone?(yês¡T yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\sê?)
Will you have gone?(˙e⁄ yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\yê?)
Will he have gone?(n‘·&ÉT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\&Ü?)
Will she have gone?(ÄyÓT yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\<ë?)
Will it have gone?(n~ yÓ[flj·TT+&É>∑\<ë?)
60
3.4 FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS : uÛÑ$wü´‘Y ˝À
n+‘·≈î£ eTT+<˚ m|ü⁄&√ yÓTT<ä˝’… n|ü⁄Œ&ÉT ≈£L&Ü »s¡T>∑T‘·T+{≤sTT nH˚ $wüj÷· \
yê{ÏøÏ ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\qT, yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚ e⁄+&É>∑\ ∑eTT,
yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\s¡T, yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\e⁄, yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT, yÓfi¯ó
‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\<äT.)
Ï
3.4 FOUNDATION : I,WE ø SHALL HAVE BEEN e∫Ã
,
V1+ing e#·TÃqT THEY, YOU,HE, SHE, IT ø WILL Ï
HAVE BEEN e∫ÃV1+ing e#·TÃqT.
ne⁄qT. ø±<äT.
I shall have been going. I shall haven’t been going.
H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\qT. H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&ÉqT.
We shall have been going. We shall haven’t been going.
y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\eTT. y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&ÉeTT.
They will have been going. They will haven’t been going.
yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\s¡T. yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&És¡T.
You will have been going. You will haven’t been going.
˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\e⁄. ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&Ée⁄.
He will have been going. He will haven’t been going.
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT. n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É&ÉT.
She will have been going. She will haven’t been going.
ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\<äT. ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É<äT.
It will have been going. It will haven’t been going.
n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\<äT. n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É<äT.

ne⁄Hê?
Shall I have been going? Shall we have been going?
H˚qT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\Hê? y˚TeTT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\e÷?
Will they have been going? Will you have been going?
yês¡T yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\sê? ˙e⁄ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\yê?
Will he have been going? Will she have been going?
n‘·&ÉT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\&Ü? ÄyÓT yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\<ë?
Will it have been going?
n~ yÓfi¯ó‘·÷H˚e⁄+&É>∑\<ë?
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REMIND TENSES TABLE
Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Simple(1.1) Simple(2.1) Simple(3.1)
Continuous(1.2) Continuous(2.2) Continuous(3.2)
Perfect(1.3) Perfect(2.3) Perfect(3.3)
Perfect Perfect Perfect
Continuous(1.4) Continuous(2.4) Continuous(3.4)

EXERCISE
CHANGE TENSES
Point out the verb tenses and change the tense as directed in
the following sentence and rewrite in your note book. Two
examples are given for you to know.(Verb Tense ì >∑T]Ô+∫
dü÷∫+∫q $<ÛäeTT>± MT H√{Ÿ ãTø˘ ˝À e÷s¡TŒ#˚dæ ‹]– Åyêj·T>∑\s¡T. MT≈£î
‘Ó*j·T&ÉeTT >∑÷]Ã ¬s+&ÉT ñ<ëVü≤s¡D\T Çe«&ÉeTT »s¡T>∑T‘·T+~.
ñ<ë:- 1.Sachin plays cricket.(1.2(present continuous).,
1.3(present perfect))
Sachin is playing cricket.
Sachin has played cricket.
2. I work in a shop.(1.3.,1.4 )
I have worked in a shop.
I have been working in a shop.
3. My brother works in a shop.(1.2.,1.4)
4. The River flows under the bridge.(1.3.,1.2)
5. Rain falls from the cloud.(1.2.,1.3)
6. Raju lives in Hyderabad.(1.2.,1.3)
7. She teaches English to young children.(1.3.,1.4)
62
8. I don’t go there.(1.2.,1.3)
9. Do we live here.(1.2.,1.3)
10. Do I go their house.(1.2.,1.3)
12. Doesn’t he fly to Dubai?(1.2.,1.3)
13. Raju has a car but he dont use it very often.(1.2.,1.3)
14. Sita speakes four languages.(1.2.,1.3)
15. Do you always getup early?(1.2.,1.3)
16. Does she like chocolate?(1.2.,1.3)
17. I play cricket.(1.2.,1.4)
18. I go to school every day.(1.3.,1.2)
19. we write a letter .(1.2.,1.4)
20. I read a book.(1.2.,1.3)
21. I getup early in the morning.(1.3.,1.4)
22. He posts a letter to his father.(1.3.,1.2)
23. I watch films everyday.(1.2.,1.4)
24 She is writting a novel.(1.1.,1.3)
25. He gives us a party for every success.(1.2.,1.4)
26. I have been waiting for you since morning.(1.1.,1.3)
27. I go to school now.(1.3.,1.2)
28. I play games every day.(1.2.,1.4)
29. We live in karimnagar.(1.3.,1.4)
30. They are going to party.(1.1.,1.3)
31. I have done tha work.(1.1.,1.3)
32. He goes to hyderabad(1.3.,1.4)
33. She is sleeping on the bed.(1.1.,1.3)
34. He is reading a book.(1.1.,1.4)
35. He is going to dance classes.(1.1..,1.3)
36. I worked in a bank.(2.2.,2.4)
37. Yesterday it rained all morning.(2.3.,2.4)
38. We enjoyed party last night.(2.2.,2.3)
39. The party finished at midnight.(2.3.,2.4)
40. We did lot of work yesterday.(2.3.,2.4)
41. I cleaned my teeth three times yesterday.(2.3.,2.4)
42. He went to work by car.(2.3.,2.4)
43. I played volley ball yesterday.(2.3.,2.4)
44. She lost her keys last night.(2.3.,2.4)
45. This morning he went to the cinema.(2.2.,2.3)
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46. I went to the market.(2.3.,2.4)
47. He came to my house.(2.3.,2.4)
48. He was watching T.V.(2.3.,2.4)
49. They went for a morning walk.(2.3.,2.4)
50. I had gone to the school.(2.3.,2.4)
51. I was not going there.(2.3.,2.4)
52. We had completed our studies.(2.2.,2.3)
53. She was shivering.(2.3.,2.4)
54. I tought at school.(2.3.,2.4)
55. We had a lot of fun.(2.1.,2.2)
56. I was working at 10.30 last night.(2.3.,2.4)
57. She was playing tennis.(2.3.,2.4)
58. She stopped the game.(2.2.,2.3)
59. Where were you living in 1990.(2.3.,2.4)
60. Jack read a book yesterday.(2.3.,2.4)
61. I cleaned my room one time yesterday.(2.3.,2.4)
62. I had brushed my theeth, I took my break fast.(2.3.,2.4)
63. I had been doing this for many years.(2.1.,2.2)
64. They watched match yesterday evening.(2.3.,2.4)
65. Raju will pass the exam.(3.2.,3.3)
66. We will win tha game.(3.2.,3.4)
67. Rahul will like his parents.(3.2.,3.4)
68. They won’t get married.(3.2.,3.3)
69. You won’t enjoy the film.(3.2.,3.3)
70. I will phone to you tomarrow.(3.2.,3.3)
71. I will go to bed early to night.(3.2.,3.3)
72. Shall I phone you this evening.(3.2.,3.3)
73. Shall we go for walk?(3.2.,3.3)
74. Your bag is very heavy. I will carry for you.(3.2.,3.3)
75. I don’t think I will go out.(3.2.,3.3)
76. Shall I open the winsow?(3.2.,3.3)
77. Shall I turn off the television?(3.2.,3.3)
78. Where shall we go?(3.2.,3.3)
79. I will go to the school.(3.2.,3.3)
80. We will woek tomrrow(3.2.,3.3)
81. I will be going the movie.(3.1.,3.3)
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82. Our exam will start in 10 minutes.(3.2.,3.4)
83. The bank will process his loan by tomarrow.(3.2.,3.3)
84. My niece will start school when he is 5.(3.2.,3.3)
85. I will answer this Question.(3.3.,3.4)
86. I will speak in your favour.(3.2.,3.4)
87. She will be writting for this chance.(3.1.,3.3)
88. I shall have finish this work by that time.(3.1.,3.2)
89. They will be doing this work in the next week.(3.1)
90. Next week we will be shifting to our new house(3.1)
91. I will have graduated by that time.(3.1.,3.2)
92. Our car will have run 200 kms by end of next day.(3.1)
93. My friends will have been cooking for an hour.(3.1)
94. Sita will have been livingwiht us for 5 years by
2016.(3.1.,3.2)
95.They will have completed the task by evening.
(3.1.,3.2)
96. Our office will remain closed on friday in account of
holi.(3.2.,3.3)

65
VOICE
ˇø£ yêø£´eTT˝À SUBJECT |üìì #˚j·TT#·Tqï<ë? ˝Ò<ë Ä |üì
|òü*‘·eTT bı+<äT‘·Tqï<ë? nì ‘Ó\TŒ VERB jÓTTø£ÿ s¡÷|üeTTqT VOICE
n+{≤s¡T.

VOICE ¬s+&ÉT
s¡ø±\T 1. ACTIVE VOICE( ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À
SUBJECT ACTIVE >± e⁄+&ç |üì#˚j·TTqT.) 2.PASSIVE VOICE ˇø£
yêø£´eTT ˝À SUBJECT eT+<äø√&ç >± e⁄+&ç |üì#˚j·TTqT.)

ñ<ëVü≤s¡D : A.V. : I speak english.(H˚qT Ç+^¢wt e÷{≤¢&ÉT‘êqT)


P.V. : English is spoken by me.(Ç+^¢wt Hê #˚‘· e÷≥¢&Éã&ÉTqT)

Ç∫Ãq ñ<ëVü≤s¡D ˝À SUBJECT “I”nH˚~ ACTIVE( #·Ts¡T≈£î)


>± e⁄+&ç e÷{≤¢&ÉT≥ nqT |üì #˚ôdqT. SPOKE nqT VERB FORM
ACTIVE VOICE ˝À e⁄+<äqïe÷≥. ¬s+&Ée yêø£´eTT˝À SUBJECT
“ENGLISH” e÷{≤¢&Éã&ÓqT nq>± ENGLISH nH˚ SUBJECT
ACTIVE( #·Ts¡T≈£î) >± j·TT+&Éø£ PASSIVE(eT+<äø√&ç) >± e⁄+&ç
e÷{≤¢&ÉT≥ nqT |üì jÓTø£ÿ |òü*‘·eTT bı+<ÓqT. n+fÒ SPOKEN nH˚
VERB FORM PASSIVE ˝À e⁄+<äqïe÷≥.

ACTIVE VOICE n+fÒ Nothing but Tenses ok.A.V.˝À


1.1.,1.2.,1.3.,1.4.,2.1.,2.2.,2.3.,2.4.,3.1.,3.2.,3.3.,3.4.e⁄+{≤sTT ø±ì P.V.
1.4.,2.4.3.2.,3.4
˝À1.4.,2.4.3.2.,3.4
1.4.,2.4.3.2.,3.4.e⁄+&Ée⁄.

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ACTIVE VOICE EXAMPLES.

1) I.PRESENT TENSE.(Flay =$eT]Ù+#·T≥)


1.1. They flay the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]ÙkÕÔs¡T.
They don’t flay the uninon government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ù+#·s¡T.
1.2. They are flaying the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]ÙdüTÔHêïs¡T.
They are not flaying the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ùdü÷Ô˝Òs¡T.
1.3. They have flayed the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ù+#ês¡T.
They have not flayed the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ù+#·˝Òs¡T.
1.4. They have been flaying the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚j·TTHêïs¡T.
They have been flaying the union government.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚˝Òs¡T.
II.PAST TENSE.(Flayed =$eT]Ù+#ÓqT)
2.1. They flayed the union government last month.
yês¡T ÅøÏ+<ä{Ï HÓ\ ˝À πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ù+#ês¡T.
They didn’t flayed the union government last month.
yês¡T ÅøÏ+<ä{Ï HÓ\ ˝À πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]Ù+#·˝Òs¡T.
2.2.They were flaying the union government at that time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|ü⁄&ÉT $eT]ÙdüTÔj·TTHêïs¡T.
They were not flaying the union government at that time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|ü⁄&ÉT $eT]ÙdüTÔj·TT+&ç˝Òs¡T.
2.3. They had flayed the union government before that.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ $eT]Ù+#ês¡T.
They had not flayed the union government before that.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ $eT]Ù+#·˝Òs¡T.

67
2.4.They had been flaying the union government at that time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|üŒ{Ï qT+#˚ $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚j·TTHêïs¡T.
They had not been flaying the union government at that time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|üŒ{Ï qT+#˚ $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚˝Òs¡T.
III.FUTURE TENSE.(Flayed =$eT]Ù+#·Tø=ì)

3.1. They will flayed the union government next month.


yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï e#˚à HÓ\˝À $eT]ÙkÕÔs¡T.
They won’t flayed the union government next month.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï e#˚à HÓ\˝À $eT]Ù+#·s¡T.
3.2. They will be flaying the union government at that time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|ü⁄&ÉT $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚j·TT+{≤s¡T.
They will not be flaying the union government at that time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|ü⁄&ÉT $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚j·TT+≥÷˝Òs¡T.
3.3. They will have flayed the union government before that.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ $eT]Ù+#˚kÕÔs¡T.
They will not have flayed the union government before that.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ $eT]Ù+#Ój·T´s¡T.
3.4.They will have been flaying the union government at that
time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|ü{Ï qT+#˚ $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚j·TT+{≤s¡T.
They will have not been flaying the union government at that
time.
yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï n|ü{Ï qT+#˚ $eT]Ùdü÷ÔH˚j·TT+≥÷˝Òs¡T.
2) I.PRESENT TENSE.(Inspire =Åù|πs|æ+#·T≥)

1.1. The Coach inspires me.


•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï Åù|πs|ækÕÔ&ÉT.
The Coach doesn’t inspire me.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï Åù|πs|æ+#·&ÉT.

68
1.2. The Coach is inspiring me.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï Åù|πs|ædüTÔHêï&ÉT.
1.3. The Coach has inspired me.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï Åù|πs|æ+#ê&ÉT.(Ç+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚)
1.4. The Coach has been inspiring me since january.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï »qe] qT+&ç Åù|πs|ædüTÔHêï&ÉT.
II.PAST TENSE(Inspired =Åù|πs|æ+#ÓqT)
2.1. The Coach inspired me last year.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï b˛sTTq dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ˝ÀÅù|πs|æ+#ê&ÉT.
The Coach didn’t inspire me last year.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï b˛sTTq dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ˝ÀÅù|πs|æ+#·˝Ò&ÉT
2.2. The Coach was inspiring me at that time.
•ø£≈å î£ &ÉT qqTï n|ü⁄&ÉT Åù|πs|ædüTÔj·TTHêï&ÉT.
2.3. The Coach had inspired me before that.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ Åù|πs|æ+#ê&ÉT.
2.4. The Coach had been inspiring me at that time.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï n|ü⁄&ÉT Åù|πs|ædüTÔH˚j·TTHêï&ÉT.
III.FUTURE TENSE.(Inspired =Åù|πs|æ+#·Tø=ì)
3.1. The Coach will inspire me next year.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ˝ÀÅù|πs|ækÕÔ&ÉT.
3.2. The Coach will be inspiring me at that time.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï n|ü⁄&ÉT Åù|πs|ædüTÔj·TT+{≤&ÉT.
3.3. The Coach will have inspired me before that.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ Åù|πs|æ+∫j·TT+{≤&ÉT.
3.4. The Coach will have been inspiring me at that time.
•ø£å≈£î&ÉT qqTï n|ü⁄&ÉT Åù|πs|ædüTÔH˚j·TT+{≤&ÉT.
3) I.PRESENT TENSE .(Organize =@s¡Œs¡T#·T≥)
1.1. We organize the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡∫HêeTT.
We don’t organize the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡∫˝ÒeTT.

69
1.2. We are organizing the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡TdüTÔHêïeTT.
1.3. We have organized the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡∫HêeTT.(Ç+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚)
1.4. We have been organizing the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡TdüTÔH˚j·TTHêïeTT.
II.PAST TENSE.(Organized =@s¡Œ≥T#˚ôdqT)
2.1. We organized the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡∫HêeTT.
We didn’t organize the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œ≥T#˚j·T˝ÒeTT.
2.2. We were organizing the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œ≥T #˚dü÷Ôj·TT+{Ï$T.
2.3. We had organized the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡∫j·TT+{Ï$T.
2.4. We had been organizing the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡TdüTÔH˚j·TT+{Ï$T
III.FUTURE TENSE.(Organized =@s¡Œs¡T#·Tø=ì)

3.1. We shall organize the seminar.


y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡TkÕÔeTT.
3.2. We shall be organizing the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡TdüTÔj·TT+&É>∑\eTT.
3.3. We shall have organized the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡T∫j·TT+&É>∑\eTT.
3.4. We shall have been organizing the seminar.
y˚TeTT ôd$THêsY qT @s¡Œs¡TdüTÔH˚j·TT+&É>∑\eTT.
4) I.PRESENT TENSE.(Create =düèwæº+#·T≥)
1.1. He creates many jobs.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæºkÕÔ&ÉT.
He doesn’t create many jobs.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæº+#·˝Ò&ÉT.
70
1.2. He is creating many jobs.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæºdüTÔHêï&ÉT.
1.3. He has created many jobs.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæº+#ÓqT.(Ç|ü⁄&˚)
1.4. He has been creating many jobs since 4 months.
n‘·&ÉT Hê\T>∑T HÓ\\ qT+&ç #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæºdü÷ÔH˚e⁄Hêï&ÉT.

II.PAST TENSE.(Created =düèwæº+#ÓqT)

2.1. He created many jobs.


n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæº+#ÓqT.
He didn’t created many jobs.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæº+#·˝Ò&ÉT.
2.2. He was creating many jobs at that time..
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T n|ü⁄&ÉT düèwæºdüTÔj·TTHêï&ÉT.
2.3. He had created many jobs before that.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ düèwæº+∫j·TT+&ÓqT.
2.4. He had creating many jobs at that time..
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T n|ü⁄&ÉT düèwæºdü÷ÔH˚j·TTHêï&ÉT.

III.FUTURE TENSE.(Created =düèwæº+#·Tø=ì)

3.1. He will create many jobs next month.


n‘·&ÉT e#˚à HÓ\˝À #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T düèwæº+#·>∑\&ÉT.
3.2. He will be creating many jobs at that time.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T n|ü⁄&ÉT düèwæºdü÷Ôe⁄+{≤&ÉT.
3.3. He will have created many jobs before that.
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ düèwæº+∫j·TT+&É>∑\&ÉT.
3.4. He will have been creating many jobs at that time..
n‘·&ÉT #ê˝≤ ñ<√´>±\T n|ü⁄&ÉT düèwæºdü÷ÔH˚j·TT+&É>∑\&ÉT.

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:PASSIVE VOICE:
ACTIVE VOICE qT+&ç PASSIVE VOICE ≈£î Change
#˚j·TTq|ü⁄&ÉT Pronouns á |ü{Ϻø£ ˝À e÷~]>± e÷s¡TqT.
A.V. P.V.
P.V. A.V
I ME
WE US
THEY THEM
YOU YOU
HE HIM
SHE HER
IT IT

n+‘˚ ø±≈£î+&É A.V. yêø£´eTT˝À e⁄qï SUBJECT P.V. ˝À OB-


JECT >± e÷s¡TqT. eT]j·TT A.V.˝À e⁄qï OBJECT P.V. ˝À SUBJECT
>± e÷s¡TqT. Ä˝≤ e÷]q SUBJECT yÓ+≥H˚ ‘·–q Be form ÅøÏ+<ä fÒãT˝Ÿ
qT+&ç rdüTø=ì yÓ+≥H˚ Main verb jÓTTø£ÿ Past partciple (V3) qT rdüTø=ì
‘by’ nH˚ Preposition ñ|üjÓ÷–+∫ ‘·sê«‘· OBJECT >±ì, Agent( e´øÏÔ
>±ì, edüTÔe⁄ >±ì #·s¡´ #˚ùd~) rdüTø√yê*.
:PASSIVE VOICE BE FORM TABLE :

Tense I We They,You He, She, It


Singular Plural Plural Singular
1.1 am are are is
1.2 am being are being are being is being
1.3 have been have been have been has been
2.1 was were were was
2.2 was being were being were being was being
2.3 had been had been had been had been
3.1 shall be shall be will be will be
3.3 shall have shall have will have will have
been been been been

72
PASSIVE VOICE EXAMPLES

Q 1. They flay the union government.


yês¡T πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘ê«ìï $eT]ÙkÕÔs¡T.
1.1 The union government is flayed by them.
øπ +Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ÉT‘·T+~.
1.2 The union government is being flayed by them.
πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ÉT‘·THêïs¡T.
1.3 The union government has been flayed by them.
øπ +Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ç+~.
2.1 The union government was flayed by them.
πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ɶsTT.
2.2 The union government was being flayed by them.
πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ÉT‘√+~.
2.3. The union government had been flayed by them.
πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ç+~.
3.1 The union government will be flayed by them.
πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&ÉuÀ‘·T+~.
3.3The union government will have been flayed by them.
πø+Å<ä Å|üuÛÑT‘·«eTT yê]#˚ $eT]Ù+#·ã&çj·TT+&ç j·TT+≥T+~.
Q 2. The Coach inspires me.
1.1 I am inspired by the coach.
1.2 I am being inspired by the coach.
1.3 I have been inspired by the coach.
2.1 I was inspired by the coach.
2.2 I was being inspired by the coach.
2.3 I had been inspired by the coach.
3.1 I shall be inspired by the coach.
3.3 I shall have been inspired by the coach.

Q 3. We organize the seminar.


1.1 The seminar is organized by us
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1.2 The seminar is being organized by us.
1.3 The seminar has been organized by us.
2.1 The seminar was organized by us.
2.2 The seminar was being organized by us.
2.3 The seminar had been organized by us.
3.1 The seminar will be organized by us.
3.3 The seminar will have been organized by us.

Q 4. He creates many jobs.

1.1 Many jobs are created by him.


1.2 Many jobs are being created by him.
1.3 Many jobs have been created by him.
2.1 Many jobs were created by him.
2.2 Many jobs were being created by him.
2.3 Many jobs had been created by him.
3.1 Many jobs will be created by him.
3.3 Many jobs will have been created by him.

Çø£ ÿ &É eTq≈£ î ˇø£ Doubt sêe#· T Ã ˇø£ yêø£ ´ eTT jÓ T ø£ ÿ


ns¡úeTT |üs¡+>± m˝≤+{Ï e÷s¡TŒ ˝Òq|ü⁄&ÉT eTqeTT PASSIVE VOICE
m+<ä T ≈£ î ñ|ü j Ó ÷ –+#ê* ?
PASSIVE VOICE m+<äT≈£î ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê* n+fÒ ˇø£ yêø£´eTT ˝À

1. SUBJECT IS UNKNOWN / OBIVIOUS / NOT


IMPORTANT ( ø£s¡Ô ‘Ó*j·Tq|ü⁄&ÉT ˝Ò<ë ÅbÕ<Ûëq´‘· ˝Òq|ü⁄Œ&ÉT)

2. SENTENCE VARIETY.( yÓ’$<Ûä´eTT ø√düeTT)


3. TO SHIFT FOCUS OF SUBJECT.( ÅbÕ<Ûëq´‘·qT
eTs¡\Ã&ÉeTT ø√düeTT ($wüj·÷ìøÏ ÅbÕ<Ûëq´‘· Ç∫Ãq|ü⁄&ÉT))
4.COHERENCE AND FLOW.( bı+~ø£ eT]j·TT <Ûësêfi¯‘·)

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1. SUBJECT IS UNKNOWN / OBIVIOUS / NOT
IMPORTANT : Subject eTq≈£î ‘Ó*j·Tq|ü⁄&ÉT, düŒwüºeTT>± ˝Òq|ü⁄&ÉT,
n+‘·>± eTTK´yÓTÆq~ ø±q|ü⁄&ÉT n+fÒ eTq≈£î ˇø£ #·s¡´ mes¡T #˚kÕs√
‘Ó*j·Tq|ü⁄&ÉT >±ì, ˇø£ #·s¡´ mes¡T #˚kÕs√ düŒwüºeTT>± ‘Ó*j·Tq|ü⁄&ÉT >±ì,
Subject n+‘·>± eTTK´yÓTÆq~ >±q|ü⁄&ÉT eTqeTT Passive voice qT ñ
|üj÷Ó –+#ê*
Example1:
The cat ate the rat. á yêø£´eTT˝À Subject The cat nì, ate
nH˚~ Verb nì, rat nH˚~ Object nì eTq≈£î ‘Ó\T‡. Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á yêø£´eTT
Passive form ˝À ÅyêùdÔ Object nH˚~ Subject >± e÷s¡TqT.
The rat was eaten.(by the cat.) á yêø£´eTT˝À Subject the
rat nH˚~ #·s¡´ qT recieve #˚düTø=+≥T+~. eaten nH˚~ Verb >± e⁄+&ÉTqT.
by the cat nH˚~ n+‘· eTTK´eTT>±<äT ø±e⁄q e~*y˚j·Te#·TÃ n+‘·
eTTK´yÓTÆq~ nqTø=+fÒ e⁄+#·Tø√e#·TÃ. by the cat nH˚~ Çø£ÿ&É Object >±
j·TT+&Éø£ Agent( e´øÏÔ >±ì, edüTÔe⁄ >±ì #·s¡´ #˚ùd~) >± j·TT+&ÉTqT. á
Agent n+‘·>± eTTK´eTT ø±q|ü⁄&ÉT e~*y˚j·Te#·TÃ.

Example2:
The building was vandalised. (vandalise= |ü>∑T\ø=≥Tº≥)
á Passive voice yêø£´eTT˝À uÛÑeqeTT ì mes¡T |ü>∑T\>={≤ºs√ ‘Ó*j·T<äT
ø±e⁄q yêø±´ìï Passive voice qT ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê*.
Example3:
The flowers were delivered on the time. á Passive voice
yêø£´eTT˝À düŒwüº+>± mes¡T delivere #˚kÕs√ ‘Ó*j·TfÒ¢<äT. The flower
companyj·÷ ˝Ò<ë delivery company j·÷ nì, n+<äTøπ Passive voice
qT ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê*.
2. SENTENCE VARIETY : eTqeTT Å|ü‹ yêø£´eTT Active voice˝À
ÅyêùdÔ Sentence Variety e⁄+&É<äT n+‘˚ø±<äT s¡#·q ˝À ˇø£ Idea(Ä˝À#·q)
Ç+ø√ Idea(Ä˝À#·q)≈£î ø£\T|ü⁄‘·÷ b˛˝ÒeTT ø±e⁄q n+<äTπø Passive voice
qT ñ|üjÓ÷–+ùdÔ Sentence Variety edüTÔ+~.
ñ<ëVü≤s¡D: Active form: He did A then he did B after he
did C.
75
Active form: He did A then he did B after he did C. á
yêø£´eTT Ok Basic Sentence (Active Voice) u≤>±H˚ e⁄+~ ø±ì Bì˝À
Subject Shift #˚ùdÔ yêø£´eTT Ç+ø± u≤>∑T+≥T+~ n+<äTπø Passive voice
qT ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê*.
He did A C wasn’t done until he had completed B.
á yêø£´eTT˝À He did A. Active Voice ˝À e⁄+~ $T–‘ê yêø£´eTT
Subject Shift #˚j·Tã&ç+~ ø±e⁄q á yêø£´eTT ≈£î n+<äeTT e∫Ã+~.
3. TO SHIFT FOCUS OF SUBJECT and 4.COHERENCE
AND FLOW: Ç|ü⁄&ÉT eTqeTT Passive voice m+<äT≈£î ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê˝À
#ê˝≤ eTTK´yÓTÆq ø±s¡DeTT ‘Ó\T‡≈£î+<ë+. ˇø£ e´øÏÔ >±ì, edüTÔe⁄ >±ì ˇø£
yêø£´eTT ˝À πø+Å<ä_+<äTe⁄>± e÷s¡Ã\+fÒ eT]j·TT <Ûës¡fi¯eTT>± Åyêj·TT≥
>∑T]+∫ Passive voice ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.
ñ<ëVü ≤ s¡ D ≈£ î H˚ q T Coca Cola MT<ä Essay( yê´dü e TT)
Åyêdü T Ô H êïqTø=+&ç . John pemberton nH˚ y ê&É T Coca Cola qT
ø£ìô|{≤º&TÉ (John pemberton invented Coca Cola).ø±ì eTqeTT yê´düeTT
Coca Cola MT<ä ÅyêdüTe Ô THêïeTT ø£qTø£ John pemberton n+‘·>± eTTK´yÓTqÆ
$wüj·TeTT >±<äT. n‘·&ÉT ø£ìô|{≤º&ÉH˚<˚ eTTK´yÓTÆq $wüj·TeTT n~ Coca
Cola. “Coca Cola was invented by a pharmacist named John
pembeton”. eTqeTT Coca Cola qT focus(øπ +Å<ä_+<äTe⁄) >± #˚dæ ÅyêkÕeTT
‘·<äT|ü] düe÷#ês¡eTT ‘·sê«‘· edüTÔ+~. Ç|ü⁄&ÉT John pembeton ∫e]
‘·\+|ü⁄(Ä˝À#·q) ø±e⁄q Äj·Tq‘√ yêø£´eTT yÓTT<ä\Tô|{≤º*. “ His original
reciepe contained cocaine” Ok Ç~ kÕe÷q´ yêø£´eTT Active voice.
Ç|ü⁄&ÉT Ç+ø√ Åø=‘·Ô Ä˝À#·qqT |ü]#·j·TeTT #˚j·÷*. “ Which is why the
drink was named Coca Cola” á yêø±´ìï Åyêdæ yê´düeTT #·~y˚yê]ì
Hê original Subject “Coca Cola” ≈£î ‹]– rdæø=#êÃqT. n+fÒ Passive
voice qT yêø£´ neT]ø£ ≈£î ñ|üjÓ÷–+#·e#·Ãqïe÷≥. eTq Essay jÓTTø£ÿ
Matter ø=s¡≈î£ mø£ÿ&É eTq Topic ($wüjT· eTT) ô|{≤º˝À, mø£ÿ&É eTq Subject
ô|{≤º˝À, mø£ÿ&É eTq Object ô|{≤º˝À, mø£ÿ&É eTq Agent ( e´øÏÔ >±ì,
edüTÔe⁄ >±ì #·s¡´ #˚ùd~) ô|{≤º˝À #·÷ù|<˚ Passive voice. ∫e] yêø£´eTT˝À
eTq ∫e] Ä˝À#·q Coca Cola Ç~ eTTK´yÓTÆq~. “ Today Coca Cola is
a global brand” Çø£ÿ&É á yêø£´eTT˝À Global brand nì yê&ÜeTT
Global brand n+fÒ @$T{Ï? n~ ˇø£ ù|s¡T Coca is a global brand.
Çø£ÿ&É #·÷&É+&ç H˚qT Å|ü‹ Ä˝À#·q\ì @ $<Ûä+>± ˇø£ $wüj·÷ìøÏ Ç+ø√
$wüj÷· ìøÏ m+‘· <ä>sZ∑ >¡ ± ø£\T|ü⁄‘·THêïH√ n˝≤ #˚ùdHÔ ˚ MT≈£î Essay Åyêj·TTq|ü⁄&ÉT
qBÅ|üyêVü≤eTT ˝≤>± yÓfió¯ +Ô ~ eT]j·TT n+‘˚ø±ø£ MT Essay ˝Àì Ä˝À#·q\qT
Essay #·~y˚yês¡T dü]>± ns¡úeTT #˚düT≈£î+{≤s¡T.
76
˝Òø£b˛‘˚ MT Ä˝À#·q ˇø£ $<Ûä+>± e⁄+&ç Ç+ø√ Ä˝À#·q y˚s¡T>±
j·TTqï≥¢sTT‘˚ #·~y˚ yê]øÏ dü]>± ns¡úeTT ø±<äT. n+<äTπø @yÓ’q Ä˝À#·q\qT
ˇπø s¡÷|üeTT˝À e⁄+∫ $wüj·÷*ï <ä>∑Zs¡>± ø£\TbÕ*. “ Today Coca Cola is
a global brand that is consumed by millions of people” Çø£ÿ&É
H˚qT Coca Cola qT Global brand nì <ëìì $T*j·Tq¢ Å|ü»\T Å‘ê>∑T‘ês¡ì
#ÓbÕŒqT. Çø£ÿ&É $T*j·Tq¢ Å|ü»\T nH˚~ eTTK´yÓTÆ+~ ø±<äT Å‘ê>∑T‘ês¡T nH˚~
eTTK´yÓTÆ+~. Ok .....

“Coca Cola was invented by a pharmacist named John


Pembrton. His original reciepe contained cocaine. Which is why
the drink was named CocaCola. Today Coca C-ola is a global
brand that is consumed by millions of people.”

MT≈£î ns¡úyÓTÆ+<äqTø=+≥THêïqT m+<äTø£+fÒ H˚qT Subject ì Fo-


cus #˚kÕqT n+‘˚ø±ø£ Essay ˝Àì Ä˝À#·q\qT ˇø£ $wüj·TeTT≈£î eT]jÓTTø£
$wüj·÷ìøÏ <ä>∑Zs¡>± e⁄+&˚≥≥T¢ yêø£´ Å|üyêVü≤ìï eT]j·TT yÓTT‘êÔìøÏ Sen-
tence Variety bı+~HêqT. n˝≤ø±ø£ Ç˝≤ Åyêdæq dü]b˛‘·T+~ ø±ì Sen-
tence Variety ø£ì|æ+#·<äT.

John Pemberton invented Coca Cola.


Its had cocaine.
He named the drink Coca Cola because of cocaine....
Ç˝≤ ÅyêùdÔ Essay #·~y˚yê]øÏ #ê˝≤ uÀsY(Boring)>± e⁄+≥T+~
n+<äTπø n|ü⁄&É|ü⁄&ÉT nedüs¡eTT e#˚Ã <ä>∑Zs¡ Passive voice qT|üjÓ÷–+#ê*.

77
MODALS

can, could, may, might will, would, shall, should, must,


need, dare and ought nqT Verbs qT Modal Verbs ˝Òø£ Modal
Auxilaries nì |æ\TkÕÔs¡T. Mìì Ordinary Verbs eTT+<äT yê&ÉT‘ês¡T.
Modals nsTTq can, could, may, might,shall, should, will, must
eT]j·TT ought |ü<äeTT\T Defective Verbs nqã&ÉTqT.
Can / Could :----Ability( kÕeTs¡ú´eTT)-----eTq jÓTT≈£ÿ kÕeTsêú´ìï
eT]j·TT m˝≤+{Ï |üì nsTTq düπs “#˚j·T>∑\qT” nH˚ e÷{≤¢&˚ düeTj·TeTT˝À
Can ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T, >∑‘·eTT˝À eTq≈£î e⁄qï kÕeTsêú´ìï ‘Ó*j·T#˚j·TT≥≈£î
Could qT ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T.( We use Can to Express our ability and
we use Could to exprss past ability).
Examples: I can speak English fluently.
H˚qT Ç+^¢wt ˝À nqs¡Zfi¯eTT>± e÷{≤¢&É>∑\qT.
I can drive the car.
H˚qT ø±s¡TqT q&ÉT|ü>∑\qT.
I can write essays in English.
H˚qT Ç+^¢wt˝À yê´kÕ\T Åyêj·T>∑\qT.
He can dance.
n‘·&ÉT qè‘·´eTT #˚j·T>∑\&ÉT.
I could help them.
H˚qT yê]øÏ düVü‰j·TeTT #˚j·T>∑*>±qT.
I could convince them.
H˚qT yê]ì ˇ|æŒ+#·>∑*>±qT.
They could pass 10th class.
yês¡T |ü<äe ‘·s¡>∑‹ bÕdt ø±>∑*>±s¡T.
Kavitha could do homework.
ø£$‘· Ç+{Ï|üì #˚j·T>∑*–+~.
May / Might :---- Uncertinity(nì•Ã‹)---- dü+<˚V≤ü düŒ<äyTÓ q
Æ e÷≥\qT
nq>± ne⁄H√,ø±<√ nì ø=+‘· nqTe÷Hêìï ‘Ó*j·T#˚jT· T≥≈£î May / Might
qT ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T.( We use may / might to Express our feelings
which are doubtful).
Examples: She may become a doctor.
ÄyÓT ˇø£ &Üø£ºsY ø±e#·TÃ.
78
He may invites us.
n‘·&ÉT eTq*ï ÄVü‰«ì+#·e#·TÃ.
May I come in sir?
düsY H˚qT ˝ÀìøÏ sêe#êÃ?
May I help you?.
H˚qT MT≈£î düVü‰j·TeTT #˚j·Te#êÃ?
He might come now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT sêe#·TÃ.(sêe#·TÃ ˝Ò<ë sêø£b˛e#·TÃ)
It might rain today.
á s√E es¡¸eTT sêe#·TÃ.(sêe#·Tà ˝Ò<ë sêø£b˛e#·TÃ)
He might become a doctor.
n‘·&ÉT ˇø£ &Üø£ºsY ø±e#·TÃ.(ø±e#·Tà ˝Ò<ë ø±ø£b˛e#·TÃ)
He might speak english after 60 days.
60 s√E\ ‘·sê«‘· n‘·&ÉT Ç+^¢wt e÷{≤¢&Ée#·TÃ.
(e÷{≤¢&Ée#·TÃ ˝Ò<ë e÷{≤¢&Éø£b˛e#·TÃ)
Should / Must : -----Responsibility or Determination(u≤<Ûä´‘·)---
eTq u≤<Ûä´‘·qT, $~Ûì ‘Ó*j·T#˚j·TT≥≈£î Should ì, ˇø£ |üìì ‘·|üŒì dü]>±
#˚dæ rsê* nì e÷{≤¢&˚ dü+<äsꓤ\˝À eTqeTT Must ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(We
use Should to tell our responsibility and we use Must to indicate
an action which be done).

Examples : I should speak politely.


H˚qT eTsê´<ä>± e÷{≤¢&Ü*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
He should come now .
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT sêyê*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
You should learn english.
MTs¡T Ç+–¢wt H˚s¡TÃø√yê*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
We should respect our elders.
eTqeTT eTq ô|<ä›\qT >ös¡$+#ê*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
I must go now.
H˚qT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT ‘·|üŒø£ yÓfi≤fl*.
We must learn english.
eTqeTT ‘·|üŒ≈£î+&É Ç+–¢wt H˚s¡TÃø√yê*.
I must help my parents.
H˚qT ‘·|üŒø£ e÷ ‘·*¢<ä+Å&ÉT\≈£î düVü‰j·TeTT #˚j·÷*.
He must do this work tomarrow.
n‘·&ÉT πs|ü⁄ ‘·|üŒ≈£î+&É á |üì #˚j·÷*.
79
Ought to:- Moral obligation(HÓ’‹ø£ u≤<Ûä´‘·\T):- eTq HÓ’‹ø£ u≤<Ûä´‘·qT
‘Ó*j·T#˚j·TT≥≈£î Ought ì ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.(We use ‘Ought to’ to tell
our moral responsibility and desirability).
Examples: We ought to love our neighbours.
We ought to help him.
prices ought to come down soon.
This book is ought to be very useful.

DEFECTIVE VERBS(MODALS) A.VqT+&ç P.VøÏ e÷s¡TÃ≥


á Modals ì A.V qT+&ç P.V øÏ e÷sêÃ\+fÒ FUTURE
TENSE ˝ÀH˚ e÷s¡Ã>∑\eTT.
3.1 (A.V)
He will explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]kÕÔ&ÉT.
He can explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#·>∑\&ÉT.
He cannot explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#·˝Ò&ÉT.
He may explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#·e#·TÃ.
He may not explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#·ø£ b˛e#·TÃ.
He should explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#ê*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
He should not explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#·≈£L&É<äT.(m˝≤+{Ï |ü]dæú‹ ˝ÀHÓ’q)
He ought to explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫rsê*.
He ought not to explain these lessons now.
n‘·&ÉT Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+#·ã&É≈£L&É<äT.(m˝≤+{Ï |ü]dæú‹ ˝ÀHÓ’q)
3.1 (P.V)
These lessons will be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&ÉTqT.
These lessons can be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&É>∑\e⁄.
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These lessons cannot be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&É˝Òe⁄.
These lessons may be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&Ée#·TÃ.
These lessons may not be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&Éø£b˛e#·TÃ.
These lessons should be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&Ü*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
These lessons should not be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&É<É Tä .(m˝≤+{Ï |ü]dæ‹ú ˝ÀHÓq’ )
These lessons ought to be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çrsê*.
These lessons ought not to be explained by him now.
n‘·ì #˚‘· Ç|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&ÉT≈£L&É<Tä .(m˝≤+{Ï |ü]dæ‹ú ˝ÀHÓq’ )
3.2 (A.V)
He will be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+{≤&ÉT.
He can be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT.
He cannot be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&É˝Ò&ÉT.
He may be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&Ée#·TÃ.
He may not be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&Éø£b˛e#·TÃ.
He should be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&Ü*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
He should not be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&É&ÉT.
He ought to be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷Ôe⁄+&çrsê*.
He ought not to be explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&TÉ n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷eÔ ⁄+&É≈L£ &É<Tä .(m˝≤+{Ï |ü]dæ‹ú ˝ÀHÓq’ )
No Passive Voice for 3.2 ( i.e. FUTURE CONTINOUS).

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3.3 (A.V)
He will have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+{≤&ÉT.
He can have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT.
He cannot have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+&É˝Ò&ÉT.
He may have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+&Ée#·TÃ.
He may not have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+&Éø£b˛e#·TÃ.
He should have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ ábÕsƒê\qT$e]+∫e⁄+&Ü*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
He should not have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+&Éã&É<äT.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
He ought to have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫e⁄+&çrsê*.(m˝≤+{Ï
|ü]dæú‹ ˝À HÓ’q)
He ought not to have explained these lessons before that.
n‘·&ÉT n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\qT $e]+∫ã&É≈£L&É<äT.(m˝≤+{Ï
|ü]dæú‹ ˝À HÓ’q)
3.3 (P.V)
These lessons will have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+≥T+~.
These lessons can have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+&É>∑\e⁄.
These lessons cannot have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+&É˝Òe⁄.
These lessons may have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+&Ée#·TÃ.
These lessons may not have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&Éø£b˛e#·TÃ.
These lessons should have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+&Ü*.(K∫Ñ·+>±)
These lessons should not have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&Ée⁄.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
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These lessons ought to have been explained by him before that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+&çrsê*.(m˝≤+{Ï
|ü]dæú‹ ˝À HÓ’q)
These lessons ought not to have been explained by him before
that.
n‘·ì #˚‘· n+‘·≈£î eTT+<˚ á bÕsƒê\T $e]+#·ã&çe⁄+&É≈£L&É<äT.(m˝≤+{Ï
|ü]dæú‹ ˝À HÓ’q)
3.4 (A.V)
He will have been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+{≤&ÉT.
He can have been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&É>∑\&ÉT.
He can have not been explaining these lessons at that
time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&É&ÉT.
He may have been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&Ée#·TÃ.
He may have not been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&Éø£b˛e#·TÃ.
He should have been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&Ü*.
He should have not been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&É&ÉT.
He ought to have been explaining these lessons at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&çrsê*.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
He ought to have not been explaining these lessons at
that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT á bÕsƒê\qT $e]dü÷ÔH˚e⁄+&É≈£L&É<äT.(K∫Ñ·eTT>±)
DO THIS WORK FOR YOUR PRACTICE
A.V. : They will suport this bill next week.
P.V. : This bill will be supported by them next week.
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BE STRUCTURES

á Be Structures qT #·~y˚ eTT+<äT Adjective ì eT∞fl ˇø£


kÕ] #·<äTe⁄<ëeTT. m+<äTø£+fÒ á Be Structures ì only Adjective πø
ñ|üjÓ÷–+#ê* ø±e⁄q.
Adjective : Adjective nqTq~ ˇø£ |ü<äeTT. Ç~ ˇø£ e´øÏÔ ˝Ò<ë edüTÔe⁄
jÓTTø£ÿ >∑TD>∑D≤\T ‘Ó*j·T#˚dTü +Ô ~. ˝Ò<ë Noun jÓTTø£ÿ >∑TieTTqT, dü+K´qT
eT]j·TT s¡+>∑TqT ‘Ó*j·T#˚ùd<ëìì Adjective n+<äTs¡T.
Definition : Adjective is a word . It is used to indicate the quality,
quantity and colour of a noun.
ñ<ë:- beautiful, white, hundred, brave, honest, great, some, sincere,
efficient, clever little etc.

Be Structures(B.S)
Ç$ Tenses e÷~]>±H˚ e⁄+{≤sTT ø±ì á be structure ˝À
1.2.,1.3.,2.2.,2.3.,3.2.,3.3., \T e⁄+&Ée⁄. eTTK´yÓTÆq $wüj·TeTT á be
structure qT Adjective øÏ e÷Å‘·y˚T yê&Ü*.
1 . 1 B.S:
I am sincere.( H˚qT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄HêïqT)
I am not sincere.( H˚qT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝ÒqT)
He is sincere.( n‘·&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêï&ÉT)
He is not sincere.( n‘·&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Ò&ÉT)
She is sincere.( ÄyÓT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+~)
She is not sincere.( ÄyÓT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Ò<äT)
It is sincere.( Ç~ ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+~)
It is not sincere.( Ç~ ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Ò<äT)
They are sincere.( yês¡T ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêïs¡T)
They are not sincere.( yês¡T ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Òs¡T)
We are sincere.( y˚TeTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄HêïeTT)
We are not sincere.( y˚TeTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝ÒeTT)
You are sincere. ( ˙e⁄ ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêïe⁄)
You are not sincere.( ˙e⁄ ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Òe⁄)
84
1 . 4B.S:
I have been sincere since last May.
H˚qT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄HêïqT.
I have not been sincere since last May.
H˚qT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝ÒqT.
We have been sincere since last May.
y˚TeTT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄HêïeTT.
We have not been sincere since last May.
y˚TeTT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝ÒeTT.
They have been sincere since last May.
yês¡T y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T.
They have not been sincere since last May.
yês¡T y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Òs¡T.
You have been sincere since last May.
MTs¡T y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T.
You have not been sincere since last May.
MTs¡T y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Òs¡T.
He has been sincere since last May.
n‘·&ÉT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêï&ÉT.
He has not been sincere since last May.
n‘·&ÉT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Ò&ÉT.
She has been sincere since last May.
ÄyÓT y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+~.
She has not been sincere since last May.
Äy˚T y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Ò<äT.
It has been sincere since last May.
n~ y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+~.
It has not been sincere since last May.
n~ y˚T qT+&ç ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Ò<äT.
2 . 1B.S:
I was sincere last year.
H˚qT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêïe⁄.
I was not sincere last year.
H˚qT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝ÒqT.
He was sincere last year.
H˚qT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêïe⁄.
85
He was not sincere last year.
n‘·&ÉT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Ò&ÉT.
She was sincere last year.
ÄyÓT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄|üï~.
She was not sincere last year.
ÄyÓT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Ò<äT.
It was sincere last year.
n~ ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄qï~.
It was not sincere last year.
n~ ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Ò<äT.
They were sincere last year.
yês¡T ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêïs¡T.
They were not sincere last year.
yês¡T ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Òs¡T.
We were sincere last year.
y˚TeTT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄HêïeTT.
We were not sincere last year.
y˚TeTT ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝ÒeTT.
You were sincere last year.
MTs¡T ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄Hêïs¡T.
You were not sincere last year.
MTs¡T ∫e] dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± ˝Òs¡T.
2 . 4B.S:
I had been sincere at that time.
H˚qT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄HêïqT.
I had not been sincere at that time.
H˚qT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝ÒqT.
We had been sincere at that time.
y˚TeTT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄HêïeTT.
We had not been sincere at that time.
y˚TeTT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝ÒeTT.
They had been sincere at that time.
yês¡T n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T.
They had not been sincere at that time.
yês¡T n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Òs¡T.
You had been sincere at that time.
MTs¡T n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T.
86
You had not been sincere at that time.
MTs¡T n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Òs¡T.
He had been sincere at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêï&ÉT.
He had not been sincere at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Ò&ÉT.
She had been sincere at that time.
ÄyÓT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄Hêïs¡T.
She had not been sincere at that time.
ÄyÓT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝…s¡T.
It had been sincere at that time.
n~ n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄qï~.
It had not been sincere at that time.
n~ n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ ˝Ò<äT.
3 . 1B.S:
I shall be sincere next year.
H˚qT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{≤qT.
I shall not be sincere next year.
H˚qT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&ÉqT.
We shall be sincere next year.
y˚TeTT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{≤eTT.
We shall not be sincere next year.
y˚TeTT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&ÉeTT.
He will be sincere next year.
n‘·&ÉT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{≤&ÉT.
He will not be sincere next year.
n‘·&ÉT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&É&ÉT.
She will be sincere next year.
ÄyÓT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{~.
She will not be sincere next year.
ÄyÓT e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&É<äT.
It will be sincere next year.
n~ e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{~.
It will not be sincere next year.
n~ e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&É<äT.
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They will be sincere next year.
yês¡T e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{≤s¡T.
They will not be sincere next year.
yês¡T e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&És¡T.
You will be sincere next year.
MTs¡T e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+{≤s¡T.
You will not be sincere next year.
MTs¡T e#˚à dü+e‘·‡s¡eTT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+&És¡T.
3 . 4B.S:
I shall have been sincere at that time.
H˚qT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+{≤qT.
I shall have not been sincere at that time.
H˚qT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+&ÉqT.
We shall have been sincere at that time.
y˚TeTT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+{≤eTT.
We shall have not been sincere at that time.
y˚TeTT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+&ÉeTT.
He will have been sincere at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+{≤&ÉT.
He will have not been sincere at that time.
n‘·&ÉT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+&É&ÉT.
She will have been sincere at that time.
ÄyÓT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+{~.
She will have not been sincere at that time.
ÄyÓT n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+&É<äT.
It will have been sincere at that time.
n~ n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+{~.
It will have not been sincere at that time.
n~ n|ü⁄&ÉT ìwüÿfi¯+ø£eTT>± e⁄+≥÷H˚ e⁄+&É<äT.
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
1.B.S:The Prime Minister is efficient.
1.1.B.S: Is the Prime Minister efficient?
Yes, The Prime Minister is efficient.( Yes, he is)
No, The Prime Minister is not efficient.(No, he isn’t)
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1.4.B.S: Has the Prime Minister been efficient since 2014.?
Yes, The Prime Minister has been efficient since 2014.
No, The Prime Minister hasn’t been efficient since 2014.
2.1.B.S:Was the Prime Minister efficient in 2014?
Yes, the Prime Minister was efficient in 2014.
No, the Prime Minister wasn’t efficient in 2014.
2.4.B.S: Had the Prime Minister been efficient at that time?
Yes, the Prime Minister had been efficient at that time.
No, the Prime Minster hadn’t been efficient at that time
3.1.B.S: Will the Prime Minister be efficient next year?
Yes, the Prime Minister will be efficient next year.
No, the Prime Minister will not be efficient next year.
3.4.B.S: Will the Prime Minister have been efficient at that time.
Yes, the Prime Minister will have been efficient at that time.
No, the Prime Minister will not have been efficient at that time.
2.B.S: You are active.
1.1.B.S: Are you active?
Yes, we are active.(Yes, we are)
No, we aren’t active.(No, we aren’t)
1.4.B.S: Have you been active since 7.15pm?
Yes, we have been active since 7.15pm.
No, we haven’t been active since 7.15pm.
2.1.B.S: were you active yesterday?
Yes, we were active yesterday.
No, we weren’t active yesterday.
2.4.B.S: Had you been active at that time?
Yes, we had been active at that time.
No, we hadn’t been active at that time.
3.1.B.S: Will you be active tomarrow?
Yes, we shall be active tomarrow.
No, we shall not active tomarrow.
3.4.B.S: Will you have been active at that time?
Yes, we shall have been active at that time.
No, we shall not have been active at that time.
DO THIS WORK FOR YOUR PRACTICE
1. The system is perfect.
2. Our leaders are committed
89
THE CORRECT USE OF SOME PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITION: PRE( BEFORE) + POSITION( PLACE)

Prepositions are used before nouns and pronouns to


indicate the relation between those nouns or pronouns and the
rest of the sentence.

1. Confident of (qeTàø£eTT), Over confident of (n‹ qeTàø£eTT)


1.1 B.S: Are they confident of themselves?
2. Confidence in( $XÊ«düeTT, qeTàø£eTT)
1.1 A.V: Do they have a lot of confidence in themself?
3. Capable of(kÕeTs¡ú´eTT>∑\)
1.1 B.S: He is capable of running that bussiness alone.
4. Capability for(kÕeTs¡ú´eTT)
1.1 A.V: He has enough capability for running that bussiness.
5. Access to( n+<äTu≤≥T)
1.1 A.V: Does he have an easy access to those ministers?
6. Accessible to( n+<äTu≤≥˝À e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1B.S: Are those ministers easily accessible to him?
7.Obedient to($qj·TeTT>± e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1 B.S: We are obedient to our elders.
8.Consist of, Composed of (ø£*Ze⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1 B.S: Our family is consist of six people.
9.Vain of, Proud of (>∑s¡«+>± e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1B.S: Is he vain of his incrediable(unbeleavable) achivements

90
Incrediable = qeTà>∑÷&Éì
10. Affectionate to(ÄbÕ´j·T‘·‘√ ≈£L&çq)
1.1B.S: They are affectionate to us.
11.Affection for(ÄbÕ´j·T‘·)
1.1A.V: They have a lot of affection for us.
12. Sympathitic to(kÕqTuÛÑ÷‹‘√ ≈£L&çq)
1.1B.S: We are very sympathitic to physically and mentally
challenged(handicaped) people.
13. Sympathy for, Commiseration for ( kÕqTuÛÑ÷‹)
1.1 A.V: We have a lot of sympathy for the downtrodden
(backward) sectors of the society.
14. Sympathise with, Commiserate with(kÕqTuÛÑ÷‹ #·÷|ü&ÉeTT)
1.1A.V: Do you sympathise with natural calamity victims?
Calamity = Å|üø£‹ yÓ’|ü]‘·´eTT
15. Fond of (ÇwüºeTT‘√ ≈£L&çq)
1.1B.S: Are you fond of non-vegetarian dishes?
16. Fondness for, Liking for(ÇwüºeTT)
1.1A.V: Do you have a lot of fondness for sweets?
17.Dislike to, Aversion to, Repugnance to(nsTTwüºeTT)
1.1A.V: She has a lot of aversion to physics.
18.Commensurate with(düe÷qeTT>± e⁄+&ÉT≥)
1.1B.S: Is his salary commensurate with his work?
19. Argue with,comflict with (yê~+#·T)
1.3 A.V: They have unnecessarily argued with the receptionist.
20.Co-operate with(düVü≤ø±s¡eTT)
2.1A.V: Did your room mates co-operate with you in your
studies last week?
21. Clash with, Quarrel with, bicker with,wrangle with
(m~]+#·T≥)
1.3A.V: Has he quarrelled with the over a triffle(pity matter).
Triffle = Pity matter(e´s¡úeTT>± Å|üe]ú+#·T≥)
22.Similar to, Akin to, Analogous to(e÷~]>±)
1.1B.S: This bomb blast is similar to the one which took place
in Delhi last week.
23. Concentrate on(‘·<˚ø£ <ë´qeTT)
1.4 A.V: We have been concentrating on this chapter since 7am.
91
24. Beneficial to, Advantage to(ñ|üjÓ÷>∑ø£s¡+>± e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1B.S: Yoga is benificial to health.
25. Injurious to(Vü‰ìø£s¡eTT)
1.1B.S: Cigarate smoking is injurious to health.
26. Advisable to(j·TTø£ÔyÓTÆq, Ä˝À∫+|ü<ä–q)
1.1B.S:It not at all advisable to trust strangers blindly.
27. Deal with, Handle with(ìs¡«Væ≤+#·T≥)
2.1A.V: He dealt with four subjects in our college last year.
28.Deal in(ìs¡«Væ≤+#·T≥)
1.4 A.V: My cousin has been dealing in some import and export
bussiness since 2014.
29. Ashamed of, Guilty of(dæ>∑TZ|ü&ÉT≥)
1.1B.S: Are they ashamed of their misbehaviour?
30. Interfare in, Middle in(CÀø£´eTT ø£*Z+#·T≥)
1.3 A.V: Why is the USA interfering in our internal matters?
31.Negligent in, neglectful of(ìs¡¢ø£åeTT>± e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.4 B.S: Why have those employes been negligent in their
duties for nearly three weeks.
32.Awake of, Sensible of (‘Ó\TdüTø=ì e⁄+&É&É+)
1.1 B.S: Is your friend awake of the postponement of the exams.
33. Collude with, Connive with, Conspire with(ø=eTTàø±#·T)
1.4.A.V: Have the MLA’s been colluding with liquor mafia since
2014?
34. Assent to (n+^ø±s¡eTT)
1.3A.V: Has the President given his assent to the cabinate
recomendations?
35. Encourage to(<ÛÓ’s¡´eTT ø£*–+#·T≥, ñ‘ê‡Vü≤|üs¡TÃ≥)
2.1 A.V. My seniors encouraged me to attempt that exam
yesterday.
36.Discourage from(ìs¡T‘ê‡Vü≤ |üs¡T#·T≥)
3.1 A.V: They may discourage their sun from going abroad dor
his higher studies.
37. Relevant to, Pertinent to, Related to, Pertaining to
(dü+ã+<ÛäeTT >∑\)
1.1B.S: Your examples are extremely relevant to the given group
discusssion topic.
38. Sure of (>±´s¡+{°>± e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1 B.S: Is he sure of his success in that field?
92
39. Doubt of (nqTe÷qeTT)
1.1 A.V: We don’t have any doubt of your integrity?
Intigrity =eT+∫‘·qeTT
40. Incharge of(n~ø±s¡eTT >∑\)
2.1 B.S: Who was the incharge of your department last fortnight?
fortnight = 15 s√E\T
41. Secret of (s¡Vü≤dü´eTT)
1.1 B.S: Planned hard work is the secret of success.
42. Key to(s¡Vü≤dü´eTT)
1.1 B.S: What is the key to your excellent success.
43. Alternate to (Å|ü‘ê´Hê´j·TeTT)
1.1B.S: Is there any alternate to systamatic hard work for
achieving success?
44. Alternate with(Å|ü‘ê´Hê´j·TeTT)
1.1A.V: Do those two cases alternate with each other?
45. Sensitive to(düTìï‘·eTT>± e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1.B.S: Are they sensitive to criticism?
46. Adjacent to(Å|üø£ÿH˚ e⁄+&É≥eTT)
1.1B.S: That temple is Adjacent to our home.
47. Greed of, Avaricious of (n‘ê´wü‘√ ≈£L&çq)
1.4 B.S: How they been greedy of wealth for several years?
48.Greediness for, Avarice for(n‘ê´wü)
2.1 A.V: Did they have a lot of greediness for wealth last year?
49. Addicted to (u≤ìdü, <ëk˛uÛÑeTT)
1.1 B.S: Is your cousin addicted to drugs?
50. Insist on (ã\e+‘· ô|≥Tº≥)
1.3A.V: Have they insisted on starting the project today itself?
51. Satisfied with, Pleased with(‘·è|æÔ |üs¡T#·T≥)
1.1B.S: Are you satisfied with your job?
52. Dissatisfied with, Displeased with, Disgrunted with,
Disillusioned with, Disenchanted with(ndü+‘·è|æÔ>± e⁄+&ÉT)
1.1 B.S: Are many people disenchanted with the scam-ridden
government?
Scam-ridden = kÕÿyéT˝À e⁄+&É&ÉeTT)
53. Popular for, Prominent for, Famous for, Emminant for
1.4B.S:That doctor has been emminant for conducting surgeries.
93
DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH

ˇø£ Speaker jÓTTø£ÿ e÷≥\qT eTqeTT ¬s+&ÉT $<ë\T>±


Report #˚j·Te#·TÃ. 1.Direct Speech 2. Indirect Speech.

DIRECT SPEECH (D.S): ˇø£s¡T #Ó|æŒq e÷≥\qT @˝≤+{Ï e÷s¡TŒ


#˚j·T≈£î+&É ñqï~ ñqï≥T¢>± eTs=ø£]øÏ #Ó|üŒ&Üìï Direct Speech (Å|ü‘·´ø£å
dü+uÛ≤wüD) n+<äT<äT.
The words which are spoken by somebody are pre-
sented as it is(same) is called Direect Speech.

INDIRECT SPEECH (I.S) : ˇø£s¡T #Ó|æŒq e÷≥\qT ñqï~ ñ


qï≥T¢>± >± ≈£î+&É e÷s¡TŒ\T, #˚s¡TŒ\T #˚dæ eTs=ø£]øÏ #Ó|üŒ&Üìï Indirect
Speech (|üs√ø£å dü+uÛ≤wüD) n+<äT<äT.
The words which are spoken by somebody are told or
presented to same one else by some slight changes is called
Indirect Speech. It is also called reported Speech.

Examples:
Rama sid, “ I am very busy now”.
Rama said that he was very busy then.

He said, “ I am unwell”.
He said that he was unwell.

He said, “ I have passed the examination”.


He said that he had passed the examination.

“ I know her address”, said Gopi.


Gopi said he knows her address.

“ English is easy to learn”, She said.


She said english is/ was easy to learn.

He said to me, “ What are you doing?”


He asked me what i was doing.
94
He said to me, “ What are you doing?”
He asked me what i was doing.

The policeman said to us, “ Where are you going?”


The policeman enquired where we were going.

Rama said to Arjun,” Go away”.


Rama ordered Arjun to go away.

He shouted,” Let me go”.


He shouted at them to let him go.

DIRECT SPEECH yêø±´ìï >∑Ts¡TÔ+#·T $<ëqeTT : - Å|ü‹ Direct


Speech yêø£´eTT ˝À s
¬ +&ÉT Verbs e⁄+{≤sTT. yÓTT<ä{Ï Verb qT Reporting
Verb nì, á yêø£´eTT Part qT Reporting Part n+<äTs¡T. ¬s+&Ée Verb
qT Reported Verb nì n+<äTs¡T. Ç~ e÷Å‘·y˚T Inverted commas ( “ ”
) ˝À|ü\ e⁄+{≤sTT. á yêø£´eTT Part qT Reported Part n+<äTs¡T.
Rule No.1: ˇ≈£sT¡ #Ó|Œæ q e÷≥\T Inverted commas ( “ ” ) ˝À e⁄+{≤sTT
Rule No.2: Inverted commas ( “ ” ) ˝À e⁄qï yêø£´eTT eTT+<äTø±ì,
yÓqTø£ø±ì comma( ,) e⁄+≥T+~.
Rule No.3: Inverted commas ˝À e⁄qï yêø£´eTT Capital letter ‘√
yÓTT<ä\e⁄‘·T+~.
Rule No.4: comma eTT+<äT Reporting Verb ‘·|üŒø£ e⁄+≥T+~.
Rule No.5: Inverted commas ˝À e⁄qï yêø£´eTT ˝À|ü\ Reported Verb
e⁄+≥T+~.
INDIRECT SPEECH yêø±´ìï >∑Ts¡TÔ+#·T $<ëqeTT : - á yêø±´ìï
>∑T]Ô+#·&ÉeTT #ê˝≤ düTuÛÑeTT. Ç~ Capital letter ‘√ yÓTT<ä˝…’ Full Sto p ‘√
eTT>∑TdüTÔ+~. ø±ø£b˛‘˚ yêø£´eTT eT<ä´˝À Conjuction e⁄+≥T+~. Indirect
Speech ˝À That nH˚ Conjuction m≈£îÿe>± yê&ÉT‘ês¡T.

DIRECT SPEECH qT INDIRECT SPEECH ˝À e÷πsà $<ëqeTT : -


Rule No.1: Direct Speech ˝Àì yÓTT<ä{Ï bÕsYº (Reporting Part) ˝Àì
Subject, Indirect Speech ˝À ≈£L&Ü n<˚ Subject ‘√ ÅbÕs¡+_Û+#ê*.

95
Rule No.2: yÓTT<ä{Ï bÕsYº (Reporting Part) ˝Àì Reporting Verb ì
e÷sêÃ*.
Reporting Verb Present Tense ˝À e⁄qï|ü⁄&ÉT á ÅøÏ+~ Table ˝§
e÷~]>± e÷s¡TqT.

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

say say
says says
say to Tell
says to Tells

Reporting Verb Past Tense ˝À e⁄qï|ü⁄&ÉT á ÅøÏ+~ Table ˝§ e÷~]>±


e÷s¡TqT.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Said Said
Said to Told
Told Told

Rule No.3: yÓTT<ä{Ï bÕsYº (Reporting Part) ‘·sê«‘· e⁄qï Comma ì


‘=\–+#ê*. <ëì kÕúqeTT˝À Conjunction qT yê&Ü*. That nH˚ Con-
junction m≈£îÿe>± ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔeTT.
Rule No.4: Pronouns ì e÷sêÃ* n+fÒ Direcr Speech ˝Àì Re-
ported Part ˝À I e⁄+fÒ Indirect Speech ˝À He or She n˝≤H˚ My
e⁄+fÒ His or Her Åyêj·÷*.
CONDITION: Reporting verb jÓTTø£ÿ subject II or III Person
nsTTq|ü⁄&ÉT e÷Å‘·y˚T.
Eg:I said to him ,“ I go to hyd”.
Rule No.5: ¬s+&Ée bÕsYº (Reported Part) ˝Àì Tense ì ‘·|üŒìdü]>±
e÷sêÃ*.
96
CHANGES IN TENSES
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple Present (1.1) Simple Past (2.1)
Present Continuous(1.2) Past Continuous(2.2)
Present Perfect (1.3) Past Perfect (2.3)
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Continuous(1.4) Continuous(2.2)
Simple past (2.1) Past Perfect (2.3)
Past continuous(2.2) Past Perfect Continuous(2.2)

NOTE : Future tense ˝À e⁄qï Shall nqT Auxiliary Verb


“Should”>±qT, Will nH˚ Auxiliary Verb “Would” >±>±ì“Should”
>±>±ì e÷]b˛e⁄qT.
RuleNo.6: Extra Words n+fÒ now, this,those, today, tomarrow,
yesterday etc.qT e÷sêÃ*. ñ<ëVü≤s¡D ≈£î now nì Direcr Speech ˝À
e⁄+fÒ Indirect Speech ˝À then nì yê&Ü*.
CHANGES IN WORDS

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

This That
These Those
Now Then
Here There
Ago Before
Today That day
Yesterday The previous day
Last year The previous year
Tomarrow The following day
Next week The following
week

97
Examples :

1. D.S: She said, “ I sing songs”.


I.S : She said that she sings songs.

2. D.S: They said, “ We watch movies ”.


I.S : She said that they watch movies.

3. D.S: She said, “ I sing songs”.


I.S : She said that she sings songs.

4. D.S: He said, “ I am watching T.V. now”.


I.S : He said that he was watching T.V. then.

5. D.S: She said to him, “ I am waiting for you”.


I.S : She told him that she was waiting for him.

6. D.S: They said, “ We have applied for Intermediate course”.


I.S : They said that they had applied for Intermediate course.

7. D.S: She said, “ I purchased new books last year ”.


I.S : She said that she had purchased new books the previous
year.

8. D.S: We said to our teacher, “ We met the H.M. yesterday”.


I.S : We told our teacher that we had met the H.M. the previ
ous day.

9. D.S: Raju said to Ramesh, “ I will go to hyderabad


tomarrow”.
I.S : Raju told Ramesh that he would go to hyderabad the
following day.

10. D.S: Raju said to Sita, “ I will meet my uncle next week”.
I.S : Raju told Sita that he would meet his uncle the follow
ing week.
98
DO THIS WORK FOR YOUR PRACTICE

CHANGE THE SENTENCES INTO


INDIRECT SPEECH.

1. “ You have all done very badly!” remarked the teacher.

2 . They wrote,“ It is the time we thought about settle the matter.

3. She wrote,“ I am waiting for son’s return”.

4. “What do you want?” he said to her.

5. He said, “ How is your father?”

6. “ Bring me a drink of milk”, said the swami to the villagers.

7. “ Sit down, boys”, said the teacher.

8. The teacher said to him, “ Do not read slowly”.

9. He said to me, “ Wait until I ccome”.

10. “ How smart you are?” she said.

11. He told me to ,“ I have often told you not to play with fire”.

12. “ What do you want?” he said to her.

13. Thr teacher promised, “ If you will come before school


tomorrow, I will explain ie”.

14. He said to me ,“ I don’t believe you”.

15. He said, “ ?my master is writing letters”.

99
QUESTION TAGS

Question tag is a phrase( a small group of words standing together


as a conceptual unit) such as isn’t it? or don’t you? that you add to
the end of a statement in in order to turn into a question.

Helping Positive Question tag Negative Question tag


verbs
Am Am I ? Aren’t I ?
Is Is she / he / it Isn’t She / He ?
Are Are they / we / you ? Aren’t they /we/ you?

Do Do you / I/ They/ We ? Don’t you/ I/ they/we?


Does Does she/ he/it ? Doesn’t she/ he/ it ?
Was Was she/ he/ you/ I ? wasn’t she/ he/you/I ?
Were Were they/ we/ you ? weren’t they/ we/ you?
Have Have you/ I/ we/ they? Haven’t they/we/ you?
Has Has she/ he/ it ? Hasn’t she/ he/ it ?
Will will she/ he/ it ? Won’t she/ he/ it ?

Would would you /she/he/ it ? wouldn’t you/she/he/it ?

Examples:-
1. The children are playing, aren’t they ?
2. Hyderabad is an old city, isn’t it?
3. He speaks English fluently, doesn’t he ?
4. Hello! You are Ramu, aren’t you ?

100
SYNONYMS
Able = Capable, Clever
Accept = to take, to recieve
Advise = to inform, to give an opinion
Appear = to come before, to
Attend = at upon, accompany, present
Attack = assail, assault
Bear = carry, support, produce
Begin = commence, start
Behave = conduct, treat
Belong = Manner, own, possess
Bless = consecrate, make happy
Calm = quiet, silent
Care = anxiety, pains, heed, charge
Carry = convey, transport
Capture = Chance, opportunity, risk, fortune
Chief = Head or principal person, important
Clean = pure, neat, tidy
Concern = interest, affair
Confere = admit, own, acknowledge
Deny = reject, disown
Decay = rot, decompose
Defend = protect, suport, help, depend, live on, rely on
Devote = set a part, worship
Dupe = deceive, cheat
Easy = comfortable, not difficult, moderate
Enough = sufficient, adequate
Effort = endeavour, attempt, struggle
End = limit, death
Engage = order, hire, atract, occupy
Excite = rouse up, stimulate
Expose = disclose, ridicule
Extent = size, reach, compass
Faint = swoon, spiritless
Fair = beautiful, handsome, spotless

101
Fatal = distructive, ruinous, deadly
Favour = esteem, kindness, goodwill
Finish = complete, kill, polish
Fit = adapt, adjust, benefit
Forecast = predict, foresight
Fortune = chance, fate, wealth
Gain = advantage, profit
Gather = assemble, collect, pluck
Gentry = the upper class of society
Grandeur = greatness, splendour
Guilt = sin, criminality
Haughty = arrogant, proud
Hide = conceal, disguise
Homage = deference, reverence
Image = statue, bust
Imagination = idea, fancy, invention
Inferior = subordinate, secondary
Justice = impartiality, judge
Knock = blow, rap, stroke
Lag = stay behind, last
Living = active, vigorous, livelihood
Lose = waste, forfeit
Maintain = support, depend, continue
Menace = threat, danger
Misery = distress, misfortune
Naked = unclothed, bare
Obstinate = stubborn, disobedient, unyielding
Offensive = disgusting, annoying
Passage = entrance, exit, journey
Perfect = pure, complete
Pious = religious, devout
Prase = tribute, applause, benefit
Ruin = overthrow, downfall
splendid = magnificent, famous, brilliant
Vast = spacious, boundless space, sea
102
ANTONYMS
Accept x Reject Ancient x Modern
allow x Disallow Arrival x Departure
Acquit x convict Audible x Inaudible
Attack x Defend Affirm x Deny
Ancestor x Descendant Ancient x Modern
Allow x Disallow Arrival x Departure
Attack x Defend Attract x Repel
Advance x Recede Belief x Doubt
Bold x Timid Blunt x Sharp
Bravery x Cowardice Bright x Dull
Care x Neglect Carnal x Spiritual
Certain x Uncertain Cheap x Costly
Cheerful x Gloomy Clean x Dirty
Clear x vague Confess x Deny
Compulsory x Optional Correct x Incorrect
Create x Destoy Creditor x Debitor
Dawn x Dusk Deep x Shallow
Decrease x Increase Defence x Offence
Democracy x Autocracy Encourage x Discourage
Exclude x Include Expand x Contract
External x Internal False x Truth, Fact
Famous x Obscure Foreign x Native
Full x Empty Fresh x Stale
Gain x Loss Gaint x Dwarf
Gather x Scatter Guilty x Innocent
Happiness x Misery Hate x Love
Heaven x Hell High x Low
Honest x Dishonest Hope x Despair
Homogeneous x Heterogeneous Hurt x Heal
Imaginary x Real Import x Export
Insert x Extract Junior x Senior
Just x Unjust Knowledge x Ignorance
Kind x Cruel Lead x Follow
103
Legal x Illegal Major x Minor

Many x Few Maximum x Minimum

Meek x Proud Merit x Demerit

]Miser x Spendthrift Natural x Artificial

Negative x Positive Orthodox x Heterodox

Peace x War Perfect x Imperfect

Praise x Detract Promote x Demote

Public x Private Punish x Reward

Right x Wrong Rough x Smooth

Short x Long Smile x Frown

Straight x Crooked Strange x Familiar

Subjective x Objective Suspect x Trust

Superior x Inferior Swallow x Vomit

Sympathy x Apathy Synonym x Antonym

Thick x Thin Tight x Loose

Top x Bottom True x False

Ugly x Beautiful Victory x Defeat

Wide x Narrow Wise x Foolish-

104
PRONUNCIATION (ñ#êäs¡D)
Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü jÓTTø£ÿ dü«uÛ≤eeTT ã{Ϻ Ä uÛ≤wü ñ#êÃs¡D ˝À ø=ìï
Å|ü‘˚´ø£ \ø£åD≤\T >∑\e⁄. Åø£eTeT>∑T ñ#êÃs¡D n\es¡T#·Tø=qT≥≈£î Ä Å|ü‘˚´ø£
$wüj·÷\T Å>∑Væ≤+|üe\dæ j·TT+&ÉTqT.
Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü˝À n#·TÃ\T(Vowels) 5 n$ a,e,i,o,u \T ø±ì n$ 15
es¡≈£î Vowel Sounds (<ä«qT\qT) ÇkÕÔsTT. Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü˝À Vü≤fi¯ófl\T
(Consonants) e⁄HêïsTT. Ç+^¢wt |ü<äeTT\˝À <ä«qT\qT dü÷∫+#·T≥≈£î
nqT>∑TDyÓTqÆ nø£så ê\T(Alphabets) ˝Òe⁄. m˝≤ n+fÒ “ ø£ ” nHÓ <ä«ì ìe«&ÜìøÏ
C, K nqT s ¬ +&ÉT Alphabets qT ñ|üj÷Ó –kÕÔsT¡ , “ >∑ ”, “ »” nH˚ <ä«qT\≈£î
G nH˚ nø£åsêìï ñ|üjÓ÷–kÕÔs¡T. ø=ìï nø£åsê\T(Alphabets) ˇø£ |ü<äeTT˝À
ˇø£ <ä«ìì eT]jÓTTø£ |ü<äeTT˝À y˚s=ø£ <ä«ìì ÇkÕÔsTT. ñ<ëVü≤s¡D≈£î Put
(|ü⁄{Ÿ), But (ã{Ÿ). Ç˝≤+{Ï ∫≈£îÿ\T+&ÉT≥ e\¢ Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü ñ#êÃs¡D dü]>±
H˚ s ¡ T Ãø=qT≥≈£ î Phonetic Script nqT nø£ å s ¡ dü e TT<ëj· T eTT ñ
|üjÓ÷>∑|ü&ÉT#·Tqï~.
Ç+^¢wt qT ñ#êÃs¡D #˚j·TT $<ëqeTT
eTq ‘Ó\T>∑T uÛ≤wü ˝À e÷~]>± Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü˝Àì |ü<ë\qT y˚sT¡ y˚sT¡ >±
#·<äTee<äT.( DON’T SPEAK WORD BY WORD) eT]j·TT |ü<ë\
<ä«qT\qT nqTdü+<ÛëqeTT #˚dæ ø£*|æ #·<Tä yê*.(CONNECT WORDS TO
FROM SOUND GROUP).
Example :
Bob is on the phone.

Sounds like: Baabizan the foun.

Ç+^¢wt uÛ≤wü˝Àì |ü<ë\T(words) ˇø£ |ü<äeTT(word) ‘·sê«‘· Ç+ø√


|ü<äeTT(word) ñ#êÃs¡D(Pronounce) #˚j·Tsê<äT. @ $<ä+>± e⁄+≥T+<äfÒ
ˇø£ |ü<eä TT(word) ∫es¡ u≤>∑eTT ‘·sê«‘· e#˚Ã |ü<eä TT(word) jÓTTø£ÿ yÓTT<ä{Ï
u≤>∑eTT nqTdü+<ÛëqeTT(liason or linking) #˚düTø√yê*. Ç|ü⁄&ÉT MTs¡T á
|ü<ë\T(words) m˝≤ nqTdü+<ÛëqeTT(liason) #˚j·÷˝À HÓs¡TÃø√+<ëeTT.
Ç+^¢wt |ü<ë\(word) nqTdü+<ÛëqeTT(liason) 4 dü+<Ûäsꓤ\˝À
ne⁄‘êsTT. ø±ì Ç|ü⁄&ÉT Ç≈£ÿ&É 3 dü+<Ûsä ꓤ\˝À nqTdü+<ÛëqeTT(liason) >∑T]+∫
H˚s¡TÃ≈£î+<ëeTT.
105
1. Consonant / Vowel.
2. Consonant / Consonant.
3. Vowel / Vowel
NOTE: Çø£ÿ&É >∑eTì+#· $wüj·TeTT @eTq>± Vowel Sound n+{≤eTT
n+fÒ Vowel ø±<äT. Vowel jÓTT≈£ÿ Sound <ä«ì nì ns¡eú TT. Consonants
Sound n+fÒ Consonant jÓTT≈£ÿ Sound <ä«ì nqïe÷≥.
LIAISON RULE NO.1: CONSONANT / VOWEL
@ |ü<äeTT nsTT‘˚ Consonant Sound ‘√ eTT–dæ eT]j·TT ‘·sê«‘·
e#·TÃ |ü<eä TT Vowel Sound ‘√ ÅbÕs¡+uÛeÑ TT nsTT‘˚ Consonant / Vowel
Liason @s¡Œ&ÉTqT.
ñ<ë:- Sounds like
My name is My nay miz
Hold on Whole Don
I like it I lie kit
Deep end Deepend
Get up late Get a plate
Picked out Pick dout
Can I come in? ke nay kamin?
Yes come on in Yes kamaanin.
What time is it? What timizit?
That’s a good idea That’sa gudaiya.
I have an awful headache I havonawful headache.
This is my brother-in-law Thiseez my brotherin law.
LIAISON RULE NO.2: CONSONANT / CONSONANT
Consonant / Consonant Liason ˝À 2 $<ë\T>± Consonants
sêe#·TÃ. ˇø£ |ü<eä TT ∫e] nø£så e¡ TT Consonant Sound ‘√ eTT–dæ eT]j·TT
‘·sê«‘· e#·TÃ |ü<äeTT n<˚ Consonant Sound ‘√ ÅbÕs¡+uÛÑeTT nsTT‘˚ ˇø£
$<ÛäyÓTÆq Consonant / Consonant Liason @s¡Œ&ÉTqT. n|ü⁄&ÉT Ä
Consonant Åø=~›>± ˇ‘·TÔ>± |ü\Tø£ã&ÉTqT.
ñ<ë:- Sounds like
She speaks spanish She speaksspnish.
Turned down Turnddown
Black cat Blakkyat
Foreign name Foreignnaim
Big game Biggame
What time Whattiam
106
ˇø£ |ü<eä TT ∫e] nø£så e¡ TT Consonant Sound ‘√ eTT–dæ eT]j·TT
‘·sê«‘· e#·TÃ |ü<äeTT y˚πs Consonant Sound ‘√ ÅbÕs¡+uÛÑeTT nsTT‘˚
Ç+ø√ $<ÛäyÓTÆq Consonant / Consonant Liason @s¡Œ&ÉTqT.
ñ<ë:- Sounds like
Hard time Hardtime
With luck Withluck

LIAISON RULE NO.3: VOWEL / VOWEL


@ |ü<äeTT nsTT‘˚ Vowel Sound ‘√ eTT–dæ eT]j·TT ‘·sê«‘·
e#·TÃ |ü<äeTT Vowel Sound ‘√ ÅbÕs¡+uÛÑeTT nsTT‘˚ Vowel / Vowel
Liason @s¡Œ&ÉTqT. n˝≤ e∫Ãq|ü⁄&ÉT Vowel Sounds eT<ä´ ∫qï glide
ms¡Œ&ç n~ “Y” Sound >±>±qT, “ W” Sound >±>±qT e÷s¡TqT.
ñ<ë:- Sounds like
Go away Go(w)away
I also need I(y)also need
Go any where Go(w)any where
So honest So(y)honest
She isn’t She(y)isn’t
Who is Who(w)iz
Too often to(w)often
I am I(y)am

U.S.A. PRONUNCIATION

ñ<ë:- Sounds like


Did he? Didee?
Does he? Duzze?
Whats he? Wazzy?
Has he? Hazzy?
Is he? Izzy?
Will he? Willy?
Would he? woody?
Can he? canny?
107
EXAMPLE Sounds like
Wouldn’t you? Wooden chew?
Shouldn’t I? Shudn nai?
Won’t he? Woe knee?
Wouldn’t he? wooden knee?
Isn’t he? Is a knee?
Isn’t it? Is a nit?
Doesn’t it? Duzza nit?
Aren’t I? Are nai?
Won’t you? Wone chew?
Don’t you? Done chew?
Can’t you? Can chew?
Could you? Cujoo?
Would you? Wujoo?
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COLLOQUIAL REDUCTION AND LIAISONS:

EXAMPLE SOUNDS LIKE

I have got to go. I’v gootta go,


I have got a book. I’v gotta book.
Do you want to banana? Wannna banana?
Let me in. Lemme in.
Let me go. Lemme go.
I’ll let you know. I’ll Letcha know.
Did you do it? Dija do it?
Not yet. Na chet
I’ll meet you latter. I’ll meechu layder
What do you think? Whaddyu think.
How did you like it? Howja like it>
When did you get it? When ju geddit?
What are you doing? Whatcha doin’?
How is it going? Howzit going?
Don’t you get it? Doancha geddit?
I don’t know. I dunno
108
POWER ENGLISH MINI STORY LESSONS
1.A WISE KING

Vikramaditya was a wise king. On one sunday two women


came tothe king. They were sisters and their names were Sita
and Laxmi. They brought a baby boy with them. Sita told the
king the baby boy was hers, Laxmi also said so. The king was
puzzled. He thought for a while and asked one soldier to bring a
sword. Then he told the soldier to cut the baby boy into two and
give one half each to sita and laxmi. Sita didn’t want her baby
boy to die. She cried allot. The king understood that sita was the
real mother of baby boy. He got angry with laxmi and wanted to
punish her.But sita begged the king to forgive her sister. The king
agreed. Sita and Laxmi went happily.
----- ----- -----
Note: You read this mini story lesson many times you can. Here
I take the small part of a story as a statement and I prepare some
questions on it as well as I provided answers also. Pre read the
story and peruse it clearly how the questions and answers are
prepared once you notice them. Lets begin...........
Vikramaditya was a wise king.
1.What was the king’s name?
Vikramaditya. The king name was Vikramaditya.
2. What kind of king vikramaditya?
Wise. He was a wise king.
3.Who was the wise king?
Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya was a wise king.
4. Who was the king?
Vikramaditya. The king was Vikramaditya.
On one sunday two women came tothe king. They were
sisters and their names were Sita and Laxmi. They brought a
baby boy with them.
5. What happened on sunday?
Two women came to the king.
6. How many women came to the king?
Two women. Two women came to the king.
109
7. What were the names of the two women?
Laxmi and Sita. The two women names were Laxmi and Sita
8.What was the relationship between the women ?
Sisters. They were sisters.
9. On one sunday who came to the king?
Two sisters. On one suday two sisters came to the king.
10. What did they bring with them?
Baby boy. They brought a baby boy with them.
11. Was baby boy or baby girl?
baby boy. The baby was baby boy.
12. Why they were brought the baby boy to the
king?(guess)
To complain. They brought the baby boy to the king to
complain.
Sita told the king the baby boy was hers, Laxmi also
said so. The king puzzled(∫ø±≈£î|ü&TÉ ≥) . He thought for a while
and asked one soldier to bring a sword. Then he told the sol-
dier to cut the baby boy into two and give one half each to
sita and laxmi.
13. What did Sita tell to the king?
Sita told that the baby boy was hers.
14. What did Laxmi Laxmi tell to the king ?
Laxmi told that the baby boy was hers.
15. Who was puzzled?
The king. The king was puzzled.
17.Who thought for a while?
The King. The king thought for a while.
18. Whom he told to bring a sword?
Soldier. The king told a soldier to bring a sword.
19.Who said to bring a sword to soldier?
The King. The king vikramaditya.
20. What the king ordered to do with the sword?
Cut the baby boy. He oreded to cut the baby boy into two.
21. What was said the king after cut of baby boy?
Give half each others. The king said give half each sita
and laxmi.
110
Sita didn’t want her baby boy to die. She cried allot. The
king understood that sita was the real mother of baby boy. He got
angry with laxmi and wanted to punish her.But sita begged the
king to forgive her sister. The king agreed. Sita and Laxmi went
happily.
22. Who didn’t want the baby to die?
Sita. Sita didn’t want the baby boy to die.
23. What did Sita do?
Cried allot. Sita was cried allot.
24. Why did Sita cry?
She didn’t want the baby to die, So she cried.
25. Who didn’t cry?
Laxmi. Laxmi didn’t cry.
26.Who understood that Sita was the real mother?
The king. The king understood that Sita was the real
mother.
27. How could the king justified that Sita was the real
mother?
Sita Cried and laxmi didn’t cry. So the king could justify.
28.Was sita the real mother?
yes, She was.
29.Was laxmi the real mother?
No, Shewasn’t.
30. Who got angry?
The king. The king got angry.
31. Whom the king want to punish?
Laxmi. The king want to punish Laxmi.
32. Why the king want to punish Laxmi?
lied. She lied before the king.
33.Who begged the king?
Sita. Sita begged the king.
34.What for Sita begged the king ?
Forgive. To forgive her sister.
35. Did the king agree?
Yes, The king agreed to forgive the Laxmi.
36.Were the two sisters happy finally?
Yes, They were.
37. What moral you get from the story?
“ Wisdom can solve many problems” or “Honesty always wins”
111
2.NO GAINS WITHOUT PAINS

Once there lived an old farmer. He was a hard working


man. But his sons were idle and useless. The former was anxious
about his sons. When he was lying in his bed he thought of
teaching his sons a good lesson to make them near his bed and
told them that in one part of his property there was a hidden
treasure. These were the last words of the former to his sons.
Soon after the death of the former, the sons took spades and dug
all the fields. But no treasure was found. This made them learn a
lesson, “ No gains without pain”. This encouraged them to sow
the fields with different kind of seeds.Thereafter they lived happily
from what they got from their fields by their hard work.
------ ------ ------- - ------ ----- -----
Note: You read this mini story lesson many times you can. Here
I take the small part of a story as a statement and I prepare some
questions on it as well as I provided answers also. Pre read the
story and peruse it clearly how the questions and answers are
prepared once you notice them. Lets begin...........
Once there lived an old farmer. He was a hard working
man. But his sons were idle and useless. The former was
anxious about his sons...........................hard work
1. How was the farmer ?
He was an old farmer.
2. What kind of a man was the farmer ?
He was a hard working man.
3. Who was the hard working man ?
The farmer. The farmer was the hard working man.
4. Who was old man ?
The farmer. The farmer was an old man.
5. Does farmer have sons or girls ?
Sons. The farmer has sons.
6. How many sons have the farmer ?( Guess 2)
Two. The farmer has two adult sons.
7. Can you guess the name’s of sons ?
One son name was_________ and anothe was___________
112
8. How was farmer sons ?
Idle and useless. The farmer sons were idle and useless.
9. Was the farmer happy with his sons ?
No. He wasn’t happy with thier sons.
10.Why was the farmer not happy with his sons ?
They were lazy.
11. When did he want to teach a lesson ?
When he was lying in his bed.
12. What did he do teach a lesson ?
He revealed a secret about the tresure.
13. What were the last words of the farmer ?
One part of his property there was a hidden treasure.
14. What happend to the farmer soon after revealing the secret
of treasure?
He died.
15. What did the sons do after the death of the farmer ?
The sons dug all the fields.
16. Were the sons successful ?
No.They weren’t.
17. What did they find in the field ?
Nothing. They found nothing.
18. How did the search help the sons ?
They dug all the fields which enable them to sow seeds and
grow crops.
19. What lesson did they learn from the dugging ?
“NO GAIN WITHOUT PAIN”
20. Were they happy al last ?
Though they have not got anything , the felt very happy
with digging because they got crop.
21. What should be needed to gain something ?
Pain.
22. Who encouraged the sons to sow the fields ?
The intrest in searching for treasure.
23. What did the farmaer think when he was lying on the bed ?
The old farmer Thought of teaching a lesson.
24. What is moral which we can learn from the above story ?
Without pain we cannot get anything.
113
MAMA’S BOYS
Rani recently retired from her job of 23 year. Because
she retired, Rani has less money than she used to. She has enough
money for herself, but she has a problem. She has 2 sons. One is
23 and the other is 26. Both sons work. However, they both live
at home with their mom. They eat her food and expect her to
cook for them. They also expect Rani to clean their rooms. The
boys never do any chores at all. Also, they don’t pay for food or
anything else. In short, they are mama’s boys.

Note: You read this mini story lesson many times you can. Here
I take the small part of a story as a statement and I prepare some
questions on it as well as I provided answers also. Pre read the
story and peruse it clearly how the questions and answers are
prepared once you notice them. Lets begin...........
Rani recently retired from her job of 23 years.
1. Is Rani working now ?
No, She is not working now. She retired from her job.
2. How long had Rani worked at her job ?
23 years. Rani had worked at her job for 23 years.
3. When did she retired ?
Recently. She recently retired from her job.
4. Did she retired a long time ago ?
No. Not a long time ago, She retired recently.
5. What did she retired From ?
Her job. Her job of 23 years.
6. Who retired from her job at 23 years ?
Rani. Rani retired from her job at 23years
Because she retired, Rani has less money than she used
to. She has enough money for herself, but she has a problem.
She has 2 sons. One is 23 and the other is 26. Both sons work.
However, they both live at home with their mom.
7. Does Rani noe have a lot of money?
No, She doesn’t have lot of money.

114
8. Did Rani have more money in the past ?
She had more money in the past.
9. Why did she have more money before ?
Because she was working. She had more money in the past.
10. Did she used to have more money or less money ?
She used to have more money but now she have less money.
11. Why did she have less money ?
Because she retired from her job.
12. Who used to have more money ?
Rani. Rani used to have more money.
13. Can she pay for food ?
Yes, She has enough money for herself, She can buy food.
14. Does she have enough money for other people ?
No, She doesn’t have enough money for other people, She
only have enough money for herself.
15. Why does she only have enough money for herself ?
Because she retired from her job.
16. Who has a problem ?
Rani. Rani has a problem.
17. What is Rani’s problem ?
Rani’s problem is her 2 sons.
18. Does she have boys or does she have girls ?
Two boys. She has two boys.
19. Does she have enough money for her two boys ?
No, She doen’t have enough money for her two boys.
20. Who has 2 sons ?
Rani. Rani has 2 sons.
21. How old is the olkdest son ?
The oldest son is 26.
22. How old is the youngest son ?
The youngest son is 23.
23. What is the youngest son’s name ?( Guess: Raju)
The youngest son’s name is Raju.
24. What is the oldest son’s name ? (Guess: Ramu)
The oldest son’s name is Ramu.
25. Does Raju has a job ?
Yes, He has a job.
115
26. Where does Raju live ?
He lives with his mother.
27. Where does Ramu live ?
He also lives with his mother.
28. Whose food to they eat ?
They eat Rani’s food.
29. Does Raju have money ?
Yes, He has a job. He had money.
30. Does Ramu have money ?
Yes, He also has a job and money.
They eat her food and expect her to cook for them.
They also expect Rani to clean their rooms. The boys never
do any chores at all. Also, they don’t pay for food or anything
else. In short, they are mama’s boys.
31. What do Raju and Ramu expect ?
They expect her to cook for them and clean their rooms.
32. Do Raju and Ramu helps Rani clean the house ?
No, Never Raju and Ramu never helps Rani clean the house.
Only Rani cleans the house.
33. Do Raju and Ramu helps Rani cook ?
No, Never Raju and Ramu never helps Rani cook.
34. Do Raju and Ramu give money to Rani ?
No, Never Raju and Ramu give money to her.
35. Do the boys do any chores her all ?
They never any chores in the house.
CHORES= WASHING DISHES, CLEAN THE HOUSE
36. Whose house is it ?
Its Rani’s house. They live in Rani’s house.
37. Are Raju and Ramu children ?
No, They are not children. They are adults.
38. Who are mama’s boys ?
Raju and Ramu are mama’s boys
39. Mama’s boys means ?
A boy who depends on his mother too much, not independent.
116