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BUSI 880 CRITICAL THINKING (IB11) Page |1

Critical Thinking

Master’s in Business Administration (IB11)

ASSIGNMENT # 1

Ankita Moore

November 11th, 2018

ASSIGNMENT 1 (15 points)


BUSI 880 CRITICAL THINKING (IB11) Page |2

1. TRUE/FALSE (0.5 points)

a. If no reasons have been given for a claim's acceptance, the claim should always be
rejected.

Answer: False

2. TRUE/FALSE (0.5 points)

a. Any analytical definition of the word “dog” would also be an analytical definition of
the word “animal.”

Answer: False

3. FILL IN THE BLANK (0.5 points)

a. Arguments whose premises are intended to provide some support but less than
absolutely conclusive support for the conclusion are _________.

Answer: Inductive

4. INDUCTIVE/DEDUCTIVE (0.5 points)

a. “Sheila’s clarinet is French. It’s a Leblanc, and all Leblanc instruments are made in
France.”

i. This argument is best taken as:

1. Inductive

2. Deductive

5. According to the text, in order to be sound, an argument must be: (0.5 points)

a. Valid and strong.

b. Deductive and strong.

c. Valid and have true premises.

6. Determine whether the following passage contains an argument and, if it does, identify that
argument's final conclusion. (0.5 points)

a. "Can you believe it? Tight-fitting polyester clothes are making a comeback. They've
even brought back bell-bottoms. Next thing you know, the professors around here will be
dragging out their leisure suits."

Answer: No argument.
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7. Determine whether the following passage contains an argument; if it does, identify the main
issue. (0.5 points)

a. "Those who accept evolution contend that creation is not scientific; but can it be fairly
said that the theory of evolution itself is truly scientific?"

—Life—How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?

Answer: No argument was presented by the writer.

8. Determine whether the following passage contains an argument; if it does, identify the main
issue. (0.5 points)

a. "And he went from there and entered their synagogue. And behold, there was a man
with a withered hand. And they asked him, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath?' so that
they might accuse him. He said to them, ‘What man of you, if he has one sheep, and it
falls into a pit on the sabbath, will not lay hold of it and lift it out? Of how much more
value is a man than a sheep! So, it is lawful to do good on the sabbath.'"

—Matthew 12:9-12

Answer: The passage above does contain an argument. Therefore, the main
issue presented in the passage is “whether its lawful to heal on the sabbath?”

9. Identify each speaker that gives an argument for his or her position in the following passage.
(0.5 points)

a. FIRST MANAGER: I think it is time to change our policy on return items. From now
on, let's just give customers their money back, no questions asked.

b. SECOND MANAGER: Frankly, I don't think that will be such a good policy. Why,
just last week you yourself said we should ask people why they want to return things.

Answer: The first Manager just put forward a suggestion. Whereas, the
second Manager presented an argument and supported their stands by
giving good reasons. Therefore, the second manager presented an argument.

10. Identify each speaker that gives an argument for her position in the following passage. (0.5
points)

a. MOTHER: If you are looking for a wise investment, try real estate. The price of
housing has always risen faster than the rate of inflation.
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b. DAUGHTER: Maybe, but I'm skeptical. What's risen faster than the rate of inflation is
the cost of land, not the cost of the structures put on it. Since the population isn't growing
and the demand for land is declining, real estate may not be such a great investment any
more.

Answer: Though the daughter attempted to present a claim, her claim lack
reasoning. Hence, the Mother is the speaker who is presenting an argument.

Answer: Both the Mother and the Daughter are presenting an arguments.

11. Identify the main issue in the following passage. If two or more issues are present, indicate
how they are related—that is, does the settlement of one depend upon the settlement of the
other? (0.5 points)

a. Research has shown that the females of mammal species are more resistant to
environmental hazards than are their male counterparts. That makes sense, because young
mammals take so long to develop, both physically and mentally, and the females have to
be able to function continuously if the species is going to survive.

Answer: The main issues in the passage is that of the:

Issue 1: “Whether females of mammals species tends to be more


resistant to their male counterparts”.

Issues 2: “Whether the females have to be able to function continuously


if the species is going to survive”.

Relation: They are related because it depends on the survival of the


female. Or they are not related because both would depend on
each other for the continuous survive.

12. The quality of a discussion often depends on how closely the parties attend to the same issue.
For the passage below, determine whether the speakers are clearly disputing the same issue, or
whether somebody is missing the point. (0.5 points) ?

A: The legislature should pass a bill banning agricultural burning—when they burn those
fields the whole area is covered with a layer of smoke.

B: Forget about agricultural burning—automobile emissions cause the greatest


percentage of air pollution in this area.

—Life—How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?


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Answer: Person A is concern with the passing of a bill banning agricultural


burning. Whereas, Person B is responding to pollution. However, both
speakers are not disputing the same issue since person B is missing the point
of person A, who is disputing the issue of passing a bill.

13. The quality of a discussion often depends on how closely the parties attend to the same issue.
For the passage below, determine whether the speakers are clearly disputing the same issue, or
whether somebody is missing the point. (0.5 points)

A: Have you seen those advertisements for striptease dancers for private parties? That's
exploitative and insulting, if you ask me.

B: Oh, take it easy. They have male strippers for women's parties as well as female
strippers for men's parties. So it's not as bad as you thought.

Answer: Speaker A and Speaker B are disputing different issues. Speaker A


presented a topic on what they have seen in an advertisement for striptease
dancers; while Speaker B responded to their own personal feelings and has
missed the point Speaker A brought across.

14. Identify the main point or issue in the following passage and decide whether the rest of the
passage offers reasons for the main point (such as, whether the passage contains an argument),
whether it illustrates (provides examples for) the main point, whether it explains the point, is
irrelevant to the point, and so on. (0.5 points)

a. "Luckily, most decisions can be reassessed. Even decisions that seem monumental can
often be altered. Suppose you decided to live off campus because it offered more privacy
and independence as well as a change from campus residential living. However, you
discovered that your expenses were greater, you didn't like to cook for yourself, and you
got lonely. Or suppose you chose to major in nursing because you thought you would
always be able to find a job in that career. But halfway through your coursework, you
found you didn't like science, practicum labs interfered with your family time, and the
sight of blood made you ill."

—D. G. Longman et al., Strategic Thinking and Reading

Answer: The main point in this passage is “whether decisions can be


reassessed or altered”. As such, the first sentence proposed the main point;
whereas the remainder of the passage provides evidence to support the main
point.
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15. "I think there should be a speed limit for the "spandex" bicycle racers that feel the need to run
those of us that don't ride or walk as fast off the road and into the bushes in Bidwell Park. The
park is for everyone's pleasure and enjoyment, and more often than not it is spoiled by those few
who feel they are superior to the rest of us. Approximately eight out of ten times when my family
and I have ridden our bikes through the park at least one of us has just about been plowed over
by one of those egotistical speeders."

—From a letter to the editor

a. Which of the following best states the primary issue discussed in the passage? (0.5 points)

A. whether there should be a speed limit for bicycle racers

B. whether bicycle racers are egotistical

C. whether the park is for everyone's pleasure

D. whether outings to the park are frequently spoiled by bicycle racers

16. Supply a general principle that, assuming it is true, makes the following into a relatively
strong inductive argument: (0.5 points)

a. Sydney is ten; therefore, she likes horses.

Answer: Every Ten-year old’s like horses.

17. Supply a general principle that, assuming it is true, makes the following into a relatively
strong inductive argument: (0.5 points)

a. Monica may have trouble sleeping tonight, since she drank tea at 10 pm.

Answer: Drinking tea late in the day tend to keep people awake.

18. For the following, indicate whether the definition given is by example, by synonym, or
analytical: (0.5 points)

a. The oud is a stringed musical instrument shaped much like a guitar and played
primarily in Middle Eastern countries.

Answer: Analytical

19. Determine whether the following claim is best classified as semantically ambiguous (and
whether this contains grouping ambiguities), syntactically ambiguous, or free from ambiguity:
(0.5 points)
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a. Carlton harassed the man on the motorcycle.

Answer: Syntactically Ambiguous

20. There are two parts to this question: (2 points)

a. Analyze the argument passage below, addressing the following as appropriate: specify
the issues addressed; identify premises and conclusions; classify as inductive or
deductive; supply missing premises; separate arguments from window dressing; identify
claims better left unstated.

b. Diagram the argument.

i. People who read more tend to have better vocabularies than those who don’t,
and having a good vocabulary makes you a better speaker and writer. Since good
speaking and writing are important job skills, you are probably a better job
candidate if you read a lot.

Answer: A.

Issues: Whether people who read more tend to have


better vocabularies than those who don’t.

Dependent premise: 1. People who read more tend to have better


vocabularies than those who don’t.

2. Your probable a better job candidate if you


read more.

3. Since good speaking and writing are


important job skills you are probably a better
job candidate if you read a lot.

Missing Premise: No missing premise.

Passage Type: Inductive

Conclusion: Having a good vocabulary makes you a better


speaker and writer.

Answer: B.

Diagram: 1 + 3 / 2

21. There are two parts to this question: (2 points)


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a. Analyze the argument passage below, addressing the following as appropriate: specify
the issues addressed; identify premises and conclusions; classify as inductive or
deductive; supply missing premises; separate arguments from window dressing; identify
claims better left unstated.

b. Diagram the argument.

i. I’m pretty certain she wouldn’t be happy as a police officer. Just watching a
crime movie makes her nervous, and if she can’t tolerate simulated violence, she
most likely won’t like the real thing.

Answer: One way to indicate that the first and last claim are essentially the
same is simply to assign them the same number in the passage. Another way
is to give them different numbers and indicate their sameness in the diagram.

A.

Issues:

Passage Type: Inductive

Premise: 1. I’m pretty certain she wouldn’t be happy as a police


officer.

2. She most likely won’t like the real thing

Conclusion:

B. Diagram

22. Rewrite the following claim to remedy the problems of ambiguity. Do not assume that
common sense by itself solves the problem. If the ambiguity is intentional, note this fact, and do
not rewrite. (1.5 points)

a. She was disturbed when she lay down to nap by a noisy cow.

Answer: When she laid down to nap, she was disturbed by a noisy cow.