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ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

GUIDANCE NOTES

Document No. Revision Date Design Standards Manual


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Guidance Notes 1 of 2
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

1. INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL (DSM)

The Design Standards Manual is presented in a single PDF document comprising


the following separate sections.

COVER SHEET
GUIDANCE NOTES
LIST OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 GENERAL
SECTION 2 STORM WATER SYSTEM DESIGN
SECTION 3 SEWERAGE SYSTEM DESIGN
SECTION 4 SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN
SECTION 5 TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SYSTEM DESIGN
SECTION 6 STANDARD AND TYPICAL DRAWINGS

The first issue for implementation of each section of the DSM will be at
Revision 00. Subsequent revisions will be at 01, 02 etc. Future revisions to the
DSM will be managed through annual review meetings when minor comments
gained from experience of using the DSM and new technologies developed by the
department/consultants will be incorporated in the DSM as discussed and agreed
at the annual review meetings.

2. NAVIGATING THROUGH THE DSM PDF DOCUMENT

The DSM PDF document opens with the separate section bookmarks as identified
above to the left of the screen and the DSM cover sheet at 100% magnification to
the right of the screen.

The contents of each section are also bookmarked and are shown by clicking on
the + sign to the left of the section bookmark. The contents can be removed by
clicking on the – sign to the left of the section bookmark.

Clicking on a section bookmark or section contents bookmark will automatically


take the user to that part of the DSM PDF document.

Navigation through the DSM PDF document can also be achieved by clicking on
the underlined section number in the list of contents section of the document.
This will take the user to the cover page of the section. By scrolling down to the
table of contents page for the section and clicking on a clause within the table of
contents the user will automatically be taken to that part of the DSM PDF
document. To return to the list of contents click on the back to previous view
arrow in the tool bar or use the document drop down menu.

The standards and typical drawings can also be accessed by clicking on the
underlined drawing number in Section 6 of the DSM. To return to the DSM PDF
document click on the back to previous view arrow in the tool bar or use the
document drop down menu.

Document No. Revision Date Design standards Manual


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Guidance Notes 2 of 2
ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

LIST OF CONTENTS

Document No. Revision Date Design Standards Manual


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 List of Contents 1 of 2
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

LIST OF CONTENTS

Volume No. Title Revision

SECTION 1 GENERAL 00

SECTION 2 STORM WATER SYSTEM DESIGN 00

SECTION 3 SEWERAGE SYSTEM DESIGN 00

SECTION 4 SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN 00

SECTION 5 TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SYSTEM 00


DESIGN

SECTION 6 STANDARD AND TYPICAL DRAWINGS 00

Document No. Revision Date Design Standards Manual


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 List of Contents 2 of 2
ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

SECTION 1

GENERAL

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SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 General Page 1
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Revision No. Date Revision Description / Purpose of Issue

00 Jan 2004 Updating of Design Standards Manual.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

Approved for Implementation:_______________________________________________

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER SHEET..................................................................................................................... 1
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET .......................................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 3
1.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... 5
1.1.1 SCOPE.................................................................................................................. 5
1.1.2 CONTENTS AND ARRANGEMENT...................................................................... 5
1.2 RELATED DOCUMENTS...................................................................................... 5
1.3 MANUAL UPDATING............................................................................................ 5
1.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................ 6
1.4.1 DESIGN LIFE........................................................................................................ 6
1.4.2 DESIGN INFORMATION....................................................................................... 6
1.4.3 SITE INVESTIGATIONS ....................................................................................... 6
1.4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ................................................................................. 6
1.4.5 CLASSIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE AREAS ................................ 6
TABLE 1 – SOURCES OF HAZARDS................................................................... 7
TABLE 2 – AREA CLASSIFICATIONS.................................................................. 9
1.4.6 FORMATION OF ODOROUS COMPOUNDS ..................................................... 14
TABLE 3 – ODOUR CONTROL GUIDELINES .................................................... 16
1.4.7 ENCLOSURES, COVERS AND ODOUR TREATMENT...................................... 25
1.4.8 HEALTH AND SAFETY IN DESIGN.................................................................... 27
1.4.9 VALUE MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ENGINEERING ....................................... 28
1.4.10 COST CONSIDERATION & FINANCIAL EVALUATION ..................................... 29
1.4.11 SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................. 31
1.4.12 DRAWINGS ........................................................................................................ 31
1.4.13 STRUCTURAL DESIGN...................................................................................... 31
1.4.14 CONCRETE STRUCTURES ............................................................................... 32
1.4.15 STEEL STRUCTURES........................................................................................ 32
1.4.16 DESIGN PRESENTATION.................................................................................. 33
1.5 MATERIALS........................................................................................................ 33
APPENDIX 1 – CLIMATIC DATA........................................................................................ 35
APPENDIX 2 – TYPICAL SEWAGE ANALYSIS................................................................. 36
APPENDIX 3 – TYPICAL GROUNDWATER ANALYSIS .................................................... 37
APPENDIX 4 – TYPICAL POTABLE WATER ANALYSIS .................................................. 38

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APPENDIX 5 – TYPICAL TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT ANALYSIS ............................ 39


APPENDIX 6 – MATERIALS SELECTION ......................................................................... 40
1. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS .......................................................................... 40
2. MATERIALS SELECTION................................................................................... 40
3. PIPES ................................................................................................................. 41
4. STRUCTURES.................................................................................................... 50
5. MANHOLES ........................................................................................................ 59
6. MANHOLE COVERS........................................................................................... 59
7. STEP-IRONS AND LADDERS ............................................................................ 60
8. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE ........................................... 61
END OF SECTION.............................................................................................................. 61

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Abu Dhabi Municipality

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1.1 SCOPE

The Design Standards Manual (DSM) is for use by design consultants in carrying
out the design of projects for the Sewerage Directorate. It presents guidelines for
the design but it does not include design theories and methods of calculation but
provides local practices and criteria to be adopted.

Where any deviation from these criteria is considered necessary by the designer,
the Directorate shall be consulted and their approval obtained.

Copyright of the DSM in its current format is the property of the Directorate and it
may not be reproduced in any format without express permission of the
Directorate.

Use of the DSM does not absolve design consultants from their normal
responsibilities. It is meant as a guide and should be used only by competent
practitioners, with due diligence.

1.1.2 CONTENTS AND ARRANGEMENT

The DSM is divided into 6 separate sections as follows:

• General.
• Storm Water System Design.
• Sewerage System Design.
• Sewage Treatment Plant Design.
• Treated Sewage Effluent System Design.
• Standard and Typical Drawings.

1.2 RELATED DOCUMENTS

The Directorate’s companion documents to the DSM are:

• Conditions of Engagement for Consulting Services.


• Quality Management System.
• CAD Manual.
• Geotechnical Design Manual.
• Construction Documents Manual.
• Irrigation and Landscape Re-engineering Manual.
• Safety Manual.
• Operation and Maintenance Contracts Manual.

1.3 MANUAL UPDATING

Sections of the DSM will be revised from time to time and it will be the
responsibility of all design consultants using the DSM to ensure that they are

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Abu Dhabi Municipality

working to the current issue. Any errors or omissions, or recommendations


should be notified to the Directorate.

1.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1.4.1 DESIGN LIFE

In general design life shall be as follows:

• Pipelines 50 – 60 years.
• Structures 25 – 30 years.
• Mechanical and Electrical Equipment 10 – 15 years.
• Instrumentation 3 – 5 years.

1.4.2 DESIGN INFORMATION

Design information relating to:

• Climatic Data.
• Typical Sewage Analysis.
• Typical Ground Water Analysis.
• Typical Potable Water Analysis.
• Typical Treated Sewage Analysis.

is given in Appendices 1 to 5 at the end of this section of the DSM.

1.4.3 SITE INVESTIGATIONS

A description of the geology of Abu Dhabi and the requirements for site
investigations is given in the Geotechnical Design Manual.

1.4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

The designer shall address the environmental impacts of projects in accordance


with the relevant legislation.

1.4.5 CLASSIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE AREAS

Classification of Potentially Explosive Atmospheres within sewerage systems and


related operational processes are required to assess the risk of ignition in
potentially explosive atmospheres and to remove or reduce them. A consistent
and traceable approach shall therefore be made to each and every classification
or ‘zoning’ exercise. This guidance note shall not be regarded as prescriptive,
and is written to ensure that each zoning exercise complies with the relevant and
current best industry engineering practice.

Each installation shall be considered individually taking into account the civil
structure and the proximity of other structures and plant. Consideration shall also

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be given to the consequences of an explosion when determining the subsequent


classification.

Reference should be made to the harmonised standard BS EN 60079-10, IEC 79-


10:1996 supersedes BS 5345 Part 2 which has been withdrawn. The classification
and definitions of zones can be found in BS EN 60079-10

The design process shall attempt to remove or reduce the need for hazardous
areas.

Guidance as to the definitions of hazardous area zones is set out in BS EN


60079.

In principle the classification of an area shall include the consideration of sources


of hazards i.e. all potential releases of flammable substances. In the water
industry the most common sources have been identified in Table 1 below.

TABLE 1 – SOURCES OF HAZARDS

Flammable Material Source Density Lower


Explosive
Limit

Petrol/Hydrocarbons Petrol station spillage into sewerage Heavier than 1.0%


system (Petrol tanker spillage not air
considered significant)
Other flammable liquids from industrial
sources

Methane Infiltration from leaking gas mains


Cold digestion in poorly designed Lighter than air 5.3%
sewerage system
Biogas production in digesters
Geological infiltration

Hydrogen By-product of electrochlorination Lighter than air 4.0%


(OSEC) plants

Hydrogen sulphide Sewers Heavier than 4.3%


air
Dust Sludge dryers and pelletisers Varies
Powdered activated carbon (PAC) in
water treatment plants

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Gases and vapours are only potentially explosive when mixed with air in certain
quantities. Concentrations below the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) or above the
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) are not potentially explosive. For the purposes of this
guidance, the terms ‘flammable’ and ‘explosive’ shall be considered synonymous.

For an explosion to occur there must be a source of ignition. The most common
sources have been recognised as follows:

• Electric arcing
• Hot surfaces
• Flames
• Friction and sparking from mechanical equipment and ferrous tools,
manhole covers etc.
• Electrostatic discharges
• Spontaneous ignition.

The classification tables listed below include common items of plant relating to
surface water and waste water treatment.

The default zone classification may not necessarily be correct for every zoning
exercise. Consideration shall always be given to site specific ventilation,
structures and businesses that discharge (or could potentially discharge)
chemicals into the sewerage system, which may change the extent of the zone or
increase its severity.

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TABLE 2 – AREA CLASSIFICATIONS

Item Plant / Process Area Classification Remarks


Equipment Non-
Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Hazardous
1.0 Sewerage & Storm Water
1.1 Sewers
1.1.1 Sewer ! Zone 1 unless solely used for domestic sewage with a
low risk of flammable substance contamination
1.1.2 Manhole !
1.1.3 Chamber ! !
1.1.4 Outfall ! Consider flap valve
1.2 Sewer Vent Areas
1.2.1 Vent Stack ! !
1.2.2 Air Valve ! !
1.3 Pumping Stations
1.3.1 Wet Well ! ! Wet wells are Zone 1 or Zone 2 up to coping level.
Areas above coping are deemed non-hazardous if open
to atmosphere
1.3.2 Pumping Main !
1.3.3 Enclosure Above Wet ! ! ! Similar to Enclosed Channels, ventilation dependent
Well (enclosed)
1.3.4 Dry Well !
1.3.5 Valve Chamber ! ! ! Unzoned if sealed from wet well
1.3.6 Interconnecting Paths ! The area between 2 sets of doors between wet well
and dry well is Zone 2

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Item Plant / Process Area Classification Remarks


Equipment Non-
Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Hazardous
2.0 Sewage
2.1 Preliminary Treatment
2.1.1 Sewage P.S ! ! Below coping level is Zone 1 or Zone 2 depending upon
ventilation, above coping is non-hazardous if open to
atmosphere
2.1.2 Screens Forebay ! !
2.1.3 Odour Control ! ! The zoning of any ducting depends upon amount of
dilution of air. Ventilation calculations required
2.1.4 Open Channels ! Below Coping
2.1.5 Enclosed Inlet Works ! ! !
2.1.6 Screen Houses ! ! ! Depends upon ventilation
(covered)
2.1.7 Storm Tanks ! Storm first flush may be a source of hazard
2.2 Primary Treatment
2.2.2 Low Lift P.S. ! ! Below Coping is Zone 1 or Zone 2 depending upon
ventilation
2.2.3 PST Distribution ! ! Below Coping is Zone 1 or Zone 2 depending upon
ventilation
2.2.4 Primary Settlement !
2.3 Secondary Treatment
2.3.1 SBRs !
2.3.2 Aeration Blowers !
2.3.3 Aeration Lanes/Tanks !
2.3.4 Anoxic Lane !
2.3.5 RAS/SAS !

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Item Plant / Process Area Classification Remarks


Equipment Non-
Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Hazardous
2.3.6 Biological Filters !
2.3.7 Final Effluent !
2.3.8 Humus Tanks !
2.3.9 Final Settlement !
2.4 Sludge Handling
2.4.1 Primary Sludge !
Transfer
2.4.2 Surplus Sludge !
Transfer
2.4.3 Raw Sludge Tanks !
2.4.4 Digested Sludge ! ! ! Open topped tank is non hazardous, however beware
Storage tanks junction boxes etc. below coping
2.4.5 Centrifuges ! Indoor centrifuge locations shall be ventilated
2.4.6 Thickening Plant !
2.4.7 Digesters ! !
2.4.8 Dryers ! ! Review manufacturers risk assessment
2.4.9 Pelletisers ! with regard to hazardous areas
2.4.10 Bagging Plant ! caused by presence of combustible dusts
2.4.11 Gassifiers ! !
2.4.12 Gas Holders ! !
2.4.13 Flare stack ! ! Similar to vent stack when unlit, also consider this as a
source of ignition
2.5 Tertiary Treatment
UV Disinfection !

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Item Plant / Process Area Classification Remarks


Equipment Non-
Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Hazardous
3.0 Water Treatment
3.1 Electrochlorination ! Electrochlorination Plants generate H2, review
manufacturers risk assessment, ventilation required
3.2 Ammoniation ! Where possible store NH3 containers in open air, NH3
can react with other materials to form explosive
compounds, keep away from Chlorine.

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Potentially Explosive Atmosphere


Area Classification

Project: ….......................................................... Project No. …...................... Date: ……………………….


File Ref.: …………………………………………... Sheet No. ….....…………….. Table Revision No. ….......

Plant / Process Equipment Area Classification Remarks

Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Flammable Material; Source, Ventilation, Process Conditions, Reasons,
PEXA Drawing, Other Relevant Details

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1.4.6 FORMATION OF ODOROUS COMPOUNDS

Odorous compounds only cause a problem if they are released to atmosphere


and if there are residential areas close to the site which may be affected. To
ensure that development does not encroach too near to a pumping station or
treatment works and lead to odour related complaints, a new site should be
selected so that ideally the boundary fence should be a minimum of 400m from
the nearest residential property for small works and pumping stations, and 1km
for large works and large pumping stations.

Odour problems are associated with the development of anaerobic conditions


(septicity) in sewage or sludge resulting in the formation of a range of malodorous
compounds by the action of bacteria. The main compound associated with
sewage and sludge odours is hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is also a toxic and
corrosive gas.
The amount of H2S that can be formed is dependent on the strength of the
sewage (or sludge) and the retention time under anaerobic conditions. Nutrient
availability and the initial concentration of sulphate limit the maximum
concentration that will develop. Saline intrusion increases the sulphate
concentration of the sewage, which can increase the values of sulphide
developing, especially in sludges.
In sludges, other compounds such as mercaptans, dimethyl sulphide and volatile
fatty acids are also formed and may be as important as H2S in adding to the total
odour. The resultant lowering of pH value in sludges in the presence of volatile
fatty acids enhances the release of odours.
Anaerobic digestion reduces the volatile fatty acid content of the sludge with a
consequent reduction in total odour and a reduction in the potential release of
sulphide. However, the digester gas produced may contain up to 3000 parts per
million (ppm) of hydrogen sulphide, which, unless treated, will have an odour
impact.
Oxidation of H2S and the other malodorous products of septicity to less odorous
compounds will occur during aeration in activated-sludge treatment or during
aerobic digestion.
Odorous chemicals present in sewage or sludge cause a problem only when they
are released to the atmosphere. This typically occurs at effluent discharge points
and weirs where odour containing sewage or sludge is turbulent and there is good
opportunity for odours to be transferred to the atmosphere. If the odorous
compounds can be retained in solution, for example by retaining in pipes they will
not cause nuisance.
H2S e can be smelt at a concentration of 0.5 parts per billion (ppb) under
laboratory conditions (the threshold odour concentration). Nuisance
concentrations are typically 5-10 times the threshold odour value.
H2S can cause corrosion of concrete and mortar fixtures when oxidised to
sulphuric acid, e.g. on moist walls of sewers and manholes. Metal work and
electrical equipment is vulnerable to H2S corrosion.
Measures to control odours shall therefore aim to:

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• Prevent/reduce the development of septicity.


• Reduce the release of odours.
• Contain and treat odours.
• Locate odorous processes as far away from potential complainants as
possible.

Specific guidelines for different stages in wastewater and sludge treatment are
given in Table 3 below.

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TABLE 3 – ODOUR CONTROL GUIDELINES

Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

Sewerage system • Use gravity system rather than rising • Chemical dosing
mains • Seal manholes
• Ensure adequate velocity to prevent
deposition of grit and sediments
• Minimise turbulence, sharp bends and
drops
• Ensure adequate ventilation of gravity
sewers
• Minimise length of siphon sections
• Minimise length of rising main sections
• Seal manholes at discharge points
• Discharge at low levels to minimise
turbulent drops
• Minimise retention time in sumps
• Ensure grit and screenings can be
removed from sumps (e.g. good
benching, access for pumping out)

Pumping stations • Reduce the height of hydraulic drops • Provide OCU if identified • Pumping stations can be a
into sumps problem source of odour release
• Minimise operational volume of sumps due to turbulence, and
• Provide sufficient slopes and benching odour formation if sumps
so that there is no accumulation of rags are oversized or if
or sediments sediments can accumulate

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

• Allow intermittent drain down to clear


rags and sediments
• Where rags and screenings
accumulate, include regular cleaning out
in operational procedures
• Do not use screw pumps
• Avoid turbulence of flow in channels and
at the discharge
• Cover wet well

Inlet discharge – rising • Do not locate near sensitive boundary • Chemical dosing to upstream • Sewage can become very
main/septic • Minimise turbulence at discharge points, sewerage system, nitrate salts, septic in rising main sewers
including at intermediate pumping or STW, iron salts with consequent impact on
stations and all downstream locations • Minimise turbulence of odours at intermediate
prior to secondary treatment stage discharge pumping stations and the
• Cover channels, sumps, detritors, • Cover channels and sumps discharge point. Sulphide
screens receiving pumped sewage • Ensure materials below covers will also cause corrosion
• Ensure materials below covers are resistant to sulphide/sulphate and will pose a health and
resistant to sulphide/sulphate attack attack safety risk to workers
• Vent from below covers to OCU
• Consider using gravity
sewerage system with lift
stations rather than long rising
mains

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

Inlet discharge - gravity • Install away from sensitive boundary • Minimise turbulence of • Sewage smells even when
• Avoid cascades and other areas of discharge fresh and draws air along
turbulence • Covers and OCU the sewer which may be
• Keep channels non turbulent, minimise unpleasant. Turbulence
bends exacerbates release of
• Ensure liquor/returned storm odour
sewage/imported wastes discharged at
low level to reduce splashing

Imported wastes and • Discharge at low level to covered sump • Treat displaced air in OCU • Imported wastes are
sludges or use close coupling • Connect tanker vents to OCU if generally odorous
• Locate tanker discharge point away air mixing employed
from sensitive boundary

Grit removal • Do not select aerated grit channels • Do not select aerated grit • Aerated grit channels can
• Ensure grit is washed channels lead to a significant release
• Cover unit of odours
• Ensure grit is washed
• Enclose grit conveyor and
classifier

Inlet screens and • Provide local covers and minimise • House screens in a building
screenings handling turbulence as far as possible actively vented to OCU
• Ensure materials below covers are • Provide local covers and
resistant to sulphide/sulphate attack minimise turbulence as far as
• Wash screenings possible

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

• Ensure materials below covers


are resistant to
sulphide/sulphate attack
• Provide a gas alarm system as
high levels of H2S could
accumulate if ventilation system
fails
• Discharge washed screenings
to enclosed skips
• Do not store on site

Inlet channels • Ensure a reasonable slope so that there • Cover


is no grit deposition but not so much that • Ensure materials below covers
there is turbulence are resistant to
• Avoid drops and sharp bends sulphide/sulphate attack
• Minimise height of discharges for
example of return liquors, to reduce
splashing

Storm/balance tanks • Ensure overflow weir is upstream of any • Use an effective cleaning • Discharges into tanks
liquors or tanker discharge system such as rotating jets. release odours unless at
• Discharge to base of storage tank to Operation should be stopped low level. The impact is
minimise splashing when the jet is exposed increased if the sewage
• Use an automatic system of discharging to the tank
return contains odorous wastes or
liquors

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

• Design to ensure tank and associated • Ensure associated feed and • Storm/balance tanks can
channels and pipelines can be return channels can drain back cause problems if sludges
completely drained of sewage, sludges, • Cover with air displaced during accumulate or if sewage is
sediments and debris filling vented to odour control retained for excessive
• Use an effective cleaning system such periods
as rotating jets • Cleaning is important, but
• Use an automatic system of return jet cleaners can cause
• Return storm/balanced flows odour release when the jet
downstream of the overflow weir and are is exposed
at low level in the channel to minimise
splashing

Primary tanks • Provide close-coupled pumped • Design without a primary • Primary sedimentation is a
desludging to avoid exposure of sludges sedimentation stage or very odorous stage
to the atmosphere • Provide covers vented to odour allowing septicity to develop
• Desludge frequently and remove control. Ensure materials below in sewage and sludges if
sludges at a low concentration to avoid covers are resistant to retained for excessive
excessive retention sulphide/sulphate attack periods with release mainly
• Design arrangement so that tanks can at PST weirs and
be removed from operation at times of downstream channels and
low flow to avoid excessive retention of from sludge withdrawal
sewage handling and treatment
• Minimise the height of drop over weirs
to reduce splashing

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

Lamella separators • Minimise need for manual cleaning of • Provide covers vented to odour • The level of septicity and
plates control. Ensure materials below odours developing is in
• Do not select systems that incorporate covers are resistant to proportion to the retention
sludge thickening within the unit sulphide/sulphate attack time

Activated sludge/ • Ensure adequate aeration and mixing • Cover distribution chambers, • At normal loadings,
membrane • Fine bubble aeration systems are inlet channels and anoxic zone activated sludge has a low
Bioreactors/ preferred to mechanical surface aeration areas odour level, decreasing as
sequencing batch systems • Minimise the loading rate the loading rate decreases
reactors • Use submerged or non-turbulent inlet • FBDA systems release
and outlet arrangements less aerosol and odours
than mechanical surface
aerators. There also is less
risk of septic pockets
developing

Conventional biological • Ensure operating correctly • Can be a cause of odours


filters • Minimise the height of drop between if overloaded and ponding
distributor and media surface
• Use recirculation if signs of ponding
• Ensure adequate ventilation

Submerged biological • Fluidised media preferred to fixed media • Cover and vent to odour control • Septic areas can develop,
aerated filters fixed or • Avoid turbulence at inlet and during particularly in fixed media
fluidised media backwashing systems

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

High rate biological • Cover and vent filter and effluent sump • Replace with an alternative • Can be a significant source
filters to odour treatment system. Draw air system or of odours due to the
from the base of the filter • Cover and vent by drawing air development of thick
• Do not co-settle sludge down to the base i.e. in the biofilms with release of
same direction and the sewage odours from the top of the
flow. Treat the vented air filter in the ventilation
• Ensure materials below covers
are resistant to
sulphide/sulphate attack

Final sedimentation, • Recycle backwash waters from sand


tertiary sand filter, UV filters without storage
treatment

Picket fence thickeners • Cover and vent tanks to OCU, passive • Replace with mechanical • Odours in sludges and
and raw sludge storage may be sufficient. Toxic levels of thickeners sludge liquor strength
hydrogen sulphide will develop below • Active venting to OCU increase with storage
covers • PFTs can be a significant
• Site away from sensitive boundary source of odour formation
• Non-turbulent low-level inlet, outlet and with release of odours
supernatant discharge from: the surface of the
• Locate motors for mixers outside tanks, PFT, the overflow weir, the
use external pumps sludge liquor drainage
• Mix at low, rather than high, speed system and from
• Minimise the number of times that subsequent handling of the
sludge is handled before thickening sludge

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

• Minimise retention time prior to


thickening, digestion and dewatering
stages

Secondary sludge • Minimise retention prior to thickening • Cover tank, vent to OCU • Biological sludges are
storage • Aeration may be used to maintain odorous if they become
condition of sludge anaerobic

Mechanical sludge • Ensure that there is more than sufficient • Locally enclose and actively
thickening and capacity, including standby, so that raw vent to OCU
dewatering sludge does not back up in the system • A building may be required
• Minimise turbulence of liquor discharge
e.g. below belts, into sludge liquor
system
• Enclose, vent covers to OCU
• Minimise retention time of raw or
secondary sludges prior to thickening,
treatment and dewatering stages

Sludge liquors • Discharge at level to reduce odour • Chemical dosing e.g. using
emission permanganate or iron salts,
• Balance flow and composition may be used to reduce sulphide
• Return to secondary treatment, not release
primary or inlet, if imported sludges on
site

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Process stage Minimum provision Enhanced provision Comment

Anaerobic sludge • Ensure that there is more than sufficient • Chemical dosing of sludge with • Capacity is required to
digestion capacity iron salts to reduce sulphide prevent the risk of sludge
• Cover tanks, feed, mixing and take-off level in off-gas backing up in the system
points causing upstream odour
• Ensure the gas handling system is fully problems
operational. Whessoe valves, gas • Digester gases can contain
storage flare stack, CHP units and/or significant levels of H2S
gas engines which is oxidised by flaring
• If gas is not required for heating or or burning
engines, it should be flared

Aerobic digestion • Ensure that there is more than sufficient • Cover tanks and ventilate to • Odours will be released
capacity OCU during aeration of raw and
• Cover feed, mixing and take-off points secondary sludges.

Thermal treatment • Odour control, possibly by thermal • Volatilisation of a range of


processes and drying oxidation organic compounds may
• Tall stack occur to due the high
temperature

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1.4.7 ENCLOSURES, COVERS AND ODOUR TREATMENT

In some instances covers, or an enclosed building, to contain and collect odours


will be the only way to ensure that odour release can be controlled. If processes
are enclosed within a building, additional local covering is likely to be necessary to
ensure that the working atmosphere is safe. Processes that are commonly
provided with local covering are:

• Inlet works (may also be within a building).


• High rate filters.
• Sludge storage tanks.
• Sludge thickening and dewatering processes (may also be within a
building).
• Sludge liquor sumps.
• Sludge import facilities.

Provision of covers will create a confined space where high concentrations of


potentially hazardous gases may develop, requiring appropriate measures in
terms of zoning (including for ventilation fans and/or odour treatment) and
personnel access. Fan assisted ventilation may be needed to:

• Convey odours to an odour treatment system.


• Prevent the accumulation of high levels of odours that could be displaced
during operations.
• Reduce the level of corrosion below covers.
• Reduce condensation and consequent corrosion.
• Prevent the accumulation of high levels of potentially hazardous chemicals.
• Ensure that working conditions meet Health and Safety requirements.
• Choice of materials for covers will need to take into account: strength and
thickness, durability, weight, cost, aesthetics, supplier and operational
requirements. Covers must be resistant to corrosion, both from external
forces such as weathering and UV radiation, as well as internal chemical
attack due to the hydrogen sulphide, sulphuric acid or organic acids below
covers.
• Fibre reinforced plastic (with appropriate choice of resin, UV absorbers and
light stabilisers) and aluminium are commonly used. Vinyl ester resin is
considered to have excellent corrosion resistant properties. Aluminium with
the correct choice of alloy is also corrosion resistant, although susceptible to
corrosion if splashed with sewage.
• Covers should withstand wind loadings and static loads.
• Materials for covers and supports, and any equipment below the cover
should be resistant to corrosion. Where possible motors etc should be
located outside the cover.
• Suitable platform access and walkways should be provided to any
equipment. In general facilities to allow access of personnel onto covers
should not be provided.

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• Inspection and access hatches will be required for repair and maintenance
purposes. Alternatively cover sections may be designed to be removable.
• Where possible, design should be such that equipment below covers can be
easily and quickly removed to minimise time when covers need to be
opened.
• Covers should be sealed as far as possible. Inspection /access hatches
should be sufficiently durable so that they continue to be effectively sealed
for the design life of a piece of plant.
• Overflow and discharge pipes should be designed and constructed to
prevent a route for air under covers being discharged to the atmosphere.

All buildings containing sewage or sludge processes will need some form of
ventilation to avoid build up of potentially hazardous (explosive or toxic)
atmospheres. Where housing is close to the STW, this ventilation air will require
odour treatment.

Design of the ventilation and odour control system may need to take in to account
the handling of potentially hazardous gases, and the zone requirements of the
area in which it is installed.

Odour releasing units (such as screens or belt presses) within a building should
be locally enclosed, and a proportion of the required ventilation air drawn from the
body of the building towards the odorous unit to ensure odours do not escape into
the body of the building.

The siting of stacks and emergency vents should be away from potential
complainants.

The choice of odour treatment process and the number of treatment stages
depends on:

• Flow rate of air to be treated.


• The strength and composition of the incoming air and whether intermittent
or continuous.
• The percentage removal required (the standard of odour treatment required
to avoid an odour problem can be derived from odour dispersion modelling).
• Space availability and zoning requirements of proposed location.

Design of odour control unit, ductwork, chemical storage and associated


equipment should take into account expected temperatures:
o
• 25-35 C sewage.
o
• 0-50 C ambient.
o
• 85 C maximum radiating temperature (surfaces).
o
• up to 30 C air vented from the sewerage system to an OCU.

Preferred odour treatment technology is:

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• Wet chemical scrubbing employing as a minimum single stage treatment


using alkali/oxidant such as sodium hypochlorite with sodium hydroxide.
• Polishing treatment or treatment at small or remote sources (such as
pumping stations) using activated carbon. In most cases carbon
regenerated using alkali (caustic soda or potash) is preferred.

Post treatment of vented air or lightly odorous air by ducting to the activated
sludge process should be considered.

Post treatment of ventilation air for example using carbon should be considered at
sensitive sites and at pumping stations.

The same technology should be used throughout a site, for ease of operation. At
existing sites, existing technology should be duplicated.

Several sources should be combined to a single odour control unit, possibly


providing more than one stage of treatment.

Odour control equipment should be designed to remove the range of odorous


compounds expected. The factors influencing the treatment process, the number
of units provided on a site and the number of stages of treatment would be:

• Odours from buildings housing sewage processes (e.g. screening) will


include:

a) Hydrogen sulphide (typically up to 10 ppm in ventilation air).


b) Lower concentrations (typically less than 1ppm) of other sulphurous
and nitrogen compounds (such as ammonia).
c) Trace levels of solvent type odours.
d) Odours from below vented covers could be ten times these values.
Odours below unvented covers could be one hundred times these
values.
• Odours from buildings housing sludge processes will include:

a) Hydrogen sulphide (typically 3 to 50 ppm in ventilation air).


b) Mercaptans (typically 3 to 50 ppm in ventilation air).
c) Dimethyl sulphide (typically 3 to 50 ppm in ventilation air) and similar
organic sulphides.
d) Ammonia if handling digested sludge/sludge liquors or if lime addition
employed.
e) Polyelectrolyte breakdown products (amines).
f) Odours from below the covers of vented sludge storage tanks could
contain ten times the above concentrations. Concentrations below the
covers of un-vented tanks could be one hundred times these levels
(toxic levels).

1.4.8 HEALTH AND SAFETY IN DESIGN

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The designer must be aware of all his responsibilities in the design and detailing
of a project and shall:

• Ensure that any design he prepares and which he is aware will be used for
the purposes of construction work includes among the design
considerations adequate regard to the need:

a) To avoid foreseeable risks to the health and safety of any person at


work carrying out construction work or cleaning work in or on the
structure at any time, or of any person who may be affected by the
work of such a person at work.
b) To combat at source risks to the health and safety of any person
carrying out construction work in or on the structure at any time, or of
any person who may be affected by the work of such a person at
work.
c) To give priority to measures which will protect all persons at work who
may carry out construction work or cleaning work at any time and all
persons who may be affected by the work of such persons at work
over measures which only protect each person carrying out such work.

• Ensure that the design includes adequate information about any aspects of
the project or structure or materials (including articles or substances) which
might affect the health and safety of any person at work carrying out
construction work or cleaning work in or on the structure at any time or of
any person who may be affected by the work of such a person at work.
• Co-operate with the planning supervisor and with any other designer who is
preparing any design in connection with the same project or structure so far
as is necessary to enable each of them to comply with the requirements and
prohibitions placed on him in relation to the project by or under the relevant
statutory provisions.

1.4.9 VALUE MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ENGINEERING

Value management (VM) can be defined as “A service which maximises the


functional value of a project by managing its development from concept to
completion and commissioning through the examination of all decisions against a
pre-defined value system.”

Value engineering is defined as the “The application of VM techniques within the


design process”.

The principles of value management are:

• Agreeing clear objectives.


• Agreeing value criteria.
• Ensuring that they are understood by all parties.
• Generating ideas for options.
• Validating outputs against agreed objectives and value criteria.

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• Identifying value enhancements on the selected option.

Value = Satisfaction of needs / Resources used.

Value management:

• Provides a structured approach to decision making.


• Provides a common focus on value and objectives.
• Limits misunderstandings & misinterpretations.
• Delivers cost benefits by eliminating unnecessary work.
• Increases team building, shared knowledge and understanding.
• Ensures that the project outcome will correspond to the Client’s needs and
aspirations.
• Enhances the value of projects.

Value management reviews should be carried out throughout the project life cycle,
as set out in the value management plan, and the number required will depend on
the project complexity. The reviews should generally follow the following
sequence:

• VM1 Project definition.


• VM2 Concept design.
• VE1 Preliminary design and engineering.
• VE2 a,b,c Detailed design.
• VM3 Procurement and contract strategy.
• VM4 Post project feedback.

The ability to add value is at it’s highest during the early stages of a project and
reduces rapidly as decisions are taken and work implemented.

The cost of adding value is at it’s lowest at the outset but increases rapidly as the
project progresses. The aim should be to focus on the 20% of the project that
accounts for 80% of the total project cost.

Value management should be carried out through structured value engineering


workshops, as well as being an integral part of the day to day design
development. Formal workshops should be run by a trained facilitator and include
all stakeholders including the design team; the client project team; the operations
and maintenance teams who will operate and maintain the works on project
completion.

1.4.10 COST CONSIDERATION & FINANCIAL EVALUATION

Robustness and redundancy is an essential part of the design of works as


obtaining spare parts at a later date can be problematic. Minimising capital
expenditure resulting in a works that will require a lot of maintenance is not what
is required.

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Civil works cost estimates may be built up using local rates and allowing further
margins for overhead and profit of any overseas involvement.

Major mechanical and electrical equipment cost estimates can be obtained from
international suppliers of equipment. Allowances must be made for shipping
costs, installation, overhead and profit and local agents’ costs. These can more
than double the base price.

Cost estimates should also allow for the consideration of:

• Project complexity.
• Levels of competition.
• Current and international workload.
• Unusual project scope.
• Operations expenditure.

Operations expenditure (Opex) covers the following aspects:

• Labour.
• Power.
• Chemicals.
• Sludge disposal.
• Maintenance and spares.

Currently labour costs are generally low therefore high manning levels are
acceptable.

Chemicals can be difficult to obtain and can be expensive. They will be required
for certain processes but if their use can be avoided it is desirable.

Maintenance costs should be based on 1% of the capital value of the plant costs.

Net Present Value

Net present value (NPV), or discounted cash flow (DCF), calculations are a
method of comparing capital and operations costs over a period to determine
which has the lowest overall value. In essence all costs are reduced back to
present day prices.

Capital costs for expenditure in the first year, year 0, are the actual costs whereas
costs for future capital expenditure e.g. phased construction or replacement of
plant are represented by the sum which invested now would build up to the capital
sum needed in the future.

Operations costs are represented by the present day sum that invested now will
enable the annual running costs to be paid and reduce to zero at the end of the
term.

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A discount rate is chosen on which to base the assessment. Normally this is


between 3%-7%. A sensitivity analysis can be done at different discount rates if
required. Inflation need not be considered as all sums are reduced to present day
values.

The period of the NPV calculations should be at least 20 years. Replacement of


items of computer hardware should be allowed for every 5 years, machinery 15
years and civil structures 30 years. In all but the most sensitive calculations there
is no need to consider residual values i.e. the remaining value of the item at the
end of the term under consideration.

The NPV may be calculated according to the following equation:


n
NPV = Cost/(1-r)

Where n= number of years and r = discount rate

1.4.11 SPECIFICATIONS

The basic specifications for use on projects are the General Specification for Civil
Works and the General Specification for Mechanical and Electrical Works. Where
used in contract documents they shall remain unaltered and may be referred to
without the need to incorporate as hard copies into all documents.

1.4.12 DRAWINGS

A complete list of standard and typical drawings is given in Section 6 of the DSM.

The standard drawings should be used in their original format without alterations.
Where used in contract documents their numbers shall remain unaltered and may
be referred to without the need to incorporate as hard copies into all documents.

Typical drawings are presented as an indication of standard format and quality.


These may be used as the basis of individual contract drawings but must be
renumbered and edited accordingly for specific projects.

1.4.13 STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Structural design calculations shall be submitted to the Municipal Engineer’s


Department of Abu Dhabi Municipality for approval.

Design should be generally in accordance with their publication “Building


Regulations & Recommendations for Structural Design & Concrete Practices”.

The structural design submission shall include a separate design information


sheet which contains the following:

• Code of practice adopted for design.

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• Imposed loadings.
• Clear cover to main reinforcement.
• Concrete properties.
• Protective methods used for concrete.
• Reinforcement properties and coating.
• Safe allowable bearing capacity of soil, soil report to be attached.
• Pile foundation arrangement where appropriate.
• Types of structures.
• Dewatering requirements.
• Concrete curing methods.
• Formwork removal notes.

1.4.14 CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Calculations should satisfy the requirements of ACI 318-63 or ACI 318-83, BS


8007 or BS 8110 or any equivalent and acceptable international code of practice.

For serviceability limit state the following apply:

• Partial safety factor for all loads is 1.


• Factor of safety against flotation is 1.1.
• Design crack width is 0.2mm.
• Liquid level to be the working top water level.
2
• Allowable steel stress in direct or flexural tension is 130N/mm .

For ultimate limit state the following apply:

• Partial safety factor for earth and water pressure is 1.4.


2 2
• Allowable anchorage bond stress is 1.6N/mm and 2N/mm compression.
2.
• Maximum sheer stress is 4.75N/mm

Other principal factors are:


2
• Characteristic strength of concrete is 40N/mm .
2
• Yield strength of steel is 460N/mm for high yield defined bars.
• Minimum reinforcement is 0.35% of the cross section in each direction and
in both faces.
• Maximum bar spacing is 300mm or the thickness of the section.

1.4.15 STEEL STRUCTURES

In general the design of structural steelwork shall be in accordance with AISC -


Manual of Steel Construction or BS 5950 or other equivalent and acceptable
international standard.

Both the working stress and the ultimate stress methods of calculation are
acceptable but it should be in accordance with the recognised standard.

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Steel should be A36 to ASTM & AISC and grade 43 to BS.

Consideration must be given to fire and corrosion protection and appropriate


methods applied.

1.4.16 DESIGN PRESENTATION

All calculations are to be presented on standard A4 size calculation sheets. All


information contained on the sheets is to be printed and the title blocks are to be
filled in completely. All pages are to be numbered and sketches used as required
to clarify the calculations. All assumptions, references, units and calculations are
to be clearly stated. The originals of all calculations are to be indexed and bound
for submittal.

Drawing format as specified in the CAD Manual shall be adopted for all design
projects.

All drawings are to be signed by a professional engineer and two initials of the
draughter, designer and checker must be included as appropriate in the title
block.

All design dimensions shall be expressed in metric units only.

Drawings should generally be presented in the following arrangement:

• Cover sheet.
• Index of drawings.
• Location plan.
• Project drawings.
• Standard drawings.

The Consultant has total responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the
plans, calculations and related documents as required under the scope of work.

Prior to final design submittal, the Consultant is expected to perform an internal


quality control review carried out by engineers experienced in the appropriate
disciplines to ensure a product of neat appearance, technically and grammatically
correct and checked and signed by the draughter, designer and checker where
appropriate.

1.5 MATERIALS

Materials shall be chosen which result in the least maintenance and are not prone
to decay by weathering or corrosion causing structural deterioration, leakage and
infiltration.

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Established International Standards and guides such as ASTM, BS, EN, ISO and
WIS should be followed in the selection of and specification for construction
materials. Ideally the material product should be covered by an established ISO
9000 Quality Control system and wherever possible a third party quality
assurance scheme.

A discussion on materials selection is given in Appendix 6 for the designers


information.

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APPENDIX 1 – CLIMATIC DATA

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Temperature Degree C
Mean Dry Bulb for Month 19.8 20.7 23.1 27.1 29.4 32.0 30.9 33.5 30.9 28.9 25.3 22.0
Daily Ave. Max. 24.4 25.3 28.5 33.4 36.7 38.5 41.3 39.2 37.3 35.7 30.1 26.3
Daily Ave. Min. 15.2 14.5 19.6 22.0 23.6 27.4 31.1 29.8 26.7 23.0 20.3 16.9
Absolute Max. 30.1 32.7 39.8 41.7 41.9 44.6 44.8 45.5 43.0 39.6 36.7 31.3
Absolute Min. 12.0 10.5 13.2 15.6 18.6 24.5 26.5 26.0 24.7 21.0 15.4 13.3
Ground Min. Daily Ave. 13.2 13.0 15.7 19.7 21.3 25.6 30.2 28.9 24.9 21.0 18.7 15.1
Absolute Ground Min. 9.0 8.3 11.6 13.3 15.7 22.8 24.5 24.6 21.8 17.8 13.9 10.4
Earth 50cms. Daily Ave. 25.2 24.4 25.8 29.4 31.5 34.7 36.8 36.8 36.5 34.1 30.8 27.5
Earth 100cms. Daily Ave. 26.8 25.7 26.1 28.6 30.5 33.2 34.9 34.9 35.8 34.2 31.8 29.0
Relative Humidity %
Mean RH for Month 68 65 56 50 55 58 57 66 67 65 63 68
Daily Ave. Max. 83 88 82 71 79 80 79.3 84.7 85 86 78 85
Absolute Max. 100 100 100 84 97 91 92 92 94 100 9 10
Daily Ave. Min. 51 43 36 28 28 33 32.8 42.2 41 29 45 5
Absolute Min. 37 15 10 13 11 17 17 13 13 16 1 27
Wind Speed (46' above
ground) Knots
Mean Wind for Month 7.2 6.5 7.4 8.2 7.3 8.5 8.9 8.8 7.9 7.3 8.1 6.9
Absolute Max. (for at 24.0 32 31 27 25 27 26 25 22 19 23 32
least 10 mins)
Highest Gust 30.0 45 39 39 32 33 30 34 30 25 29 30
Precipitation (Rainfall)
mm
Total Amount Nil 20.1 0.8 2.7 TR Nil TR Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3
Max. for any one day Nil 10.5 0.7 2.1 TR Nil TR Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.3
No. of days with Rain Nil 5 2 4 2 Nil 3 Nil Nil Nil Nil 1

Atmospheric Pressure
mbs (MSL)
Mean for Month 1019 1018 1014 1010 1006 999 997 997 1005 1012 1016 1019
Cloudiness-Oktas
(Eighths of Sky)
Total Cloud-Mean for 1.8 2.6 1.8 2.7 0.6 0.8 2.1 1.4 0.8 0.3 1.0 1.6
Month
Low Cloud (8000) - Do 1.4 1.5 0.8 0.5 0.1 Nil 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 1.0
Evaporation mm
(Standard Piche)
Total for Month 464 413 517 404 482 N/A 456 382 316 339 30.9 24.8
Max. for 24 hours 28.1 28.0 29.0 25.0 28.5 29.0 24.2 19.3 16.5 16.10 19.8 17.0
Solar Radiation mls
Total Distillation of Water 306 354 506 501 607 637 537 515 507 487 363 313
Maximum Distillation of 14.2 16.6 22.4 21.2 24.5 21.6 22.8 20.1 19.3 23.2 15.2 16.0
Water for 24 hours
Visibility (vis 1000m in
24 hours)
No. of Fog Days 7 7 4 Nil 2 Nil 1 1 2 6 Nil 7

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APPENDIX 2 – TYPICAL SEWAGE ANALYSIS

The following is typical sewage analysis, as recorded at Mafraq sewage treatment works
inlet, during the period January to December 1998.

pH TSS BOD NH3 COND

No. of samples 64 64 64 64 121


Mean 7.0 182 233 27 3192
Maximum 7.2 259 340 30 3800
Minimum 6.9 123 170 24 3000
Standard deviation 0.1 28.2 39.4 1.4 214

Legend to Appendix 2

TSS Total suspended solids (mg/l)


BOD Biochemical oxygen demand (mg/l)
NH3 Ammoniacal nitrogen (mg/l)
COND Electrical conductivity (µ S/cm)

1 12 monthly averages of hourly readings

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APPENDIX 3 – TYPICAL GROUNDWATER ANALYSIS

The following are typical analyses of groundwaters that have been encountered in Abu
Dhabi.

Location pH Chloride (g/l) Sulphate (g/l)

Abu Dhabi Island 6.5 - 8.3 13 - 120 2.2 - 6.1


Mussafah 7.0 - 7.2 148 - 188 2.6 - 4.6
Khalifa City A 6.3 - 7.5 40 - 210 1.5 - 6.8
Khalifa City'B 6.7 - 7.9 70 - 205 2.1 - 3.6

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APPENDIX 4 – TYPICAL POTABLE WATER ANALYSIS

The following is typical potable water analysis, based on data from Umm al Nar desalination
plant.

Parameter Typical values Units

PH 8.3 - 8.8 -
Conductivity 250 - 500 µ S/cm
Total alkalinity as CaC03 20 - 30 mg/l
Hardness as CaC03 20 - 35 mg/l
Chloride 60 - 120 mg/l
Sulphate 5-7 mg/l
Residual chlorine 0.4 - 0.8 mg/l
Calcium 8 - 15 mg/l
Magnesium 4-7 mg/l

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APPENDIX 5 – TYPICAL TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT ANALYSIS

The following is typical sewage effluent analysis, as recorded at Mafraq sewage treatment
works outlet, during the period January to December 1998.

pH TSS BOD NH3 CL2

No. of samples 64 64 64 64 121


Mean 6.9 3.3 0.9 0.4 1.5
Maximum 7.2 9.4 2.4 2.1 2.1
Minimum 6.7 1.0 0.2 0.1 1.1
Standard deviation 0.1 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.3

Legend to Appendix 2

TSS Total suspended solids (mg/l)


BOD Biochemical oxygen demand (mg/l)
NH3 Ammoniacal nitrogen (mg/l)
CL2 Total residual chlorine (mg/l)

1 12 monthly averages of hourly readings

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APPENDIX 6 – MATERIALS SELECTION

1. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

As materials on storm water and groundwater control, sewerage and treated


sewage effluent contracts can constitute up to 60% of the capital costs of a
project it is essential that suitable materials are selected for the long term benefit
of the Client. The design principles adopted for a particular system may reduce
the number of options on material selection either from cost or
geological/geographical standpoint.

Established International Standards and guides such as ASTM, BS, ISO, WIS,
and WRC should be followed in the selection of and specification for construction
materials. Ideally the material product should be covered by an established ISO
9000 Quality Control system and wherever possible a third party quality
assurance scheme.

In selecting standards to specify materials it should be noted that European


Standards are normally written for temperate climates whereas American
Standards can reflect the diversity of climates experienced within the American
continent e.g. Alaska to California in order to achieve materials/products that will
perform under Abu Dhabi climatic and geophysical conditions. It may be
necessary to combine standard specifications with technical data on testing of
materials at temperatures equivalent to those experienced in Abu Dhabi.

2. MATERIALS SELECTION

General

In order to determine if a material is suitable for inclusion in storm water and


groundwater control, sewerage and treated sewage effluent projects, several
factors have to be considered. These include:

• Suitability for intended purpose.


• Availability of material locally and cost.
• Capital cost of selected material offset against reduction or elimination of
maintenance costs.
• Capital cost of installation by Non Destructive Methods (NDM) or
Microtunnelling offset by reduction in disruption to traffic etc.
• Quality of the medium being transported.
• Ground conditions (strata and groundwater).
• Difficulties in handling, transporting and installing the material.
• Environmental conditions within the network such as high temperature, poor
ventilation, high levels of corrosive products and significant sand
accumulation.
• Future use of land.
• Future expansion of the network.

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The selection of materials should strive to maximise all options available to


provide the lowest total installed cost of the system without compromising the long
term performance.

The conveyance of sewage, combined with poor ventilation and high


temperatures creates anaerobic conditions resulting in the creation of hydrogen
sulphide gas, which has the familiar rotten egg smell. This in turn will convert to
sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive to cementitious and ferrous materials.
Hence, if the practice of discharging sewage into the stormwater network is
practised, materials must be selected to withstand such an environment. Caution
should be exercised in industrial areas where dumping of neat waste into
sewerage or drainage networks, in the absence of local legislation, may result in
abnormal high concentrations of corrosive products in specific locations of the
network.

The accumulation of sand and silt in storm water systems is a frequent


occurrence of a predominately arid climate such as in Abu Dhabi. Wind blown
sand and silt can easily enter the system. The lack of vegetation gives higher
overland flows and allows more material to be washed off the open areas than
otherwise would be the case. The pipes and culverts are sized for peak design
flows, which occur infrequently and as a result self cleansing velocities are not
achieved and the sediment cannot be flushed away regularly. Accordingly even
with a correctly designed system, maintenance of the network and removal of
sand and debris is necessary and has to be carried out on routine basis.

In reviewing possible materials for inclusion in storm water and groundwater


control, sewerage and treated sewage effluent, materials have been considered
which are currently included in the existing networks as well as some newer
materials which are now available to the local and regional construction industry.
The two largest volumes of material utilised on storm water and groundwater
control, sewerage and treated sewage effluent systems are concrete and pipeline
materials. This appendix concentrates on the major items.

3. PIPES

Good guidelines to follow are WRC Pipe Materials Selection Manual and EN
1295-1:1997 Structural design of buried pipelines under various conditions of
loading.

The material for a pipeline must be selected to suit the liquid being conveyed and
the installation conditions.

General guidelines on the selection of pipe materials and the properties of pipe
materials are given in the tables below.

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SUITABILITY OF PIPE MATERIALS FOR USE IN STORM WATER, SEWERAGE AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT

Pipe Class Storm Water Sewerage Treated Sewage Effluent Manufacturing Relative Cost
Material Base per m

Gravity Pressure Gravity Pressure Gravity Pressure

Lined and Rigid Yes No No No Yes No UAE Medium


coated RC Saudi Arabia

DI Semi rigid No Yes No Yes No Yes Europe High


USA

GRP Flexible Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes UAE Medium

HDPE Flexible Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes UAE Medium

MDPE Flexible Yes No Yes No Yes No UAE Medium

PVCu Flexible Yes No Yes No Yes No UAE Low

VC Rigid Yes No Yes No Yes No Saudi Arabia Low

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SUMMARY OF PROPERTIES OF PIPE MATERIALS

Property DI GRP HDPE PVCu VC

Specification ISO 2531 ASTM C128 ASTM D1447 ASTM D1784 ASTM C700
ISO 8179 ASTM D3262 ASTM D3035 ASTM D1785 BS 65
AWWA C400 DIN 8074 ASTM D2241 BS EN 295
Coating BS 486 ISO 4427 ASTM D2665 DIN 1230
BS EN 545 BS 5480 BSEN 1452-2
BS EN 548 ISO R160 ISO 11922-1

Maximum Maximum 25 Maximum 25 2.5 Bar to 30 16 Bar 10 Bar


operating Bar Bar Bar
pressure

Structural Semi rigid Flexible Flexible Flexible Rigid


type

Standard 5/6m length 6m max 100m coil up 6m 2m


length to 110mm
dia
> 12m length
above
110mm dia

Jointing Push fit Push fit Butt fusion Push fit Push fit with
spigot and rubber welding, spigot and rubber
socket, gasket collar Electrofusion socket, gasket
Flanged joint, , Flange Solvent
joints Spigot and welding
socket with
gasket,
Slip on collar
flange

Anchor Required Required Not required Required Required


blocks on welded
lines

Fittings DI fittings GRP HDPE PVCu VC limited


fabricated
fittings,
Standard
mechanical
joints

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Property DI GRP HDPE PVCu VC

Deflection Only on long Max 50 More than 50 1 to 50 Up to 200mm


0
allowed length 35D 2.9 ,
For 1000mm
0
0.6

Trench Wide trench Wide trench Narrow Wide trench Wide trench
required trench

Installation Overground, Underground Can be laid Underground Underground


Underground overground
/underground
on slopes

Corrosion Effected by Resistant to Resistant to Resistant to Resistant to


certain soil soil soil soil soil
chemicals corrosion, corrosion, corrosion, corrosion,
Chemically Chemically Chemically Chemically
inert inert inert inert

Weight Heavy Lightweight Lightweight Lightweight Heavy

Handling Cam be Careful Easy handling, Careful Careful


damaged by handling, not easily handling handling, can
heavy cracks if damaged because of be easily
handling badly brittle nature damaged
handled

Hydraulic High Low frictional Low frictional Low frictional Low frictional
properties frictional loss, low loss, low loss, can be loss
loss, pumping cost pumping cost susceptible to
High fatigue, surge
pumping cost failures have
been known

Abrasion Lining Good Good Limited Good


resistance suspect to
abrasion

Breakage Damaged Impact loads Impact Damaged by Damaged by


due to heavy cause cracks resistant, impact impact
impact loads unbreakable

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Property DI GRP HDPE PVCu VC

Installation Easy Careful Easy Easy Easy


installation, installation, installation, installation installation,
larger sizes required Less time but subject to many joints
need required, poor due to small
craneage Only very installation length
large sizes methods
need
craneage

Bedding As dug As dug Selected as Selected as Selected as


requirements material material, dug material, dug material dug material
important to target 90% or processed or processed
support standard granular granular
along entire Proctor materials, materials,
length must target 90% target 90%
be self standard standard
compacting Proctor Proctor

Supports, Supports Not No support Not Not


clamps required applicable, required, applicable, applicable,
Above frequent Above Above
ground clamping ground ground
installation installation installation
not possible not possible not possible

Maintenance Low Low No No No


maintenance maintenance maintenance maintenance maintenance

Leakages Frequent if Normal No Leakage Normal Normal


corroded allowances
for push fit
joints

Surge head High surge Medium Low wave Medium Not suitable
pressure surge velocity, surge for pumping
pressure Less surge pressure
pressure

Water supply Depending Common Recommend Commonly Not


on water ed all over used in applicable
quality world distribution
cement
internal lining
is provided

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Property DI GRP HDPE PVCu VC

Sewage Common in Common in New to UAE Common in Common


pump mains Middle East UAE throughout
World

Test pressure times 1.5 times 1.5 times 1.5 times Air/gravity
operating operating operating operating test
pressure pressure pressure pressure

Design life 35 years 50 years 50 years 50 years 50 years


depending minimum (without brittle
on failures)
environment

Deterioration Corrosion Joints Nil Joint Joint


with time encrustation deteriorate deterioration deterioration
etc encrustation
etc

Availability Imported UAE Local up to Commonly Saudi Arabia


1200mm dia available up
UAE to 400mm dia

UV light Not affected Deteriorates Stabilised Deteriorates in Not affected


in UV UV

Cost High Moderate Moderate Low Low

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GENERAL USE OF MATERIALS IN PIPELINES

Material Trunk 300mm Distribution Services Pumping


Size up to 2400mm ≥50mm, ≤50mm dia Stations
dia generally300mm
to 800mm dia

Storm water Lined and Lined and Not applicable DI


coated RC, coated RC,
GRP, PVCu, VC GRP, PVCu, VC

Sewage Lined and GRP, HDPE, Not applicable DI


coated RC, DI, PVCu, VC
GRP, HDPE,
VC

Treated sewage GRP, HDPE, HDPE, MDPE, HDPE, MDPE DI, MDPE,
effluent MDPE, VC PVCu, VC HDPE

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Structural Behaviour & Classification of Pipes

A buried pipe and the soil surrounding it are interactive structures. The extent of
the interaction and hence the magnitude of the pipe loads arising depends on the
relative stiffnesses between the pipe and the pipe bedding and native soil. Pipes
are generally classed into rigid, semi-rigid or flexible, depending on the degree of
this interaction.

Rigid pipes are those where due to the nature of the pipe material, only very small
diametrical deflections are possible before fracture occurs at a well defined
limiting load. These deflections are too small to develop significant lateral passive
pressure in the pipe zone fill material due to external vertical loading. Thus all the
external load is taken by the pipe itself and bending moments are induced in the
pipe wall. The design of rigid pipes is based upon the concept of a maximum
loading at which failure occurs. Some examples of rigid pipe are reinforced
concrete pipe (RC), vitrified clay pipe (VC) and asbestos cement pipe (AC).

Semi-rigid pipes are capable of being distorted sufficiently without failure to


transmit a part of the vertical load to the pipe zone fill material, thus mobilising a
measure of lateral passive support from the surrounding soil, with the pipe wall
continuing to take the remainder of the load in bending. Resistance to vertical
loading is thus shared between the pipe wall itself and the lateral support from the
pipe zone fill material, the proportions of this distribution depending upon the
relative stiffnesses of the pipe and the soil surround. Some examples of semi-
rigid pipe are ductile iron (DI) and cylinder type pre-stressed concrete.

Flexible pipes are capable of being distorted sufficiently without failure to transmit
virtually all vertical load to the surrounding pipe zone fill material for lateral
support; the proportion of the load resisted by the pipe wall itself is very small.
Flexible pipes are designed on the basis of maximum acceptable deflection, or
strain induced in the pipe wall and resistance to buckling under load. The ability
of the pipe zone material to provide support is a function of its stiffness, or
modulus of reaction. Some common flexible types of pipe are un-plasticised
polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVCu), polyethylene pipe (PE), glass reinforced plastic
pipe (GRP) and glass reinforced epoxy pipe (GRE).

Pipe Bedding

The selection of the proper type of bedding and surround material is important in
the long-term integrity and performance of both rigid and flexible pipes.

Although rigid pipes support vertical loads mostly through their inherent strength
and little support is generated by the horizontal soil reaction, nonetheless the
selection of an appropriate pipe bedding installation can significantly increase its
load bearing capacity by ensuring a more even distribution of vertical loads onto
the pipe itself and also by transmission of the load by the pipe to the trench
formation beneath.

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There is a much greater interaction between flexible pipes and the pipe zone
material. The integrity of a flexible pipe is therefore critically dependent on the
width and degree of compaction of the pipe bedding material and the stiffness of
the native soil. A flexible pipe should be totally surrounded with granular bedding
material. Sufficient trench width each side of the pipe is essential to allow correct
placement and compaction of the granular bed and surround. Incorrect placement
will lead to distortion of the pipe walls. A geotextile membrane is often employed
to avoid loss of fines from the native soil and/or to stiffen up the pipe zone
material.

Due care should be exercised during placement of aggregates so as not to


damage any of the pipes, especially the flexible types which are more susceptible
to such type of damage. Flexible pipes may require import of backfill if the
existing material is too coarse and contains large amounts of sharp pieces.

Joints

Joints are an essential component of any pipeline system providing continuity


between individual pipes. The number and type of joints can considerably affect
cost and timescales for a particular pipeline.

Flanged joints for rigid connections are normally employed for above ground use
and within pumping stations. Cautionary notes should accompany any joints
between GRP and DI flanged pipes/fittings as the correct bolt tightening sequence
should be followed to prevent damage. Nuts, bolts and washers should be
specified to suit the prevailing conditions e.g. stainless steel in wet and/or
corrosive environments.

For buried pipelines it is important to allow for some movement of the pipeline
which occasionally occurs through differential settlement of the soil. There are
three principal types of flexible joint:

• Spigot and socket.


• Sleeve coupling.
• Bolted coupling.

Push fit spigot and socket joints comprise a belled end integrally formed at one
end of the pipe. This has a slightly enlarged internal diameter sized to receive the
spigot end of the next pipe. Sealing of the joint is achieved with flexible
elastomeric gaskets which allow a limited degree of angular rotation and
longitudinal movement without risk of leakage or fracture.

A sleeved coupling comprises a short cylinder into which the machined ends of
the two pipes are inserted. Sealing is affected by two elastomeric gaskets, one
for each end of each pipe, which also allow movement of the joint. The sleeve
can have a raised ring, or central locating register on the inside to ensure that the
pipes are correctly inserted.

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Bolted couplings comprise a cast iron or steel sleeve which is located over the
ends of the two pipes to be joined. Detachable flanges, located outside the
sleeve are bolted together compressing rubber gaskets on the outside edges of
the sleeve to effect sealing of the joint.
All metal parts should have a protective coating e.g. fusion bonded epoxy or
nylon.

Joints can also be formed by solvent welding (PVCu pipes) and in-situ lamination
(GRP pipes). The pipes themselves are flexible and can accommodate limited
differential settlement through longitudinal bending.

For HDPE pipes and fittings two types of fusion welding of joints is available butt-
fusion welding and electrofusion welding. The latter method is expensive and
should be avoided where possible. Universal mechanical couplers are also
available particularly for jointing HDPE to pipes/fittings composed of different
material. Flanged joints can also be formed, generally comprising a slip-on
galvanised mild steel flange restrained by an integral stub return on the pipe end.

Pipe Handling, Storage and Laying

It is imperative that manufacturers’ recommendations for handling, storage and


laying are strictly followed. Each material has its frailties and rejection and repair
strategies should be assessed at tender stage.

The manufacturer should be encouraged to attend site to evaluate the


performance of the contractors’ personnel to handle, store and more importantly
to correctly install and backfill the pipes to provide optimum performance
throughout the lifetime of the pipes.

4. STRUCTURES

Structures within the networks are usually constructed using concrete, either in-
situ poured or with pre-cast elements or a combination of both. Concrete is a
relatively cheap material produced locally using locally sourced materials, cement,
aggregates, clean water, admixtures etc. Approved readymix companies and pre-
cast yards should be selected to provide concrete. Auditing of the facilities is
essential to verify that a quality product is supplied.

A good guide for properties of concrete constituents and properties is provided in


the CIRIA Guide to concrete construction in the Gulf region. Also useful is ACI
305R Hot weather concreting.

Generally two classes of concrete are required to be designed for use on


networks- a structural grade which will reflect the compressive and tensile
strength and durability requirements and a non-structural grade for blinding etc
where strength and durability are not a major requirement.

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Concrete mix designs should be designed to BS 5328 or equivalent. Trial mixes


should be conducted on each trial mix to confirm the suitability and the properties
of fresh concrete and hardened concrete. The approved mix designs should be
continually assessed by frequent site sampling and testing. Limits should be
derived from the trial mix which will govern the quality of the concrete supplied
throughout the remainder of the project using that particular mix design.

Tests for concrete are generally:

• For fresh concrete bleed, setting time, slump and slump retention,
temperature, bulk density.
• For hardened concrete 7 & 28 day compressive strength, density and
durability tests such as rapid chloride penetrability (RCP) test to ASTM
C1202 and /or Water penetration to BS EN 12390-8.

Testing should also be conducted on constituent materials within the concrete mix
e.g. aggregates, water, cement, admixtures, mineral additives to the relevant
standards.

In addition to trial mixes, site dummy trials should be carried out to assess the
ability of the contractor to work and compact the proposed mix designs and the
equipment he will use. The dummies should reflect the structural designs e.g.
shutter material and releasing agent, reinforcement type and spacing, spacers to
be used, wall and floor/base dimensions, curing regime, striking shutters. The
dummy and cubes from the same mix should be cored at 7 and 28 day age and
tested for compressive strength, RCP, Water Penetration and water absorption.
The results should be compared to cube trials. In the event of a dispute on placed
concrete quality, the structure can be cored and tested and the results compared
to the trial.

The dummies should be assessed for finish and defects. The dummies can also
be utilised to provide surfaces for further site demonstrations e.g. repair materials,
coatings, tanking. For tanking demonstrations, pipe entries should be introduced
into the dummy to demonstrate the contractor’s ability to successfully overcome
this detail.

Care should be taken as to the temperature of water being used in the mixes.
Most readymix companies have chillers and large capacity reservoirs to keep
o
water below 5 C, but in Middle East summer months the high temperatures
require the addition of ice to control the concrete temperature. This ice should be
flaked to allow access to more surface area and therefore to melt quicker.
o
Concrete temperature as delivered to site should not exceed 32 C, and no
o
concrete should be poured when ambient temperature is 40 C and rising. Care
should also be taken to shade reinforcement prior to pouring as the surface
o
temperatures of exposed steel can exceed 70 C.

Curing is an important process for obtaining successful concrete structures. Wet


curing is the preferred method although there are many curing compounds that

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could be assessed for use. Caution should be taken that curing compounds do
not affect any finish coats that are required.

Consideration should be given to the new generation of concretes available in the


market. These include cement replacement with mineral additives and self-
compacting concrete. Self compacting concrete as it infers does not require any
compaction and as such there is no need for concrete vibrators and allows a
reduction in manpower.

Reinforced Concrete pipes can differ in their manufacture depending on the


application. GRP concrete surround pipes for sewage application are generally
constructed using the approved structural grade concrete and an applied external
protective coating. A new concrete design may be necessary for these pipes if
they are to be jacked in Non Disruptive Method as opposed to open-cut laying.

RC pipes for stormwater or irrigation are generally produced in a factory with a


factory prepared mix design with a reduced w/c ratio of 0.28-0.30 with integral
HDPE internal liner and a spray applied protective external coating.

All concrete used in construction work must have a certain strength, regardless of
its application. The strength of concrete lies in its ability to resist various types of
forces. These may result from applied loads, from the weight of concrete itself, or
more commonly, from a combination of both. However, a high strength alone
does not guarantee long-term performance of a concrete structure. The durability
of concrete is probably the single most important property.

The durability of concrete can be defined as its ability to resist weathering action,
chemical attack, abrasion, or any other form of deterioration. A durable concrete
should maintain its original form, quality and serviceability when exposed to
surrounding environment for a long service life. Water is responsible for many
types of physical processes of degradation. It also serves as the carrying agent
of soluble aggressive ions that can be the source of chemical processes of
degradation.

Tests and field experience have demonstrated that compressive strength is the
most important single factor controlling the physical degradation of concrete.

Generally two factors leading to the chemical degradation of reinforced concrete


is sulphate and chloride attack. Sulphates and chlorides are found in abundance
in the soil and groundwater in Middle East. The sulphates attack the concrete,
while the chlorides cause corrosion of reinforcing steel. The chemical processes
involved in both cases are complex and these are described briefly in the following
section.

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Versus Sulphate Resisting Cement (SRC)

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The British and American Standards governing Portland Cement classify several
different types of cement based on their chemical compositions. The differences
in chemical composition impart different properties to the cements.

The resistance of Portland cement to sulphate attack is traditionally related to the


proportion of C3A (tricalcium aluminate) in the cement. It is known that C3A
combines with any available pre-setting and post-setting sulphates causing
swelling, when excessive, and thus resulting in early cracking of concrete, caused
by an increase in solid volume. Later, durability problems can also be caused by
crystallisation of calcium sulphate when appreciable amounts of C3A are available
simultaneously with abundant sulphate ions in contacting water or soil.

Experience has shown that the maximum allowable proportion of C3A in cement,
which will not render itself to sulphate-related problems, about 5%. This sets the
upper permissible limit for SRC. Most other types of Portland cements, as
classified by international standards, have maximum C3A limit ranging from about
7% to 15%. Such proportions of C3A can be alarming, if the concentration of
sulphate ions is excessive. OPC has no specified limit on C3A content.
Therefore, it can contain significantly higher amounts of it and any concrete made
with OPC will be more susceptible to sulphate attack.

Another property of OPC which can have a detrimental effect on the performance
of concrete is the heat of hydration. Heat of hydration is the heat generated when
cement and water react. A key concern for concrete in the field is thermal
cracking. Because the cement hydration reactions are exothermic, large
temperature gradients of the order of 50°C may be generated within a concrete
structure. The large temperature gradients can cause thermal cracking. The
major components which contribute to the heat of hydration in Portland cement
are tricalcium aluminate, tricalcium silicate, tetracalcium aluminoferrite and
dicalcium silicate. The combined content of the aforementioned components of
cement are significantly lower in SRC than in OPC. Thus, as a consequence
SRC will generate less heat during the hydration process. No concreting should
take place at above 40°C.

Classification and Applicable Standard

There are five general types of cement classified by ASTM C 150. The five types
are designated as Type I through Type V with each classified for a particular type
of application based on its properties. OPC in designated as Type I and SRC is
designated as Type V.

Additives

Relatively small quantities of other materials, called additives or admixtures, can


be added to concrete to modify its properties in either fresh or hardened state.

The additives used to modify the properties of fresh and hardened concrete are of
the following general categories:

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• Water-reducing admixtures and workability aids.


• Superplasticizers and high-range water-reducing admixtures.
• Air-entraining agents.
• Accelerators.
• Retarders.
• Waterproofers.
• Viscosity modifiers.
• Resin bonding agents.
• Fungicides, etc.

Additives may be useful for specific applications, but the claims made by
manufacturers of such products should be well supported with long-term, impartial
test results. This applies particularly to the permanence of the effects claimed.
Extensive field data indicates that most of the additives used to modify the
properties of fresh concrete, to aid in its ease of placement, such as water-
reducing agents, workability aids, and superplasticisers, do possess the
properties claimed and are beneficial. The other types of admixtures which
modify the properties of hardened concrete have frequently been controversial
with conflicting results, obtained by different parties involved in testing.
Additionally, the increase in unit costs of concrete associated with the use of such
types of additives cannot be justified, in most cases.

In general a well-produced Portland cement concrete, with appropriate protection


when necessary, will perform adequately for the duration of its design life without
the need for any expensive property-modifying additives. The following simple
measures if implemented and strictly enforced will significantly improve the
durability of concrete.

• Use of high quality aggregates.


• Use of minimum water-cement ratio.
• Avoidance of segregation and elimination of bleeding.
• Use of properly-timed finishing and curing procedures.
• Use of surface barrier sealants and coatings, waterproofing membranes,
etc.

The use of concrete additives should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis for


particular applications. If required to be used, ASTM C 494 and BS 5075 should
be referred to for specification requirements.

Cement Replacement

There are cementing materials which are sometimes used as a partial


replacement of Portland cement in concrete mixes to achieve certain desired
properties. Such types of materials are widely used in Europe , USA and recently
in Middle East for special applications. They have certain benefits over plain
Portland cement concrete and their use should be evaluated on an as-needed
basis Three of the most common one are briefly discussed below:

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• Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS) is a by-product of the


manufacture of iron from iron ore. The slag is composed mainly of calcium
and magnesium silicates and alumino-silicates. Blending of GGBS with a
Portland cement produces a slower and sometimes useful strength gain.
BS 6699 gives composition and performance requirements for GGBS.
GGBS is available in the Gulf region and is manufactured to high standards.
Its use increases density and also provides good resistance to sulphates. A
maximum cement replacement of 70% GGBS / 30% OPC is allowable and
is recommended in Europe for concreting in the marine environment.
• Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) is the most common cementing material used as
a partial replacement in concrete. It is electrostatically precipitated from the
exhaust fumes of coal-fired power stations burning pulverized coal.
Blending of PFA with Portland cement slows the rate of strength
development, however, the cement may generate heat less quickly and be
more chemically resistant in some circumstances. BS 3892 gives
composition and performance requirements for PFA.
• Condensed Silica Fume (Micro-Silica) is a high purity silica cementing
material which has a very fine particle size; much smaller than that of
cement or PFA. Silica fume is so fine that it can be used to fill the
interstices between cement particles and it reacts rapidly with the cement
hydration products. It is a by product of the production of silicon and ferro-
silicon being collected by cooling and filtering of furnace gases. When
mixed correctly in proportion of 6% to 10% by weight of OPC, silica fume
can result in producing dense concrete with very high strengths and good
chemical resistance.

Protective Coatings

The service environment of network structures such as pipelines, manhole


chambers, culverts, outfalls, etc. in the Middle East is considered very severe.
High concentrations of sulphate and chloride ions in the surrounding soil,
groundwater and effluent present an environment which makes all concrete
structures susceptible to significant deterioration.

New structures should be properly protected by means of surface barrier sealants,


coatings and membranes in order to preclude chemical attack and significantly
improve their service life. The protection of concrete will be necessary for buried
structures such as manholes, inlets, catch basins, etc. and exposed structures
such as outfalls, headwalls, etc.

For buried structures, an external waterproofing membrane should be applied to


all surfaces. The membrane can be either a self-adhesive or a torch applied type,
consisting of a rubberised bituminous compound coated to one side of a
polyethylene sheet. Alternatively, the waterproofing membrane may be a liquid-
applied elastomeric type.

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It is worth noting that in hot climates, problems can be experienced with the self-
adhesive type membrane. The bituminous compound softens in the heat when
exposed to direct sun light for long periods of time and the membrane will sag or
slide off vertical surfaces if not protected or backfilled soon after application. The
torch applied protective membrane is much more robust in this regard. The
membrane, whatever the type, should be protected by a suitable protection board
so that no damage occurs to it during backfilling operations.

For structures in splash zones such as headwalls, outfalls, etc. where exposure to
wetting and drying cycles are expected, the exposed concrete surfaces can be
coated with a protective coating, 200-500 microns thick, of a solvent free
polyamide epoxy coating or other suitable system such as an elastomeric aliphatic
acrylic on a silane-siloxane, impregnating, internal membrane-forming, concrete
clear sealant primer. Regardless of the system used, the coating system should
possess the following performance criteria, as a minimum:

• Reduction in water absorption per BS 1881, equal to or better than 95%.


• Reduction in chloride ion penetration per BS 1881, equal to or better than
99%.
• Solids content by volume, equal to or better than 50%.
0
• Crack spanning ability, equal to or better than 2mm at 40 C.
• Tear resistance per ASTM D624, equal to or better than 12 N/mm.
• Resistance to salts, alkalies and acids.

Reinforcement Bars

Steel reinforcing bars when correctly placed in a concrete matrix permit it to be


formed into many structural shapes which can carry bending moments and their
associated tensile and shear forces. Without this reinforcement it would not be
possible to, cost effectively, construct most of the structures commonly found
today in infrastructure projects.

Plain (Uncoated) Reinforcing Steel

Until recently the reinforcement employed in reinforced concrete was almost


always uncoated mild or high yield steel. If the workmanship was poor: e.g.
reduced cover to the reinforcement; porous concrete, or the environmental
conditions were aggressive: e.g. heat; moisture; high concentration of chlorides,
then corrosion of the steel would ensue reducing the service life of the structure.

Corrosion of steel is an electrochemical process. In order for corrosion to take


place in reinforced concrete, there must be an anode where oxidation occurs, a
cathode where reduction occurs, an electrical conductor and an aqueous medium.
Both oxygen and moisture must be present in order for corrosion to occur.

Normally the alkaline environment of concrete provides a natural degree of


protection against corrosion to the reinforcement where the pH is greater than
12.5. The concrete reacts with the steel to form a film that passivates and

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protects the steel. However, the intrusion of chlorides and other ions can
undermine these protective qualities and may cause steel corrosion if oxygen and
moisture are also present. These conditions are commonly found in stormwater
drainage concrete structures which are constantly exposed to seawater and saline
groundwater. Chlorides may also be introduced into the concrete through
admixtures, contamination of concrete mix water or aggregates, or industrial
chemicals.

Carbonation can also reduce the alkalinity of concrete thereby permitting


corrosion to occur Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide from the air reacts
with the concrete to reduce concrete's pH. It is normally a slow process, but can
be accelerated by concrete cracking or inadequate concrete cover.

Other factors that influence the rate of corrosion include concrete resistivity and
permeability, temperature and depth of cover over the reinforcement. Cracks in
concrete and galvanic effects due to contact with dissimilar metals can accelerate
corrosion.

When steel corrodes it forms rust that occupies a volume much greater than the
steel itself. This exerts large expansive stresses on the surrounding concrete.
Because the concrete is low in tensile strength, these stresses cause cracking
and spalling, which, in turn, permits faster ingress of water, oxygen and chlorides,
accelerating corrosion further.

Corrosion adversely affects the structural performance of reinforced concrete by


reducing the cross-sectional area of the steel thus reducing the steel’s tensile
strength.

Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel

Epoxy coatings were first used on steel reinforcing bars on a bridge deck
constructed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1973. Since that time, it has been
increasingly adopted throughout North America, Europe and the Middle East for
reinforced concrete structures exposed to potentially corrosive environments.
Fusion-bonded epoxy coating principally protects against corrosion by serving as
a barrier that isolates the steel from the oxygen, moisture, and chloride ions that
are needed to cause corrosion. Epoxy coating also has a high electrical
resistance, which blocks the flow of electrons that make up the electrochemical
process of corrosion. In addition to serving as a circuit breaker, the coating
protects in a way that is less obvious by reducing the size and number of potential
cathode sites, which will limit the rate of any corrosion reaction that could occur.

Epoxy coating starts out as a dry powder. When heated, the powder melts and its
constituents react to form complex cross-linked polymers.

The process of applying fusion-bonded epoxy coating to steel reinforcement


involves four major steps of surface preparation, heating, powder application and
curing.

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Proper surface preparation is important to assure that maximum adhesion will


develop at the interface between the steel and the coating. The reinforcing steel
is blast-cleaned to a near white metal finish using abrasive grit. This cleans the
steel of contaminants, mill scale and rust. It also roughens the surface in order to
give it a textured, anchor profile which provides mechanical anchorage. Texturing
the surface also facilitates adhesion by increasing the exposed surface area of the
steel and by providing more opportunity for the coating to chemically bond.
Chemical pre-treatments are sometimes used to supplement blast cleaning and
improve the long term adhesion of the coating.

After blast-cleaning, the bars are heated to approximately 2300C. using electrical
induction heaters. The heated bars are then passed through a powder spray
booth where dry epoxy powder is emitted from a number of spray nozzles. As the
powder leaves the spray nozzle, an electrical charge is imparted to the particles.
These electrically charged particles are attracted to the grounded steel surface
providing an even coverage of the coating. When the dry powder hits the hot
steel, it melts and flows into the anchor profile and conforms to the ribs and
deformations of the bar. The heat also initiates a chemical reaction that causes
powder molecules to form the complex cross-linked polymers that give the epoxy
coating its beneficial properties. Following powder application, the coating is
allowed to cure for a short period of approximately 30 seconds during which it
hardens. To facilitate handling, the curing period is often followed by an air or
water quench that quickly reduces the bar temperature.

The advantages and disadvantages of epoxy coated reinforcing steel are as


follows:

• Significantly improves the long-term durability of concrete, due to corrosion


resistance against chloride attack.
• Damaged coating can be easily touched up onsite prior to concrete
placement.
• Increased construction cost for reinforced concrete.
• Possibility of damaged epoxy coating being undetected and used.
Damaged coating can make the steel prone to severe chloride attack.
Inspection of epoxy coated rebar should be routinely conducted during
construction to ensure that severe damages are detected and properly
rectified prior to concrete placement. Note that ASTM standards for rebar
coating do allow a certain amount of discontinuities in the coating layer.

Classification and Applicable Standards

Reinforcing steel is classified according to its yield strength or ultimate tensile


strength. ASTM A615M and BS 4449 are two of the most commonly used
standards which govern the requirements of reinforcing steels. ASTM A 775
provides detailed specifications for the epoxy coating material and its application
to the steel.

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5. MANHOLES

Manholes are generally designed in both cast in-situ and precast concrete with
protective coatings on internal and external faces.

For sewage applications the internal liner must be corrosion resistant and
generally GRP with vinylester resin rich outer layer is used. For ease of
construction it has been found that use of double-skin GRP units as shuttering
has proved successful. The units can be manufactured in one piece for small
depths but generally come as separate units that have to be in-situ laminated
together.

For stormwater and irrigation the manholes are constructed by conventional


shuttering methods with external bituminous tanking and an internal coating of
solvent free epoxy resin.

6. MANHOLE COVERS

Manhole covers are used to provide access to manholes and chambers which are
typically constructed with a frame cast into the top opening area. Manhole covers
are then installed in the frames to be flush with the top of the structure. The
manholes are often located within road carriageways or footpaths and are thus
subjected to vehicular and pedestrian traffic. In addition to being capable of
withstanding applied loads, the covers must be durable.

Many different types of materials, such as reinforced concrete, steel, and


aluminium have been used for manhole covers but the most common material
now in use is ductile cast iron. The early manhole covers were manufactured
from grey cast iron which contains filamentous graphite particles. This has good
corrosion resistance but is susceptible to brittle fracture and has to be
manufactured in heavier sections to offset this characteristic. Today most
manhole covers are manufactured from ductile cast iron which contains
spheroidal graphite particles which reduces the risk of brittle fracture by providing
slightly greater elasticity. Lighter sections can therefore be manufactured than for
an equivalent strength grey cast iron cover making it easier to lift. However it is
less corrosion resistant. Cast iron manhole covers are manufactured in several
countries in the Gulf region, Europe and Australia. Care should be taken to the
quality of the products offered both from a structural point of view and aesthetics.

For sewage manholes and chambers the frames need to be gastight and
watertight. This can be achieved by inclusion of a separate removal plate often
manufactured in GRP with an EPDM rubber seal.

Manhole covers are classified according to load classes in relation to the areas in
which they will be installed. BS EN 124 provides detailed requirements regarding
manhole covers. A durable coating should be applied to cast iron manhole covers
for long-term corrosion protection. The coating should be a solvent-free,

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polyamine-cured epoxy paint, which should be applied to a minimum thickness of


400 microns.

7. STEP-IRONS AND LADDERS

Step-irons and ladders are used to access manhole chambers for maintenance
and inspection. The steps or ladders are permanently attached to the internal wall
of the manhole chamber and upon removal of the manhole cover an operator can
climb down into the chamber. The steps or ladders must have sufficient strength
to resist point loads or pullout forces which may be imparted to it.

The top of the rungs should have a non-slip surface for safety reasons.
Furthermore to avoid failure during use it is of the utmost importance for steps
and ladders to be resistant against corrosion which can result from high
temperatures, humidity, chlorides and hydrogen sulphide gas where sewage
effluent is present.

There are several types of materials which are used for steps and ladders in
manholes which are discussed below.

Step-irons and ladders are manufactured from stainless steel or cast-iron which
are bolted or embedded into the concrete wall of the manhole to allow access.
There are various types of stainless steel available for use in construction. They
are more expensive than normal steels or cast-iron. Of the various types of
stainless steel available, austenitic steel containing nickel and chromium has the
greatest corrosion resistance for use in structural and civil engineering works.
The minimum grade is to be grade 316 S31 to BS 790 Pt. 1. It is durable in most
situations encountered in marine applications with the exception of anaerobic
conditions, which may occur due to marine growth and in stagnant conditions
where the oxygen supply is low. Under these circumstances, stainless steel,
owing to the breakdown of the protective oxide film, is subject to pitting and
crevice corrosion, a tendency that is increased in the presence of chlorides.

To protect metal step-irons from corrosion they can now be obtained in


encapsulated form in which they are totally sealed from the aggressive
environment by either a plastic, e.g. HDPE, or an epoxy resin. The coating needs
to be robust to withstand abrasion and impact loadings but these have generally
proved to be very effective in eliminating corrosion failures. The increased degree
of safety they provide justifies the small additional cost.

Access ladders for manhole chambers can also be manufactured from corrosion
resistant GRP. These are commonly manufactured by hand lay-up or pultrusion
methods. The ladders are normally fixed to the internal wall of the manhole
chamber by means of bolts embedded into the concrete or incorporated into GRP
internal liner. In the hand lay-up method of production, a mould is used to cast a
GRP laminate against it. A mould release agent is applied to the mould followed
by alternating layers of resin and glass fibre reinforcing with hardwood rails and

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rungs until the desired thickness is achieved. The moulding is then allowed to
cure before release from the mould.

The pultrusion process of manufacture generally consists of drawing resin


impregnated glass rovings or other specialist reinforcements, through a heated
die in which cure takes place. However, pultruded GRP has not been very widely
applied to the manufacture of manhole ladders probably due to the ease and
simplicity of the hand lay-up method

8. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

Quality of a material can be defined as the ability to satisfy defined, and implied,
needs. This will often include compliance with national or international standards.
Quality is rarely achieved without a formal system of controls being established,
and implemented. There are three main requirements to ensure that quality
standards can be achieved in a reliable and predictable manner:

• Quality control (QC) which is a system of documented procedures for


manufacturing and inspection.
• Quality assurance (QA) which is the implementation of the quality control
system by routinely providing evidence that all reasonable actions have
been taken to achieve the required quality.
• Auditing which is routinely providing evidence that the quality control system
is being implemented and that all reasonable actions have been taken to
achieve the required quality

Quality management systems are now governed by ISO 9001:2000 Quality


Management Systems – Requirements. It is becoming increasingly recognised
worldwide that mandatory implementation of these standards does significantly
help achieve desired quality standards and Directorate should insist that suppliers
have quality systems in place which are regularly verified by certified external
auditors before their materials are approved for use.

A project is made up of a series of activities that contribute to its success. The


choice of material and a high standard of specification alone cannot guarantee the
satisfactory performance of a drainage system. Improper handling or installation
of a high quality product will render it inferior. For example, GRP pipes are
susceptible to impact damage during installation, which can easily occur without
proper training of operatives and with poor supervision. Such damage is not
easily detected by visual examination and can cause cracking of the fibre-resin
matrix leading possibly to the eventual failure of the pipe.

In concrete construction, the durability of an otherwise superior mix is significantly


reduced if poor placement practices result in inadequate compaction, honeycomb
formation, and insufficient hydration due to improper curing.

END OF SECTION

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SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

SECTION 2

STORM WATER SYSTEM DESIGN

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DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Revision No. Date Revision Description / Purpose of Issue

00 Jan 2004 Updating of Design Standards Manual.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

Approved for Implementation:_______________________________________________

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER SHEET..................................................................................................................... 1
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET .......................................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 3
2.1 STORM WATER SYSTEM DESIGN ..................................................................... 4
2.1.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................. 4
2.1.1.1 Overall System Planning ....................................................................................... 4
2.1.1.2 System Performance Requirements...................................................................... 5
TABLE 1 – PRIORITY GROUPS ........................................................................... 5
2.1.2 RAINFALL & RUNOFF .......................................................................................... 5
2.1.2.1 Storm Profiles........................................................................................................ 5
2.1.2.2 Storm Return Period.............................................................................................. 5
2.1.3 DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 6
TABLE 2 – DESIGN FLOWS ................................................................................. 7
2.1.4 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................. 8
2.1.4.1 Flow Attenuation.................................................................................................... 8
2.1.4.2 Collection ..............................................................................................................9
2.1.4.3 Soakaways............................................................................................................ 9
2.1.4.4 Groundwater Control ............................................................................................. 9
2.1.4.5 Lifting Pumping Stations...................................................................................... 10
END OF SECTION.............................................................................................................. 10

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2.1 STORM WATER SYSTEM DESIGN

2.1.1 GENERAL

2.1.1.1 Overall System Planning

Overall system planning shall take account of the following:

• Stormwater drainage must be considered in the context of an overall


drainage plan. Drainage of each site should be considered for the effect it
may have on the overall drainage area.
• Watershed lines should be identified to establish the drainage basin.
Stormwater collection can then be developed for sub areas to suit outfall
locations and topography and to offer a cost effective solution.
• The approach should reduce drain lengths and hence depths which is
especially important when considering an outfall adjacent to the sea.
• System planning should endeavour to achieve a fully gravitational
arrangement whenever possible.
• Town Planning Development plans indicate the land use within the drainage
area. These plans identify principal roads, access and service roads,
parking facilities and footpaths, residential, industrial and recreational areas
and landscape/park areas. This information should be used to assign
system performance and runoff factors.
• Service reservations are allocated by Town Planning Department and best
use of these should be made to ensure optimum design. Conflict with other
services is always a potential problem and should be considered and
clarified at the earliest.

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2.1.1.2 System Performance Requirements

The performance required is dependent on the importance of the catchment area


and the possible consequences of it flooding.

Areas under consideration should be classified into the priority groups given in
Table 1 below to establish the level of service to be provided.

TABLE 1 – PRIORITY GROUPS

Priority Catchment Type

1 Major roads, freeways, arterials and underpasses

2 Business sector, minor and service roads

3 Residential sector roads

4 Industrial sector roads

5 Open areas, parks and areas of infrequent use and not subject
to building flooding

In the case where the route of a drain travels through areas of differing priority,
the criterion applied to the upstream area of higher importance should be carried
through the downstream area of lower importance.

2.1.2 RAINFALL & RUNOFF

2.1.2.1 Storm Profiles

In the Gulf Region, storms are historically intense, of short duration and very
infrequent. Average annual rainfall in the Abu Dhabi area is generally less than
100mm and occurs on but a few days during the year between the month of
October and April.

Analysis of available rainfall records has produced graphs numbers 1 and 2 for
storm frequencies of 1 in 1 year to 1 in 100 years. Graphs are attached in
Appendix 1 to this section of the DSM.

2.1.2.2 Storm Return Period

The approach to stormwater drainage design should achieve a sensible balance


between cost and acceptable level of performance.

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For the most part of the year, the Abu Dhabi area has no rainfall and it would be
uneconomic to provide a system with a long return period except in very specific
locations.

In Abu Dhabi, storm drainage and foul sewerage are provided as separate
systems. The consequences of flooding in the stormwater drainage system due
to the design storm being exceeded is less of a health hazard than in a combined
system.

In addition, the mode and amount of rainfall allows ample time for draining away
the surface water.

With these prevailing conditions, it is generally considered acceptable to tolerate


some temporary ponding or surface storage of rainfall.

It must also be remembered that stormwater drainage systems have inherent


storage capacities. Actual surface flooding will probably occur at a much lower
frequency, between 1 in 3 and 1 in 5 years, depending upon the amount of
surcharge that the system can tolerate. A system may flow surcharged without
surface flooding.

A 1 in 2 year return period should be chosen for design as standard with a 1 in 5


or 10 year storm being used for critical areas.

2.1.3 DESIGN

Design parameters are as follows:

• General:

a) The design procedure adopted is dependent on the system outlet


condition and whether or not it is submerged.
b) For systems with a free outlet, the design shall use the Rational
Method with pipe sizes chosen to match the design peak flow,
commencing with the most upstream length on the longest line.
c) Where the outlet is submerged normally when outfalling to the sea,
much of the system will be below high tide level and thus will remain
full of water most of the time. In such cases, pipes are sized using a
backwater hydraulic grade line computation commencing at the most
down stream section and using the design flows calculated by the
Rational Method. Total friction loss for the main pipeline must not
exceed available head difference between street level on the most
upstream end and design elevation on outlet. Moreover losses at
manholes and junctions must also be included.
d) Both methods involve reiterative computation to determine the
optimum pipe sizes and it is preferable to carry out detailed design by

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computer to enable the designer to examine system performance and


be assured of its suitability.

• Storm return period:

a) 1 in 2 year generally
b) 1 in 5 to 10 years if area considered particularly sensitive or prone to
flooding
c) However, if a higher level of performance is considered necessary
then this shall be discussed and approved by the Directorate.

• Storm duration for the priority groups defined in Table 1 shall be as given in
Table 2 below.

TABLE 2 – DESIGN FLOWS

Priority Duration Equal To

1 Time of concentration

2 1.5 X Time of concentration

3 3.0 X Time of concentration

4 6.0 X Time of concentration

5 12.0 X Time of concentration

• Rainfall intensity:

a) Use graphs numbers 1 and 2 attached in Appendix 1.

• Runoff coefficients:

a) Paved areas 0.9.


b) Unpaved areas 0.25.
c) Walled plots 0.2.

In low density residential areas it is common practice for individual


properties to have boundary walls which effectively contain the runoff within
the property and delay/reduce potential runoff onto the roads and into the
drainage system. Ignoring the effect of these boundary walls would lead to
unrealistically high flows and uneconomic design.

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• Time of entry:

a) 5 minutes

• Hydraulic design:

a) Design of sewers should be based on equations such as Manning,


Colebrooke-White and Hazen Williams.

• Pipe roughness factors shall be as follows:

a) Manning 0.013.
b) Colebrook-White 0.6.
c) Hazen Williams 140 for pipe diameters >500mm.
135 for pipe diameters< 500mm.

• Minimum velocity:

a) 0.75m/s desirable but dependent on system planning.

• Minimum pipe diameter:

a) Pipes should be sized to take the design flow but with a minimum
diameter of 300mm. Oversizing in the upper reaches of the system
should be avoided as greater flows would be passed more quickly
when the design storm frequency is exceeded. This could cause
flooding in the lower reaches of the system at an earlier stage.

• Minimum gradient:

a) 0.04% desirable but dependent on system planning.

• Collection of runoff:

a) By kerb inlet with catchbasins at 20m to 50m spacing dependent on


road grading and system performance requirements.

2.1.4 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

2.1.4.1 Flow Attenuation

The design philosophy already incorporates an overall attenuation of flow and


provides for some surface ponding.

However, further localised control and balancing of flows should be examined. It


could prove cost effective to store flows from upstream areas and hence reduce
the required carrying capacity of the down stream system.

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Oversized trunk sewers or controlled surface ponding in paved areas are most
suitable for urban areas where land is at a premium.

In some locations where ground conditions allow, overflow to soakaways could


provide a practicable solution.

2.1.4.2 Collection

Wind blown sand is a particular feature of the Abu Dhabi region causing sand to
accumulate against road kerbs. Special measures need to be taken to prevent
the passage of sand into the system to minimise maintenance requirements.

The preferred method of collection of stormwater runoff is by kerb inlet catch


basin structures.

The clearance rate should correspond to the level of service required for the
catchment area with kerb inlets spaced to suit.

Catchbasins should be provided at each kerb inlet and at bends in the collector
drains.

2.1.4.3 Soakaways

Soakaway arrangements should be flexible to suit the requirements of the location


and layout.

Various combinations of chamber/pit and trench or mattress should be examined.

The mattress type has particular suitability where the ground water table is high.

A site investigation should be carried out to determine the soil gradation, structure
and density and hence infiltration rate.

Consideration should be given to the sinking of cased boreholes to sub strata


aquifers to enhance the outflow rate.

2.1.4.4 Groundwater Control

Consideration should be given to installing groundwater collection systems at the


same time as the stormwater system.

French drains comprising porous pipes and granular material wrapped in


geotextile are the preferred arrangement. These can be constructed within the
stormwater drain trench and connected to it at suitable locations.

The drawdown required is normally in the 1.5m to 2.0m range.

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Rates of flow from groundwater systems is relatively low compared to stormwater


design flows. It is not considered to include an allowance for groundwater flows in
the stormwater drainage system.

2.1.4.5 Lifting Pumping Stations

The provision of low lift pump stations should be considered so that the drainage
system can be emptied for maintenance and to keep flow moving through the
system in conjunction with groundwater lowering.

A submersible type station with a suitable capacity should be designed in


accordance with Section 3.2 of this manual - sewerage system design, but taking
account of the following amendments:

• The determination of flow rates shall be based upon the design flow rates
calculated for the run-off area
• Odour control facilities shall not be required for surface water pumping
stations, but consideration shall be given to install more high powered water
jetting facilities than that normally provided for Sewage Pumping Stations.
This will allow for proper cleaning down of the Station before dormant
periods of the year
• Axial type impellers may be considered in addition to mixed flow type
• Screens and macerators are not required for storm water pumping stations
• Because storm water can contain significant quantities of sand, the design
of the sump shall ensure adequate provision to prevent the deposition of
sand
• The area of land required for storm pumping stations shall be considered on
a case by case basis and shall not comply with Table 4E of section 3.2.2.3
of this manual

Health & Safety requirements shall be as Section 3.3 of this manual - Sewerage
System Design

END OF SECTION

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ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

SECTION 3

SEWERAGE SYSTEM DESIGN

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Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Revision No. Date Revision Description / Purpose of Issue

00 Jan 2004 Updating of Design Standards Manual.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

Approved for Implementation:_______________________________________________

Document No. Revision Date Section 3


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Sewerage System Design Page 2
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER SHEET..................................................................................................................... 1
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET .......................................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 3
3.1 SEWERAGE SYSTEMS........................................................................................ 5
3.1.1 SEWERS .............................................................................................................. 5
3.1.1.1 Design Requirement.............................................................................................. 5
3.1.1.2 Design Capacity .................................................................................................... 5
3.1.1.3 System Layout....................................................................................................... 5
3.1.1.4 Site Features......................................................................................................... 6
3.1.1.5 Population/Water Usage Statistics ........................................................................ 6
3.1.1.6 Trade Effluents...................................................................................................... 7
3.1.1.7 Hydraulic Design Equations .................................................................................. 7
3.1.1.8 Design Flows......................................................................................................... 7
TABLE 1 – DESIGN FLOWS ................................................................................ 8
3.1.1.9 Other Criteria......................................................................................................... 9
3.1.1.10 Structural Design................................................................................................. 10
3.1.1.11 Manholes............................................................................................................. 10
3.1.2 PROPERTY CONNECTIONS ............................................................................. 11
3.1.2.1 Limit of Works ..................................................................................................... 11
3.1.2.2 Pipework ............................................................................................................. 11
3.1.2.3 Chambers............................................................................................................ 12
3.1.2.4 Sand Traps.......................................................................................................... 13
TABLE 2 – SAND TRAPS CAPACITIES ............................................................. 13
3.1.2.5 Grease Separators .............................................................................................. 14
3.1.2.6 Petrol/Oil Interceptors.......................................................................................... 15
3.2 PUMPING STATIONS......................................................................................... 16
3.2.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................... 16
3.2.1.1 Location of Pumping Stations.............................................................................. 16
3.2.1.2 Selection of Equipment ....................................................................................... 16
3.2.1.3 Determination of Flow Rates ............................................................................... 16
TABLE 3 – MINIMUM PUMPED FLOWS ............................................................ 17
3.2.1.4 Electrical Equipment............................................................................................ 17
3.2.1.5 Environmental Aspects........................................................................................ 17
3.2.1.6 Arrangement Considerations............................................................................... 18
3.2.2 DESIGN .............................................................................................................. 19
3.2.2.1 Site Investigation ................................................................................................. 19
3.2.2.2 Substructure Configuration.................................................................................. 19
3.2.2.3 General Requirements ........................................................................................ 19
TABLE 4A – DESIGN PARAMETERS................................................................. 20
TABLE 4B – WET WELL ARRANGEMENT ........................................................ 21
TABLE 4C – DRY WELL ARRANGEMENT......................................................... 22
TABLE 4D – SUPERSTRUCTURE ..................................................................... 23

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TABLE 4E – EXTERNAL WORKS ...................................................................... 24


TABLE 4F – ANCILLARIES................................................................................. 25
TABLE 4G – INSTRUMENTATION ..................................................................... 26
3.2.3 PUMPING/FORCE MAINS .................................................................................. 27
3.2.3.1 Hydraulic Design ................................................................................................. 27
TABLE 5 – ENERGY LOSSES THROUGH FITTINGS........................................ 28
3.2.3.2 Other Features .................................................................................................... 29
3.3 HEALTH AND SAFETY....................................................................................... 31
3.3.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS.............................................................................. 31
3.4 TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES....................................................................... 31
3.4.1 ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES............................................................................ 31
3.5 SEWER REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES ........................................................ 32
3.5.1 ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES............................................................................ 32
END OF SECTION.............................................................................................................. 32

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3.1 SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

3.1.1 SEWERS

3.1.1.1 Design Requirement

The Department will approve plans for new systems, extensions to new areas or
replacement sewers only when designed upon the separate system, in which rain
water from roofs, streets and other areas, and groundwater from foundation
drains are excluded.

3.1.1.2 Design Capacity

In general, sewer capacity should be designed for the estimated ultimate


contributing population, except in consideration of parts of the systems that can
be readily increased in capacity.

A similar consideration should also be given to the maximum anticipated capacity


of institutions, industrial parks etc.

In determining the required capacity of sewers, the following factors should be


considered:

• Maximum hourly domestic sewage flow.


• Additional maximum sewage or waste flow from industrial plants.
• Topography of the area.
• Location of the sewage treatment plant.
• Depth of excavation.
• Pumping requirements.

The basis of design for all sewer projects shall accompany the plan documents.
More detailed computation may be required by the Department Design Sub-
Committee for critical projects.

3.1.1.3 System Layout

The layout should take account of the following:

• Best use of available reservations should be made to ensure economy of


design.
• Sewer depths should be sufficient to accommodate not only all existing
properties but also any future properties likely to be erected within the area.
In certain cases, the depth of basements may need to be borne in mind.
• Where main sewers are laid at considerable depths it may be more economic
to lay shallow rider sewers to receive the local house connections and to
connect the riders at a small number of convenient points into the main sewer.

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• Consideration should be given to the likely form and method of construction


as a consequence of depth and other factors such as nature of ground,
groundwater and the proximity of foundations, services etc.
• Sewers should generally be kept as short as possible and unproductive
lengths avoided.
• Sewer gradients should be chosen to ensure velocities are high enough to
prevent deposition of solid matter in the invert.
• Where a scheme is to be developed in phases, consideration should be given
to the likely flows following the initial stages of construction so that self
cleansing velocities are attained at times of peak flow each day.
• The route and depth of a new sewer should take account of land where there
is a possibility of future development.
• Steep gradients/high velocities should be avoided to reduce problems of
turbulence and the consequent gas/odour release and increased corrosion
potential.
• Adequate access provision for maintenance
• Consideration should be given to such aspects as:

a) The position of other existing or proposed services.


b) The proximity of existing buildings and their foundations.
c) The nature of the road construction.

• The impact of the construction of the sewer and subsequent maintenance


activities upon road users and the general public.
• When areas are being improved or redeveloped the possibility of replacing
the existing sewerage system should be considered with a view to its
relocation to a more suitable layout.
• Septicity development should be avoided as far as possible.

3.1.1.4 Site Features

Information on topography, below ground conditions, existing services, service


reservations, future development etc should be collected.

Ground investigation should be considered in the light of the knowledge of site


conditions already gained and of the probable disposition and depths of
excavation.

The positions of all existing services should be ascertained as accurately as


possible and physically checked by exploratory holes if considered necessary

Service reservations are prescribed by Town Planning Department.

3.1.1.5 Population/Water Usage Statistics

Potable water consumption is not monitored and hence statistics are not available
for assessment.

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In this region a large quantity of potable water is drawn from the distribution
system and used for irrigation purposes both for private developments and by the
Agricultural Section.

3.1.1.6 Trade Effluents

The discharge of trade effluents to a sewer is subject to conditions prescribed by


the Department. Compliance with such conditions may require the discharge to be
pretreated.

3.1.1.7 Hydraulic Design Equations

Design of sewers should be based on equations such as Manning, Colebrooke-


White and Hazen Williams

Pipe roughness factors shall be as follows:

• Manning 0.013.
• Colebrook-White 0.6.
• Hazen Williams 140 for pipe diameters >500mm
135 for pipe diameters< 500mm

3.1.1.8 Design Flows

• Per capita flow:

a) Sewer systems shall be designed on the basis of details given in


Table 1 below.

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TABLE 1 – DESIGN FLOWS

Development Type Occupancy rate Daily Flow Litres/Head

Low Cost Residential 12 - 16 180

Medium Cost Residential 12 - 16 225

High Cost Residential 12 - 16 275

Large Villas/Palaces 15 - 50 275

High Rise Number of flats X 5 275

Educational Number of pupils + staff 70

1
Hospital Number of beds + staff 350

Commercial Number of staff 50

2
Mosques Floor area m 100

Wet Industry Not applicable Varies to be advised

2
Dry Industry Number of staff 50 at 8 per m

Army Camps Number of occupants 100

1 Number of persons taken as twice the number of beds

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• Peak flow.

Sewers shall be designed on a peak flow basis using one of the following
methods:

a) The ratio of peak to average daily flow as determined from the


equation Qmax / Qave = 18 + √P / 4 + √P where P is the population in
thousands.
b) Value established from a study acceptable to the Directorate.
c) Use of other values for peak design flow if justified on the basis of
extensive documentation

3.1.1.9 Other Criteria

• Depth of flow:

a) The design depth of flow should be 0.7 of the pipe diameter at peak
flow.

• Minimum pipe diameter:

a) No gravity sewer conveying raw sewage shall be less than 150mm in


diameter.

• Minimum and maximum velocity:

a) The minimum velocity should be about 0.75 m/s at peak flow and in
general the maximum mean velocity should not exceed 3 m/s at the
design depth of flow.

• Minimum gradient:

a) 150mm diameter 0.75%.


b) 200mm diameter 0.30%.

The Operating Division shall be notified of those locations where gradients are
less than those associated with minimum velocity.

• Maximum depth to invert:

a) Nominally 10m.

• Minimum cover:

a) Without protection 1.2m (depth to top of pipe).


b) With protection 0.5 m (depth to top of protection).
c) Under existing services 0.3m (minimum distance between).

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• Protection:

a) Concrete bed and surround.


b) Bunds can be used in ground to be raised if initial cover is 1.0 to 1.5m.

When at shallow depth beneath highway then design check to be carried out.

3.1.1.10 Structural Design

• Soil loading:

a) Use the Marston formulae

• Superimposed loading:

a) Use highway design standards as appropriate.

• Bedding factors (or load factors):

a) Refer to standard drawings.

• Pipe strength:

a) National standards specify strengths for diameters and class of rigid


pipe.
b) For flexible pipe use the Spangler equation. The initial pipe stiffness
should be used for calculating the initial pipe deflection expected after
backfilling. For long term deflection, the pipe stiffness taken as 0.4 x
initial pipe stiffness for GRP pipes and 0.2 x initial pipe stiffness for
PVCu pipes.

3.1.1.11 Manholes

• Location:

a) At changes of slope in pipeline.


b) At changes of direction.
c) At junctions including property connections.
d) At changes of pipe diameter.
e) At termination of sewers.
f) At any designated special locations.

• Spacing:

a) 150mm up to 60m.
b) 200mm to 500mm up to 100m.
c) 600mm to 1000mm up to 120m.

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A greater spacing of 120m or more may be used for larger sewers.

• Types:

a) Refer to standard drawings.


b) Use of manholes is preferred on 200mm diameter. pipes if depth is less
than 2.0m.

• Manhole cover levels:

a) Paved areas cover level = final paved level.


b) Landscaped areas cover level = final ground level +0.1m.
c) Open, unpaved areas cover level = final ground level +0.25m.

• Manhole covers:

a) Rectangular 600mm x 750mm.


b) Circular 750mm diameter.

• Drop manhole or backdrop connection:

a) Use to be limited to unavoidable situations.


b) Minimum drop for 150mm diameter pipe is 0.7m.
c) See standard drawing.

3.1.2 PROPERTY CONNECTIONS

3.1.2.1 Limit of Works

• Works within property lines:

a) Refer to "Developer's Guide to Building Drainage."

• Future connection provision:

a) A chamber to be constructed in the approved reserve at the boundary of


each known plot such that a connection can be made at any time in the
future. Approval is required from the Directorate for each Contract.
b) Also, stub pipes to be incorporated in selected manholes to facilitate
system extension and property connection of possible future
development.

3.1.2.2 Pipework

• General arrangement:

a) Each plot to drain separately to an inspection chamber outside


boundary.

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• Minimum diameter:

a) 150mm. 100mm pipes may be used if necessitated by existing


drainage.

• Gradient:

a) Minimum 0.75%.
b) Maximum 10%.

• Minimum Cover:

a) Without protection 1.2m (depth to top of pipe).


b) With protection 0.5m (depth to top of protection).
c) Under existing services 0.3m (minimum clearance between
services)
If plot internal system requires, then minimum cover with protection can be
reduced to 0.3m.

• Protection:

a) Concrete bed and surround. When at shallow depth beneath highway


then design check to be carried out.

3.1.2.3 Chambers

• Classification:

a) Refer to standard drawings.


b) Non standard chambers may be required to accommodate the
arrangement and number of outlets from the property internal drainage
layout. Also in restricted areas where plan area/depth requirements are
not available.

• Spacing:

a) Spacing of collection chambers and inspection chambers should be


between 20m and 50m.

• Chamber cover levels:

a) Paved areas cover level = final paved level.


b) Landscaped areas cover level = final ground level +0.1m.
c) Open and unpaved areas cover level = final ground level +0.25m.

• Chamber covers:

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a) Rectangular 600mm x 750mm.


b) Circular 750mm diameter.

• Venting:

a) Should be provided at head chamber of every branch if not already


installed within the property and should extend to 1m above roof of
building.

3.1.2.4 Sand Traps

Sand traps should be installed on property connections where required and


approved by the Directorate.

• Location:

a) The trap should be installed at the upstream end of the property


connection and upstream of the grit separator or petrol interceptor. It
should be located to afford adequate access for maintenance and
emptying.

• Capacity:

a) As per German Standard DIN 1999 Part 2, provide recommended


minimum capacities for flows up to 6 l/s as follows.

TABLE 2 – SAND TRAPS CAPACITIES

Flow (l/s) 2 3 4 5 6

Internal
Dimensions 1000 X 800 1400 X 800 1750 X 1000 2000 X 1000 2500 X 1000
mm

Minimum
Capacity 520 840 1400 1800 2500
Litres (l)

Also the minimum capacity for car wash plants should be 5000 litres even
when the rate of flow is under 6l/s.

These capacities assume an emptying schedule which ensures that only half
the trap capacity has been utilised and a maximum interval of six months.

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For a more frequent emptying schedule of say once per month, the following
guidelines can be used:

a) For every l/s wastewater throughflow, a multiple of 100 litres of trap


capacity shall be provided for an anticipated small accumulation of
sediment.
b) For every l/s wastewater throughflow, a multiple of 200 litres of trap
capacity shall be provided for an anticipated normal accumulation of
sediment.
c) For every l/s wastewater throughflow, a multiple of 300 litres of trap
capacity shall be provided for an anticipated large accumulation of
sediment.

3.1.2.5 Grease Separators

Property connections to such premises as catering establishments, butchers and


meat factories, fish processing establishments and some aspects of slaughter
houses first require the elimination of grease. The wastewater should be taken to a
grease separator prior to connection to the sewer.

• Location:

a) Grease separators should be provided as closely as possible to the


outlet from the premises and wherever possible in the open and away
from traffic but readily accessible for cleaning.

• Arrangement:

Provision of the following is emphasised.

a) Adequate ventilation.
b) Odour seals to upstream outlets like flow drains and to the separator
outlet.
c) Secure covers.
d) Adequate access to all parts requiring maintenance including the inlet
and outlet pipes.
e) A minimum gradient of 1 in 50 on the inlet pipe.

• Capacity:

Provide, according to German Standard DIN 4040, a period of stay of


wastewater in the separation compartment as follows:

a) 3 mins minimum for 2 l/s to 9 l/s throughflow.


b) 4 mins minimum for 10 l/s to 19 l/s throughflow.
c) 5 mins minimum for 20 l/s and over throughflow.

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For example a catering establishment serving 400 hot meals per day will
discharge a peak flow of around 4 l/s. A further 0.25 l/s should be added for
every additional 100 heads.

Also consider the following:

a) Compartment water surface should be 0.25m2 per l/s inflow.


b) Ratio of width and length should be 1 : 1.8.

3.1.2.6 Petrol/Oil Interceptors

Petrol interceptors should be provided on the outlets from vehicle washing bays,
maintenance areas and the like prior to connection to the sewer.

• Location:

a) Interceptors must be installed as closely as possible to the point of


wastewater source. Adequate access is essential so that the removal
of its contents can be conveniently and effectively carried out.
Interceptors should not be installed in closed premises.

• Arrangement:

Provision of the following shall be taken into consideration.

a) Adequate ventilation.
b) Odour seals at inlet and outlet.
c) Secure, non inflammable covers.
d) Uniform flow through the separation compartment.

• Note:

a) Domestic wastewater may not be taken to the interceptor.


b) Pumping installations must be located after the separation of the
petrol/oil.
c) Collection chambers are normally provided into which the separated
petrol/oil is drawn off. This enables further separation in a non-agitated
environment.

• Capacity:

Comply with the following recommendations.

a) For vehicle washing facilities allow 2 l/s per wash line.


b) Size of separator should be based on double the wastewater flow.
c) For light liquids retention time should be a minimum of 3 minutes up
to a design flow of 20 l/s. For higher flows an additional minute can
be added per 10 l/s increase.

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d) For vehicle maintenance bays where heavier liquids can be expected


the retention time should be increased to 6 or even 9 minutes.
e) Width to length ratio should be 1 : 1.8.

Specialist input should be sought for the provision of a purpose designed


interceptor for wastewater from commercial or industrial manufacturing
processes.

3.2 PUMPING STATIONS

3.2.1 GENERAL

3.2.1.1 Location of Pumping Stations

The pumping station shall be readily accessible by maintenance vehicles during


all weather conditions. The facility should be located off the trafficway of streets
and alleys.

Pumping stations shall be of the submersible type designed in accordance with


the typical pumping station layout drawings in Section 6.

Pumping stations’ structures and electrical and mechanical equipment shall be


protected from physical damage and fully operational and accessible during the
25 year flood.

3.2.1.2 Selection of Equipment

Commercially standard available pumps should be chosen and should be capable


of impeller adjustment to modify output.

Pump type, size and numbers shall be selected to achieve the desired maximum
and minimum pumping rates and so accommodate the variations in rate of
discharge from the station.

Pumping stations serving only a small tributary area shall have a minimum of two
identical units, either one capable of handling the design flow.

In large stations the number of duty pump and standby units should be chosen
appropriate to the strategic importance of the station. The possible
consequences of pump failure at a time of peak incoming flow or with one
pumpset undergoing maintenance at such a time should be considered

3.2.1.3 Determination of Flow Rates

In pump selection the following flow rates shall be considered:

• The design peak flow.


• The initial and design average flow.

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• The initial minimum flow.

The pumps shall be capable of handling the design peak flow.

The initial and design average flow rates shall be considered for efficient
operation of the equipment whereas the initial minimum flow rate shall be
considered in sizing the force main so that the solids at low velocity may not plug
the main.

Initial minimum flows to be pumped may be approximated by using the multipliers


in Table 3 below.

TABLE 3 – MINIMUM PUMPED FLOWS

Average Flow 50 500 2500 5000


l/s

Minimum Flow 0.25 0.35 0.45 0.50


Factor

3.2.1.4 Electrical Equipment

Electrical equipment located in the wet well shall be suitable for use under
corrosive conditions.

A fused disconnecting switch located above ground shall be provided for all
pumping stations. When such equipment is exposed to weather, it shall meet the
requirements of weather equipment (NEMA IP65 or approved equal).

3.2.1.5 Environmental Aspects

Pumping stations are conspicuous by their function and every effort should be
made to disguise them and reduce to a minimum their environmental impact.

Architectural and layout design and materials should be chosen for access roads,
boundary walls, building superstructures and landscaping to ensure that the
general appearance of the above ground structures blend in naturally with the
neighbouring arrangements.

Odour control is of primary importance to ensure that such nuisance does not
arise.

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3.2.1.6 Arrangement Considerations

The following should be incorporated so that the pumping station installation


facilitates operations and maintenance work:

• The provision of facilities and standards of equipment that are considered


suitable and acceptable to the Abu Dhabi environment and are necessary in
the types of pumping stations adopted.
• The provision of all necessary health, safety and welfare features
appropriate to the numbers of personnel and the frequency of visits to the
station.
• Where applicable duplication of incoming sewers, inlet sumps, valves,
penstocks, control panels, pumps and incoming power supplies.
• Pump operation should be automatically controlled using a wet well level
sensing system which sequences pump operation with the rise and fall of
the water surface.
• Consideration of planned capacity in relation to development phasing.
• Appropriate wet well and sewer inlet design to minimise turbulence and air
entrainment and so reduce odour emission, corrosive potential of the
atmosphere and possible pump cavitation. For large stations model tests
should be considered.
• The wet well volume between high level and low level and the number of
pumps should be such that the pumps will not be cycled more often than
recommended by the manufacturer and that the retention time of the
sewage will be as short as possible.
• The lower part of wet well or sump should be shaped to suit the pump
suctions and to prevent deposition of grit and sewage solids.
• Well arranged all flanged pipework including proper support and anchorage,
drainage facilities for emptying isolated pumps and pipework, cross
connections and valves to enable suction lines to be back flushed, flexible
and dismantling couplings and station bypass connection.
• Liberal dimensional tolerance in level and location for all installed items so
that they can be conveniently fitted together and fixed to the structure.
• Good access facilities and working space to and around all equipment.
• Adequate access openings for the introduction and removal of all
operational and safety items.
• Adequate ventilation to all areas to be accessed.
• Exhausted gases from the wet well should be deodorised before discharge
to the atmosphere.
• Provision of proper lighting and electrical power points for portable lights
and tools.
• Hosing facilities for cleaning.
• Floor drainage in the pump well and valve chambers.
• Provision for emptying the wet well and the activated carbon vessels.
• Good access to site for vehicles and plant for maintenance and emergency
considerations.
• Provision of irrigation connection to wet well for flushing.

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3.2.2 DESIGN

3.2.2.1 Site Investigation

Should be carried out to establish:

• Topographical features.
• Subsoil conditions and physical properties of the soil to a depth of at least
1.5 x depth to station foundation.
• Safe allowable bearing capacity of formation.
• Nature of groundwater and its normal level.
• Historical and predicted maximum flood level.

3.2.2.2 Substructure Configuration

• Unless specific or special circumstances prevail the arrangement is circular.


Refer standard and typical drawings.
• In all cases the ground floor slab level should be 300mm above predicted
maximum flood level.
• The wet well should be designed to minimise retention time and ensure still
areas cannot develop which can lead to deposition and accumulation of
solids.
• Pump start/stop levels should be spaced to suit a pumping regime which
produces the best compromise between stop/starts and continuous flow.
The minimum live volume in the sump per pump is V = 0.25 QT where Q is
the pump capacity and T is the minimum on/off cycle time offered by the
pump manufacturer.
• For an installation with several identical duty pumps, the start and stop
levels of all the pumps differ by a constant value determined by the
characteristics of the control system. The difference in levels should be
large enough to eliminate accidental pump starts and is normally in the
range 200mm to 300mm.
• The inlet arrangement shall minimise turbulence and hence emission of
gases.

o o
Side slopes to wet well benching should be a minimum of 40 to 45 .

3.2.2.3 General Requirements

Three pumping station types have been identified which are related to design
flow:

• Type 1 - design flow up to 100 l/s.


• Type 2 - design flow up to 300 l/s.
• Type 3 - design flow greater than 300 l/s.

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The factors and general requirements for each type of pumping station are given
in Tables 4A to 4G below.

TABLE 4A – DESIGN PARAMETERS

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Number of duty pumps 1 2 3

Number of standby pumps 1 1 1

Number of pumps depends on flow regime favoured

Service rating 25 years design life

Type of impeller Mixed flow

Solids handling capacity 100mm

Running hours per day per 8 to 10 hours


pump

Pipework velocity at:

Maximum flow 2.5m/s


Minimum flow 1.0m/s

Maximum velocity through 2.5m/s


valves

Maximum speed 1500rpm

For small pumps up to 5l/s 3000rpm

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TABLE 4B – WET WELL ARRANGEMENT

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Number of wells 1 2 2

Number inlets 1 2 2

Inlet control Penstock motorised or manual

Screens To be used only where required when possibility of large


size material is anticipated

Manual Raked Raked


Either manual or Motorised
automatic Automatic

Macerators Submersible type and used an alternative to screens

Inlet baffle To be considered

Benching Shaped to suit pump suctions and to prevent deposition of


solids

Access Temporary Landings, handrailing and ladders


access used provided only if directed by the
Directorate

Deodorisers Activated carbon or chemical scrubbing units depending


on H2S concentration anticipated

Internal finish Protective liners or coatings

Lifting equipment Portable davit or Provided in stations as overhead


fixed frame crane as fixed installations

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TABLE 4C – DRY WELL ARRANGEMENT

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Number of pumps and 1 duty 1 duty 2 duty


arrangement 1 standby 1 standby 1 standby

At least 1m clear access around


pumps

Station pipework Protective coatings internally and externally

Suction line control Not applicable Isolation valves required

Delivery line control Isolation valves required


Throttling valves not recommended
All valves manual unless size requires motorisation

Station bypass Provision to be considered for each installation

Sump pump provision Not applicable

Access Not required


Internal finishes Protective liner or coating

Lifting equipment Portable davit Fixed permanent motorised lifting


equipment

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TABLE 4D – SUPERSTRUCTURE

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Wet well no superstructure RC cover slab with protective coating to underside


Openings with covers and sealing plates sized and located
to suit access needs

Wet well with superstructure Not applicable Not applicable On large stations
construction
integral with pump
well

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TABLE 4E – EXTERNAL WORKS

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Minimum area of land required 2 2 2


100m 400m 900m

Delineation of boundary Preferably wall with pedestrian and vehicular access for
operation and maintenance

Access At least 6m wide turning circle with hardstanding for


vehicles preferably with loading bay

Landscaping Directorate’s instructions to be obtained

Services Not required Telephone lines for outstation


telemetry and hand set
Water supply for mess room and
possible irrigation

Watchman facilities Toilet facilities required plus mess room fully equipped on
larger stations

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Abu Dhabi Municipality

TABLE 4F – ANCILLARIES

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Small power and lighting Full internal and external site site lighting
provisions All stairways and landings provided with emergency DC
lighting

Fire protection and detection Fire detection and Fire detection, Fire detection,
(Detectors, alarms, portable alarm alarm and alarm and fire
hosereel system, electrical optional fighting system
protection) firefighting

Earthing system All pumping stations rely on earth rods


Recommendation is to use neutral as a PME system

Standby generator Always provide socket for portable generator but on larger
stations fixed generators should be considered

Welfare facilities To be provided

WED supply – Transformer Not applicable Possible space requirement


requirements

Vehicular access for sump to Not applicable Always required to access sump
clean sand debris

Ventilation equipment for Portable only Provide minimum air change capacity
personnel and auxiliary cooling of:
15 per hour during maintenance
5 per hour at other times

Air conditioning Air conditioning of control panel rooms only

Surge protection and auxiliary Sometimes not Always provided


equipment required

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TABLE 4G – INSTRUMENTATION

General Requirement Pumping Station Pumping Station Pumping Station


Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Wet well water level sensor Ultrasonic level detection for sump level monitoring and
pump control

Wet well H2S level sensor None

SCADA equipment Provide data transmission through Etisalat lines compatible


with existing system

Pumping monitoring Hours run only Larger motor units will be fitted with
temperature monitors for alarm and
protection circuits

Flow monitoring Electromagnetic flowmeters to provide integrated flow

Valve status indication None If motorised valves then valve status


indication provided

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3.2.3 PUMPING/FORCE MAINS

3.2.3.1 Hydraulic Design

• Design basis:

a) Equations such as Manning, Colebrook-White and Hazen Williams


should be used.

• Pipe roughness factors shall be as follows:

a) Manning 0.0075
b) Colebrook-White 0.06
c) Hazen Williams 140 for pipe diameters >500mm
135 for pipe diameters< 500mm

• Energy losses through fittings given as equivalent pipe length i.e. factor x
pipe diameter as given in Table 5 below.

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TABLE 5 – ENERGY LOSSES THROUGH FITTINGS

Fitting Factor

Non return valve 45

Gate valve 7

Butterfly valve 45

Radial tee 22

Tee piece 54

Taper 15o - 60o angle 22

Bellmouth exit 9

22½o Bend r=d 7


o
45 Bend r=d 14
o
90 Bend r=d 34

r = ≤ 7d
o
22½ Bend 5

45o Bend r = ≤ 7d 9

90o Bend r = ≤ 7d 18

• Minimum velocity:

a) 1.0m/sec.

• Maximum velocity:

a) 2.5m/sec.

• Minimum gradient:

a) None.

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• Minimum pipe diameter:

a) 100mm.

• Maximum bend:

a) 90o with radius to suit deflection measurement requirements.


b) Sharp bends to be avoided as much as possible.

• Surge protection:

Maximum negative pressure specified as 1.0m water head.

• Means of surge control:

a) Air valves. Means adopted generally depends on dimension of control


required.
b) Regulating valves/Regulating vessels. Preferred method is regulating
vessels. The use of controlled valve closure only as a last option. Air
valves along the main not to be included in surge analysis.
c) Pump flywheel. Pump flywheel not suitable for submersible type
pumps.

• Surge:

a) Pressure and velocity changes can be calculated by the Joukowskey or


an equivalent equation.

3.2.3.2 Other Features

• Minimum cover:

a) Without protection 1.2m (depth to top of pipe).


b) With protection 0.5m (depth to top of protection).

• Pipe bedding:

a) Refer to standard drawings.

• Pipeline protection:

a) Use of concrete slab where required.

• Thrust blocks:

a) See standard drawings.


b) Check manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum bend without
restraint.

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c) Wherever possible blocks should take the form of a cradle wedged


against the undisturbed trench side and design based on the safe
bearing pressure of the ground.
d) Piling may be required to achieve support from the ground at depth,
subject to results of soils investigation.
e) Arrangement should not impede flexibility or expansion.
f) Check for friction factor of safety 1.5, sliding factor of safety 2.0,
overturning factor of safety 2.0 and bearing capacity.

• Washouts:

a) At all low points along pumping main.


b) Refer standard drawings.

• Air valves:

a) At all high points along pumping main. Also, at selected locations to suit
isolation and emptying of main including in vicinity of pumping station so
that station pipework can be dismantled without emptying the whole
main. Maximum spacing in the order of 1000m.
b) Refer standard drawings.

• Provision of access:

a) Cleaning chamber at start of main in vicinity of pumping station for all


diameters and on 100mm and 150mm diameter mains chambers to be
provided at 200m spacing.

• Discharge chamber:

a) Should be so arranged to avoid turbulence or splashing. Vertical drop


pipes should be avoided and the end of the pumping main should
always be full. Surfaces of structure should be protected against
corrosion.
b) Refer standard drawing.

• Twin mains:

a) To accommodate short term/long term requirements of pumping


arrangement. Duplication could be limited to critical lengths if restraints
applied. Also used where pump characteristics do not lend themselves
to combined working through a single main.
b) Space between must ensure no interaction.

• Cross over chambers:

a) At selected locations for isolation and emptying and hence dependent


on individual configuration.

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3.3 HEALTH AND SAFETY

3.3.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Considerations in design to mitigate risks will include but not be limited to:

• The designer must design out the need for entry into all confined spaces
wherever possible.
• Safe access should be provided to all plant requiring maintenance.
• All above ground must be fenced off and inaccessible to the general public.
• Craneage or mobile lifting facilities must be provided for all heavy
equipment.
• Stairways should be equipped with handrailing and toe plates in accordance
with the relevant standards.
• Tripping hazards should be avoided, likewise overhead obstructions.
• Barriers should be provided to prevent falling from height.
• All hazards should be signposted.
• Adequate lighting to be provided wherever access is required.
• Welfare facilities should be provided to allow operatives to clean up after
maintenance work.
• Manholes must be equipped with covers which are secure yet can be easily
removed for maintenance purposes.
• Covers should be a minimum size to allow operatives wearing breathing
apparatus. A minimum of 650mm square should be appropriate in most
cases, but will depend upon the apparatus used.
• Flow isolation facilities.
• Access to long tunnels to allow desilting equipment as necessary.
• Zoning classification should be established for all work carried out on
existing and proposed infrastructure.

3.4 TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES

3.4.1 ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES

A brief summary of the typical purpose and diameter range appropriate for each
technique is presented below.

• Pipe jacking open/closed face. Purpose new installation by tunnelling in


diameter range 900mm and above.
• Microtunnelling closed face. Purpose new installation by tunnelling in
diameter range 300mm to 900mm.
• Directional drilling. Purpose new installation by drilling in diameter range
300mm to 1500mm.
• Impact moling. Purpose new installation by moling in diameter range 20mm
to 90mm. With multiple passes diameter range can be increased to
1000mm.

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• Pipe ramming. Purpose new installation by moling in diameter range 50mm


to 1800mm.
• Non steerable auger boring. Purpose new installation by boring in diameter
range 100mm to 1600mm.
• Guided auger boring. Purpose new installation by boring in diameter range
150mm to 1500mm.
• Heading. Purpose new installation by tunnelling in diameter range man
entry size and greater.

3.5 SEWER REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES

3.5.1 ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES

The acceptable systems for the rehabilitation of sewers are considered to be:

• Cured in place pipe liner.


• Deformed and reformed high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe liner.
• Spiral wound pipe liner with stainless steel reinforcement. Only for sewers
of 250mm diameter and greater.
• Sliplining.

The liner shall be designed to support all combinations of imposed loads including
earth, traffic, hydrostatic etc and have a minimum service life of 50 years. For the
purposes of calculations it shall be assumed that the ground water table is at
ground level. Host pipes shall be considered to be fully deteriorated. The liner
2
shall have a minimum allowable long term stiffness of 2500N/m and be designed
to have a factor of safety of 2.

The normal requirement will be that the liner shall provide the least possible
thickness or decrease in diameter to meet the requirements of this section and
consequently shall be of the close fit type.

END OF SECTION

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ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

SECTION 4

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN

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DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Revision No. Date Revision Description / Purpose of Issue

00 Jan 2004 Updating of Design Standards Manual.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

Approved for Implementation:_______________________________________________

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER SHEET..................................................................................................................... 1
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET .......................................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 3
4.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................ 5
4.1.1 PLANT LOCATION ............................................................................................... 5
4.1.2 FLOOD PROTECTION ......................................................................................... 5
4.1.3 QUALITY OF EFFLUENT...................................................................................... 5
4.1.4 HYDRAULIC DESIGN ........................................................................................... 5
4.1.4.1 New Systems ........................................................................................................ 5
4.1.4.2 Existing System..................................................................................................... 6
4.1.5 ORGANIC DESIGN............................................................................................... 6
4.1.5.1 New System Minimum Design............................................................................... 6
4.1.5.2 Existing Systems ................................................................................................... 6
4.1.6 CONDUITS ........................................................................................................... 6
4.1.7 ARRANGEMENT OF UNITS ................................................................................. 7
4.1.8 INSTRUMENTATION ............................................................................................ 7
4.1.9 FLOW DIVISION CONTROL................................................................................. 8
4.1.10 EMERGENCY OUTFALL ...................................................................................... 8
4.1.11 PLANT DETAILS................................................................................................... 8
4.1.11.1 Unit Bypasses ....................................................................................................... 8
4.1.11.2 Drains.................................................................................................................... 8
4.1.11.3 Painting ................................................................................................................. 8
4.1.11.4 Operating Equipment: ........................................................................................... 9
4.1.12 GRADING AND LANDSCAPING........................................................................... 9
4.1.13 EMERGENCY POWER FACILITIES..................................................................... 9
4.1.14 WATER SUPPLY .................................................................................................. 9
4.1.14.1 General: ................................................................................................................ 9
4.1.14.2 Water Connections:............................................................................................... 9
4.1.15 SANITARY FACILITIES ...................................................................................... 10
4.1.16 SAFETY .............................................................................................................. 10
4.1.17 LABORATORY.................................................................................................... 10
4.1.17.1 General ............................................................................................................... 10
4.1.17.2 Location & Space: ............................................................................................... 10
4.1.17.3 Sinks: .................................................................................................................. 11
4.1.17.4 Ventilation and Lighting: ...................................................................................... 11
4.2 PROCESS DESIGN ............................................................................................ 11

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4.2.1 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT ............................................................................. 11


4.2.1.1 Inlet Works .......................................................................................................... 11
4.2.1.2 Screens ............................................................................................................... 11
4.2.1.3 Grit Removal ....................................................................................................... 12
4.2.2 PRIMARY TREATMENT ..................................................................................... 12
4.2.3 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT................................................................................ 12
4.2.4 SECONDARY SETTLING TANKS ...................................................................... 13
4.2.5 TERTIARY TREATMENT.................................................................................... 13
4.2.6 SLUDGE TREATMENT....................................................................................... 15
TABLE 1 – SLUDGE PRODUCTION DESIGN CRITERIA .................................. 15
4.3 SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS (INCLUDING PACKAGE PLANTS) .................. 17
4.3.1 APPROPRIATE USES ........................................................................................ 17
4.3.2 LOCATION.......................................................................................................... 17
4.3.3 ARRANGEMENT ................................................................................................ 17
4.3.4 DESIGN CRITERIA............................................................................................. 18
4.3.5 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL/REUSE.......................................................................... 19
4.4 SEPTIC TANKS .................................................................................................. 19
4.4.1 LOCATION.......................................................................................................... 19
4.4.2 ARRANGEMENT ................................................................................................ 19
4.4.3 CAPACITY .......................................................................................................... 20
4.4.4 FURTHER TREATMENT OF TANK EFFLUENT ................................................. 20
4.4.5 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL ....................................................................................... 20
END OF SECTION.............................................................................................................. 20

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4.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.1.1 PLANT LOCATION

The following items shall be considered when selecting a plant site:

• Proximity to residential areas.


• Direction of prevailing winds.
• Accessibility by all weather roads.
• Area available for expansion.
• Local soil characteristics, geology, hydrology and topography available to
minimise pumping.
• Access to disposal point.
• Compatibility of treatment process with the present and planned future land
use, including noise, potential odours, air quality, and anticipated sludge
processing disposal techniques.

Where a site must be used which is critical with respect to these items,
appropriate measures shall be taken to minimise adverse impacts.

4.1.2 FLOOD PROTECTION

Treatment works should remain fully operational and accessible during the 25
year flood. This applies to new construction and to existing facilities undergoing
major modification.

4.1.3 QUALITY OF EFFLUENT

The required degree of wastewater treatment shall be based on the effluent


requirements and water quality standards as decided by the Directorate.

To ensure an effluent is satisfactory for reuse, the following effluent standards


shall be achieved:

• BOD 10mg/l.
• SS 10mg/l.
• Ammoniacal Nitrogen < 1mg/l.
• Coliforms < 100/100ml.
• Salinity < 4000 micromho/cm.

4.1.4 HYDRAULIC DESIGN

4.1.4.1 New Systems

The design for sewage treatment plants shall be based on average daily flow 275
l/cap unless water use data or other justification upon which to better estimate
flow is provided. Peak factor on design should be two as a minimum.

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Allowance should be made for recycled works liquors within the proposed plant or
tankered wastes from septic tanks. For commercial flow, the design load should
be the actual peak period discharge plus 10%.

4.1.4.2 Existing System

Where there is an existing system, the volume and strength of existing flows shall
be determined. The determination shall include both dry-weather and wet-
weather conditions. At least one year's flow data should be taken as the basis for
the preparation of hydrograph for analysis to determine the following types of flow
conditions of the system:

• The annual average daily flow as determined by averaging flows over one
year, exclusive of inflow due to rainfall.
• The minimum daily flow as determined by observing 24 hours flows during
dry weather.
• Wet weather peak flows as determined by observing 24 hour flows during a
period of one year.
• Peak hourly flows as determined by observing the maximum hydraulic load
to the plant.
• Industrial wasteflows as determined by flow data, including water use
records, for each of the industries contributing to the sewer system.

4.1.5 ORGANIC DESIGN

4.1.5.1 New System Minimum Design

Domestic waste treatment design shall be based on at least 0.08 kg of BOD per
capita per day and 0.09 kg of suspended solids per capita per day, unless
information is submitted to justify alternate designs.

Domestic waste treatment plants that will receive industrial wastewater flows shall
be designed to include these industrial waste loads. Significant industrial
discharges may need to be separately examined

4.1.5.2 Existing Systems

When an existing treatment works is to be upgraded or expanded, the organic


design shall be based upon the actual strength of the wastewater as determined
from the measurements listed above in 4.1.4, with an appropriate increment for
growth.

4.1.6 CONDUITS

All piping and channels shall be designed to carry the maximum expected flows.
The incoming sewer should be designed for unrestricted flow. Bottom corners of

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the channels must be filleted. Conduits shall be designed to avoid creation of


pockets and corners where solids can accumulate.

4.1.7 ARRANGEMENT OF UNITS

Component parts of the plant should be arranged for greatest operating and
maintenance convenience, flexibility, economy, continuity of maximum effluent
quality and ease of installation of future units.

4.1.8 INSTRUMENTATION

When considering the control regime for a particular works, full consultation with
the Department must be carried out. The choice of automatic or manual control
will depend on the strategic importance of the works, the process item and the
interconnection/relationship required with other sites.

The parameters to be measured/archived are to be agreed and can include flow,


level, pressure, quality, temperature, speed, position, motors, valves etc. Critical
conditions requiring alarm annunciation must be identified.

The Plant Management Information System (PMIS) should consider:

• Main operator interface.


• Local operator interface.
• Discrete displays (non PMIS).
• Facilities such as screen, printers, database etc.
• Alarms, reports, trends, text.
• Ability to hold historical data.
• PLC protocol requirement.

SCADA facilities must be compatible with existing installations. The following


features should be incorporated:

• Microprocesscor based.
• Expansion capabilities.
• Ease of maintenance.
• Components to operate with compatible protocol/language, programmes,
programme development units, file management routines, data storage
facilities etc to the existing system.
• Programme modifying facilities.
• Marshalling station for input/output signals.
• Minimum time delays in signalling.
• Fully operational during periods of mains failure through UPS system.
• Isolating transformers and surge suppression components in modem links
for transmission over land lines.
• Electronic pattern RTU’s.

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Mimic panels should be sized to clearly indicate all operations and process
measuring parameters in the form of a flow line diagram with illuminated symbols
and indicating instruments and should incorporate sufficient spare space to permit
the display of all future plant extensions.

4.1.9 FLOW DIVISION CONTROL

Flow division control facilities shall be provided as necessary to ensure organic


and hydraulic loading control to plant process units and shall be designed for easy
operator access, change, observation and maintenance. Appropriate flow
measurement shall be incorporated in the flow division control design.

4.1.10 EMERGENCY OUTFALL

Storm conditions can double the design flow. Consideration should be given
therefore to providing an overflow at the inlet to the works with connection to the
sea or a lagoon for eventual loss through evaporation and percolation.

4.1.11 PLANT DETAILS

4.1.11.1 Unit Bypasses

Properly located and arranged bypass structures and piping shall be provided so
that each unit of the plant can be removed from service independently. The
bypass design shall facilitate plant operation during unit maintenance and
emergency repair so as to minimise deterioration of effluent quality and ensure
rapid process recovery upon return to normal operational mode.

4.1.11.2 Drains

Means shall be provided to dewater each unit to an appropriate point in the


process. Pipes subject to clogging shall be provided with means for mechanical
cleaning or flushing.

4.1.11.3 Painting

The use of paints containing lead or mercury should be avoided. In order to


facilitate identification of piping, particularly in the large plants, the different lines
shall be colour-coded. The following colour scheme is recommended for purpose
of standardisation:

• Sludge line grey.


• Gas line orange.
• Potable water line blue.
• Chlorine line yellow.
• Sewage line brown.
• Compressed air line green.

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• Water lines for heating digesters -blue with 150mm red bands 750mm
apart.

The contents shall be stencilled on the piping in a contrasting colour.

4.1.11.4 Operating Equipment:

A complete outfit of tools, accessories, and spare parts necessary for the plant
operators use shall be provided. Readily accessible storage space and
workbench facilities shall be provided, and consideration be given to provision of a
garage for large equipment storage, maintenance and repair.

4.1.12 GRADING AND LANDSCAPING

Upon completion of the plant, the ground should be graded. Concrete or gravel
walkways should be provided for access to all units. Surface water shall not be
permitted to drain into any unit.

Provision should be made for landscaping.

4.1.13 EMERGENCY POWER FACILITIES

All plants shall be provided with an alternate source of electric power to allow
continuity of operation during power failure, except as noted below. Methods of
providing alternate source, include:

• The connection of at least 2 independent public utility sources such as


substations. A power line from each substation is recommended.
• Portable or in-place internal combustion engine equipment which will
generate electrical or mechanical energy.
• Portable pumping equipment when only emergency pumping is required.

4.1.14 WATER SUPPLY

4.1.14.1 General:

An adequate supply of potable water should be provided for use in the laboratory
and for general cleanliness inside buildings.

4.1.14.2 Water Connections:

Potable water from a Municipal or separate supply may be used directly for the
following:

• Lavatory.
• Water closet.
• Laboratory sink with vacuum breaker.
• Showers.

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• Drinking fountain.
• Eye wash fountain.
• Safety shower.

4.1.15 SANITARY FACILITIES

Toilet, shower, lavatory and locket facilities should be provided in sufficient


numbers and convenient locations to serve the expected plant personnel.

4.1.16 SAFETY

Adequate provision shall be made to effectively protect the operator and visitors
from hazards. The following shall be provided to fulfil the particular needs of each
plant.

• Enclosure of the plant site with a fence designed to discourage the entrance
of unauthorised persons and animals.
• Handrails and guards around tanks, trenches, pits, stairwells, and other
hazardous structures.
• First Aid equipment.
• No smoking signs in hazardous areas.
• Protective clothing and equipment, such as air pack, goggles, gloves, hard
hats, safety harnesses, etc.
• Portable blower and sufficient hose.
• Appropriately placed warning signs for slippery areas; non potable water
fixtures, low head clearance areas, open service manholes, hazardous
chemical storage areas, flammable fuel storage areas etc.

4.1.17 LABORATORY

4.1.17.1 General

Where required by the Department, treatment works shall include a laboratory for
making the necessary analytical determinations and operating control tests.

The laboratory shall have sufficient size, bench space, equipment and supplies to
perform all self monitoring analytical work required, and to perform the process
control test necessary for good management of each treatment process included
in the design.

The layout should consider future needs for expansion in the event that more
analytical work is needed.

4.1.17.2 Location & Space:

The laboratory should be located on ground level, easily accessible to all sampling
points. It shall be located away from vibrating machinery or equipment which
might have adverse effects on the performance of laboratory instruments or the

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analyst etc. A minimum of 50 square metres of floor space should be allocated


for the laboratory.

4.1.17.3 Sinks:

The laboratory should have a minimum of 3 sinks. Additional sinks should be


provided in separate work areas as needed. The sinks should be constructed of
material highly resistant to acids, alkalis, solvents and salts and should be
abrasion and heat resistant, non-absorbent and light in weight. Trap should be
easily accessible for cleaning.

4.1.17.4 Ventilation and Lighting:

The laboratory should be separately air conditioned, with external air supply for
100% make-up volume. In addition, separate exhaust ventilation should be
provided.

Good lighting, free from shadows, shall be provided in the laboratory.

4.2 PROCESS DESIGN

The designer should liaise closely with the Operational Manager. The general aim
of process selection should be to provide operational efficiency in terms of both
manpower and energy in achieving the required standard.

The nature and relative volumetric proportions of any trade wastes should be
considered.

Sewage treatment works comprise all or some of the following processes:

• Preliminary treatment screenings and grit removal.


• Primary treatment sludge removal.
• Secondary treatment oxygenation and clarification.
• Effluent polishing tertiary and chlorination.
• Sludge handling removal, digestion, drying.

4.2.1 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

4.2.1.1 Inlet Works

Inlet works should be designed for the ultimate flow.

4.2.1.2 Screens

Bar spacing and general requirements are:

• Protection of machinery 50mm (Range 40 - 100).

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• Prevention of blockages 15mm (Range 15 - 20).


• Special application 12mm (Range 10 - 15).
• Screens with bar spacings of less than 40mm in duty situations should be
mechanically raked.
• Maximum velocity through screen bars 0.9m/s (may vary with local
circumstances).
• Minimum velocity through screen bars 0.3m/s.
• Hand raked by-pass screens should be provided with mechanically raked
screens and in line macerator/comminutor/muncher/rotodisintegrator
/Aquaguard units.

3
Volume of screenings for disposal 0.01 to 0.03m /d/1000 population.
• Disposal of screenings by in-line macerators preferred.

4.2.1.3 Grit Removal

Grit tank method of grit removal is preferred.

• The design layout should follow manufacturer's requirements.


• A by-pass should be provided.
• The tanks should be designed for 0.3m/s velocity at maximum flow with the
water level controlled by hydraulic gradient through the plant.
• Organic content to be removed and the organic solution returned to the flow.

4.2.2 PRIMARY TREATMENT

The following criteria should be used:

• Detention time of 1 to 2 hours at average flow.



3 2
Surface loading of 30 to 36m /m /d at average flow.

3
Weir overflow rate in range of 100 to 150m /m/d at average flow.
• Sludge hopper capacity to suit operational method.
• Minimum sidewall depth of 2.0m.
• Rectangular tanks should have a length/breadth ratio 4:1.
• Floor slopes as follows:
o
a) Circular tanks 3 to 9 .
o
b) Rectangular tanks 1 in 100 (self draining slope) with 60
side slope provided at the inlet end on sludge hoppers.

In difficult ground conditions the economics of flat bottomed tanks with associated
scraper mechanisms should be compared.

4.2.3 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

The following criteria should be used:

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Abu Dhabi Municipality

• In sizing the units, consideration must be given to the plant manufacturer's


recommendations.

3
Organic loading of 0.48 to 0.80 kg BOD/m /d. This is based upon settled
sewage, but allowance must be made for any returned liquors etc.
• Aeration period of 4 to 8 hrs at average flow.
• Air requirements for:

a) Surface aeration see manufacturer's requirements.


3 3
b) Diffused air 3.5 to 15m /m at average flow.
3
30 to 55 m /kg BOD removal for conventional works.
3
75 to 115 m /kg BOD removal for nitrifying works.

• Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS).

a) 1500 to 3000 mg/l for conventional works.


b) 2000 to 3500 mg/l for nitrifying works.

The following is suggested:

• Select trial MLSS and by using design BOD, calculate tank capacity.
• Check other design parameters.
• Recalculate capacity if necessary by using adjusted MLSS within the ±20%
range.

4.2.4 SECONDARY SETTLING TANKS

The following criteria should be used:

• Tanks should be designed for the maximum flow to treatment.


• Sidewater depth to be 3.65 to 6m.
• Overflow rate to be:
3
a) 15 to 35m /m/d at average flow.
3
b) 40 to 50m /m/d at peak flow.

• Detention time to be 1 to 2 hours at peak flow


• Solids loading to be:
2
a) 4 to 6kg/m /h at average flow.
2
b) 9 to 10kg/m /h at peak flow.

• Configuration:

a) Circular Radius < 5 x height.


b) Rectangular Length < 10 to 15 x height.

4.2.5 TERTIARY TREATMENT

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Rapid downward flow sand filters:

• In sizing units, consideration must be given to the plant manufacturers


recommendation.
• Max flow rate range 1 to 2 x DWF.
• SS and BOD reduction in the order of 60% to 80% to be achieved.

3 2
Surface loading 200 to 300m /m /d at max flow rate dependent on influent
quality and effluent requirements.
• Backflow for washing approximate requirements:

a) 0.01m3 effluent per m2 of sand per second.


3 2
b) 0.02m air per m of sand per second.

Chlorination:

• To achieve a residual chlorine content of not less than 0.5mg/l after 24


hours and be capable of varying the dosage from 0 to 10mg/l. Effluent
storage/chlorine contact tank to have a storage capacity of not less than 48
hours.

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4.2.6 SLUDGE TREATMENT

Sludge production design criteria to be as given in Table 1 below.

TABLE 1 – SLUDGE PRODUCTION DESIGN CRITERIA

Sludge Type Mass of Dry Solids


gm/head/day

Range Average

Raw primary sludge 40 to 70 52

Activated sludge:
• Settled sewage, nitrifying 40 to 60 48
• Settled sewage, high rate 50 to 80 70
• Unsettled sewage, nitrifying 15 to 30 22
• Unsettled sewage, high rate 25 to 40 35

Raw tertiary sludge 1 to 4 2

Raw co settled sewage 55 to 100 74


• Primary and nitrifying activated

Anaerobically digested sludge


• Primary 27 to 48 36
• Primary and nitrifying activated co-settled 40 to 70 55
• Primary and low rate humus 33 to 60 45

In addition the following should be taken into account:

• Works liquor Likely assessment only made dependent


on sludge dewatering process.
• Trade effluent Calculated from design allowance.
• Imported sludge Calculated or measured from a sludge
survey.

Sludge consolidation/thickening tanks:

• Fill and displacement type one to three days capacity provided with surface
3 2
loading not exceeding 30m /m /d at maximum sludge input rate.

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• Quiescent type tank capacity should be capable of dealing with 7 days


sludge in 5 days. i.e. 34 hours sludge production. Provision is to be made
for supernatant liquor to be drawn off at various levels.

Heated anaerobic digestion:

• Tank shape, height = diameter.


• Fixed roof.
• Floor slope should be as steep as practicable.
• Fully mixed system to be provided to prevent dead areas and deposition.
• Detention period

a) Standard 25 to 30 days.
b) High rate 15 days.


3
Solids loading 1 to 2kg/m /d.
• Secondary digestion tanks should have a large area/volume ratio to promote
rapid cooling to aid thickening.
• Gas holder design should ensure that the ingress of air into the methane
collection system and associated appliances is prevented.
• Gas pipework and associated plant should be designed as far as is
reasonably practicable to avoid gas leakage and should preferably be in the
open air.
• Buildings housing plant should be provided with adequate natural ventilation
and explosion relief.
• Lockable valves should be provided in water drain lines from the gas pipes.
• Compressors for flammable gases should not be sited within buildings but in
the open air or under a structure with a lightweight roof and open sides.
Where security measures are necessary open sides may be covered with
wire mesh or similar. Electric motors sited indoors shall have compressors
outdoors and driven by shafts passing through glands in the wall.
• A high standard of permanent natural ventilation should be provided in
pump and boiler rooms at all times.
• Gas burners should comply with the requirements of the relevant Code of
Practice.
• A facility for gas composition monitoring should be provided to ensure it is
safe and stable for combustion. Methane detectors installed in sludge
digestion plants shall have alarm setting below 25% of the LEL for methane.
Detectors shall be interlocked to trip out compressors and gas burners with
manual reset after an alarm.

Other methods of sludge dewatering may be considered:

• Plate press.
• Belt press.
• Vacuum filter.
• Centrifuge.

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Storage and dosing facilities should be provided for the conditioning chemicals.

Sludge Drying Beds:

• Bed depth range is 0.6 to 1.5m.


• Removal by hand, shovelling or mechanical means.

Mechanical drying fluidised beds, rotatory drum & kiln type etc can be considered
where appropriate.

4.3 SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS (INCLUDING PACKAGE PLANTS)

4.3.1 APPROPRIATE USES

Small treatment plants serve populations up to 15,000.

Package type plants are generally used in locations such as:

• Military camps.
• Villages.
• Hospitals.
• Hotels/recreational facilities.
• Construction camps.
• Pretreatment of trade waste.

4.3.2 LOCATION

The plant should be as far away from habitable buildings as is economically


possible. The direction of the prevailing wind should be considered when siting
the works. Special provisions to reduce noise and screening from blowing sand
should be incorporated where required.

4.3.3 ARRANGEMENT

The following features should be incorporated into the installation:

• Adequate protection against corrosion.


• Standby equipment with automatic changeover.
• Automatic restarting in the event of a power failure.
• Standby generator with automatic mains failure start.
• Adequate flow control or flow balancing.
• When flow pumped to plant, maceration prior to pumping.
• When flow to plant by gravity, for population greater than 1,000 maceration
with screening of macerated plastics, rags etc at convenient stage in
process as site conditions allow. Use 2.5 to 5mm screen, run down, brush
type, rotary or a fine submerged bag type with bypass provision/overflow.

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Provide grit/sand trap with simple removal mechanism. For population


greater than 5,000 extend to include bypass channel together with provision
of aerated type mechanical grit trap and removal system.
• Air blowers to be filtered and duty, duty assist and standby units provided.
• Effluent/water retaining structures to be suitable for the purpose and
proposed life of the plant.
• Odour control.
• Proper vehicle access for maintenance and sludge removal.
• Adequate and safe access and egress provision to all plant.
• Provision of a central control building or machine house.
• Basic health and welfare provision.
• Watchman's accommodation.
• Security fence or boundary wall.
• Telemetry provision of on line quality and flow instrumentation for turbidity,
pH, residual chlorine.

4.3.4 DESIGN CRITERIA

Plants to be designed for peak flows of 3 x average daily flow.

Process design to produce better than BOD 10/SS 15 prior to tertiary treatment
and based on:

• BOD loading of 80gm/per capita/day.


• Hydraulic loading of 275 l/capita/day.
• Septic sewage with soluble sulphides around 35mg/l.

o
Crude sewage temperatures of up to 40 C.

Standard of final effluent for reuse to be:

• 5 day BOD < 5mg/l.


• SS < 5mg/l.
• pH 6.5 to 8.5.
• Ammoniacal nitrogen <1mg/l.
• Coliforms < 100/100ml.
• Salinity < 4000 micromho/cm.

Actual process used must be specified to suit the locality and climate conditions
which it is required to operate under and offer a performance and quality
guarantee.

Tertiary Treatment:

• Sand filters rapid gravity or pressure sand filtration.


• Consider micro and nano filtration for filtering out particles size>2 microns.
• Disinfection after filtration using chlorine gas or liquid sodium hypochlorite
solution or UV/ozone.

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• If reuse for agriculture, further chlorination required to provide a residual of


0.5mg/l.

Sludge Treatment:

• Dependent on ultimate reuse and/or disposal route.


• In smaller plants tanker off site to larger treatment plant.
• Digestion in larger plants followed by mechanical dewatering/thickening,
sludge drying beds and/or chemical treatment with lime or cement kiln dust,
storage and then reuse.
• Drying beds:
2
a) Area 0.2 to 0.4m /person.
b) Max depth 225mm.

• Consolidation tanks.

a) Capacity 30 days production

4.3.5 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL/REUSE

Effluent disposal or reuse to be agreed with the Directorate.

4.4 SEPTIC TANKS

4.4.1 LOCATION

In the case of single plot septic tanks, the location should be within the plot
boundary. A tank serving several plots should be sited in public open space
reserved for the purpose at an adequate distance from the development and
downwind wherever possible. In all instances consideration should be given to:

• Adequate access for tankers to empty and operate within suction lift
capacity.
• Future connection to the probable or planned main sewerage network.

4.4.2 ARRANGEMENT

The following points are highlighted:

• Tanks should be divided into two compartments.


• First compartment, length = twice width.
• Second compartment, length = breadth.
• Inlets and outlets should be such as to introduce the crude sewage and to
remove the clarified liquid with the least possible disturbance of the settled
sewage or the surface scum. For smaller tanks, populations <30, the use of
tees within the tank on the inlet and outlet pipes are recommended. In

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larger tanks dual submerged inlets with baffle board and scumboard/weir
arrangement at the outlet end are preferred.
• For populations >60 duplicate tanks each of half the capacity required
should be considered and operated in parallel.
• To facilitate desludging of the first compartment the floor of the tank should
slope at 1 in 4 to the inlet end.
• For populations >100 consideration can be given to the provision of two
single compartment tanks operating in parallel as surge flows are likely to
cause less disturbance.

4.4.3 CAPACITY

BS 6297 gives capacity = 180 x population + 2000 litres

The minimum value for population is 4. The maximum number of people that can
be served by a septic tank is very much dependent on the suitability and capability
of the receiving medium for the effluent. Ground percolation potential must be
assessed against peak flow predictions.

4.4.4 FURTHER TREATMENT OF TANK EFFLUENT

This should be considered where there is a need to ensure a higher quality of


effluent.

4.4.5 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL

The most common means is by soakaway pit particularly in the case of single plot
septic tanks. In some circumstances a system of shallow drains may be a more
practicable alternative.

END OF SECTION

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ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

SECTION 5

TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SYSTEM DESIGN

Document No. Revision Date Section 5


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Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Revision No. Date Revision Description / Purpose of Issue

00 Jan 2004 Updating of Design Standards Manual.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

Approved for Implementation:_______________________________________________

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER SHEET..................................................................................................................... 1
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET .......................................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 3
5.1 GENERAL............................................................................................................. 4
5.1.1 SYSTEM ............................................................................................................... 4
5.1.2 EFFLUENT QUALITY ........................................................................................... 4
5.1.3 WATER DEMAND................................................................................................. 4
5.1.3.1 Plant Type ............................................................................................................. 4
5.1.3.2 Application Losses: ............................................................................................... 5
5.1.3.3 Leaching Requirements ........................................................................................ 5
5.1.3.4 Soil Classification .................................................................................................. 5
5.1.3.5 Groundwater Table Level ...................................................................................... 5
5.1.3.6 Climate .................................................................................................................. 5
5.1.3.7 Irrigation Management .......................................................................................... 5
5.2 DESIGN CRITERIA............................................................................................... 5
5.2.1 WATER DEMAND................................................................................................. 5
5.2.2 PIPEWORK........................................................................................................... 6
5.2.2.1 Hydraulic Design ................................................................................................... 6
5.2.2.2 Surge Protection ................................................................................................... 6
5.2.2.3 System Losses ...................................................................................................... 6
5.2.2.4 Valve Chambers.................................................................................................... 6
5.2.2.5 Flowmeters............................................................................................................ 7
5.2.3 UNDERGROUND RESERVOIRS (UP TO 500,000 GALLON CAPACITY)............ 7
5.2.3.1 Configuration......................................................................................................... 7
5.2.3.2 Inlet Arrangement.................................................................................................. 7
5.2.3.3 Outlet Arrangement ............................................................................................... 7
5.2.3.4 Overflow and Washout .......................................................................................... 7
5.2.3.5 Access .................................................................................................................. 7
5.2.3.6 Ventilation .............................................................................................................7
5.2.4 AT GROUND LEVEL RESERVOIRS (1,000,000 GALLONS CAPACITY AND
ABOVE):................................................................................................................ 8
5.2.4.1 Configuration......................................................................................................... 8
5.2.4.2 Inlet Arrangement.................................................................................................. 8
5.2.4.3 Outlet Arrangement ............................................................................................... 8
5.2.4.4 Overflow and Washout .......................................................................................... 8
5.2.4.5 Access .................................................................................................................. 8
5.2.4.6 Ventilation .............................................................................................................9
5.2.4.7 Water Level Indication........................................................................................... 9
5.2.5 PUMPING STATIONS........................................................................................... 9
END OF SECTION................................................................................................................ 9

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5.1 GENERAL

5.1.1 SYSTEM

The treated effluent transfer and distribution system has the following main
component parts:

• Pipework for transfer and distribution.


• Reservoirs for storage.
• Pumping stations to supply through the primary distribution lines.

5.1.2 EFFLUENT QUALITY

To ensure the treated sewage effluent is of a very high standard and satisfactory
for all irrigation requirements the following parameters are to be controlled:

• Trade/Industrial discharges:

a) The pH, temperature, concentrations of dissolved and suspended


solids, organic and non-organic pollutants and radioactivity of the
discharge must be within acceptable and prescribed standards.

• Salinity:

a) Should be as low as possible but a maximum of 4000micromho/cm to


ensure growth of the plant types adopted.

• Sewage treatment:

a) Tertiary treatment to produce a 10 mg/l BOD and 10 mg/l SS effluent


preventing buildup of solids in the irrigation distribution system and
stable and pure enough to reliably disinfect. Process should achieve full
nitrification.

• Disinfection:

a) By chlorine injection to render the effluent virtually harmless and to


control the growth of algae in the system A chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/l
at the outlet of the irrigation system should be available.

5.1.3 WATER DEMAND

The demand for water is the basis for the planning and design of the irrigation
supply network. This demand should take account of the following variables:

5.1.3.1 Plant Type

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Plant growth must not be inhibited by lack of water.

5.1.3.2 Application Losses:

Proper equipment selection, system layout and irrigation scheduling to provide an


efficient application of water.

5.1.3.3 Leaching Requirements

If the ground water table or soil stratum is such that leaching cannot occur, a
drainage system should be considered to provide the required downward
movement of salts.

5.1.3.4 Soil Classification

Water infiltration rate and resulting water holding capacity to be assessed. Also,
estimated reduction in infiltration rate as more water is absorbed during
application.

5.1.3.5 Groundwater Table Level

Affects on the infiltration rate of the soil and therefore the leaching capability and
requirements to be considered.

5.1.3.6 Climate

Higher demand for water in the summer months to satisfy the higher rates of
evaporation and plant evapotranspiration.

5.1.3.7 Irrigation Management

Consider provision of the following:

• Field measurement of soil moisture levels at the beginning and end of an


irrigation cycle.
• Installation of flow meters at strategic locations to monitor actual losses and
uses.
• Salinity measurement to establish leaching requirements and actual salt
conditions.
• Evaluation of the irrigation systems performance in the distribution of the
water as forecast.
• Scheduling the irrigation cycle.

5.2 DESIGN CRITERIA

5.2.1 WATER DEMAND

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2
12 litres/m for grass and 35 litres each for trees and shrubs during normal
conditions. Application over a 12 hour period.

2
15 litres/m for grass and 50 litres each for trees and shrubs during summer
conditions. Application over a 15 hour period.

These figures allow for demand losses.

5.2.2 PIPEWORK

5.2.2.1 Hydraulic Design

Design of sewers should be based on equations such as Manning, Colebrooke-


White and Hazen Williams

Pipe roughness factors shall be as follows:

• Manning 0.013.
• Colebrook-White 0.6.
• Hazen Williams 140 for pipe diameters >500mm
135 for pipe diameters< 500mm

5.2.2.2 Surge Protection

To be based on:

• Maximum velocity of flow of 1.1m/s.


• Balancing tank.
• Pressure relief valves.

5.2.2.3 System Losses

12½% to be allowed

5.2.2.4 Valve Chambers

• Network isolation.
• Valves installed at strategic locations to enable isolation of portions of the
network. Also provided at cross connections between primary/secondary
mains and secondary/ distribution mains.
• Irrigation T-connection pipe.
• Maximum spacing up to 500m in green areas.
• Air release.
• Air release valves to be installed at all high points.
• Washout.
• Washout facilities to be installed at the low points.

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5.2.2.5 Flowmeters

Provide at suitable locations to monitor consumption and irrigation efficiencies.

5.2.3 UNDERGROUND RESERVOIRS (UP TO 500,000 GALLON CAPACITY)

Normally constructed in reinforced concrete. See standard and typical drawings.

5.2.3.1 Configuration

• Rectangular or square depending on plan area of allocated site.


• Two equal compartments.
• Sloping floor to outlet at a gradient of 1 in 70.
• Internal height 3m.
• Roof supported on columns to suit structural design.

5.2.3.2 Inlet Arrangement

• Splitting chamber to provide separate feed, normally 400mm diameter, to


each compartment with appropriate valves and fitting.
• Ball float valve in each compartment for automatic water level control.

5.2.3.3 Outlet Arrangement

• Depends on downstream requirements related to irrigation system pumps


and suction head, normally 150mm or 200mm diameter.

5.2.3.4 Overflow and Washout

• Separate pipework and valves to each compartment with discharge to a


common collection chamber either for disposal to an adjacent sewer or a
soakaway or removal by tanker.

5.2.3.5 Access

• Ladders for man and equipment entry to each reservoir compartment plus
the inlet and outlet chambers.
• Intermediate platform, removable, to facilitate valve operation in inlet
chamber.
• Covers above ball float valves to afford access for maintenance and
possible removal.
• Water level check facility to each compartment.
• Lockable covers.

5.2.3.6 Ventilation

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• Two number. to each compartment each with integral deodoriser and


mosquito screen.

5.2.4 AT GROUND LEVEL RESERVOIRS (1,000,000 GALLONS CAPACITY AND


ABOVE):

Constructed in reinforced concrete or steel. See standard and typical drawings.

5.2.4.1 Configuration

• Rectangular with actual dimensions dependent on capacity required, land


availability and shape. Length to breath ratio recommended as 1.5 : 1.
• One compartment.
• Sloping floor to outlet end at 1 in 200.
• Maximum height above ground 5m (check with Planning Department
restriction).
• roof supported on columns to suit structural design.

5.2.4.2 Inlet Arrangement

• Single feed pipe under reservoir and up through floor terminating in a


bellmouth 150mm above floor level. Control inflow through valve on inlet
pipe with remote operation at distribution centre.

5.2.4.3 Outlet Arrangement

• Similar to inlet arrangement with connection to distribution centre pump


suction line. Control of outflow through valve on outlet with remote
operation at distribution centre. Grating over outlet bellmouth and retained
in upstand.
• Vortex inhibitor installed either within or over outlet bellmouth.

5.2.4.4 Overflow and Washout

• Overflow level at 100mm above top water level connected to outfall and
designed to be capable of passing maximum inflow. Washout at floor level
in bellmouth and connected to same outfall. Washout usually 300mm
diameter. Both pipelines installed at outlet end of reservoir with control
valves.

5.2.4.5 Access

• Lockable covers.
• Openings sufficient to afford suitable access for men and equipment and
over all pipe entries and exits to facilitate inspection.
• Ladders at each access openings.
• Staircase access to roof with handrailing.

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5.2.4.6 Ventilation

• 150mm diameter pipe with integral deodoriser and mosquito mesh provided
2
for every 400m of roof.

5.2.4.7 Water Level Indication

• Manometer tube 80mm diameter fixed to outside of reservoir wall with flip-
type colour indicators and relayed to distribution centre.

5.2.5 PUMPING STATIONS

The overall approach to sewage pumping station design, general layout and
mechanical/electrical requirements is appropriate to treated sewage effluent
pumping stations. The major aspects which can differ are:

• Inlet arrangement:

a) System between the reservoirs and the pumps is continuous without a


break to atmosphere. The suction head on the pipes is directly related
to the reservoir level.

• Inlet control:

a) Pressure sensors/relays are required on the suction side of the pumps


to signal the pumps to trip in the event of a set maximum negative
pressure being exceeded.

• Pump selection:

a) Double entry split casing type with double entry impellers are
preferred.
b) Construction materials for the parts in contact with the effluent should
be resistant to corrosion from the chlorine content.

• Outlet control:

a) Design to maintain a fixed pressure head to allow pump speed/flow


characteristics to develop.
b) Bypass line to the pressure control should be provided with pressure
sustained by partial closure of a valve.
c) Pressure sensing/relays to be installed on the delivery main.

END OF SECTION

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ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY

SEWERAGE PROJECTS COMMITTEE

DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

SECTION 6

STANDARD AND TYPICAL DRAWINGS

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 1
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Revision No. Date Revision Description / Purpose of Issue

00 Jan 2004 Updating of Design Standards Manual.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

Approved for Implementation:_______________________________________________

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 2
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER SHEET..................................................................................................................... 1

DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET .......................................................................................... 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 3

STANDARD DRAWINGS...................................................................................................... 4

GENERAL SD100 SERIES ................................................................................................... 4

STORM WATER SYSTEM SD200 SERIES .......................................................................... 4

SEWERAGE SYSTEM SD300 SERIES ................................................................................ 4

SEWAGE PUMPING MAIN SD400 SERIES ......................................................................... 5

SEWAGE PUMPING STATION SD500 SERIES................................................................... 5

IRRIGATION SYSTEM SD600 SERIES ................................................................................ 5

IRRIGATION RESERVOIR AND PUMP CHAMBER SD700 SERIES.................................... 5

MISCELLANEOUS SITE WORKS SD800 SERIES............................................................... 5

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT SD900 SERIES ................................................................. 6

TYPICAL DRAWINGS .......................................................................................................... 7

GENERAL TD100 SERIES ................................................................................................... 7

STORM WATER SYSTEM TD200 SERIES .......................................................................... 7

SEWERAGE SYSTEM TD300 SERIES ................................................................................ 7

SEWAGE PUMPING MAIN TD400 SERIES ......................................................................... 7

SEWAGE PUMPING STATION TD500 SERIES................................................................... 7

IRRIGATION SYSTEM TD600 SERIES ................................................................................ 8

IRRIGATION RESERVOIR AND PUMP CHAMBER TD700 SERIES.................................... 8

MISCELLANEOUS SITE WORKS TD800 SERIES ............................................................... 8

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT TD900 SERIES.................................................................. 8

END OF INDEX..................................................................................................................... 9

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STANDARD DRAWINGS

GENERAL SD100 SERIES


(SD100 to SD149 Civil, SD150 to SD199 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD101

STORM WATER SYSTEM SD200 SERIES


(SD200 to SD249 Civil, SD250 to SD299 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD201 GA of Storm Water Manholes on Pipelines 200-500mm Dia.


SD202 GA of Shallow Storm Water Manholes on Pipelines 600-1400mm Dia.
SD203 GA of Deep Storm Water Manholes on Pipelines 600-1400mm Dia.
SD204 GA of Shallow Storm Water Manholes on Pipelines 1500-2400mm Dia.
SD205 GA of Deep Storm Water Manholes on Pipelines 1500-2400mm Dia
SD206 Lateral Connections to Storm Water Manholes
SD207 Cover Details for Storm Water Manholes
SD208 Connection Details for Storm Water Manholes and Structures
SD209 Storm Water Inlet Details
SD210 Storm Water Grating and Cover Details
SD211 Storm Water Catch Basin Details
SD212 Typical Details of Storm Water Outlet

SEWERAGE SYSTEM SD300 SERIES


(SD300 to SD349 Civil, SD350 to SD399 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD301 GA of Sewerage Manhole on Pipelines 150-500mm Dia.


SD302 GA of Sewerage Manhole on Pipelines 600-1600mm Dia. Sheet 1 of 2
SD303 GA of Sewerage Manhole on Pipelines 600-1600mm Dia. Sheet 2 of 2
SD304 GA of Sewerage Manhole on Pipelines 1800-2400mm Dia. Sheet 1 of 2
SD305 GA of Sewerage Manhole on Pipelines 1800-2400mm Dia. Sheet 2 of 2
SD306 Connection Details for Sewerage Manholes and Chambers
SD307 Cover Details for Sewerage Manholes and Chambers
SD308 GRP Liner Joint Details for Sewerage Manholes and Chambers
SD310 Collection and Inspection Chambers Details
SD311 Small Rectangular Inspection Chambers and House Connection Details

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 4
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

SEWAGE PUMPING MAIN SD400 SERIES


(SD400 to SD449 Civil, SD450 to SD499 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD401 Discharge Chamber for Sewage Pumping Main


SD402 Pumping Main Marker Details

SEWAGE PUMPING STATION SD500 SERIES


(SD500 to SD549 Civil, SD550 to 599 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD501 Builders Works Typical Door Details


SD502 Builders Works Doors, Steps and Lintels
SD503 Builders Works Floor Details and Surface Finishes
SD504 Builders Works Roof Slab and Parapet Details
SD505 Cover Details
SD506 Miscellaneous Details

IRRIGATION SYSTEM SD600 SERIES


(SD600 to SD649 Civil, SD650 to SD699 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD601 Irrigation Main Marker Details

IRRIGATION RESERVOIR AND PUMP CHAMBER SD700 SERIES


(SD700 to SD749 Civil, SD750 to SD799 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD701

MISCELLANEOUS SITE WORKS SD800 SERIES


(SD800 to SD849 Civil, SD850 to SD899 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD801 Pipe Bedding and Backfill Details


SD802 Thrust Blocks General Arrangement
SD803 Detail of Internal Backdrop on Existing Manhole
SD804 Adjusting Cover Levels for Manholes and Collection Chambers Typical
Details
SD805 Tanking Details
SD806 Sand Trap and Grease Trap
SD807 Petrol Interceptor Type 1

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 5
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

SD808 Petrol Interceptor Type 2


SD809 Collection Tank for Petrol Interceptor
SD810 GRP Ladder
SD811 Ladder, Walkway, Stairs and Handrailing Details
SD812 Details of Perforated Pipes for Groundwater Lowering
SD813 Blockwork Boundary Wall Details Sheet 1 of 2
SD814 Blockwork Boundary Wall Details Sheet 2 of 2
SD815 Precast Boundary Wall Details Sheet 1 of 2
SD816 Precast Boundary Wall Details Sheet 2 of 2
SD817 Aluminium Site Entrance Gate
SD819 Cable Draw Pits. Earth Pits and Cable Ducts Details
SD820 Street Lighting Works 8.0m Pole Details
SD821 Paving Details

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT SD900 SERIES


(SD900 to SD949 Civil, SD950 to SD999 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

SD901

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 6
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

TYPICAL DRAWINGS

GENERAL TD100 SERIES


(TD100 to TD149 Civil, TD150 to TD199 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD100 Project Signboard


TD101 Site Safety Notice Board

STORM WATER SYSTEM TD200 SERIES


(TD200 to TD249 Civil, TD250 to TD299 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD200 Overall Plan


TD201 General Layout Plan Sheet 1 of 16

SEWERAGE SYSTEM TD300 SERIES


(TD300 to TD349 Civil, TD350 to TD399 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD300 Overall Plan


TD301 General Layout Plan Sheet 1 of 16

SEWAGE PUMPING MAIN TD400 SERIES


(TD400 to TD449 Civil, TD450 to TD499 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD400 Overall Plan


TD401 Plan and Profile Sheet 1 of

SEWAGE PUMPING STATION TD500 SERIES


(TD500 to TD549 Civil, TD550 to TD599 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD500 Site Plan


TD501 Two Pump Submersible General Arrangement Plan (With Options)
TD502 Two Pump Submersible General Arrangement Sections (With Options)
TD503 Control Building Sheet 1 of 2
TD504 Control Building Sheet 2 of 2
TD505 Control and Generator Building Sheet 1 of 3
TD506 Control and Generator Building Sheet 2 of 3
TD507 Control and Generator Building Sheet 3 of 3
TD550 Typical Curves

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 7
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

TD551 Typical Operating System Curves


TD552 Typical Process and Control Diagram
TD553 Typical Arrangement Drawing
TD554 Single Line Diagram
TD555 Standards Symbols
TD556 General Notes
TD557 Typical Drawing Weather Proof Junction Box
TD558 Typical P&I Diagram

IRRIGATION SYSTEM TD600 SERIES


(TD600 to TD649 Civil, TD650 to TD699 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD600 Overall Plan


TD601 Plan and Profile

IRRIGATION RESERVOIR AND PUMP CHAMBER TD700 SERIES


(TD700 to TD749 Civil, TD750 to TD799 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD701 0.50MG Reservoir General Arrangement Sheet 1 of 2


TD702 0.50MG Reservoir General Arrangement Sheet 2 of 2
TD703 0.50MG Reservoir General Arrangement Sections
TD704 0.50MG Reservoir General Arrangement Inlet Chamber
TD705 0.50MG Reservoir General Arrangement Pump Chamber
TD710 0.35MG Reservoir General Arrangement Sheet 1 of 2
TD711 0.35MG Reservoir General Arrangement Sheet 2 of 2
TD712 0.35MG Reservoir General Arrangement Sections
TD713 0.35MG Reservoir General Arrangement Inlet Chamber

MISCELLANEOUS SITE WORKS TD800 SERIES


(TD800 to TD849 Civil, TD850 to TD899 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD801 Thrust and Receiving Pits Details Sheet1


TD802 Thrust and Receiving Pits Details Sheet 2
TD803 Pipe Details

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT TD900 SERIES


(TD900 to TD949 Civil, TD950 to TD999 Mechanical and Electrical)

Number Title

TD901

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 8
Design Standards Manual
Sewerage Projects Committee
Abu Dhabi Municipality

END OF SECTION

Document No. Revision Date Section 6


SPC/DSM 00 Jan 2004 Standard and Typical Drawings Page 9