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SUNYA NOTES (JUNE)

COVERAGE

The Hindu( Page 2 till Page 16)

Vision monthly(Pg 16-24)

PIB(25-29)

Insights(29-32)

Topics are Covered exhaustively and without any overlap

‘The Hindu’ Newspaper is unique feature of our notes. This is generally ignored by other coaching Institutes and is targeted most by UPSC

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2018 till 2019).We would recommend you to purchase it from Whatsapp/Telegram at 8290926510 ⚫ Some reviews/Feedbacks
2018 till 2019).We would recommend you to purchase it from Whatsapp/Telegram at 8290926510 ⚫ Some reviews/Feedbacks

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2018 till 2019).We would recommend you to purchase it from Whatsapp/Telegram at 8290926510 ⚫ Some reviews/Feedbacks

THE HINDU

ICD(International classification of diseases) = by WHO + recently 11 th edition inluded gaming disorder as a disease

RATS(Regional anti terrorist structure) =SCO + permanent organ + It is headquartered in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The Head of RATS is elected to three-year term. Each member state also sends permanent representative to RATS

Blue helmet = UN peace keeping soldiers

Nipah Virus = zoonotic disease (disease transmitted to humans from animals) that causes severe disease in both animals and humans + first identified in 1999 during outbreak among pig farmers in Malaysia and Singapore + Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus/Pteropodidae are the natural reservoirs of NiV + may lead to coma + Encephalitis may present as acute or late onset + currently no Vaccine available to treat + he virus was found in countries which never saw an outbreak, such as Thailand, and the only known outbreaks so far have been in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India + Nipah situated in malaysia

Compact 2025 = is an initiative for ending hunger and undernutrition by 2025 + initiated and facilitated by International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI)

North eastern council = 1971+ statutory + CM and governors of all states in NE + will be chaired now by MoHA instead of MoDONER

Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) = MOEFCC + 80, 000 people imparted green skills and in filling the skill gaps in the environment sector + will be increased to cover 2.25 lakh people next year and to about 5 lakh people by the year 2021 + objective of GSDP is skilling the youth of India, especially dropouts and in increasing the availability of skilled workforce

Environmental Information System (ENVIS) hubs = for information about the environment to decision makers, policy planners, scientists + 1982 started + MoEFCC + effective participation of concerned institutions/ organisations in the country + ENVIS due to its comprehensive network has been designed as the National Focal Point (NFP) for INFOTERRA

INFOTERRA = a global environmental information network of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

State’s ‘Green’ GDP = first time govt will start 5 year exercise to compute district level data of the country’s environmental wealth(from where state green gdp will be calculated) + will help in range of policy decisions, such as compensation to be paid during land acquisition,calculation of funds required for climate mitigation etc

Biogeographic zones of India = 9 + (Trans himalyan zone + Himalyan zone + Desert zone + Semi arid zone + western ghat zone + Deccan plateau zone + Gangetic plane zone + North east zone + Coatal zone/Dhanoa zone )

SADC = Southern African Development Community (SADC) includes Lower 16 african countries + with angola,DRC and tanzania as upper boundary states +

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includes Islands of Comoros,Mauritius and Seychelles (but don’t include islands of Mayotte and Reunion)

SACU = The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs

Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. Its headquarters are in the Namibian capital, Windhoek. It was established in 1910

World Environment Day,2018 = New delhi hosted + 5 th june + Beat plastic pollution + UNEP + 43 rd edition

Nagarhole national park(Rajiv gandhi national park) = Karnataka

AgCuTe = The compound silver,copper and telluride shows promise as a thermoelectric material for converting waste heat into electricity

Stop TB partnership = Geneva based nodal agency + recommends policy interventions + Administered by UNOPS(UN office of project services) + include international NGO and governmental organisations

India- Myanmmar share = Arunachal pradesh(Highest) + Nagaland(lowest) + Manipur and mizoram

National Financial reporting authority = brought into the companies act on the specific recommendations of the standing committee on finance + oversee the functioning of ICAI(Institute of chartered accountants of India) and ensure credibility in financial reporting + proposed by center to serve as an independent regulator for the auditing profession + companies act,2013 gives power to setup such an authority

Lalgarh forest + Buxa tiger reserve + Jaldaparha national park= West Bengal

Nature environment and Wildlife society(NEWS) = NGO + working in sunderbans for tiger conservation

Kuthiyottam / Chooral muriyal = body piercing ceremonies + Kerala

Rembrandt = Dutch artist + 1656-1661 + drawings based on mughal miniatures from India

Mirai + Reaper + Saposhi = MALWARES + capable of taking over electronic devices and turning them into ‘bots’ + Distributed denial of service attack +

Rule of Index 2017-2018 report = World justice project + extent to which 113 countries adhere to the rule of law +

‘Queen bee syndrome’ = phenomenon of women discriminating against other female coworkers as they rise in seniority

MILAN series of multilateral exercise = hosted by Indian Navy off Andaman and Nicobar Islands + It is congregation of littoral navies conducted biennially by Navy under the aegis of andaman and nicobar Command + approx 20 countries participate + Maldives not participating this year + first held in 1995(Indonesia, Thailand , Srilanka and Singapore) + 10 th edition in 2018(16 countries participated)

‘Greylist’ = FATF(Financial action task force) + Pakistan(2nd time placed in this

union among

five

countries

3

list)

FATF/Gropue d’action financiese = Intergovernmental organisation + 1989(Initiative of G7 to combat money laundering) + In 2001, mandate expanded to terrorist financing + secretariat at OECD in paris + monitor implementation through peer reviews + India is a member(39th country)

Letter of Undertaking (LoU)= is a bank guarantee that allows the customer to raise money from another bank’s foreign branch in the form of short term loan + It has to be another Indian bank’s foreign firm(LoU is not recognised by foreign firms) + dollar funding

S.W.I.F.T = Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication + secure electronic messaging service and common standards to facilitate cross border payments + generally,a swift message has to go through a 3 layer security system:a maker,a checker and a verifier + HQ @ Brussels,belgium + group of 15 countries and 239 banks +

N.O.S.T.R.O account = banks maintain foreign currency stocks in the form of bank accounts with their overseas branches

Viral load kits = determine the severity of infection before deciding on treatment regime that is appropiate for HIV patients + PHLIV launched(viral load testing for all people living with HIV for free)

A2, A2+FL, C2 = methods of calculating production cost in MSP +

TERLS(thumba equatorial rocket launching stations) = 1960 + India’s first space port

KUSUM(kisan urja suraksha evam utthan mahaabhiyan) = setup more than 28GW of combined solar capacity through these solar camps + MNRE + For rural areas + solar water pumps to be installed in remote areas for irrigation needs.Farmers will get extra income by selling surplus power to Discoms

Siruvani Dam = Kerala

Drypetes kalamii = new plant species from west bengal + plant is found in wet,shaded areas of subtropical,moist evergreen forests

‘Every child alive’ Report = UNICEF

Kirigami = an ancient japan paper cutting technique

Rustom 2 = DRDO + unmanned aerial vehicle + medium altitude long andurance drone(MALE)

EBRD(European bank for reconstruction and development) = International institution founded in 1991 + multilateral development investment bank + uses investment as a tool to make market economies + not to be confused by EIB which is owned by EU member states + India became the member of EBRD + India takes a shareholding in EBRD but it will not be a recipient of EBRD financing(India is a financing member)

Vellayani-punchakkari wetland = Thiru,Kerala

Irula tribals = TN and kerela + snake catchers

‘Suvudha’ napkins = bio degradable sanitary napkins + Pradhan mantri janasuvidha pariyojana kendras + Department of pharma,Minstry of chemicals and fertilisers

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Pilbhit tiger reserve + Dudhwa national park = UP

Rajaji national park = UK

India and france = negotiations between EDF and NPCIL for the jaitpur plant + france in smart cities mission focusing on Chandigarh,nagpur and puducherry + agreement on mutual recognition of academic degrees and the follow on summit + building 6 EPR nuclear reactors + rafale + mirage + jaguar + Varuna(joint naval exercise) + Garuda(joint air exercise) + Shakti(joint army exercise)

BHUVAN = online geoportal platform + for map visualisation and satellite images absolutely free + software appication by ISRO to view 2D/3D view of earth surface

‘Tabacoo product regulation:building laboratory testing capacity’ = New guide by WHO + Tabacoo free initiative(of WHO)

Ocean acidification causes coral reefs systems to erode

Handicap international = independent of all govts + based in france + to help disabled and vulnerable people in situations of poverty and exclusion

Bedaquiline(known as the 'miracle drug')is the 1 st new anti TB drug to be approved by US food and drug administration

Northern River terrapin = critically endangered + finding refugee in sunderbans in WB + batagur baska

Red crowned roof turtle = critically endangered + batagur kachuga + National chambal sanctuary(tripoint of MP,UP and rajasthan)

Turtle conservation coalition = consortium of conservation organisations

‘ARC’ = developed by USGBC + can be applied to both LEED certified and non-certified buildings + Indira gandhi international airport,delhi has adopted first of its kind green building performance monitoring platform +

LEED Rating(leadership in energy and environmental design) = GSBI certifies buildings + developed by USGBC+ widely used green building programme +

EDGE Rating = For the mass housing + has been developed with the help of IFC and the world bank + could help gain tangible gain for the residents + 20:20:20 (save 20% in energy, 20% on water costs and 20% reduction in embodied energy)

PEER Ratings(Performance excellence in electricity renewal) = Inroduced by GSBI in India + global rating system + aim to issue certification for the power sector,as it has done with LEED for buildings

Artefacts of ‘pre iron age’ found in odisha = jalalpur district of Odisha’s cuttack district

Delhi End TB summit = launched the TB free India campaign + advanced India’s global target by 5 years(by 2025 of the global target(by 2030)

Helium 3 found on moon + two proton and one neutron + nuclear fusion

Arrears Committee = by SC+ to reduce pendency of cases

Kochon prize = To ICMR + for building a tradition of excellence in TB research + annual award by Stop TB partnership to individuals or organisations having made significant contributions to combat TB

Compulsory licensing = mechanism permitted by TRIPS agreement(1995 + International agreement between all the members of WTO) to enable countries to

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issue licenses to domestic drug manufacturers to produce and market affordable generic versions of life saving drugs needed for meeting serious public health challenges that are of extreme urgency + allows country to overcome patent restrictions to assure availability of such drugs

Conference on command area development(CAD) = under AIBP + 1975 + under PMKSY as component of har khet ko pani

20:80 gold import scheme = scrapped + 2013 + mandated that 20% of all gold imports would have to be exported

India based neutrino observatory(INO) project = bodi west hills,Tamil nadu(Theni forest)+ When completed, the main magnetised iron calorimeter experiment of this project will include the world’s largest magnet(four times larger than the magnet in compact muon solenoid detector at CERN in Geneva,Swiz)

Dhurbajyoti ghosh = Kolkata wetlands(Ramsar site) + Hoffmann award from IUCN

Pritzker price = Balkrishna doshi + first indian to recieve the ‘architecture Nobel’

Delirium = acute state of confusion occurs commonly in elderly

Nine Point agreement/Naga akbar hyadri accord = 1947 + signed between the British Government of India and the Naga National Council. This agreement included a coexistence (which they claim that was temporary and experimental) with India for a period of ten years, to be reviewed at the end of that period.

Shillong Accord = An agreement was reached by the Indian Government and the NNC(Naga council) in the year 1975

National Medical Commission Bill, 2017 = replace the Medical Council, 1956 Act + provides for constitution of four autonomous boards entrusted with conducting undergraduate and postgraduate education, assessment and accreditation of medical institutions and registration of practitioners under NMC + The commission will have 25-members including Chairman and Member Secretary. It will have 12 ex-officio members and 11-part-time members of which five will be doctors elected to the commission. The selected members will be picked by a search committee headed by Cabinet Secretary + bill proposes a common entrance exam and national licentiate examination which every candidate, who completes five years of MMBS course need to clear to become medical practitioner or get entry into post-graduation studies. This examination will also bring those students who do medical education from abroad at par with those who graduate from Indian institutions + State medical councils to be set up at state levelalong with NMC + ‘Bridge course’ for practitioners of ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine to get the license to prescribe allopathic drugs after they have passed this

Bhore committee = 1943 + to assess health condition in India

MCI(Medical council of India) = It was established in 1934 under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933. It later reconstituted under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956. + dissolved in 2010 and reconstituted in 2013 over allegations of corruption + Most of the members of the MCI are elected

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Ranjit roy chaudhary committee = 2015 + to study MCI Act,1956(Lodha panel(2016) and Arvind pangariya have also suggested for scrapping of MCI ))

Atmospheric brown cloud/Asian brown cloud = layer of air pollution + made

up of black carbon containing soot and smoke(stubble burning,fossil fuel exhausts etc) + every year over Indian Ocean,India,Pakistan etc + covers the indo gangetic plains for much of the dry season + between January and March, possibly also during earlier and later months + The term was coined in reports from the UNEP Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) + Term atmospheric brown cloud is more general and not specific to asian region

Seet lahar = the ground hugging fog that engulfs the subcontinent’s northern plains for ever extended periods in winter + a result of canal irrigation and simultaneous increase in the presence of particulate matter in the air

Gubernatorial discretion = discreation related to the post of governor

Right to food is a F.R under article 21(PUCL case 2001)

World Food conference = 1974 + under FAO

NFSA doesn’t guarantee a universal right to food(only 75 %)(and mentions only rice and wheat)

S-400 triumf = long range air defence system consists of a surface to air missile that can attack UAVs ,drones,cruise missiles + Russia + Range = 400km + Max. altitude = 10000 ft + Max speed = 4800 m/s + has command control system,multiple radar units,automated from aquisition to final engagement + 4 th generation system in terms of its combat capabilities

Qingdao summit = SCO[MORE INFORMATION AHEAD]

Atal bhujal yojana = central sector scheme + Ministry of water resources + 6000 crore outlay + World Bank to help in execution + aims to improve ground water management in priority areas in the country through community participation + 7

+

states(25% of

Raj,Haryana,UP,MP,Gujarat,Maharashtra,karnataka

over

exploited

region)

According to latest sample registration system(SRS) data, MMR in the country has dropped to 130 from 167 + The highest reduction from the last SRS data is with the EAG states at 23%(246 to 188)while other states have dropped by 19% + 29% drop in UP(285 to 201) + kerala tops with MMR of 46(down from 61) + 3 states have achieved the UN’s sustainable Development goal of MMR 70

Sample Registration System is the largest demographic survey in the country done by the Registrar General of India. The survey is mandated to provide annual estimates of fertility as well as mortality indicators at the state and national level

Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India = responsible for conducting the decennial Census + heads the Census organisation (mentioned in entry 69 of seventh schedule of Constitution) which functions under the aegis of Union Ministry of Home affairs

Natanz facility = nuclear facility in Iran

Shangri-La Dialogue = Track One inter-governmental security forum held annually by an independent think tank, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) which is attended by defense ministers, permanent heads of

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ministries and military chiefs of 28 Asia-Pacific states + Originally known as the Asia Security Summit was initiated in 2002 + While primarily an inter-governmental meeting, the summit is also attended by legislators, academic experts, business delegates, think tank analysts, media and other NGO personnel.

Wuhan meeting = informal summit between India and china

Civil society dialogue initiatives = regarded as track II diplomacy

Cauvery family = NGO type + loose and informal group of Cauvery basin farmers from both Tamil nadu and karnataka + known internationally

Ordinance factory board = 41 factories + Ministry of defence + recruitment by UPSC + HQ at kolkata

Indo -Israeli Agriculture Project = India and Israel have signed the Agreement for Agricultural Cooperation in 2006 which evolved into IIAP + between MIDH,India and MASHAV,Israel + goals(3= increasing crop diversity + increasing productivity + increasing resource use efficiency) will be achieved by establishing “Agricultural Centers of Excellence” (CoE) +

Global peace Index,2018 = released by Australia based IEP(Institute for economics and peace) + India from 137 to 136(marginally improved ) + best performer for south asia is Bhutan(19th from 13th)

‘Green pledge’ = On world environment day adopted by Delegation of European union member states to green their embassies

Bandug spirit of 1955 = led to the formation of the NAM

Ottawa dialogue = India,pakistan and afghanistan dialogue

Clean seas programme = sweden led initiative + to reduce littering of marine ecosystems + launched by UNEP + “turn the tide on plastic” + Initiated by UNEP at economist world ocean summit,Bali,2017

Indian nitrogen assessment = 1 st ever quantitative assessment of reactive nitrogen(NOX, Ammonia, nitrous oxide(N2O)) in the Indian environment + agricultural soils remained the largest contributor of nitrogen emissions

Sentosa Island = Singapore + Place of meet of USA and North Korea

Sochi, a Russian city on the Black Sea

Hori habba = bull catching sport + karnataka

Uranium contamination in Rajasthan groundwater

Paya lebar air base = Singapore

Natural gas may become the 1 st petro product to come under GST

Center has handed over the Deocha-Pachami coal mines(west bengal),said to be the world’s second largest coal block in the world to the west bengal government + Birghum district

Bannerghatta National park = Karnataka

“Fiscal Monitor” report= IMF

Cohabitation = when president and prime minister are from different parties

Effective revenue deficit is the difference between revenue deficit and grants for creation of capital assets.With the amendment of 2015 FRBM Act targets effective revenue deficit instead of revenue deficit. In sum, the change has placed capital expenditure out of the purview of the revenue deficit.Initially, it was

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planned that the effective revenue deficit was to be eliminated and the fiscal deficit to be kept below 3% by March 2015. However, these targets were revised in the Finance Act 2015, and at present the dates of achievement have been pushed to March 2018.

Committees on Fiscal consolidation include Vijay Kelkar committee(UPA govt 2012-2015) and NK Singh Committee(FRBM Committee)(NDA govt 2016)(use debt as primary target to fiscal policy instead of deficits.The government should target 60% debt-GDP target with a 40% limit for the centre and 20% limit for states to be achieved by 2023 + create an autonomous Fiscal Council with a chairperson and 2 members appointed by central government for four year term. The functions of the fiscal council would be to prepare multi-year fiscal forecasts, recommend changes in fiscal strategy, improve quality of fiscal data and advising the government if it needs to deviate from fiscal targets + government can also deviate from the path on advice of Fiscal Council in cases of national security, war, calamities and collapse of agriculture etc)(The committee recommended that the government should target a fiscal deficit of 3 per cent of the GDP in years up to March 31, 2020 cut it to 2.8 per cent in 2020-21 and to 2.5 per cent by 2023.)

An amendment of Finance Act, 2012 was carried out which said that apart from the Medium-Term Fiscal Policy Statement, Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement and the Macroeconomic Framework Statement, the Central Government would need to lay a Medium Term Expenditure Framework Statement(I.e, added later) before Parliament.

Crowding Out Effect = A situation when increased interest rates lead to a reduction in private investment spending such that it dampens the initial increase of total investment spending is called crowding out effect.The crowding out effect is an economic theory arguing that rising public sector spending drives down or even eliminates private sector spending.government increases its borrowing. The sheer scale of this borrowing can lead to substantial rises in the real interest rate, which has the effect of absorbing the economy's lending capacity and of discouraging businesses from making capital investments. It was argued that high fiscal deficits lead to inflation, reduces consumption, result in a crowding out of the private sector investment, rising unemployment and falling living standards of the people

Gurupriya bridge = Odisha government

Red Spurfowl = endemic to India + pheasant family(Bird) + least concern

Grey junglefowl/Sonnerat's junglefowl = endemic to India + least concern

Ancient board games = ali guli mane/ekke + Navakankari/9 pebbles + mokshapatam(like snake ladder) + kachapani

US-India Strategic Partnership Forum (USISPF) = a nonprofit corporation + established in 2017 by a group of industry leaders in both countries + focused on stimulating business relations between the U.S. and India, and enhancing the strategic relationship between the two countries + committed to creating the most powerful strategic partnership between the U.S. and India + Promoting bilateral

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trade + business and government coming together +

Open data charter = charter signed by around 100 governments to proactively share the data collected by various government departments + No state of India or Central govt has signed it

The Open Government Data (OGD) Platform India has been set up by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) in compliance with National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy (NDSAP) 2012. The objective of the policy is to provide proactive access to government owned sharable data along with its usage information.

Global open data barometer = India ranked 33(from 38) + produced by World wide web foundation + the Barometer ranks governments on: Readiness for open data initiatives. + Implementation of open data programmes + Impact that open data is having on business, politics and civil society.

MPC meets bi-monthly(Monetary policy committee)(Covered in detail in further editions)

Poll offences are not yet cognisable offences(cognisable offence means a police officer has the authority to make an arrest without a warrant and to start an investigation with or without the permission of a court.The police can file a First Information Report (FIR) only for cognisable offences.)

11 th world hindi conference = Mauritius + organised every 3 years by External affairs ministry + world hindi secretariat is also located in mauritius(however hindi is not official language) + WHS will be organising the event

CORPAT = India-Indonesia coordinated patrol + navy + 31 st edition

India and Bangladesh have agreed to institute a Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT) as an annual feature between the two navies. The first edition will be inaugurated by Navy Chief Admiral Sunil Lanba this year

G7 = canada +usa + uk + france + germany+ itlay + japan + (Formerly known as G8 Alongwith Russia)

Joint communique of G7 = to achieve clean environment,clean air and clean water

National organ and tissue transplant organisation(NOTTO) = functions under MoH&FW + apex body for coordination and networking for procurement and distribution of organs/tissues and transplantation

Black softshell turtle = extinct in wild

Indian softshell turtle = Vulnerable

South asian narrow headed softshell turtle = Endangered

Laamu and addu atolls = Maldives

Environmental DNA or eDNA is DNA that is collected from a variety of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, or even air rather than directly sampled from an individual organism. As various organisms interact with the environment, DNA is expelled and accumulates in their surroundings.

First BIMSTEC War games = India to host @ Pune + focus on counter terrorism

Pradhan mantri matru vandana yojana(PMMVY) = monetary benefits are extended to all pregnant women and lactating mothers,except those in

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government service,for the safe delivery of first child + 6000 in 3 installments + Cash incentive is provided as compensation for wage loss + MoWCD

Lithium ion cell production initiative = part of government’s plan to achieve 100% EVs by 2030 + high energy density(Because lithium is highly reactive element and a lot of energy can be stored in atomic bonds + lithium ion cells hold their charge longer than other alternatives + relatively,low self discharge rate,less than half that of nickel-based batteries + lithium ion cells can handle several charge-discharge cycles without any hassles + currently the batteries r imported from china,south korea and taiwan) + technology developed by ISRO(VSSC) in India + VSSC is offering this technology to corporate sector in India

Output gap = Gap between the total productive capacity of an economy at a point in time and its actual output

Allepo and Ghouta = Syria

Hezbollah = lebanon

Illegal immigrants issue = India and UK

Matthew effect = also known as accumulated advantage + refers to a social phenomenon wherein people who already possess high economic or social status are likely to continue to maintain their high status over time

Operation Pawan was the code name assigned to the operation by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to take control of Jaffna from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Sri lanka) + 1987

13 point roster and 200 point roster are related to UGC guidelines for reservation

Rohingyas has been declared as illegal immigrants by India while as refugees by UNHCR

Armistice Agreement = is the armistice which brought about a complete cessation of hostilities of the Korean War + 1953

Manufacturers of PV cells have demanded a 70% safeguard duty on chinese imports, and the Directorate general of Trade remedies(PLEASE NOTE WHO WILL DECIDE)will take a call on this

National Dam safety authority = safety issues and unresolved issues + bill proposed to make it

Oil buyers club = Proposed (at International energy forum)to be set up by India and China to fight issues like asian premium and will include countries like south korea and japan

Asian premium = extra levy charged by OPEC countries from asian countries

UIDAI take fee from banks for Aadhar authentication

Remotely operated vehicle = developed by NIOT(National institute of ocean technology)(Hq at chennai) + can see upto 6000 m below sea

Pulses agreement = Mozambique and kenya

Incredible india = Ministry of tourism

India has said it does not follow U.S. sanctions, but companies and banks with links to the U.S. financial system could face penalties if they do not comply. Iran offers Indian refiners a 60-day credit period on oil sales. SBI may need to stop Iran oil payments

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Suspension of Operations(SoO) = cease-ops + kashmir valley

Integrated mountain initiative and Zero waste himalyas = NGOs(working in India)

Senchal wildlife sanctuary = West Bengal

Water productivity mapping of major indian crops = NABARD + 10 major crops across country

“SAGAR” (Security and Growth for All in the Region) programme = 2015 + announced by Mr. Modi during a visit to Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) countries + It is a maritime initiative which gives priority to Indian Ocean region for ensuring peace, stability and prosperity of India in Indian Ocean region + in line with the principles of Indian Ocean Rim Association + goal is to seek a climate of trust and transparency; respect for international maritime rules and norms by all countries; sensitivity to each other`s interests; peaceful resolution of maritime issues; and increase in maritime cooperation

Costa Rica will become power neutral by 2020

A 99-million-year-old fossil of an extinct frog species, Electorana limoae, has been identified from amber deposits of northern Myanmar

Rishi valley = Andhra pradesh

FluQuadri = In a first, WHO recommends quadrivalent influenza vaccine + The quadrivalent vaccine will have two A virus strains H1N1 and H3N2 and two B virus strains Victoria and Yamagata for active immunisation of adults of age 18 to 64 years was approved in May last year by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI).

Lymphatic filarisis = a mosquito borne parasitic disease + Endemic to India

FPIs are permitted to invest in government securities (G-secs), including treasury bills and SDLs(state govt loans) without any minimum residual maturity requirement, subject to the condition that short-term investments by an FPI under either category shall not exceed 20% of the total investment of that FPI in that category(Overseen by RBI).Short-term investments are defined as those with residual maturity of up to one year

Indian LPG, kerosene cheapest in subcontinent.Petrol costs the least in Pakistan.Sri Lankans charged the lowest for diesel( according to PPAC(petroleum planning and analysis cell) data)

Composite water management index = developed by NITI Aayog

India Biodiversity portal = NO MINISTRY + it has the ambitious goal of mapping India’s biodiversity with the engagement of civil society + portal relies largely on private support

The Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society of London was established in 1888, and is awarded annually to alternately a botanist or a zoologist or to one of each in the same year + Kamal Bawa was first indian to be awarded in 2018

Central Water Commission (CWC) warns of floods based on the rising water levels in reservoirs and if these are nearing a dam’s ‘danger marks.’

Joint Commission for Economic Cooperation = India and Itlay

National Data center = set up by the National Informatics Centre (NIC), under

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the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) + 4 already at Delhi, pune, hyderabad, bhubneshwar + 5 th and country’s biggest data center to be established at BHOPAL +These National Data Centres host government websites, services and applications

Devrais = sacred groves of maharashtra western ghats

International classification of diseases 11(ICD 11) = identifies health trends and statistics worldwide + released by WHO + GAming addiction added as a mental disorder +

USA quits UNHRC

Hodeidah = yemen

Triclosan contained in toothpastes lead to antibiotoc reistant bacteria

Fugitive economic defender ---> awarded by PMLA court -----> power to confiscate all his properties

Use of Aadhaar biometric data for criminal investigation is not allowed under the Aadhaar Act.Aadhaar data has never been shared with any crime investigating agency

Tuloni biya = attainment of womanhood of girls in Assam is celebrated as

Titan = Saturn’s largest moon + Cassini flyby + Titan has stratospheric clouds of benzene ice, particularly over its South Pole

Gangetic dolphin = have evolved to use echolocation to navigate and catch fish + at the surface they listen for fish movement; prefer echolocation at the middle depths (dolphins produced the most number of clicks here) and sensitive snout-whiskers, especially in calves and juveniles, could help sense weak electrical signals emitted by bottom-dwelling fish and shrimp.

UNSSP(India - UN small satellites programme) is launched by ISRO to train 90 qualifying engineers from various countries to build and test three small satellites each year.

UNISPACE+50 It is an event marking the 50th year of the first UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

Wildlife conservation society = Bengaluru based NGO

Specifications for the recycling of different types of plastics were issued two decades ago by the Bureau of Indian Standards

Bureau of Indian Standards does not specify a norm for uranium level, water is not tested regularly for it.

CAATSA (Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act) = by USA for Russia like countries(Covered in detail in further editions)

Higher Education commission of India(HECI) = new body proposed to replace UGC + There is no plan to merge all higher education regulators, as was proposed through a planned agency called HEERA, which was supposed to be put in place as a super regulator +

HECI will be in charge of ensuring academic quality in universities and colleges, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) or another mechanism that will be put in place later will be responsible for funding universities and colleges + Regulator will have powers to enforce compliance to the academic

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quality standards and will have the power to order closure of sub-standard and bogus institutions

IMPRESS (Impactful Policy Research in Social Sciences) vision document = ICSSR(New Delhi)

Economic offenses wing = subdivision in CBI

Loan deferment policy(under PM Ujjawala Yojana) = which has allowed the recovery of loan amounts from Ujjwala customers, has been deferred for their next six refills starting April 1, 2018. This allows customers to avail of the subsidy during this period.

Dublin Regulation = is a European Union (EU) law that determines the EU Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum seekers seeking international protection under the Geneva Convention/1951 Refugee convention

MSCI Emerging market Index = index of emerging markets + help investors + includes India,China and South Africa(24 countries in total)

Government first blockchain centre = Hyderabad

Seed treaty = International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT PGRFA) + 2004 + India signed

Odisha government on Friday entered into a collaboration with the Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES), a body of 48 members and collaborating countries, aimed at automating risk management

Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) = established in 2009(registered with UN) + intergovernmental body + 48 collaborating countries in Asia Pacific and Africa Region(ASIA AND AFRICA ONLY) + India is chairman of the body + Operates from Thailand

Online Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (OCEMS) = CPCB has directed SPCB to close down industrial units that haven’t installed OCEMS + CPCB has since 2015 made it mandatory for industries to install OCEMS + The industries that require OCEMS include distilleries (including fermentation industry), sugar, fertiliser, pulp & paper (paper manufacturing with or without pulping), pharmaceuticals, dyes and dye-intermediates, pesticides, tanneries, thermal power plants, iron and steel, zinc, copper and aluminium smelters.

Laissez faire = economic transition free from government intervention

Interest rates increase ---> more FPI --->Value of ruppee will strengthen

National saving certificates = can invest through any post office + high interest rate,minimum investment is just Rs 100 + amount invested and interest earned is eligible for tax deduction + the scheme is open to only individuals who r resident indians

DISHA dashboard = Ministry of rural Development + to help legislators, local officials make data-driven decisions + it has 3 filters : time,geography and scheme + will make it easier to monitor governance by geography in real time + Currently, 18 schemes are covered; the ultimate plan is to integrate all 42 Central schemes — representing a total outlay of ₹3 lakh crore — which are already monitored by DISHA or District Development Coordination and Monitoring

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Committees + available to all members of Parliament and State Assemblies as well district officials + allows the user to track the progress of multiple and diverse schemes in a certain district, block, or even a gram panchayat.

MODIS Satellite = NASA + Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer + to track changes in the landscape over time + satellite images of Indian forests

Trappist-1 , kepler-11, TReS-4(all in news) = EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

Kepler 90 is the first star system to have as many planets as our solar system

EPIC 211945201b or K2-236b = exoplantet discovered by INDIA + sub-Saturn or super-Neptune sized + discovery was made by measuring the mass of the planet using the indigenously designed PARAS (PRL Advance Radial-velocity Abu-Sky Search) spectrograph integrated with a 1.2m telescope at Gurushikar Observatory in Mount Abu

Regional Rural Banks (RRB) = RRBs are financial institutions which ensure adequate credit for agriculture and other rural sectors + recommendations of the Narasimham Working Group (1975) + Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 + equity of a regional rural bank is held by the Central Government, concerned State Government and the Sponsor Bank in the proportion of 50:15:35 + RRB’s have also been brought under the ambit of priority sector lending on par with the commercial bank

Difference between Non banking financial company(NBFC) and Bank = Provides Banking services to People without holding a Bank license + An NBFC cannot accept Demand Deposits + An NBFC is not a part of the payment and settlement system + An NBFC cannot issue Cheques drawn on itself + Deposit insurance facility of the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation is not available for NBFC depositors, unlike banks + An NBFC is not required to maintain Reserve Ratios (CRR, SLR etc.) + An NBFC cannot indulge Primarily in Agricultural, Industrial Activity, Sale-Purchase, Construction of Immovable Property

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VISION-MONTHLY

(PLEASE NOTE ANY POINT FROM ABOVE SECTION IS NOT REPEATED BELOW)#NoRepetition

Committee related to Lateral entry in bureaucracy = The YK algah committee(2001), Surinder Nath Committee(2003) , Hota Committee (2004) and Baswan committee(2016)

M. Nagaraj case 2006 = Nagaraj judegment + related to reservation in promotion to SC/ST employees

Goa,Manipur,Himachal pradesh and Tripura were Union territories granted Statehood

National defense strategy/National military strategy = USA

Indo pacific strategy = two Ocean(Indian and Pacific) + Two continents(Asia and Africa)

Shanghai Five = It was a multilateral forum founded by 5 countries China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Krygyzstan, and Tajikistan in Shanghai in 1996

Qingdao summit = SCO + SECURE Strategy(coined by India + For comprehensive security in the SCO region) + first time India participated as full member + India became full member as Astana summit in Kazakhstan in 2017

SCO = Eurasian political, economic, and security organization + formed in 2001 + headquartered in Beijing + SCO comprises eight-member states, India, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Russian, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan + RATS + 4 observer states and 6 dialogue partners

Yarlung Tsangpo = upper stream of Bhramaputra river + Tibet autonomous region,China

Tibet(also known as) = Xizang + “western treasure land” + “Third pole”(due to its largest perennial ice mass on the planet after the Arctic and Antarctica )

China’s ‘Gold Rush’ = China’s has started mineral mining or the “gold rush” as part of its wider efforts in the Himalayas to extract precious metals, rare earths and other resources from Tibetan plateau

Tatopani crossing = between China and Nepal + the oldest and biggest trading point between the two countries

India seychelles = diplomatic relations established in 1976 + LAMIYTE(joint military exercise between India and Seychelles) + Assumption Island(recently agreement failed due to defeat of proposal by National assembly of seychelles)

Operation Flower are blooming = 1986 + by Indian navy in seychelles + to avert a coup and helped the island achieve political stability

String of pearls policy = China + to make air bases all along the indian ocean like with ports at chittagong(bangladesh), hambantota(sri lanka) ,gwadar(pakistan),islas coco(Myanmar)

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India - Maldives = Operation Cactus( India’s military aid of 1600 soldiers to Maldives to fight the armed attack of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) supported rebel groups in 1988 for an attempted coup) + Maldives recently hasasked India to take back gifted Dhruv + India was among the first to recognise Maldives after its independence in 1965 and to establish diplomatic relations with the country + Indians are the second largest expatriate community in the Maldives with approximate strength of around 26,000

Maldives has signed its first ever Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with China

Dhruv = Advanced light helicopter

India-Mongolia = India-Mongolia exercise ‘Nomadic Elephant’ is held annually + Mongolia has launched construction of its first strategically important oil refinery funded by India in southern Dornogovi province(to be completed by 2022) + Mangolia is a landlocked country by Russia and China and is affected by harsh winter called “zud”

Extraterritorial/Secondary Sanctions = These are the sanctions that are designed to restrict the economic activity of governments, businesses, and nationals of third countries which are considered as a violation of their sovereignty and international laws.

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)= Iran’s nuclear deal + between (P5+1) and Iran

Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)= by USA + it aims to counter the aggression by Iran, Russia and North Korea through punitive measures.

S 400 + Kamov 226T + Project 1135.6 frigates = Russia

INDIA-BRAZIL-SOUTH AFRICA (IBSA) DIALOGUE FORUM = is an international tripartite grouping for promoting international cooperation of India, Brazil and South Africa + formally established by the Brasilia Declaration in 2003 + important poles for galvanizing South-South cooperation and greater understanding between three important continents of the developing world namely, Africa, Asia and South America, facing similar challenges.

IBSA Fund = for the Alleviation of Poverty and Hunger + Each member country contributes $1 Million annually to this fund + IBSA Fund is managed by the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) + around 19 countries as partners

ORGANISATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS (OPCW) = 1997 established +Hq at Hague,netherlands + implementing body for the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons + India is a member + Conference of the States Parties is the plenary organ consisting of all members of the OPCW having equal voting rights. It has the general power to oversee implementation of the Convention + awarded 2013 Nobel Peace Prize

Asian Infrastructure Fund = establishes by AIIB

AIIB(Asian infra investment bank) = 2016 established + Hq at beijing + China largest and India as 2 nd largest shareholder + India as founding member + 86

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members + India is the largest borrower from Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank + AIIB is the first major multilateral development bank where principal contributors are the borrowing members themselves + projected as ‘asian’ tool for development

Byungjin policy = North korea + to pursue economic development and nuclear weapons programme simultaneously.

Panmunjom declaration = between North korea and south korea

R. Gandhi Committee = Conversion of Urban cooperative banks into full fledged banks/Small finance banks

Small finance banks = aim to encourage financial inclusion + minimum paid-up equity capital for small finance banks shall be Rs. 100 crore + The promoter's minimum initial contribution to the paid-up equity capital of such small finance bank shall at least be 40 per cent (can be brought down to 26 per cent within 12 years from the date of commencement of business of the bank + They are required to maintain Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) + They are required to extend 75 per cent of its Adjusted Net Bank Credit (ANBC) to the sectors eligible for classification as priority sector lending (PSL) by the Reserve Bank

National voluntary guidelines/National Voluntary Guidelines on Social, Environmental and Economic Responsibilities of Business (NVGs) = given by Ministry of corporate affairs(MCA) + NOT ISSUED FIRST TIME(issued for the first time in 2011)

PARIWARTAN = POWER ASSET REVIVAL THROUGH WAREHOUSING AND REHABILITATION + Plan by REC(Rural electrification corporation)(REC = Navratna company + Ministry of power + Nodal agency by GoI for impelementation of SAUBHAGYA Scheme and DDUGJY + coordinating agency for rolling out UDAY) + to revitalise stressed power sector assets + will prevent distress sale of stressed power projects under IBC(Insolvency and bankruptcy code) + scheme is inspired by the Troubled Asset Relief Program, which was introduced in the US during the 2008 financial crisis + scheme is similar to SAMADHAN (Scheme of Asset Management and Debt Change Structure)

SAMADHAN (Scheme of Asset Management and Debt Change Structure) = under this the SBI led bankers' consortium took over unsustainable debt of stressed power plants to avoid their liquidation

Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) losses = losses related to power transmission infrastructure

Status of power transformation 2018 report = IEA(International Energy agency)

Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) = global forum to promote clean energy + collaboration between the private sector, public sector. non-governmental organizations, and others (NOT UNDER UN OR ANY OTHER ORGANISATION)

Power system flexibility = defined as the ability of a power system to reliably and cost effectively manage the variability and uncertainty of demand and supply

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across all relevant timescales + It includes ensuring instantaneous stability of the power system and supporting long-term security of supply

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) = autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare +

Ashok Dalwai committee = on doubling farmer’s income

AGRICULTURE and WATER are state subjects

Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan = Ministry of Agriculture + aim to aid, assist and advice farmers to improve their farming techniques and raise their income + launched from 1st June 2018 till 31st July 2018 + implented by Krishi vigyan kendras + It will be undertaken in 25 villages with more than 1000 population each in Aspirational District as identified in consultation with the Ministry of Rural Development in accordance with the guidelines of NITI Aayogand If the number of villages in a district is less than 25 with more than 1000 population then all the villages will be covered.

India’s first freight village is being developed in Varanasi + Village is being funded by the world bank + implemented by inland waterways authority of India + village will also have the Varanasi waterways terminal which is being developed under the Jal Marg Vikas project

"A freight village is a defined area within which all activities relating to transport, logistics and the distribution of goods, both for national and international transit, are carried out by various operators”

Jal Marg Vikas Project = The project envisages the development of waterway (for commercial navigation) between Allahabad and Haldia on Ganga River that will cover a distance of 1620 km + The project covers Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal(NOT FROM ALL STATES FROM WHICH GANAG FLOW + NO UTTARAKHAND)

Enforcement Directorate = Department of Revenue,Ministry of finance + law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India

DRDO = 1958 + Minstry of Defence

Rama rao committee = 2008 + to conduct a comprehensive review of DRDO

As per DPP-2016(Defence procurement procedure), there are two sub-categories of ‘Make’ Procedure:

Make-I (Government Funded): It will involve Government funding of 90%, released in a phased manner.

Make-II (Industry Funded): Under this, private industry funds the research for the product on its own and develops a prototype. There will be no government funding

National security guards = an Indian special forces under Ministry of Home affairs(MoHA) + ‘Black cats’ + not categorised under Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) but has a special forces mandate + formed in 1984

Malabar 2018 = held off the coast of Guam in Philippine Sea + trilateral exercise between India, Japan and USA + It was started as Indo-US bilateral naval war drill in 1992. Since then it is held annually. Malabar 2018 was the 22nd

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edition of the naval exercise + Japan joined the exercise as permanent participant in 2015

World Bank indicates that by 2030 India’s per capita water availability may shrink to half, which will push the country into ‘water scarce’ category from the existing ‘water stress’ category + Water Stressed Condition: When annual per-capita water availability is less than 1700 cubic meters + Water Scarcity Condition: When annual per- capita water availability is less than 1000 cubic meters

Taj Decrelation - It aims at gradual phasing out of single-use plastic water bottles and cutlery in the 500-metre radius of the Taj Mahal in the next five years and to make the monument litter-free

Dead zones = Dead zones (Hypoxic zones) are areas of the ocean (occasionally in lakes and even rivers) where oxygen has fallen to such low levels that most marine life cannot survive + Dead zones are reversible if their causes are reduced or eliminated

Temperature increases ---> Dissolved oxygen decreases ----> oxygen depletion in water bodies ----> Loss of biodiversity

Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) = statutory + under Ministry of agriculture + recommend minimum support prices (MSPs) to Government (CCEA)

Nansen Initiative (2012) = state-led consultative process to build consensus on a protection agenda addressing the needs of people displaced across borders in the context of disasters and the effects of climate change

Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD): It was launched in 2016, to implement the recommendations of the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda

Sendai Framework = for Disaster risk reduction +for 2015-2030 + by UNISDR(United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) + successor of Hyogo frmaework

Global assessment report = related to DISASTER(please remember it as it is NOT CLEAR BY NAME OF THE REPORT) + given by UNISDR

National disaster risk Index = Union ministry of home affairs with the support of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) + have prepared for the first time + included all states and UTs + It will be used to prepare a composite disaster scorecard (DSC)

MNRE has declared medium and long-term target for off-shore wind power capacity additions, which are 5 GW by 2022 and 30 GW by 2030 + Studied showed tremendous potential in two Indian states namely, GUJARAT and TAMILNADU + Currently the total installed wind power capacity is 34.04 GW, the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world

National Offshore Wind Energy Policy 2015” = given by National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) (LOCATED IN TAMIL NADU)(Nodal Agency for development of offshore wind energy )

Bathymetric data = gives the information about the sea depth at various positions. At present there is no such data available for the Indian sub-continent

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Feed in tariff route = FiT enables anyone who generates electricity from renewable energy source be it a home owner, small business or a large electricity utility - to sell it to the grid and receive guaranteed long-term payments at a predetermined rate for energy transferred

Y. S malik panel = 15 point plan to aid car manufacturers to switch from Internal Combustion Engines (IECs) to Electric Vehicles (EVs)

National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 = aim to achieve national fuel security by promoting hybrid and electric vehicles in the country + It set an ambitious target to achieve 6-7 million sales of hybrid and electric vehicles year on year from 2020 onwards.

Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India scheme/ FAME Scheme = part of its NEMMP + The scheme has four focus areas:

technology development, pilot project, charging infrastructure and demand creation

Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS) = launched by IMD + to provide probabilistic weather forecasts upto next 10 days + developed jointly by the IMD, National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) and the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology(IITM)(NOT SOLELY BY IMD) + Under this, the area of spatial resolution, which is 23 km presently, will reduce to 12 km, enabling the meteorological department to give district-level warning + With this new model, India joins the US with a model that predicts with a 12 km resolution + Only the 'European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast' has a better 9km resolution

National Hydrology project = launched in 2016 + assisted by World bank + to improve the extent, qualit y, and accessibility of water resources information, decision support system for floods + to streamline the hydro-meterological data + It provides for establishment of National Water Informatics Centre (NWIC) as an independent organization under the control of Ministry of Water Resources

National Water Information Centre (NWIC) = is a modern platform for assessment of surface water and ground water, flood forecasting, reservoir monitoring, coastal information management system and river basin management + Ministry of Water Resources + setup as a single window source of updated data on water resources

Blue flag certification = given by FEE(Foundation for Environmental education) + Environmental award for Beaches + criteria =(water quality + Env management + Env education + safety)

Society for Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM) = It has been established under the aegis of Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate change, Government of India.

Chrysilla Vollupe = a rare spider (both a male and a female spider) was rediscovered after 150 years from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary in Western Ghats, Kerala + Family of jumping spider

2-Tier Research architecture proposed by NITI Aayog for ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE =

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CORE(Center for research excellence) = It is focused on developing better

understanding of existing core research and pushing technology frontiers through creation of new knowledge

ICTAI(International centers of Transformational AI) = It is entrusted

with a mandate of developing and deploying application-based research. Private sector collaboration is envisioned to be a key aspect of ICTAIs

Science-based targets initiative = Targets adopted by companies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions + It is a global team comprised of people from all partner organisations the United Nations Global Compact, CDP, WWF and World Resources Institute

Targets are considered “science-based” if they are in line with the level of decarbonization required to keep global temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre- industrial temperatures

Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) system = used to especially control sulphur

dioxide (SO2) emissions + Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) system is a pollution control system for the reduction of SOx (SO2, SO3), HCI and heavy metals like mercury(SOX + HCL + HEAVY METALS) + It is a dry process in which a sorbent (a material used to absorb or adsorb liquids or gases) is injected into the coal fired boiler where it interacts with various pollutants like SOx, HCl and the resultant dry waste is removed via either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse.

Artificial Leaf/ Quantum Leaf = it absorbs carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to generate fuel and oxygen in the process, simulating the process of photosynthesis

+ will help in reducing carbon footprint

Comet is a small, icy object that orbits the sun and has a long "tail" of gas.

Asteroids are rocks whose orbits lie mostly between Jupiter and Mars.

Meteors are streak of light seen when a space rock enters earth's atmosphere and

starts burning.

Meteorites are those meteors which don't entirely burn and hence hit the earth.

GROWTH-India = India’s first robotic telescope + Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH)-India + operational at the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) in Hanule in Ladakh + fully robotic telescope + funded by the Science and Engineering Board (SERB) of the Department of Science and Technology + 70 cm telescope + primary objective of the project is the time domain astronomy+ It is mostly an imaging telescope and the spectroscopy (analysis) will happen at Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT)

Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) = 2-m telescope at IAO,Hanule,Ladakh

+ It is remotely operated using dedicated satellite communication link from the

Centre of Research & Education in Science and Technology.

GROWTH Initiative = multi-country collaborative initiative known as Global Relay Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) to observe transient events in the universe + will focus on Supernova,asteroids,and gravitational wave sources

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Robinsects or Nova-Crafters = robots for pollination + based on the concept of ‘Biomimetics’(Biomimetics, also known as bionics, biognosis, or biomimicry, is the use and implementation of concepts and principles from nature to creating new materials, devices and systems) + Robinsects/Nova-Crafeters are GPS and Artificial Intelligence enabled small robotics hovers/drones which are programmed to carry out the pollination

"The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World" 2017 = published by UN + annual report jointly prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) + UNICEF and WHO have joined for the first time

Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) = by WHO + 2015 launched + developed to support the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance + standardized approach to the collection, analysis and sharing of AMR data at a global level by encouraging and facilitating the establishment of national AMR surveillance systems

UN Bankok rules = on women offenders and prisoners + adopted in 2010

The UN standard Minimum Rule = presents most comprehensive guidelines regarding prisoners and was adopted by UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

Swadhar Greh = scheme for rehabilitation of women victims of difficult circumstances + scheme also includes women prisoners released from jail and are without family, social and economic support

Happy school project = launched in INDIA by UNESCO (with the involvement of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (MGIEPS) in India) + Launched by UNESCO in 2014 + Project aims to bring happiness and the quality of education together by calling for education systems to shift away from traditional measures

Vakataka Dynasty = Maharashtra(Nagpur district) + Capital at Nandivardhan, or the present day Nagardhan + most important successors of the Satavahanas in the Deccan and contemporaneous with the Guptas in northern India + Brahmin dynasty + rock-cut Buddhist viharas and chaityas of Ajanta Caves (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) were built under the patronage of Vakataka emperor, Harishena.

Badshahi Ashoorkhana Monument = is a Shia Muslim mourning place, near Charminar in Hyderabad, India. It was constructed in memory of martyrdom of Imam Hussain in the battle of karbala, and is used during the festival of Moharram. + It was built by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in 1611, three years after building the Charminar.

Seva Bhoj yojana = Ministry of culture + central sector scheme + to reduce financial burden of Charitable Religious Institutions + envisages reimbursing the Central Government share of Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) and Integrated Goods and Service Tax (IGST) of such Charitable Religious

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Institutions + applicable to all Charitable Religious Institutions

"Victorian and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai” has been included in UNESCO's World Heritage list.This is the third site from Mumbai after the Elephanta Caves and Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus railway station.There are now 37 world heritage sites. With five sites, Maharashtra has the maximum number of sites in India.India stands second largest in number after China in ASPAC (Asia and Pacific) region. It is overall sixth in the world

India-Vietnam MoU on postal stamp = The Joint commemorative stamp depicts Sanchi Stupa and Pho Minh Pagoda of Vietnam

Solar Charkha mission = Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprise + will disburse a subsidy of Rs 550 crore to artisans, generating employment in rural areas and contributing to the green economy + Promote women entrepreneurship(special features for SHGs)

Sampark Portal = Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprise + digital platform to connect five lakh job seekers with recruiters

Ganga praharis = Launched by Ministry of water resources + self motivated and trained volunteers to save ganga +

Operation NISTAR = by Indian Navy + conducted to bring back Indians stranded in Socotra island (Yemen) after Cyclone Mekunu hit the area

Queen pineapple = declared as Tripura’s state fruit + declared by president

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PIB -JUNE(Only left over portions from above parts are covered (No repetition))

JANAUSHADHI SUVIDHA = Oxo-biodegradable Sanitary Napkin + under Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP)( Ministry of Chemical and fertilizers)

Technical cooperation in the field of Spatial Planning, Water Management and MobilityManagement = MoU signed between India and Netherlands

Memorandum of Understanding between India and Oman on Cooperation in the peacefuluses of outer space

India emerges as net exporter of electricity.Electricity supplied to Nepal, Bangladeshand Myanmar in FY 2017-18.

Ease of GettingElectricity Ranking = World Bank + India’s rank improved to 29 in 2018 from 111 in 2014

Apps that are launched by the Ministry of Power (READ BELOW)

SAUBHAGYA = App for tracking household electrification

VidyutPravah = The Mobile/Web App provides real time information of current demand met, shortages if any, surplus power available and the prices in Power Exchange

UJALA = Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LED`S for All + App provides real time updates on the LED distribution happening across the country

UrjaMitra = monitoring of power availability and sending power cut information through SMS

MERIT = information pertaining to marginal variable cost and source wise purchase of electricity

UDAY = Allows people to compare DISCOMs on the basis of 26 major performance parameters

URJA = Urban Jyoti Abhiyaan + It is an informative App for Urban Distribution Sector + It captures Consumer centric parameters from the IT systems created under IPDS

TARANG = Transmission App for real time monitoring & Growth + It is an IT Web/mobile based platform to provide status of both inter and intra state Transmission Projects in the country + This platform also shows the prospective interstate as well as intra state Transmission Projects

DEEP e-bidding = Discovery of Efficient Electricity Price + The portal will provide a common e-bidding platform with e-reverse auction facility to facilitate nation-wide power procurement through a wider network so as to bring uniformity and transparency in the process of power procurement

Ash Track = linking fly ash users and power plants for better ash utilisation

Methanol = can be extracted from Natural Gas, Coal (Indian High Ash Coal), Bio-mass, Municipal Solid waste and most importantly from CO2 + alternative fuel for internal combustion and other engines, either in combination with

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gasoline or directly (“neat”) + less expensive way to reduce the carbon footprint

+ Methanol burns efficiently in all internal combustion engines, produces no

particulate matter, no soot, almost nil SOX and NOX emissions (NEAR ZERO POLLUTION) + gaseous version of Methanol DME can blended with LPG and can be excellent substitute for diesel in large buses and trucks + NITI Aayog has drawn out a comprehensive plan to replace 20% of crude imports from Methanol alone + “Methanol economy” is a suggested future economy in which methanol and dimethyl ether replace fossil fuels as a means of energy storage, ground transportation fuel, and raw material for synthetic hydrocarbons and their products. It offers an alternative to the proposed hydrogen economy or ethanol economy(Methanol Economy is the “Bridge” to the dream of a complete “Hydrogen based fuel systems”)

Gulf of Aden = Also known as the Gulf of Berbera + Amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west + In the northwest, it connects with the Red Sea through the

Bab-el-Mandeb strait, and in the southeast, it connects with the Indian Ocean through the Guardafui Channel

Agni-5 missile = Long range ballistic missile + Intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the DRDOof India + Other intercontinental missile countries:

P5+Israel + Canister based (Road mobility, all weather, flexible launching) [Others: Shaurya,Brahmos (Only supersonic cruise missile in the world)] + Range: >5ooo km + 3 stage solid propellant + Nuclear warhead + Usage: small satellites, shoot down enemy satellites in short range

Zigzag technology = To reduce carbon emissions from burning of bricks in brick kilns

India stands 4th in wind power 5th in renewable power and 6th in solarpower installed capacity

SRISTI= Sustainable Rooftop Implementation for Solar Transfiguration of India

+ new scheme for solar rooftop + Ministry of New and Renewable Energy +

Government has set a target of reaching 100 GW of solar power installed capacity in the country by 2022, of which 40 GW is targeted through solar rooftop + subsidy and incentives to promote rooftop solar grids

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana(PMKSY)= For extending the coverage of irrigation ‘Har Khet ko pani’ and improving water useefficiency ‘More crop per drop’ in a focused manner with end to end solution onsource creation, distribution, management, field application and extension activities +

PMKSY has been formulated amalgamating ongoing schemes viz.Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of the Ministry of WaterResources,River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR);Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of LandResources (DoLR) ;On Farm Water Management (OFWM) of Department of Agriculture andCooperation (DAC)

INGRAM(Integrated Grievance Redressal Mechanism) = launched to provide

a common IT platform for various stake holders involved in the Consumer

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Grievance Redressal Mechanism and for disseminating information to consumers + under National Consumer Helpline + Ministry of Consumer affairs

UTTAM App= has been launched for ensuring transparency and efficiency in coal qualitymonitoring process + Ministry of Coal

Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala Transparently in India (SHAKTI) = forauction and allotment of coal linkages, will lead to affordable power and transparency inallocation of coal + Ministry of Coal

Quarterly Employment survey (New Series) is an enterprise based survey, carried outwith an objective to measure relative change in employment situation over successivequarters for the establishments having 10 or more workers

National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd. (NAFED)= topromote co-operative marketing of Agricultural Produce to benefit the farmers + Procures pulses, oilseeds and onion from farmers + under Ministry of Agriculture

Swajal scheme = Aim to provide villages with piped water supply powered by solar energy + The scheme will train hundreds of rural technicians for operation and maintenance ofSwajal units + Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation

National Tribal Museum & National Level Tribal Research Institute = Proposed to be set upat Delhi

‘Adopt a Heritage’ Scheme = Implemented by: Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Culture and Archaeological Survey of India + Involve public sector companies, private sector companies and corporate citizens/individuals to take up the responsibility for making our heritage and tourism more sustainable + project primarily focuses on providing basic amenities and ease of access for all

National Digital Library of India = Launched by MHRD under the aegis of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) + Developed by: IIT Kharagpur + To make digital educational resources available to all citizens of the country to empower, inspire and encourage learning + initiative is Government’s commitment towards “Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat” + NDL is the Single Window Platform that collects and collates metadata from premier learning institutions in India and abroad, as well as other relevant sources + It is a digital repository containing textbooks, articles, videos, audio books, lectures, simulations, fiction and all other kinds of learning media.

Indian National Strategy for Standardization (INSS) = Result of the combined efforts of Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Ministry of Consumer Affairs and industry stakeholders + Provides a vision for the country to achieve the highest quality standards in production and distribution of goods and services in an attempt to reclaim Brand India + INSS report addresses four broad pillars of Quality Ecosystem:Standards Development, Conformity Assessment and Accreditation, Technical Regulations and SPS Measures, Awareness and Education

National Health Resource Repository (NHRR) = Country’s first ever national healthcare facility registry of authentic, standardized and updated geo-spatial data

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of

evidence-based decision making and develop a platform for citizen and provider-centric services by creating a robust, standardized and secured IT-enabled repository of India’s healthcare resources + ISRO is the project technology partner + aligned with Digital India mission

strengthen

all

public

and

private

healthcare

establishments

+

To

Centre of Excellence in Maritime & Shipbuilding (CEMS) = Sets up Labs in Mumbai andVizag + for Start-up in skill development for maritime and shipbuilding sector

National targets for off-shore wind power: Medium term target of 5 GW by 2022 and longterm target of 30 GW by 2030

National Water Information Centre (NWIC) = is a modern platform for assessment of surface water and ground water, flood forecasting, reservoir monitoring, coastal information management system and river basin management + Ministry of Water Resources + setup as a single window source of updated data on water resources

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee = Youngest vice-chancellor of the University of Calcutta (33 yrs) + Associated with education, administration and parliamentary affairs + first industrial policy of Independent India, which came in 1948, was stamped with his ideas and vision + In 1937, on the invitation of Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore addressed the convocation in Kolkata University in Bangla. This was the first time under British rule that the convocation in Kolkata University had been addressed to in Bangla + For the proper development of cottage and small industries with finance availability and organizational setup- All India Handicrafts Board, All India Handloom Board and Khadi & Village Industries Board were established between 1948 and 1950

NITI Aayog partners with GNFC Ltdto implement Fertilizer Subsidy Disbursement through Blockchain Technology

Mission Shaurya = Initiative of the Adivasi Vikas Vibhag of the Maharashtra StateGovernment Five students out of 10 of this group successfully scaled Mt. Everest in May2018

PRAGATI= the ICT-based, multi-modal platform for Pro-Active Governance and TimelyImplementation + by Prime Minister's Office

National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL)= Certification agency for air quality measurementinstruments.

Women in Prison report = MoWCD

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INSIGHTS(June)

Expressway between Kundli and Palwal/Eastern Peripheral Expressway = India first smart and green expressway + It is India’s first highway to be lit by solar power, provisions of rain water harvesting on every 500 metres, showcase 36 national monuments and 40 fountains + state-of-the-art road + auto challans for over-speeding + tolling only for the distance travelled + digital art gallery + Around 2.5 lakh trees have been planted near it + drip irrigation provision

Comprehensive Newborn Screening(CNS) = Kerela- first in India- comprehensive examination within first 48 hours to detect any visible birth defects

Rajasthan first state to produce manure from biogas plants at cow shelters(gaushala)

Charlevoix blueprint = (Canada) + bluepoint for healthy oceans + G7 countries

Nagfani= musical instrument, mainly in Garhwal(UK), also in UP and rajasthan. Associated with shiva, tantricism

Speed governors = to stop vehicles from crossing 80kmph

LIMBS= stands for Legal Information Management and Briefing System + ministry of law and justice initiative to reduce government litigation + LIMBS is a web based application created by the Department of Legal Affairs under the Ministry of Law and Justice, to make the legal data available at one single point and streamline the procedure of litigation matters conducted on behalf of Union of India.

KATRIN experiment= Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment to determine the mass of the universe’s lightest particle- neutrino. “ghost particles” as very difficult to detect. Determining the mass of neutrinos is one of the most important open questions in particle physics and will help scientists better understand the history of the universe. KATRIN measures the neutrino mass in a model-independent way via measurements of the kinematics of electrons from beta-decay.

IMAP mission = The Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe + science mission of NASA planned for launch in 2024 + is the fifth mission in NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Probes (STP) Program portfolio + will analyze and map particles streaming to Earth from the edges of interstellar space + help better understand the boundary of the heliosphere, a sort of magnetic bubble surrounding and protecting our solar system and to learn more about generation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere.

Heliosphere = where the constant flow of particles from our Sun, called the solar wind, collides with material from the rest of the galaxy. This collision limits the amount of harmful cosmic radiation entering the heliosphere

MoWCD has received the ‘Best Performing Social Sector Ministry’ SKOCH Award + Skoch Awards celebrate human excellence and agents of change in Indian society + highest independently instituted civilian honours in India + Only

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end-user departments and domain ministries may apply + have become the only independent benchmark of best practices in India in the fields of governance, finance, banking, technology, corporate citizenship, economics and inclusive growth. Skoch Consultancy Services is a think tank dealing with socio-economic issues with a focus on inclusive growth

Canada is to become the second country in the world to fully legalise marijuana after Uruguay.

“mPassport police app” = a digital, tablet computer-based application for police verification of passport applications + TN and puducherry(Tamil Nadu was the first State in the country to implement the app across all police districts)

Kerala is the first State to have a floating solar power plant with a capacity of 250 MW

Jama Masjid = built in 1367 by Bahmani rulers (Alauddin Hasan revolted against Tughlaq and declared his independence by establishing the Bahmani kingdom (1347-1527) with Gulbarga as its capital.) + The uniqueness of the mosque is that it has no open courtyard and the entire structure is covered by a roof. There are comparisons with the Great Cathedral-Mosque of Cordoba(Spain)

More than 35% of elephant corridors in india are in assam

Bankim Chandra = His first Bengali fiction: Durgeshnondini 1865. Kapalkundala in 1866, Mrinalini in 1869, Vishbriksha in 1873, Chandrasekhar in 1877, Rajani in 1877, Rajsimha in 1881 and Devi Chaudhurani in 1884 + He brought out a monthly magazine called Bangadarshan in 1872.

Swachh Iconic place = SIP is an initiative of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation under Swachh Bharat Mission. to implement Prime Minister’s vision to take iconic places and their surroundings to higher standards of Swachhata, so that all visitors benefit and also take away home the message of cleanliness+ is now in its second phase + Implementation- truly collaborative project with three other central Ministries: Urban Development, Culture, Tourism + all levels in the concerned States and more importantly, Public Sector and Private companies as partners

Project Kashmir Super 50= is a joint initiative by Indian Army, Center for Social Responsibility and Leadership (CSRL) and PETRONET LNG Limited (PLL) + to transform the educational status of children from economically weaker sections in the Kashmir region + 11-month program, selected students are provided with complete free residential coaching for IIT-JEE, JKCET and other premier Engineering Institutes.

Nepal-Bharat Maitri Irrigation Project = launched in 2017 to boost growth of Nepal's agricultural sector through enhanced facilities. aimed at installing 2,700 shallow tube wells in 12 districts of Nepal. would ensure all-season irrigation facility to about 8,115 hectares of farm land, augment productivity of wheat, rice and seasonal fruits, vegetables and other crops

India is hosting the 10th meeting of Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis + an alliance of partners from 72 LF endemic national country programmes, NGOs, private sectors, academic and research institutes and

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development agencies that assists WHO’s Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis.

UNICEF has launched ‘Super Dads’ campaign which aims to break down barriers preventing fathers from playing an active role in their young children’s development./ Paternity leave

Carbetocin = by WHO + safe and effective alternative to oxytocin + While Oxytocin, must be stored and transported at 28 degrees Celsius, and becomes less effective when exposed to heat, Carbetocin does not require refrigeration and retains its efficacy for at least three years even if it is stored at 30 degrees Celsius, and in 75% relative humidity

Mt Deotibba is the second highest peak (6001M) in the Pir-Panjal range in Himachal Pradesh.

The indigenous Pinaka rocket = by DRDO+ a precision-guided missile, enhanced range and accuracy to hit targets + It is used to neutralize the enemy’s positions that are strategically important for the enemy + The advanced versions can also be used to conduct surgical strikes even without entering into the enemy area + The second variant of Pinaka, known as Mark-II, has a maximum range of 75 km + DRDO is working with Israel’s IMI to develop Pinaka Mark-III which will use IMI’s Trajectory Correction System (TCS) that will enhance the accuracy of the attack.

Dhanush = upgraded version of the Swedish Bofors gun procured by India in the mid-1980s + Dhanush is a 155-mm, 45-calibre gun with a maximum range of 40 km in salvo mode + It has been developed by Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) + called desi Bofors

The Gender Action Plan (GAP)= UNCCD + will increase and strengthen the participation and leadership of women at all levels of decision-making and local implementation of the UNCCD with the aim to reach gender parity by 2030

WDCD2018 = World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought: 17 June + hosted by the Government of Ecuador + The country promotes sustainable land management as one of the pillars of bio-economy.

Global Real Estate Transparency Index 2018 = Jones Lang LaSalle Inc. (JLL) released + India has moved up just one spot from 36 in 2016 to 35 in 2018

Government has declared national targets for off-shore wind power = Medium target of 5 GW by 2022 + Long term target of 30 GW by 2030

National Off-Shore Wind Policy = MoNRE has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the country and the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) has been authorized as the Nodal Agency for development of offshore wind energy. devlopment of the offshore wind farms up to 200 Nautical Miles.

International Centre for Humanitarian Forensics (ICHF) = inaugurated at the Gujarat Forensic Sciences University (GFSU) + will be the world’s first international centre for humanitarian forensics + joint venture of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Regional Delegation for India, Bhutan, Nepal and the Maldives, and GFSU + proper management of bodies in times of

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crisis + GFSU, Gandhinagar, Gujaratis the first university in the world solely dedicated to forensic and investigative science.

Maastricht Treaty= known formally as the Treaty on European Union, is the international agreement responsible for the creation of the European Union (EU) + signed in 1992

India is no longer the country with the largest number of people living in extreme poverty as per the latest World Poverty Clock by Brookings Institute + Nigeria is

#1

Europe’s first solar panel recycling plant was recently inaugurated in France

In a goodwill gesture, Seychelles has gifted 2 giant Aldabra tortoise to India. The pair will be kept at Hyderabad Zoo + IUCN- Vul

Tight oil (also known as shale oil, shale-hosted oil or light tight oil, abbreviated LTO) is light crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability, often shale or tight sandstone + Relative to conventional sources, shale oil typically produces more pollution to extract

Remove Debris Project = EU + A microsatellite called RemoveSAT, will release, capture and deorbit two space debris targets, called DebrisSats

Mongolia has launched construction of its first strategically important oil refinery funded by India in southern Dornogovi province + The strategically important oil refinery will make Mongolia independent from energy imports and stabilise fuel and commodity prices in its domestic markets.

Par-Tapi-Narmada inter-state river link project = The projects envisages transfer of surplus water of rivers in Maharashtra and south Gujarat to feed the command area of the Miyagam branch of Narmada canal + The project is aimed at diverting “surplus” water from parts of west flowing rivers like the Par, the Nar, the Ambika and the Auranga basins in Maharashtra + Jheri dam is located in Nasik district of Maharashtra, while remaining dams viz. Mohankavchali, Paikhed, Chasmandva, Chikkar, Dabdar and Kelwan dams are located in Valsad and Dang districts of Gujarat.

IPledgefor9′ Achievers Awards= were given recently to the individuals and teams of doctors- achieving PMSMA’s objectives of safe motherhood to every woman in the country

Reunite= is a mobile application launched by Indian Railways which helps to track and trace missing and abandoned children in India + The application has been developed by Bachpan Bachao Andolan & Capgemini. Amazon Rekognition, web facial recognition service, is being used to identify missing kids

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