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Cryogenics is defined as the study of liquefied gas at a very low
temperature (below 150°C), as well as how the material performs at the
above temperature. In this case, the coolant liquid is the liquid nitrogen.
This project deals with the sloshing of liquid nitrogen in tank and
material improvement of the large, transportable, vacuum insulated
cryogenic vessel that will be connected to a truck in order to transport
liquid nitrogen by road.

Cryogenics is defined as the study of liquefied gas at a very low
temperature (below 150°C), as well as how the material performs at the
above temperature. In this case, the coolant liquid is the liquid nitrogen.
This project deals with the sloshing of liquid nitrogen in tank and
material improvement of the large, transportable, vacuum insulated
cryogenic vessel that will be connected to a truck in order to transport
liquid nitrogen by road.

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TRANSPORTABLE VACUUM

INSULATED CRYOGENIC VESSEL

By

Miss Nimmy Bansod (18MCD1005)

Miss Gaikwad Samruddhi Sanjiv (18MCD1013)

Vellore Institute of Technology Chennai

[2018-19]

ABSTRACT:-

Cryogenics is defined as the study of liquefied gas at a very low

temperature (below 150°C), as well as how the material performs at the

above temperature. In this case, the coolant liquid is the liquid nitrogen.

This project deals with the sloshing of liquid nitrogen in tank and

material improvement of the large, transportable, vacuum insulated

cryogenic vessel that will be connected to a truck in order to transport

liquid nitrogen by road. One of the most difficult phenomena to be

studied is the interaction between the fluid structure and the tank during

the operation of the tank. The Ansys Workbench environment

simulation was used to assess the effect of liquid movement on the

reservoir structure. CFD allowed to simulate the sloshing of liquid in the

reservoir at the height of both lateral and longitudinal acceleration.

These results were applied to structural simulations, to examine the

strength of the tank structure under loading with sloshing liquid. Further

regression analysis was carried out to find the relationship between the

variables so as to reduce computation time for different readings.

deformation, regression analysis

INTRODUCTION

Regression analysis is an important statistical method for the analysis of data. It

enables the identification and characterization of relationships among multiple

factors.

Regression analysis is a reliable method of identifying which variables have

impact on a topic of interest. The process of performing a regression allows you

to confidently determine which factors matter most, which factors can be

ignored, and how these factors influence each other.

following terms:

Independent Variables: These are the factors that hypothesize have an

impact on dependent variable.

Description: Relationships among the dependent variables and the

independent variables can be statistically described by means of

regression analysis.

Estimation: The values of the dependent variables can be estimated from

the observed values of the independent variables.

Prognostication: Risk factors that influence the outcome can be identified,

and individual prognoses can be determined.

Regression analysis employs a model that describes the relationships

between the dependent variables and the independent variables in a

simplified mathematical form.

Description : The analyst is seeking to find an equation that describes or

summarizes the relationships in a set of data. This purpose makes the

fewest assumptions.

Coefficient Estimation: This is a popular reason for doing regression

analysis. The analyst may have a theoretical relationship in mind, and the

regression analysis will confirm this theory. Most likely, there is specific

interest in the magnitudes and signs of the coefficients. Frequently, this

purpose for regression overlaps with others.

Prediction: The prime concern here is to predict some response variable,

such as sales, delivery time, efficiency, occupancy rate in a hospital,

reaction yield in some chemical process, or strength of some metal. These

predictions may be very crucial in planning, monitoring, or evaluating

some process or system. There are many assumptions and qualifications

that must be made in this case. For instance, you must not extrapolate

beyond the range of the data. Also, interval estimates require special, so-

called normality, assumptions to hold.

Control : Regression models may be used for monitoring and controlling

a system. For example, you might want to calibrate a measurement

system or keep a response variable within certain guidelines. When a

regression model is used for control purposes, the independent variables

must be related to the dependent in a causal way. Furthermore, this

functional relationship must continue over time. If it does not, continual

modification of the model must occur.

Variable Selection or Screening: In this case, a search is conducted for

those independent variables that explain a significant amount of the

variation in the dependent variable. In most applications, this is not a one-

time process but a continual modelbuilding process. This purpose is

manifested in other ways, such as using historical data to identify factors

for future experimentation.

Cryogenic is the science that addresses the production and effect of very low

temperature. The word originates from the Greek words ‘kryos’ meaning ‘frost’

and ‘genic’ meaning ‘to produce’. Under such a definition it could be used to

include all temperatures below the freezing point of water (0℃). According to

laws of thermodynamics, there exists a limit to the lowest temperature that can

be achieved which is known as absolute zero.

For this experiment among the parameters such as pressure, stress, deformation,

heat flux and temperature gradient stress, deformation and heat flux were

selected as the dominating factors.

Thereby multiple regression analysis was carried out to find the relation

between stress, deformation and heat flux. Wherein stress was considered as

dependent variable and deformation and heat flux as independent variables.

MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS:

Multiple Regression Analysis refers to a set of techniques for studying the

straight-line relationships among two or more variables. Multiple regression

estimates the β’s in the equation

The X’s are the independent variables (IV’s). Y is the dependent variable. The

subscript j represents the observation (row) number. The β’s are the unknown

regression coefficients. Their estimates are represented by b’s. Each β

represents the original unknown (population) parameter, while b is an estimate

of this β. The εj is the error (residual) of observation j.

Although the regression problem may be solved by a number of techniques, the

most-used method is least squares. In least squares regression analysis, the b’s

are selected so as to minimize the sum of the squared residuals. This set of b’s is

not necessarily the set you want, since they may be distorted by outliers--points

that are not representative of the data. Robust regression, an alternative to least

squares, seeks to reduce the influence of outliers.

Multiple regression analysis studies the relationship between a dependent

(response) variable and p independent variables (predictors, regressors, IV’s).

The sample multiple regression equation is

If p = 1, the model is called simple linear regression. The intercept, b0, is the

point at which the regression plane intersects the Y axis. The bi are the slopes of

the regression plane in the direction of xi. These coefficients are called the

partial-regression coefficients. Each partial regression coefficient represents the

net effect the i th variable has on the dependent variable, holding the remaining

X’s in the equation constant. A large part of a regression analysis consists of

analyzing the sample residuals, ej, defined as

Once the β’s have been estimated, various indices are studied to determine the

reliability of these estimates. One of the most popular of these reliability indices

is the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient, or simply the

correlation, is an index that ranges from -1 to 1. When the value is near zero,

there is no linear relationship. As the correlation gets closer to plus or minus

one, the relationship is stronger. A value of one (or negative one) indicates a

perfect linear relationship between two variables.

The regression equation is only capable of measuring linear, or straight-line,

relationships. If the data form a circle, for example, regression analysis would

not detect a relationship. For this reason, it is always advisable to plot each

independent variable with the dependent variable, watching for curves, outlying

points, changes in the amount of variability, and various other anomalies that

may occur.

If the data are a random sample from a larger population and the εj are

independent and normally distributed, a set of statistical tests may be applied to

the b’s and the correlation coefficient. These t-tests and F-tests are valid only if

the above assumptions are met.

IMPLEMENTATION:

Result of static analysis:

Inner vessel material: Super Austenitic Stainless Steels

Stress Deformation Heat Flux

INPUT IN MINITAB:

Solution:

Fig. a mean of stress vs deformation & heat flux

CONCLUSION:

The relation between the three variables is achieved.

The computation time is reduced by the use or regression analysis.

• For the optimal results we must keep independent parameters i.e

deformation and heat flux in the range of 0-2.7 and 0-0.08 respectively to

get stress upto 117.5 MPa

REFERENCES:

1. Cohen, J., and Cohen, P. (1975).Applied Multiple

Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J.

2. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear

Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis Kristopher

J. Preacher, Patrick J. Curran, Daniel J. Bauer

3. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Stratification in Cryogenic Tanks,

International Journal of Experimental, Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics

and Fluid Mechanics,2017

4. Material optimization and analysis of cryogenic pressure vessel using

FEA, International Journal Of Scientific And Research Publications, 2017

5. Design and Analysis of large transportable vacuum insulated cryogenic

vessel, 2016-international

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