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Antenna Modeling for Radio Amateurs

Steve Stearns, K6OIK Northrop Grumman Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory San Jose, California stearns@ieee.org k6oik@arrl.net
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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA October 17-19, 2008

Outline
History of electromagnetics Computational electromagnetics
Method of Moments (MoM) BRACT, WIRA, AMP, NEC 1-4, IE3D, WIPL-D, FEKO

Four main programs for amateurs
EZNEC 4nec2 WIPL-D Lite FEKO LITE

Advanced applications
Terrain analysis by MoM

References, books, and software

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Question for 2008
Is the current the same everywhere along a wire?

Iin

Iout

I in = I out

?

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Maxwell found a way to make the answer yes Iin ∂D ∇× H = J + ∂t ⎛ ∂D ⎞ 0 = ∫∫⎜ J + ⎟ • dS ∂t ⎠ S ⎝ ∂ Iin − Iout = ∫∫ DndS ∂t S S. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D.C. Stearns.Answer: It Depends “Yes” for steady-state d-c current “Almost yes” for low-frequency a-c current or short wires But “no” for high-frequency a-c current because electrons can bunch up J. 2008 Iout 4 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon.History 5 S.D. Stearns. CA October 17-19.

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 . CA October 17-19.Who Does Not Belong in this Picture? 6 S.

CA . Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Answer: Leonardo Da Vinci and Isaac Newton Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 Andre-Marie Ampere 1775-1836 Michael Faraday 1791-1867 James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Georg Simon Ohm 1789-1854 October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 7 S.D.

CA . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The Maxwellians George Francis FitzGerald 1851-1901 Oliver Heaviside 1850-1925 Oliver Joseph Lodge 1851-1940 Heinrich Rudolph Hertz 1857-1894 John Henry Poynting 1851-1914 October 17-19. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 8 S.D.

San Ramon.Heaviside’s Vector Equations for Maxwell’s Theory ∂B ∇ × E = −M − ∂t ∂D ∇×H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅ D = ρe ∇ ⋅B = ρm D=ε E B=μH 9 S. K6OIK J = σ eE M = σ mH October 17-19. CA . 2008 “And God said. Stearns. Let there be light.D.” Genesis 1:3 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. and there was light.

J.E. A.E.C. tunable LC matching network. ground waves – Zenneck Wave-tilt antenna – H. Henry Treatise on electrodynamics – J. Maxwell Early radiation demonstrations: Edison 1875. Murray. Mueller and W. radio directionfinding – Bellini & Tosi Ground losses. Hertz 1887 Phased arrays – S. CA October 17-19. J. Brown. San Ramon. loading coil. polar plots – G. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.L. Dolbear 1882.E. 2008 . H. Lodge Goniometer. electrical steerable array. counterpoise. Tyrell 10 S. “impedance” – O.Key Dates in Antennas 1842 1873 1875-87 1889-06 1895-01 1897 1907 1907 1923 1928 1947 Discovery of radiation – J. fan dipole.H. Marconi Biconical dipole.D. Beverage Endfire array with parasitic elements – Yagi & Uda Polyrod antenna – G. Artom Radio communication.G.

Stearns.P.D. Chu Antennas – J.J. Fasset. Landstorfer Metamaterial radomes – R. M.R.M. and M. Schelkunoff Theory of Linear Cylindrical Antennas – R. King “Method of moments” – A.Key Dates in Antennas continued 1947-75 1948 1950 1952 1956 1959 1961 1967 1974 1976 2003 2005 2006 Small antennas – H. and Superconducting Antennas – R.C. Superdirective. Kipple Antenna Theory.A. 2008 . San Ramon. Ziolkowski and A.D.A. Lewis. – C. Akilov Antenna Engineering Handbook – H.V. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Hansen 11 S. Jasik Matrix methods for fields problems – R. 3rd ed.W. Kraus Advanced Antenna Theory – S. Wheeler Fundamental limit on antenna bandwidth – L. Kantorovich and G.D.W. Hunt Landstorfer antenna – F. CA October 17-19. Balanis Electrically Small.F.P. Harrington Vivaldi antenna – L.

Old Style Antenna Analysis Step 1 – Get the current distribution Assume sinusoidal – induced EMF method Solve Hallen’s integral equation (1938) Solve Pocklington’s integral equation (1897) How to do it – Mathematical solution Iterative and variational methods – Approximation as a ratio of infinite series – King-Harrison (Proc.. 1946) Hill’s radiation pattern integration method (Proc. IRE. Phys.D. 2008 . 1943) – Middleton-King (J. Appl. 1967) Limitations and complications Not all antennas are wire antennas Not all antennas are made just of metal Math is hard 12 S. IEE. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns.

2008 . and reactance Accurate for pattern and impedance of dipoles up to halfwavelength and verticals up to quarter-wavelength Inaccurate for impedance of dipoles longer than half-wavelength and verticals longer than quarter-wavelength Used widely for the design of AM broadcast vertical towers 13 S.Induced EMF Method Assumes sinusoidal current distribution Method gives pattern. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. radiation resistance. Stearns. CA October 17-19.

San Ramon.D. CA October 17-19. Stearns. 2008 .Induced EMF Method continued Radiation resistance 1 ⎧ Rin = ⎨C + ln(kl ) − Ci(kl ) + sin( kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )] 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎩ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ Terms vanish when l/λ ⎝2⎠ is a half integer Reactance η ⎡ ⎤⎫ 1 ⎛ kl ⎞ + cos(kl ) ⎢C + ln⎜ ⎟ + Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl )⎥ ⎬ 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Wire radius term ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ 2ka 2 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎪ X in = ⎨Si(kl ) + sin(kl ) ⎢Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl ) + Ci⎜ ⎜ l ⎟⎥ ⎟ 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎝2⎠ 1 ⎫ − cos(kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )]⎬ 2 ⎭ η 14 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

z ′)⎥ dz ′ = − jωε E zi ( ρ = a ) ∫/ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ −l ⎣⎝ ⎦ l/2 Hallen’s equation (1938) e − jkR ε ′) ′=−j [ B1 cos(kz ) + C1 sin(k | z |)] ∫/ 2 I z ( z 4π R d z μ −l l/2 General form Linear operator L( f ) = g Unknown function Driving function 15 S. San Ramon.Equations for Obtaining the Current Along a Wire Pocklington’s equation (1897) ⎡⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ 2⎞ I z ( z ′) ⎢⎜ 2 + k ⎟ G ( z . Stearns. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.D.

San Ramon.Computational Electromagnetics 16 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.D. 2008 .

CA October 17-19. Stearns.D. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.The Universe of Antenna Modeling Methods Electrical Size Complexity of Materials Courtesy of EMSS 17 S.

D. winNECPlus. FEKO. physical. 4nec2. EZNEC. Stearns. WIRA.Computational Electromagnetics Method of moments (MoM) A method for solving integro-differential equations such as Hallen’s or Pocklington’s equation at a given frequency Earliest and longest legacy of software codes for antenna modeling BRACT. 2008 . Faustus MEFiSTo Geometric. San Ramon. NEC-3. NEC. NEC-4. AMP. WIPL-D. ELNEC. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. and uniform theories of diffraction Best for electrically large antennas 18 S. NEC-2. CA October 17-19. Zeland Fidelity. MiniNEC. Zeland IE3D Finite element method (FEM) Best for design of small antennas of complex structure Ansoft HFSS Finite difference time-domain method (FDTD) Time-domain method Best for design of small antennas for broadband applications CST Microwave Studio.

San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.The Method of Moments 19 S. CA October 17-19.

Bubnov 1872-1919 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich 1912-1986 Jack H.G. Stearns. CA Roger F. K6OIK .D. Harrington 1925October 17-19. San Ramon. Richmond 1922-1990 Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin 1871-1945 Gleb Pavlovich Akilov 1924-1964 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 20 S.Originators I.

Fourier series Local basis functions break antenna into small conducting line segments. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . surface patches. e.D. CA October 17-19.g.Method of Moments Published by Kantorovich and Akilov in 1959 as a general method for solving linear integro-differential equations Introduced into electromagnetics by Roger Harrington in 1967 Currents are weighted sum of basis functions Solve for the coefficients of the basis functions for all segments Calculate radiation pattern and feedpoint impedance from currents Uses two kinds of mathematical functions: basis functions and test functions Basis and test functions can be global or local (sub-sectional) Global basis functions expand the current on a wire in an infinite series. Stearns. San Ramon. or volumes Subsectional basis functions appear to give better results when solving Hallen’s equation rather than Pocklington’s Test functions are best thought of as projections 21 S.

Integro-Differential Equations Made Simple Start with an equation.D. Stearns. 2008 . San Ramon. The analysis problem is to find f L( f ) = g Assume f can be expanded as a weighted sum of basis functions Set all projections (via test functions) of left and right sides equal ⎛ ⎞ L ( f ) = L⎜ ∑ a n f n ⎟ = g ⎝ n ⎠ n n ∑ a L( f Write as a matrix equation n • φm ) = g • φm ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ M ⎥=⎢ M ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 22 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . Stearns. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D.The Solution Solve for the vector of expansion coefficients ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥=⎢ ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Obtain f −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f = ∑ an f n = [ f1 L n ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ fN ] ⎢ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 23 S.

San Ramon WIRA – Developed early 1970’s by M. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. South Africa 24 S. Djordjevic. CA October 17-19.M. end caps and insulated wires. thick wires NEC-2 (1981) – Sommerfield-Norton ground interaction for wire structures above lossy ground. San Ramon. Kolundzija. Serbia FEKO (ca 2000) – Hybrid method developed by U. plates. Burke at MBAssociates. San Ramon NEC-1 (1979) – Added more accurate current expansions. Jakobus at EMSS. improved error detection Zeland IE3D (1992) – Adaptive meshing. Tanner at TCI AMP/AMP2 – Developed mid 1970’s by G.D. numerical Green's function allows modifying without repeating whole calculation NEC-3 (1985) – Buried wires NEC-4 (1992) – Improved accuracy for stepped-radius wires and electrically-small segments. developed by Dr. U. Belgrade. B. Andreasen. Harris and R. CA WIPL-D (ca 2000) – Advanced MoM for wires. multiple wire junctions. F.R. Company in Fremont. Stellenbosch. and dielectrics based on work of A.Principle MoM Computer Codes BRACT & ANTBRACT – Developed late 1960’s at MBAssociates. 2008 . Jian-Xiong Zheng. catenaryshaped wires. Stearns.

The Development of NEC 25 S. Stearns.D. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Cebik. W4RNL.B. San Ramon.D. 1939-2008 Brought the joy of antenna modeling to Amateur Radio 26 S. CA October 17-19. Stearns.L. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

San Ramon. Stearns.D. CA October 17-19.EZNEC 27 S. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

CA October 17-19.eznec.5 $500 EZNEC Pro/4 v.5 $650 (sold only to NEC-4 licensees) EZNEC includes either the NEC-2 or NEC-4 engines NEC-4 license for qualified US academic and noncommercial users can be obtained from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for $300.gov/technology/software/documents/NEC.3 & v.pdf 28 S.5 $140 EZNEC Pro/2 v.5 $90 EZNEC+ v.5 demo program $0 (free) EZNEC-ARRL v. This probably includes you! Form at: https://ipo. 2008 .0 Six products available EZNEC v.EZNEC http://www. Stearns.4 $45 (on ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) EZNEC v.D.com/ Developed by Roy Lewallen. San Ramon. W7EL Now in version 5.llnl. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Key Parts of EZNEC Specifying the antenna model Wire geometry (including radials) Excitation sources Wire loads Transmission lines Ground type and parameters Frequency or sweep range Specifying the desired outputs Radiation pattern crossection at a given frequency Gain in a specific direction Pattern beamwidth Front-to-back ratio Front-to-rear ratio Impedance SWR Output data files for other programs 29 S. Stearns. 2008 . CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. 2008 . Stearns.EZNEC Main Screen and Control Panel “Model contains loss” warning 30 S. San Ramon.

CA October 17-19. z2) 31 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. z1) Diameter = AWG #12 No. 2008 .D.Wires and Segments Each wire in an antenna is defined by Location (coordinates) of both ends Diameter of wire Number of segments (all equal in length) Material or conductivity (x1. San Ramon. y1. y2. segments = 7 Copper σ = 58 MS/m (x2. Stearns.

CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 . Stearns. K6OIK. “All About the Discone Antenna. Jan/Feb 2007 32 S.” QEX.Wire Table for UHF Discone Antenna Steve Stearns.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

View Antenna Steve Stearns. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK. “All About the Discone Antenna. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . Jan/Feb 2007 33 S. Stearns.” QEX.

Discone SWR and Impedance Referenced to 75Ω
UHF TV band highlighted blue 470 to 710 MHz

Marker at 460 MHz 1. 2. 3. 4. Setup a frequency sweep 100 MHz to 1 GHz Write impedance data to MicroSmith .gam output file Use Word to reformat .gam to Ansoft .flp file format Import to Serenade SV project and design matching network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Improvement After Stub Matching Network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

EZNEC Gain Patterns of Discone at 470 MHz

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.Tips for Getting Better Accuracy from NEC-2 Segment length to wavelength rule Segment length < λ / 20 Segment length to diameter rule Segment length > 2 × diameter Equal segment length rule All segments in a model have equal length Never connect long segments to short segments Acute angle junction rule Junction angles or segment lengths large enough that middle 1/3 of joined segments don’t interpenetrate Segment alignment rule for parallel wires Closely spaced parallel and near parallel wires have their segments aligned (paired) Wires near ground All wires must be least two diameters above ground Wires cannot touch ground 37 S. Stearns. 2008 .

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. 2008 . they are in series A voltage sources and load can be assigned to a segment when it is desired to simulate the Thevenin equivalent of a real generator – needed for mutual impedance effects in phased array feeds A “split-feed” consists of putting two half-voltage sources in adjacent segments to simulates a source at the junction between the segments 38 S. CA October 17-19.Excitation Sources Ideal voltage and current sources can be inserted in any segment Sources are used to excite a feedpoint Most antennas have a single feedpoint A unit current source of 1 + j0 amperes generally works well Phased arrays with multiple antenna feedpoints can be driven with a separate current sources at each feedpoint or with a single source driving a feed network If a segment contains both source and load. Stearns.

and internally to NEC. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.Wire Loads Ideal. 2008 . non-radiating point loads can be inserted in any segment If a segment contains both source and load. wire conductivity (ohmic loss) Load types available are: Constant impedance R + jX Series RLC network Parallel RLC network Trap network Laplace impedance positive-real rational function up to 5th degree P( jω ) a5 ( jω ) 5 + a4 ( jω ) 4 + a3 ( jω )3 + a2 ( jω ) 2 + a1 ( jω ) + a0 = Z( f ) = Q( jω ) b5 ( jω ) 5 + b4 ( jω ) 4 + b3 ( jω ) 3 + b2 ( jω ) 2 + b1 ( jω ) + b0 39 S. they are in series Loads are used to model coils.D. traps. San Ramon.

San Ramon.g. Cebik compared several ad hoc approximations for insulated wire (Note 83) EZNEC v. e. CA October 17-19. buried radials NEC-2 has no capability for dielectrics NEC-3 and NEC-4 handle dielectrics by accurate methods NEC-3 handles wires in semi-infinite dielectric media. Butternut radials. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. e.B. twin-lead folded dipoles. Stearns. 2008 .Dielectrics and Wire Insulation Dielectrics occur in antennas in bulk form or insulated wires. twin-lead J-poles. FEKO. buried radials NEC-4 handles insulated wires by accurate methods Newer professional codes such as IE3D. and WIPL-D handle dielectrics accurately by surface and volume equivalence principles L. polyrod antennas.g.4 and above claim to do insulated wires but use NEC-2 EZNEC Pro/4 v.5 uses the accurate NEC-4 dielectric capability 40 S.

vol. Cebik W4RNL. 2008 . Richmond and E. CA October 17-19. 1.P. or D. Jan. “Generalisation of the Concept of Equivalent Radius of Thin Cylindrical Antennas. 131. Balmain. Newman. May-June 1979 Good quasistatic approximation B. no. 11. vol.Y. 3. pt.Insulated Wires Done Right ! Rigorous theory J. Stearns. pp. pp.H. Yurkov RA9MB. pp. no. June 1984 Larger effective radius with extra distributed inductance to offset ⎛b⎞ a' = a × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ε ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ <b μ0 ⎛ a' ⎞ −7 ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎛ b ⎞ L = ln⎜ ⎟ = 2×10 ⎜ ⎜ ε ⎟ln⎜ a ⎟ ⎟ 2π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Equations are different from those of L. “Wire Antennas Coated with Magnetically and Electrically Lossy Material.” Radio Science. “Dielectric Coated Wire Antennas. Popovic and A. Federov UA3AVR 41 S. 13-20. no. Nesic. San Ramon.D. 14. Lee and K.” Radio Science.H.B. 1976 J.” IEE Proc.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. vol. 437445. H.G. A. 3.. 153-158.

Five Ground Types and Their Restrictions Free space Perfect ground A lossless perfect electrically conducting (PEC) ground plane. a flat mirror Wires may touch ground Good for turning off ground losses to evaluate the ground losses of real ground Real grounds High-accuracy (Sommerfeld-Norton) ground – Most accurate and computationally expensive ground type – Best method for low horizontal wires down to λ/200 above ground – Wires may not touch ground Fast ground – Uses complex reflection coefficient method – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/10 above ground – Wires may not touch ground MININEC ground – Hybrid (compromise) calculation designed for early PCs – Assumes perfect ground for calculating currents. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 2008 . i.e. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. but switches to dielectric ground for far-field pattern calculation – Hence no ground losses – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/5 above ground – Vertical wires may touch ground 42 S.D.

010 0.001 0.002 0. industrial Sandy. heavy clay Pastoral: medium hills and forest Flat.006 0. rich soil.001 0.005 0.D. central US Fresh water Salt water 43 S. US Midwest Very good: pastoral. εr has more influence than σ. Concentrate on getting a good estimate of εr Ground Characteristics Extremely poor: cities. rich. high buildings Very poor: cities. marshy.001 5 εr 3 5 10 13 13 13 12 14 20 80 80 October 17-19. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.030 0. so don’t worry about the precise value of σ (stations near salt water excepted). CA . Stearns.Ground Parameters Ground is specified by two numbers: conductivity σ and dielectric constant εr For “average” ground. dry Poor: rocky. densely wooded Pastoral. mountainous Average: pastoral.0075 0. San Ramon. K6OIK σ 0. σ = 5 mS/m and εr = 13 At HF frequencies.002 0.

D.General Caveats Regarding Antenna Modeling NEC is “blind” to current modes – computes total current. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . Such antenna designs do not frequency scale easily. Stearns. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. Antennas made of insulated wire cannot be analyzed by NEC-2. not resolved into common and differential current modes Current modes are “noumena. but NEC-4 and EZNEC Pro/4 work okay Twin lead folded dipole Twin lead J-pole Butternut radials 44 S.” total current is “phenomena” Antennas that rely on interacting modes do not scale if λ/λg or vf changes Insulation on wires affects common and differential current modes differently.

D. Stearns. 2008 .4nec2 45 S. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

ict. San Ramon.nec files Comes with NEC-2 executables but can use NEC-4 executables Comes configured for up to 11.4nec2 http://home. CA October 17-19. Stearns. thereby giving access to all NEC-2 and NEC-4 commands 46 S.nl/~arivoors/ A free full-featured GUI for NEC-2 and NEC-4 Written and supported by Arie Voors. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Netherlands Runs under Windows 2000 and XP Includes standard EZNEC models as .000 segments but can be increased by to any number by recompiling the NEC-2 or NEC-4 source codes Two versions 4nec2 – limited to machine memory 4nec2X – uses virtual memory for bigger problems Has 3D graphics and two optimizers Gradient descent optimizer Genetic optimizer Permits writing NEC script. 2008 .D.

CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.4nec2 Wire-Grid Models of Boeing 747 and Automobile 47 S. Stearns. 2008 . San Ramon.

San Ramon.4nec2 Screen Displays Main screen Geometry screen Edit screen Wire tab 48 S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. 2008 . Stearns.

San Ramon.4nec2 3D Pattern of Antenna on 747 – Vert Pol 49 S. Stearns.D. CA October 17-19. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Plates. and Dielectrics 50 S.D. 2008 . Stearns. San Ramon.WIPL-D Wires. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

e.g. Stearns.wipl-d. ISBN 1580539653 ($399).wipl-d. CA October 17-19. near and farfield calculations. surface equivalence principle Fast multipole method (FMM) added to new version 7.com/ WIPL-D Lite – More capable version from Artech House. San Ramon.com/ Originated at University of Belgrade. optimizer Polynomial basis functions and curved bilinear quadrilateral surface meshing give high accuracy with small computation Meshed surfaces appear flat but are really curved Lacks infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground. 2008 .WIPL-D http://www. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. but has work-around Two limited versions of interest to Radio Amateurs WIPL-D Demo – Free download from http://www.0 Capabilities include: lossy conductors.D. Serbia (former Yugoslavia) Handles both 3D antennas and microwave circuits Method is MoM/SIE. dielectric and magnetic materials.exe file after installation 51 S. Contact WIPL-D for replacement “bug-free” .

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.WIPL-D Models of Single and 4x4 Array of Polyrods 52 S. San Ramon. 2008 .D. CA October 17-19. Stearns.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.D. CA October 17-19. 2008 . Stearns.WIPL-D Model of Fighter Plane 53 S.

San Ramon.FEKO 54 S. 2008 . CA October 17-19. Stearns.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

FEM.feko. FMM.feko. hence the need for multiple engines Has infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground Limited LITE version of interest to Radio Amateurs FEKO LITE – Free download from http://www. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. near and farfield calculations. 2008 . South Africa Switches automatically among multiple “engines” like a Toyota Prius Main method is MoM/SIE. CA October 17-19. optimizer Curved surfaces are approximated by many flat triangles Triangle surface meshing and low-order basis functions give heavy computation burden.D. San Ramon. dielectric and magnetic materials. and several optics approximations Capabilities similar to WIPL-D: lossy conductors.info/sales 55 S.FEKO http://www. but has MoM/VIE.info/ Developed and sold by EM Software & Systems (EMSS). Stearns.

2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. CA October 17-19.D. San Ramon.FEKO Model of Global Hawk (RQ-4A) 56 S.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. 2008 . CA October 17-19. San Ramon.FEKO Pattern of Horn Antenna in Wing Pod 57 S.D.

Advanced Applications Terrain Analysis by MoM Meshing Silicon Valley A Rigorous Alternative to Ray Tracing 58 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.D. 2008 . Stearns.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.D.Earth Terrain Looking Down Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road Surface meshed terrain of Saratoga Color indicates computed earth currents Zoom to see current direction arrows 59 S. Stearns. San Ramon. 2008 .

San Ramon. Stearns.Computer Used For Antenna Design and Electromagnetic Systems Analysis Description Processors Memory Disk storage Compute speed 6 Xi NetRAIDer network servers 12 AMD Opteron 64-bit 96 Gbytes 12 Tbytes > 53 GFLOPs/sec 60 S. CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .

38 October 17-19.900 3. K6OIK Triangles 3.Required Computation 60 K triangle s.717 Hours 0.53 5.125 1. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. R un Tim e .D. San Ramon.54 52.1 Memory (GB) 0.48 9.750 7.928 12.834 38. M em ory U s ed 50 40 KiloTriangles 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 Frequency (MHz) 6 8 Hours Memory GB Frequency (kHz) 1.150 61 S. CA .

D. San Ramon. Polarization = Horizontal North South Earth’s Contribution S. 2008 62 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Ground Currents 7. CA October 17-19.15 MHz Antenna Height = 50 m. Stearns.

15 MHz Antenna type = 3 element Yagi Antenna height = 164 ft (50 m) Antenna polarization = horizontal Total field strength V+H shown North South 63 S. Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 .D.3D Antenna Pattern Frequency = 7. K6OIK Courtesy of Keith Snyder. KI6BDR ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

The Next Step – Modeling the Landscape 64 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon. Stearns.D. CA October 17-19.

Landscaping Details Models of trees Details of leaves and branches Courtesy of WIPL-D 65 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. 2008 . Stearns. San Ramon.

0 by Agilent (formerly Eagleware) ISBN 1884932908 $127 from SciTech Publishing http://www.D.scitechpublishing. AC6LA.com For interactive design of ladder networks for impedance matching Excellent tool for learning to use the Smith chart Grossly overpriced MultiNEC by Dan Maguire.Other Useful Antenna Software winSMITH 2. EZNEC. low cost but currently unavailable Puts NEC. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.com Excel/Visual Basic program.com/ $149 from Amazon. and 4nec2 on autopilot for making a series of runs Inexpensive alternative to a real optimizer Doesn’t work with EZNEC-ARRL Temporarily unavailable 66 S.ac6la. Stearns. http://www. CA October 17-19. 2008 .

TT-63-18924) Method of Moments L.D. pp. Feb.” Proc. vol. no. 19. 1967. Rept. Antennas Propagat. 1938. K. no. Soc. 1964) R.G. 3.C. vol. pp.References Current distribution in a wire H. pp. Pocklington. 11. Macmillan.” Vestnik Inzhenerov i Tekhnikov. 136-149. 4. Bubnov. R. “Matrix Methods for Field Problems. Proc.” IEEE Trans. May 1965. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .. 897-908. Mei. Akilov. IEEE. vol. 324-332. “Series Solution of Some Problems of Elastic Equilibrium of Rods and Plates. Stearns.G. Funktsional’nyj Analiz v Normirovannykh Prostranstvakh (Functional Analysis in Normed Spaces). Kantorovich and G. pp. 2. ser. “Theoretical Investigations into the Transmitting and Receiving Qualities of Antennae.K. 9. 1959. Harrington. 1968. Bubnov and Galerkin methods I.V..P.F. no. 55. IV. vol. Upsaliensis. Galerkin. Harrington. Sci. Erik Hallen. “On the Integral Equations of Thin Wire Antennas. pp. vol. 1-44.” Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Stroitel’naia Mekhanika Korablia (Structural Mechanics of Shipbuilding). (English translation: Pergamon. 1915. 374-378. 13. 1897. Field Computation by Moment Methods. 67 S. B. Tech.” Cambridge Phil. “Electrical Oscillations in Wires. San Ramon.F. 1914.. CA October 17-19. (English translation: NTIS Rept.

pp 123-129.C. 68 S. Computational Electromagnetics: Frequency-Domain Method of Moments.” IEEE Spectrum.. 1981. “Calculation of the Current Distribution on a Thin Linear Antenna.. 8. R. 14. Sept. Medgyesi-Mitschang.H. vol. ISBN 0879422769.P.. no. 53. E. IEEE. R. G. Tanner.R. pp.N. 588-593. Newman and P. A Surface Patch Model for Polygonal Plates. May 1975. 376-382. Thiele. TRG Division of CDC. no. Tulyathan. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. pp.” IEEE Trans.” URSI meeting. vol. et al.H. Lee.A. 3. CRC. August 1967.K. Wang and J. no. pp. Investigation of General Wire Antennas. 5..L. 30. and M.” IEEE Trans. Aug.). N.S. pp. Antennas Propagat. 2008 . M. “Sinusoidal Reaction Formulation For Radiation and Scattering from Conducting Surfaces.H. Castillo. 4.H. L. “Limitations of Wire-Grid Modeling of a Closed Surface. Hansen (ed. DTIC ADA119682. 53-61. ISBN 0824704967. vol. Apr. IEEE Press. Final Rept. no. Tanner and M. Monopole Antennas. 1992. Tech Rept. “Comparison of Numerical Methods for Thin Wire Antennas. Richmond. Sept. Weiner. vol. Antennas Propagat.. Aug.C. Andreasen. Richmond. Menlo Park.G. no. Stearns. M. 9. pp. Compat. 2003.G. 1965. CA. vol. Marin and J. 4. Gilreath. Newman (eds. E. 1976.References 2 Key papers in antenna modeling theory J. Andreasen and R. DTIC AD0819198. L. 3. Artech House. 1990.M. July 1982.).L. 648-649. Antennas Propagat. A.D. 1967. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. ISBN 0890064660. 23. 796-804..” IEEE Trans. Neureuther. Electromag. “Digital Computer Solutions of the Rigorous Equations for Scattering Problems. vol. Moment Methods in Antennas and Scattering. also IEEE Trans. K. “Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problems.H.. 18. and E. 1966. Miller. Fall 1968.” Proc. no.

Cebik. 2001. Part I: Program Description – Theory. Part II: Program Description – Theory. Jan. 34-38. download current version from http://www. ARRL. Cebik. Nov. ISBN 0872599876. W4RNL.D. 2007. 31-35.” 4-part article. Breakall. “A Beginners Guide to Modeling with NEC. pp. Part III: User’s Guide. Part II: Program Description – Code.B. Feb. and E. and pp. pp.References 3 NEC G. Jan. Dec. 1981. Method of Moments. 69 S. Poggio. March 5-7. Burke and A. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2002..B. Stearns.” EMC Symp. San Ramon. 1985.J. 21st ed. 1992.J. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ARRL. Jan. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. ARRL Antenna Modeling Course. 2008 . 2000.eznec. G.. pp. 44-48. G. CA October 17-19. ISBN 0872598721. Burke. “The Numerical/Electromagnetics Code (NEC-3). J. 40-44. EZNEC EZNEC User Manual. Numerical Electromagnetics Code – NEC-4. ARRL Antenna Book. Miller.K. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC2).J.com L. pp. L.J.K. 2001. 2000. Burke. W4RNL. 4-1 to 4-23. Zurich. QST.

2002. ISBN 0521838592. May 23-27. WIPL-D Microwave: Circuit And 3D EM Simulation For RF & Microwave Applications – Software and User's Manual. Cambridge University Press. Zheng. pp. 2005. “Review of Advanced Electromagnetic Modeling Techniques in the Computer Code FEKO based on the Method of Moments with Hybrid Extensions. B.M. ISBN 1580539653. vol. CA October 17-19. WIPL-D B. Kolundzija. “A General Purpose 3D Electromagnetic Simulation and Optimization Package – IE3D. Artech House. and T. FEKO U.R.” IEEE MTT-S Int’l Symp. Jakobus. Ognjanovic.. Davidson. Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering. 2008 . Stearns. Sakar. 373376.D. vol.M.K.References 4 4nec2 http://home. 70 S.1. Djordjevic. Artech House. J. Kolundzija and A.S. 1994.ict.B.nl/~arivoors/ Zeland IE3D J-X. no. Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2006. D. San Ramon. July 2003. ISBN 0890063605.” ACES Newsletter. 18. 2.

The Maxwellians. ISBN 0801482348 71 S. Stearns. CA October 17-19. 1991. 2008 . Cornell University Press. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.Good Reading Bruce J. San Ramon. Hunt.

Balanis. JD0351.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/ E. Kraus and R. 1952. 1952-2000 (2 DVDs). JD0304.. 3rd ed.. Hansen. Marhefka. First published in 1982 by Harper & Row. Radio Antenna Engineering. First published in 1950. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill. Antenna Theory. J. Wiley. Laport. ISBN 0071475745. 2005. 2006. JD0301. 72 S.D. Henry Jasik editor. ISBN 0471782556. Electrically Small.Favorite Antenna Books Books for antenna engineers and students Antenna Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill. 2007. R. 2001.J.. ISBN 0072321032. C. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.L. Superdirective. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. and Superconducting Antennas.us/books/RadioAntennaEngineering Antenna research papers IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. Volakis editor.ca.ece. J. http://snulbug. draft textbook online at http://www. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive.rutgers. 3rd ed.C.D. Wiley. 4th ed.J. 2008 . Antennas. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. 2001-2003 (1 DVD).mtview. Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas. Orfanidis. 2001-2006 (1 DVD). S. Stearns.A.A. First published in 1961. ISBN 047166782X.

L. J. 2nd ed. Moxon (G6XN). Practical Wire Antennas 2. Devoldere (ON4UN). K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2003. ON4UN’s Low-Band Dxing. 21st ed. American Radio Relay League.. CA October 17-19. ISBN 0943016223.D. Radio Society of Great Britain. Stearns. American Radio Relay League. Radio Society of Great Britain. Sevick (W2FMI). J. ISBN 1872309151. 2007.Favorite Antenna Books continued Books for radio amateurs ARRL Antenna Book. ISBN 1905086040. HF Antennas for All Locations. The Short Vertical Antenna and Ground Radial. 2005. ISBN 0872599876. Dean Straw (N6BV) editor. 2005. ARRL Antenna Compendium series – Volumes 1 through 7 ARRL Antenna Classics series – six titles 73 S. 4th ed. 2008 . ISBN 0872599140. Ian Poole (G3YWX) editor. 1983. San Ramon. CQ Communications...

D.fars. 2008 . CA October 17-19. San Ramon.k6ya.The End This presentation will be archived at http://www.org/docs/k6oik 74 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.