# Antenna Modeling for Radio Amateurs

Steve Stearns, K6OIK Northrop Grumman Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory San Jose, California stearns@ieee.org k6oik@arrl.net
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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA October 17-19, 2008

Outline
History of electromagnetics Computational electromagnetics
Method of Moments (MoM) BRACT, WIRA, AMP, NEC 1-4, IE3D, WIPL-D, FEKO

Four main programs for amateurs
EZNEC 4nec2 WIPL-D Lite FEKO LITE

Terrain analysis by MoM

References, books, and software

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Question for 2008
Is the current the same everywhere along a wire?

Iin

Iout

I in = I out

?

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 Iout 4 .Answer: It Depends “Yes” for steady-state d-c current “Almost yes” for low-frequency a-c current or short wires But “no” for high-frequency a-c current because electrons can bunch up J.C. CA October 17-19. Maxwell found a way to make the answer yes Iin ∂D ∇× H = J + ∂t ⎛ ∂D ⎞ 0 = ∫∫⎜ J + ⎟ • dS ∂t ⎠ S ⎝ ∂ Iin − Iout = ∫∫ DndS ∂t S S.

San Ramon. Stearns.History 5 S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . CA October 17-19.

San Ramon.D. Stearns. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Who Does Not Belong in this Picture? 6 S. 2008 .

CA . 2008 7 S. Stearns.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.Answer: Leonardo Da Vinci and Isaac Newton Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 Andre-Marie Ampere 1775-1836 Michael Faraday 1791-1867 James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Georg Simon Ohm 1789-1854 October 17-19.

Stearns. San Ramon.D.The Maxwellians George Francis FitzGerald 1851-1901 Oliver Heaviside 1850-1925 Oliver Joseph Lodge 1851-1940 Heinrich Rudolph Hertz 1857-1894 John Henry Poynting 1851-1914 October 17-19. 2008 8 S. CA . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns. CA . and there was light.D.” Genesis 1:3 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Let there be light. 2008 “And God said. K6OIK J = σ eE M = σ mH October 17-19. San Ramon.Heaviside’s Vector Equations for Maxwell’s Theory ∂B ∇ × E = −M − ∂t ∂D ∇×H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅ D = ρe ∇ ⋅B = ρm D=ε E B=μH 9 S.

Marconi Biconical dipole. fan dipole. H. Mueller and W. Stearns. 2008 . A. counterpoise. tunable LC matching network.E. J.J. electrical steerable array. San Ramon. Murray. Tyrell 10 S. Hertz 1887 Phased arrays – S. Henry Treatise on electrodynamics – J.Key Dates in Antennas 1842 1873 1875-87 1889-06 1895-01 1897 1907 1907 1923 1928 1947 Discovery of radiation – J.G. Artom Radio communication.E. radio directionfinding – Bellini & Tosi Ground losses. Lodge Goniometer. loading coil. polar plots – G. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Beverage Endfire array with parasitic elements – Yagi & Uda Polyrod antenna – G.C. CA October 17-19.E.L. Maxwell Early radiation demonstrations: Edison 1875. “impedance” – O.H.D. Dolbear 1882. ground waves – Zenneck Wave-tilt antenna – H. Brown.

and Superconducting Antennas – R. Stearns. 3rd ed.P.Key Dates in Antennas continued 1947-75 1948 1950 1952 1956 1959 1961 1967 1974 1976 2003 2005 2006 Small antennas – H. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Lewis.D.W. M. – C.A.P. Kraus Advanced Antenna Theory – S. Landstorfer Metamaterial radomes – R. Hunt Landstorfer antenna – F.W. Harrington Vivaldi antenna – L. 2008 . Superdirective. Akilov Antenna Engineering Handbook – H. Fasset.D. King “Method of moments” – A. San Ramon.R. Schelkunoff Theory of Linear Cylindrical Antennas – R.F. Kantorovich and G.M.V. Balanis Electrically Small. Wheeler Fundamental limit on antenna bandwidth – L.A. and M. Chu Antennas – J. Ziolkowski and A. CA October 17-19.C. Hansen 11 S.J. Kipple Antenna Theory.D. Jasik Matrix methods for fields problems – R.

D. IRE. 1967) Limitations and complications Not all antennas are wire antennas Not all antennas are made just of metal Math is hard 12 S.. 1943) – Middleton-King (J. 1946) Hill’s radiation pattern integration method (Proc. IEE. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Phys. Appl. 2008 . Stearns.Old Style Antenna Analysis Step 1 – Get the current distribution Assume sinusoidal – induced EMF method Solve Hallen’s integral equation (1938) Solve Pocklington’s integral equation (1897) How to do it – Mathematical solution Iterative and variational methods – Approximation as a ratio of infinite series – King-Harrison (Proc. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.

and reactance Accurate for pattern and impedance of dipoles up to halfwavelength and verticals up to quarter-wavelength Inaccurate for impedance of dipoles longer than half-wavelength and verticals longer than quarter-wavelength Used widely for the design of AM broadcast vertical towers 13 S. radiation resistance. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon. Stearns. CA October 17-19.D.Induced EMF Method Assumes sinusoidal current distribution Method gives pattern.

Induced EMF Method continued Radiation resistance 1 ⎧ Rin = ⎨C + ln(kl ) − Ci(kl ) + sin( kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )] 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎩ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ Terms vanish when l/λ ⎝2⎠ is a half integer Reactance η ⎡ ⎤⎫ 1 ⎛ kl ⎞ + cos(kl ) ⎢C + ln⎜ ⎟ + Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl )⎥ ⎬ 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Wire radius term ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ 2ka 2 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎪ X in = ⎨Si(kl ) + sin(kl ) ⎢Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl ) + Ci⎜ ⎜ l ⎟⎥ ⎟ 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎝2⎠ 1 ⎫ − cos(kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )]⎬ 2 ⎭ η 14 S. Stearns. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon. 2008 .

San Ramon. z ′)⎥ dz ′ = − jωε E zi ( ρ = a ) ∫/ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ −l ⎣⎝ ⎦ l/2 Hallen’s equation (1938) e − jkR ε ′) ′=−j [ B1 cos(kz ) + C1 sin(k | z |)] ∫/ 2 I z ( z 4π R d z μ −l l/2 General form Linear operator L( f ) = g Unknown function Driving function 15 S. CA October 17-19.Equations for Obtaining the Current Along a Wire Pocklington’s equation (1897) ⎡⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ 2⎞ I z ( z ′) ⎢⎜ 2 + k ⎟ G ( z . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . Stearns.D.

CA October 17-19. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.Computational Electromagnetics 16 S.D. 2008 .

The Universe of Antenna Modeling Methods Electrical Size Complexity of Materials Courtesy of EMSS 17 S. Stearns.D. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. 2008 .

WIPL-D. winNECPlus.D. 2008 . Zeland Fidelity. AMP. FEKO. Faustus MEFiSTo Geometric. WIRA. and uniform theories of diffraction Best for electrically large antennas 18 S. Zeland IE3D Finite element method (FEM) Best for design of small antennas of complex structure Ansoft HFSS Finite difference time-domain method (FDTD) Time-domain method Best for design of small antennas for broadband applications CST Microwave Studio. ELNEC. NEC. NEC-3.Computational Electromagnetics Method of moments (MoM) A method for solving integro-differential equations such as Hallen’s or Pocklington’s equation at a given frequency Earliest and longest legacy of software codes for antenna modeling BRACT. physical. San Ramon. EZNEC. Stearns. NEC-4. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. MiniNEC. NEC-2. 4nec2.

CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 . Stearns.The Method of Moments 19 S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

D.Originators I. Bubnov 1872-1919 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich 1912-1986 Jack H.G. K6OIK . CA Roger F. Harrington 1925October 17-19. Stearns. 2008 20 S. Richmond 1922-1990 Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin 1871-1945 Gleb Pavlovich Akilov 1924-1964 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

Fourier series Local basis functions break antenna into small conducting line segments.g. CA October 17-19. e.Method of Moments Published by Kantorovich and Akilov in 1959 as a general method for solving linear integro-differential equations Introduced into electromagnetics by Roger Harrington in 1967 Currents are weighted sum of basis functions Solve for the coefficients of the basis functions for all segments Calculate radiation pattern and feedpoint impedance from currents Uses two kinds of mathematical functions: basis functions and test functions Basis and test functions can be global or local (sub-sectional) Global basis functions expand the current on a wire in an infinite series. 2008 . San Ramon. surface patches.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. or volumes Subsectional basis functions appear to give better results when solving Hallen’s equation rather than Pocklington’s Test functions are best thought of as projections 21 S. Stearns.

D. Stearns.Integro-Differential Equations Made Simple Start with an equation. The analysis problem is to find f L( f ) = g Assume f can be expanded as a weighted sum of basis functions Set all projections (via test functions) of left and right sides equal ⎛ ⎞ L ( f ) = L⎜ ∑ a n f n ⎟ = g ⎝ n ⎠ n n ∑ a L( f Write as a matrix equation n • φm ) = g • φm ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ M ⎥=⎢ M ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 22 S. 2008 . CA October 17-19. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon.The Solution Solve for the vector of expansion coefficients ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥=⎢ ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Obtain f −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f = ∑ an f n = [ f1 L n ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ fN ] ⎢ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 23 S. 2008 . Stearns.

U. and dielectrics based on work of A. end caps and insulated wires.Principle MoM Computer Codes BRACT & ANTBRACT – Developed late 1960’s at MBAssociates. South Africa 24 S. San Ramon. CA WIPL-D (ca 2000) – Advanced MoM for wires. San Ramon NEC-1 (1979) – Added more accurate current expansions. catenaryshaped wires. Andreasen. Stellenbosch. Burke at MBAssociates. Belgrade. Djordjevic. B. Jian-Xiong Zheng. Company in Fremont.M. Serbia FEKO (ca 2000) – Hybrid method developed by U. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. F. thick wires NEC-2 (1981) – Sommerfield-Norton ground interaction for wire structures above lossy ground.R. San Ramon WIRA – Developed early 1970’s by M. developed by Dr. Stearns. multiple wire junctions. Kolundzija. plates. 2008 .D. Jakobus at EMSS. CA October 17-19. numerical Green's function allows modifying without repeating whole calculation NEC-3 (1985) – Buried wires NEC-4 (1992) – Improved accuracy for stepped-radius wires and electrically-small segments. improved error detection Zeland IE3D (1992) – Adaptive meshing. Harris and R. Tanner at TCI AMP/AMP2 – Developed mid 1970’s by G.

D. Stearns. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The Development of NEC 25 S. CA October 17-19. 2008 .

2008 . Stearns.B. 1939-2008 Brought the joy of antenna modeling to Amateur Radio 26 S.L. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. W4RNL.D. San Ramon. Cebik.

Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.D. 2008 . San Ramon.EZNEC 27 S.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.5 \$140 EZNEC Pro/2 v.5 \$650 (sold only to NEC-4 licensees) EZNEC includes either the NEC-2 or NEC-4 engines NEC-4 license for qualified US academic and noncommercial users can be obtained from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for \$300. W7EL Now in version 5.EZNEC http://www.4 \$45 (on ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) EZNEC v.5 demo program \$0 (free) EZNEC-ARRL v. CA October 17-19. This probably includes you! Form at: https://ipo.llnl.5 \$500 EZNEC Pro/4 v. 2008 . Stearns.gov/technology/software/documents/NEC.5 \$90 EZNEC+ v.3 & v. San Ramon.eznec.com/ Developed by Roy Lewallen.pdf 28 S.0 Six products available EZNEC v.D.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 . Stearns.Key Parts of EZNEC Specifying the antenna model Wire geometry (including radials) Excitation sources Wire loads Transmission lines Ground type and parameters Frequency or sweep range Specifying the desired outputs Radiation pattern crossection at a given frequency Gain in a specific direction Pattern beamwidth Front-to-back ratio Front-to-rear ratio Impedance SWR Output data files for other programs 29 S.D.

San Ramon. CA October 17-19.EZNEC Main Screen and Control Panel “Model contains loss” warning 30 S. Stearns. 2008 .D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns. San Ramon. z2) 31 S. segments = 7 Copper σ = 58 MS/m (x2. CA October 17-19.D. y2.Wires and Segments Each wire in an antenna is defined by Location (coordinates) of both ends Diameter of wire Number of segments (all equal in length) Material or conductivity (x1. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. z1) Diameter = AWG #12 No. y1. 2008 .

K6OIK.Wire Table for UHF Discone Antenna Steve Stearns. “All About the Discone Antenna. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon.” QEX. CA October 17-19.D. Jan/Feb 2007 32 S.

“All About the Discone Antenna. 2008 . K6OIK.D. Stearns. Jan/Feb 2007 33 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.” QEX. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.View Antenna Steve Stearns.

Discone SWR and Impedance Referenced to 75Ω
UHF TV band highlighted blue 470 to 710 MHz

Marker at 460 MHz 1. 2. 3. 4. Setup a frequency sweep 100 MHz to 1 GHz Write impedance data to MicroSmith .gam output file Use Word to reformat .gam to Ansoft .flp file format Import to Serenade SV project and design matching network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Improvement After Stub Matching Network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

EZNEC Gain Patterns of Discone at 470 MHz

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Stearns. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .D.Tips for Getting Better Accuracy from NEC-2 Segment length to wavelength rule Segment length < λ / 20 Segment length to diameter rule Segment length > 2 × diameter Equal segment length rule All segments in a model have equal length Never connect long segments to short segments Acute angle junction rule Junction angles or segment lengths large enough that middle 1/3 of joined segments don’t interpenetrate Segment alignment rule for parallel wires Closely spaced parallel and near parallel wires have their segments aligned (paired) Wires near ground All wires must be least two diameters above ground Wires cannot touch ground 37 S. CA October 17-19.

Excitation Sources Ideal voltage and current sources can be inserted in any segment Sources are used to excite a feedpoint Most antennas have a single feedpoint A unit current source of 1 + j0 amperes generally works well Phased arrays with multiple antenna feedpoints can be driven with a separate current sources at each feedpoint or with a single source driving a feed network If a segment contains both source and load. they are in series A voltage sources and load can be assigned to a segment when it is desired to simulate the Thevenin equivalent of a real generator – needed for mutual impedance effects in phased array feeds A “split-feed” consists of putting two half-voltage sources in adjacent segments to simulates a source at the junction between the segments 38 S. 2008 .D. Stearns. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

D. San Ramon. non-radiating point loads can be inserted in any segment If a segment contains both source and load. wire conductivity (ohmic loss) Load types available are: Constant impedance R + jX Series RLC network Parallel RLC network Trap network Laplace impedance positive-real rational function up to 5th degree P( jω ) a5 ( jω ) 5 + a4 ( jω ) 4 + a3 ( jω )3 + a2 ( jω ) 2 + a1 ( jω ) + a0 = Z( f ) = Q( jω ) b5 ( jω ) 5 + b4 ( jω ) 4 + b3 ( jω ) 3 + b2 ( jω ) 2 + b1 ( jω ) + b0 39 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. they are in series Loads are used to model coils. CA October 17-19. Stearns. 2008 . and internally to NEC. traps.Wire Loads Ideal.

2008 .Dielectrics and Wire Insulation Dielectrics occur in antennas in bulk form or insulated wires. polyrod antennas. Butternut radials. and WIPL-D handle dielectrics accurately by surface and volume equivalence principles L. Cebik compared several ad hoc approximations for insulated wire (Note 83) EZNEC v. e. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.g. Stearns.g. twin-lead J-poles. buried radials NEC-4 handles insulated wires by accurate methods Newer professional codes such as IE3D. San Ramon. FEKO.D.B.5 uses the accurate NEC-4 dielectric capability 40 S. buried radials NEC-2 has no capability for dielectrics NEC-3 and NEC-4 handle dielectrics by accurate methods NEC-3 handles wires in semi-infinite dielectric media. e. CA October 17-19.4 and above claim to do insulated wires but use NEC-2 EZNEC Pro/4 v. twin-lead folded dipoles.

. 11.H.D. 437445. pp. pp. May-June 1979 Good quasistatic approximation B.” IEE Proc. Popovic and A. no.Insulated Wires Done Right ! Rigorous theory J. 14. Yurkov RA9MB.P. no.” Radio Science. San Ramon. 2008 . 3. pt. CA October 17-19. Richmond and E. vol. “Wire Antennas Coated with Magnetically and Electrically Lossy Material. or D. Nesic.Y. A.” Radio Science. pp. 1976 J.H.B. H. Stearns. 13-20. Balmain. Cebik W4RNL. vol. Lee and K. vol. June 1984 Larger effective radius with extra distributed inductance to offset ⎛b⎞ a' = a × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ε ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ <b μ0 ⎛ a' ⎞ −7 ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎛ b ⎞ L = ln⎜ ⎟ = 2×10 ⎜ ⎜ ε ⎟ln⎜ a ⎟ ⎟ 2π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Equations are different from those of L. Jan.D.G. 1. Federov UA3AVR 41 S. Newman. no. 153-158. 3. 131. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. “Generalisation of the Concept of Equivalent Radius of Thin Cylindrical Antennas. “Dielectric Coated Wire Antennas.

Stearns. i. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.D.e. San Ramon. a flat mirror Wires may touch ground Good for turning off ground losses to evaluate the ground losses of real ground Real grounds High-accuracy (Sommerfeld-Norton) ground – Most accurate and computationally expensive ground type – Best method for low horizontal wires down to λ/200 above ground – Wires may not touch ground Fast ground – Uses complex reflection coefficient method – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/10 above ground – Wires may not touch ground MININEC ground – Hybrid (compromise) calculation designed for early PCs – Assumes perfect ground for calculating currents.Five Ground Types and Their Restrictions Free space Perfect ground A lossless perfect electrically conducting (PEC) ground plane. but switches to dielectric ground for far-field pattern calculation – Hence no ground losses – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/5 above ground – Vertical wires may touch ground 42 S. 2008 .

dry Poor: rocky. densely wooded Pastoral. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. US Midwest Very good: pastoral.0075 0. rich. rich soil.001 0.030 0. CA . San Ramon.001 0. high buildings Very poor: cities.010 0. Stearns. mountainous Average: pastoral.D.002 0.006 0. central US Fresh water Salt water 43 S.Ground Parameters Ground is specified by two numbers: conductivity σ and dielectric constant εr For “average” ground.005 0. heavy clay Pastoral: medium hills and forest Flat. so don’t worry about the precise value of σ (stations near salt water excepted). K6OIK σ 0. marshy.002 0. εr has more influence than σ.001 5 εr 3 5 10 13 13 13 12 14 20 80 80 October 17-19. Concentrate on getting a good estimate of εr Ground Characteristics Extremely poor: cities. σ = 5 mS/m and εr = 13 At HF frequencies. industrial Sandy.

CA October 17-19. Antennas made of insulated wire cannot be analyzed by NEC-2. Such antenna designs do not frequency scale easily. but NEC-4 and EZNEC Pro/4 work okay Twin lead folded dipole Twin lead J-pole Butternut radials 44 S.” total current is “phenomena” Antennas that rely on interacting modes do not scale if λ/λg or vf changes Insulation on wires affects common and differential current modes differently. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .D. Stearns. not resolved into common and differential current modes Current modes are “noumena.General Caveats Regarding Antenna Modeling NEC is “blind” to current modes – computes total current. San Ramon.

CA October 17-19. Stearns.D. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.4nec2 45 S. 2008 .

ict. Netherlands Runs under Windows 2000 and XP Includes standard EZNEC models as .4nec2 http://home.000 segments but can be increased by to any number by recompiling the NEC-2 or NEC-4 source codes Two versions 4nec2 – limited to machine memory 4nec2X – uses virtual memory for bigger problems Has 3D graphics and two optimizers Gradient descent optimizer Genetic optimizer Permits writing NEC script. 2008 .nec files Comes with NEC-2 executables but can use NEC-4 executables Comes configured for up to 11. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D. thereby giving access to all NEC-2 and NEC-4 commands 46 S.nl/~arivoors/ A free full-featured GUI for NEC-2 and NEC-4 Written and supported by Arie Voors. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.

CA October 17-19. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.4nec2 Wire-Grid Models of Boeing 747 and Automobile 47 S.D. 2008 . Stearns.

San Ramon.4nec2 Screen Displays Main screen Geometry screen Edit screen Wire tab 48 S. 2008 .D. CA October 17-19. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.D. 2008 . San Ramon. CA October 17-19.4nec2 3D Pattern of Antenna on 747 – Vert Pol 49 S.

and Dielectrics 50 S.D. Plates. Stearns. 2008 . CA October 17-19. San Ramon.WIPL-D Wires. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

wipl-d. Serbia (former Yugoslavia) Handles both 3D antennas and microwave circuits Method is MoM/SIE.WIPL-D http://www.wipl-d. but has work-around Two limited versions of interest to Radio Amateurs WIPL-D Demo – Free download from http://www.com/ Originated at University of Belgrade. near and farfield calculations.D.0 Capabilities include: lossy conductors. CA October 17-19.com/ WIPL-D Lite – More capable version from Artech House. dielectric and magnetic materials. surface equivalence principle Fast multipole method (FMM) added to new version 7. Stearns.g. e. ISBN 1580539653 (\$399).exe file after installation 51 S. Contact WIPL-D for replacement “bug-free” . San Ramon. optimizer Polynomial basis functions and curved bilinear quadrilateral surface meshing give high accuracy with small computation Meshed surfaces appear flat but are really curved Lacks infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns.WIPL-D Models of Single and 4x4 Array of Polyrods 52 S.D. San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

CA October 17-19.WIPL-D Model of Fighter Plane 53 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.D. 2008 . Stearns.

2008 . San Ramon. Stearns.FEKO 54 S. CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

hence the need for multiple engines Has infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground Limited LITE version of interest to Radio Amateurs FEKO LITE – Free download from http://www. but has MoM/VIE. Stearns. CA October 17-19. South Africa Switches automatically among multiple “engines” like a Toyota Prius Main method is MoM/SIE.FEKO http://www. San Ramon. FEM. FMM. optimizer Curved surfaces are approximated by many flat triangles Triangle surface meshing and low-order basis functions give heavy computation burden.feko. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.info/ Developed and sold by EM Software & Systems (EMSS). 2008 . dielectric and magnetic materials.info/sales 55 S. near and farfield calculations.feko. and several optics approximations Capabilities similar to WIPL-D: lossy conductors.D.

Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.FEKO Model of Global Hawk (RQ-4A) 56 S.D. 2008 . San Ramon.

San Ramon.FEKO Pattern of Horn Antenna in Wing Pod 57 S. CA October 17-19.D. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .

D. CA October 17-19. 2008 .Advanced Applications Terrain Analysis by MoM Meshing Silicon Valley A Rigorous Alternative to Ray Tracing 58 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns.

CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Earth Terrain Looking Down Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road Surface meshed terrain of Saratoga Color indicates computed earth currents Zoom to see current direction arrows 59 S. 2008 .

San Ramon.D. CA October 17-19. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Computer Used For Antenna Design and Electromagnetic Systems Analysis Description Processors Memory Disk storage Compute speed 6 Xi NetRAIDer network servers 12 AMD Opteron 64-bit 96 Gbytes 12 Tbytes > 53 GFLOPs/sec 60 S. Stearns.

53 5.900 3.48 9. San Ramon. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Required Computation 60 K triangle s.150 61 S.1 Memory (GB) 0.928 12. R un Tim e .38 October 17-19. M em ory U s ed 50 40 KiloTriangles 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 Frequency (MHz) 6 8 Hours Memory GB Frequency (kHz) 1.D.717 Hours 0. CA .54 52.125 1. Stearns.834 38. K6OIK Triangles 3.750 7.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Ground Currents 7. Polarization = Horizontal North South Earth’s Contribution S. San Ramon. Stearns.15 MHz Antenna Height = 50 m. 2008 62 . CA October 17-19.D.

Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 . San Ramon.15 MHz Antenna type = 3 element Yagi Antenna height = 164 ft (50 m) Antenna polarization = horizontal Total field strength V+H shown North South 63 S.D. K6OIK Courtesy of Keith Snyder. KI6BDR ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.3D Antenna Pattern Frequency = 7.

San Ramon.D.The Next Step – Modeling the Landscape 64 S. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . CA October 17-19.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 .D.Landscaping Details Models of trees Details of leaves and branches Courtesy of WIPL-D 65 S. San Ramon.

com/ \$149 from Amazon.Other Useful Antenna Software winSMITH 2. EZNEC. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. http://www.com For interactive design of ladder networks for impedance matching Excellent tool for learning to use the Smith chart Grossly overpriced MultiNEC by Dan Maguire. Stearns.com Excel/Visual Basic program. AC6LA.ac6la. 2008 . low cost but currently unavailable Puts NEC. and 4nec2 on autopilot for making a series of runs Inexpensive alternative to a real optimizer Doesn’t work with EZNEC-ARRL Temporarily unavailable 66 S. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D.0 by Agilent (formerly Eagleware) ISBN 1884932908 \$127 from SciTech Publishing http://www.scitechpublishing.

pp. vol. ser. 2008 . pp. “Electrical Oscillations in Wires. 1897. 324-332. 374-378. 1964) R. Bubnov.C. Harrington. Bubnov and Galerkin methods I. vol.V. 4. TT-63-18924) Method of Moments L. 1-44. 1959. B. 136-149. Akilov. (English translation: Pergamon.. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Upsaliensis. Funktsional’nyj Analiz v Normirovannykh Prostranstvakh (Functional Analysis in Normed Spaces). R. Galerkin.” Cambridge Phil.G. Proc.K.F. IV. Field Computation by Moment Methods. Antennas Propagat. IEEE. pp. 13. 67 S. 1968. 3. San Ramon. Macmillan.” Nova Acta Regiae Soc. vol. Stroitel’naia Mekhanika Korablia (Structural Mechanics of Shipbuilding). 11.G. no.. Feb. 1914.” IEEE Trans. Rept. “On the Integral Equations of Thin Wire Antennas. vol. 1967. “Series Solution of Some Problems of Elastic Equilibrium of Rods and Plates. pp.. Sci. Pocklington. Harrington.P. vol. 897-908. Kantorovich and G. no. (English translation: NTIS Rept. K. “Theoretical Investigations into the Transmitting and Receiving Qualities of Antennae. 19.D. Erik Hallen. Mei. 1915. Tech. 2. 1938. pp.” Vestnik Inzhenerov i Tekhnikov. CA October 17-19. 9.References Current distribution in a wire H.” Proc.F. no. 55. “Matrix Methods for Field Problems. Soc. Stearns. May 1965.

1966. Fall 1968. DTIC ADA119682. no. Miller.” URSI meeting. 1967. “Limitations of Wire-Grid Modeling of a Closed Surface. TRG Division of CDC. Investigation of General Wire Antennas. Tech Rept. no. pp. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. pp.A. pp.). Richmond. Tanner and M. 2003.P. vol. R. no. et al. 1965. 796-804. Medgyesi-Mitschang.H.N. pp.” IEEE Trans. CRC.. ISBN 0879422769. Artech House. L. Compat. August 1967. A. July 1982.L. Richmond. N. vol. Final Rept.References 2 Key papers in antenna modeling theory J.” Proc. 1981.S. Antennas Propagat.K.H. also IEEE Trans. 648-649. 2008 . 588-593. 8. Aug. M. 1990. 14. Aug. Apr. “Sinusoidal Reaction Formulation For Radiation and Scattering from Conducting Surfaces.C. Antennas Propagat. E. Lee. Weiner.H.H. Neureuther. “Calculation of the Current Distribution on a Thin Linear Antenna. Monopole Antennas. vol. “Digital Computer Solutions of the Rigorous Equations for Scattering Problems. DTIC AD0819198. 30. 4.M. ISBN 0824704967. Castillo.R. 3. vol. vol. May 1975. 1992. IEEE. Andreasen and R. “Comparison of Numerical Methods for Thin Wire Antennas. Computational Electromagnetics: Frequency-Domain Method of Moments. no. R.G. Newman and P. Andreasen.. K. 3. 1976. Antennas Propagat. Sept. pp 123-129. San Ramon.. Menlo Park. G. 4. pp. M. Stearns.). 53. Newman (eds. Electromag. Moment Methods in Antennas and Scattering.C.. ISBN 0890064660.G.” IEEE Spectrum. Hansen (ed.. “Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problems. Marin and J. Wang and J. Tanner. Thiele. no. and M.D.H. Gilreath.” IEEE Trans. E. no. 18.” IEEE Trans. Sept. and E. CA. vol. A Surface Patch Model for Polygonal Plates.L. 376-382. 53-61. IEEE Press. Tulyathan.. 68 S. 5.. 23. CA October 17-19. L. 9.

Part II: Program Description – Code. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC2). QST. download current version from http://www.B. Burke. Jan. 2008 .. Part II: Program Description – Theory.J. Breakall. pp. ARRL Antenna Modeling Course.” EMC Symp. L.eznec. San Ramon. Part III: User’s Guide.” 4-part article. 2001. 4-1 to 4-23. Part I: Program Description – Theory. J. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. CA October 17-19. 40-44. 1992. Burke. Burke and A. Numerical Electromagnetics Code – NEC-4. ISBN 0872598721.B. 2002.. 2001. Poggio.K.D. Miller.J. pp. 2000. 1981.References 3 NEC G. Cebik. 2007. ARRL.J. ARRL. Method of Moments. 2000. Dec. Stearns.J. Cebik. 44-48. ARRL Antenna Book. Jan.com L. 34-38. W4RNL. Feb. EZNEC EZNEC User Manual. and E. and pp. 1985. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 31-35. March 5-7. G. pp. “The Numerical/Electromagnetics Code (NEC-3). ISBN 0872599876. 69 S. 21st ed. “A Beginners Guide to Modeling with NEC. G.K. W4RNL. Jan. Zurich. Nov. pp.

CA October 17-19. 2006. ISBN 0521838592. 2008 . Ognjanovic. “Review of Advanced Electromagnetic Modeling Techniques in the Computer Code FEKO based on the Method of Moments with Hybrid Extensions. no. ISBN 1580539653.References 4 4nec2 http://home.S. J. Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering.1. Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures. Sakar. FEKO U. 2. 70 S. pp. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.M.B. vol. and T. Stearns. Kolundzija.D. 2005. D.nl/~arivoors/ Zeland IE3D J-X. Artech House. 373376.” ACES Newsletter. B. 2002. Kolundzija and A. 1994. 18. San Ramon. Artech House. Cambridge University Press. July 2003. WIPL-D B.ict. Jakobus. Djordjevic.K. “A General Purpose 3D Electromagnetic Simulation and Optimization Package – IE3D. ISBN 0890063605. May 23-27. Davidson.” IEEE MTT-S Int’l Symp. WIPL-D Microwave: Circuit And 3D EM Simulation For RF & Microwave Applications – Software and User's Manual.R. Zheng.. vol.M.

Cornell University Press. CA October 17-19. Stearns. 2008 . Hunt. The Maxwellians. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 1991. San Ramon.Good Reading Bruce J.D. ISBN 0801482348 71 S.

D. 4th ed. Volakis editor. ISBN 0071475745. 2006. ISBN 0072321032. 2007. http://snulbug. and Superconducting Antennas. draft textbook online at http://www. First published in 1982 by Harper & Row. McGraw-Hill.A. Electrically Small. McGraw-Hill.mtview..us/books/RadioAntennaEngineering Antenna research papers IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. McGraw-Hill. 2001-2003 (1 DVD).J. JD0301. CA October 17-19. Marhefka. J.rutgers. Kraus and R. ISBN 047166782X.D. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. 1952-2000 (2 DVDs). Wiley. Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas. 1952. Orfanidis. Superdirective. ISBN 0471782556. Radio Antenna Engineering. C.A..J. Antennas.ca.. Hansen. S. Antenna Theory. 3rd ed. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 72 S. First published in 1961.Favorite Antenna Books Books for antenna engineers and students Antenna Engineering Handbook.ece. First published in 1950. R.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/ E. 2008 . JD0304. Balanis. Stearns. JD0351. Henry Jasik editor. 2001-2006 (1 DVD). 2001. San Ramon.L. Laport.C. Wiley. J. 3rd ed. 2005.

Dean Straw (N6BV) editor. Radio Society of Great Britain. Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 0943016223. Devoldere (ON4UN). ISBN 1872309151. 2007. CQ Communications.. 1983. ISBN 1905086040. Ian Poole (G3YWX) editor. 2005. Moxon (G6XN). 2005. Practical Wire Antennas 2. ARRL Antenna Compendium series – Volumes 1 through 7 ARRL Antenna Classics series – six titles 73 S. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon. ISBN 0872599140. 21st ed. The Short Vertical Antenna and Ground Radial. American Radio Relay League. 2003.. ON4UN’s Low-Band Dxing. ISBN 0872599876. Sevick (W2FMI). American Radio Relay League. 2nd ed. J. J.Favorite Antenna Books continued Books for radio amateurs ARRL Antenna Book. 2008 . CA October 17-19. 4th ed.. L. HF Antennas for All Locations.

org/docs/k6oik 74 S. CA October 17-19.The End This presentation will be archived at http://www.fars. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.k6ya.D. 2008 . Stearns.