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Steve Stearns, K6OIK Northrop Grumman Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory San Jose, California stearns@ieee.org k6oik@arrl.net

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA October 17-19, 2008

Outline

History of electromagnetics Computational electromagnetics

Method of Moments (MoM) BRACT, WIRA, AMP, NEC 1-4, IE3D, WIPL-D, FEKO

**Four main programs for amateurs
**

EZNEC 4nec2 WIPL-D Lite FEKO LITE

Advanced applications

Terrain analysis by MoM

References, books, and software

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

**Question for 2008
**

Is the current the same everywhere along a wire?

Iin

Iout

I in = I out

?

3

S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Maxwell found a way to make the answer yes Iin ∂D ∇× H = J + ∂t ⎛ ∂D ⎞ 0 = ∫∫⎜ J + ⎟ • dS ∂t ⎠ S ⎝ ∂ Iin − Iout = ∫∫ DndS ∂t S S. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Answer: It Depends “Yes” for steady-state d-c current “Almost yes” for low-frequency a-c current or short wires But “no” for high-frequency a-c current because electrons can bunch up J. 2008 Iout 4 .C.D. Stearns. CA October 17-19.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.History 5 S. 2008 .D.

D. 2008 . San Ramon.Who Does Not Belong in this Picture? 6 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.

Stearns.D. CA . 2008 7 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Answer: Leonardo Da Vinci and Isaac Newton Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 Andre-Marie Ampere 1775-1836 Michael Faraday 1791-1867 James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Georg Simon Ohm 1789-1854 October 17-19. San Ramon.

The Maxwellians George Francis FitzGerald 1851-1901 Oliver Heaviside 1850-1925 Oliver Joseph Lodge 1851-1940 Heinrich Rudolph Hertz 1857-1894 John Henry Poynting 1851-1914 October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 8 S.D. CA . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.

Let there be light. San Ramon. K6OIK J = σ eE M = σ mH October 17-19. 2008 “And God said.” Genesis 1:3 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Heaviside’s Vector Equations for Maxwell’s Theory ∂B ∇ × E = −M − ∂t ∂D ∇×H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅ D = ρe ∇ ⋅B = ρm D=ε E B=μH 9 S. Stearns. CA .D. and there was light.

counterpoise. loading coil.E. Lodge Goniometer.E. Hertz 1887 Phased arrays – S. polar plots – G. Marconi Biconical dipole.J. Stearns. tunable LC matching network.L.H. H. San Ramon.G. Murray. Artom Radio communication. J. radio directionfinding – Bellini & Tosi Ground losses. electrical steerable array.C. Beverage Endfire array with parasitic elements – Yagi & Uda Polyrod antenna – G. Maxwell Early radiation demonstrations: Edison 1875. Dolbear 1882. A. “impedance” – O. CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Key Dates in Antennas 1842 1873 1875-87 1889-06 1895-01 1897 1907 1907 1923 1928 1947 Discovery of radiation – J. fan dipole. Mueller and W. Brown. ground waves – Zenneck Wave-tilt antenna – H. Tyrell 10 S. Henry Treatise on electrodynamics – J. 2008 .E.

M. Ziolkowski and A. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.A. Superdirective.W. Schelkunoff Theory of Linear Cylindrical Antennas – R.A. CA October 17-19. Landstorfer Metamaterial radomes – R. Balanis Electrically Small. Fasset. Hansen 11 S.R. 2008 .D. Kipple Antenna Theory. King “Method of moments” – A. Akilov Antenna Engineering Handbook – H.M. Wheeler Fundamental limit on antenna bandwidth – L.J. San Ramon. Kantorovich and G.P.D. Stearns. Lewis.V. 3rd ed. Chu Antennas – J.C.Key Dates in Antennas continued 1947-75 1948 1950 1952 1956 1959 1961 1967 1974 1976 2003 2005 2006 Small antennas – H. and M.P. Hunt Landstorfer antenna – F. Kraus Advanced Antenna Theory – S. Jasik Matrix methods for fields problems – R. – C. Harrington Vivaldi antenna – L.D.F.W. and Superconducting Antennas – R.

1967) Limitations and complications Not all antennas are wire antennas Not all antennas are made just of metal Math is hard 12 S. CA October 17-19. 1946) Hill’s radiation pattern integration method (Proc. IEE. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Phys. Appl.D. San Ramon.. 1943) – Middleton-King (J.Old Style Antenna Analysis Step 1 – Get the current distribution Assume sinusoidal – induced EMF method Solve Hallen’s integral equation (1938) Solve Pocklington’s integral equation (1897) How to do it – Mathematical solution Iterative and variational methods – Approximation as a ratio of infinite series – King-Harrison (Proc. 2008 . IRE.

2008 .D. CA October 17-19.Induced EMF Method Assumes sinusoidal current distribution Method gives pattern. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. radiation resistance. and reactance Accurate for pattern and impedance of dipoles up to halfwavelength and verticals up to quarter-wavelength Inaccurate for impedance of dipoles longer than half-wavelength and verticals longer than quarter-wavelength Used widely for the design of AM broadcast vertical towers 13 S.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.D. Stearns. 2008 .Induced EMF Method continued Radiation resistance 1 ⎧ Rin = ⎨C + ln(kl ) − Ci(kl ) + sin( kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )] 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎩ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ Terms vanish when l/λ ⎝2⎠ is a half integer Reactance η ⎡ ⎤⎫ 1 ⎛ kl ⎞ + cos(kl ) ⎢C + ln⎜ ⎟ + Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl )⎥ ⎬ 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Wire radius term ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ 2ka 2 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎪ X in = ⎨Si(kl ) + sin(kl ) ⎢Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl ) + Ci⎜ ⎜ l ⎟⎥ ⎟ 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎝2⎠ 1 ⎫ − cos(kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )]⎬ 2 ⎭ η 14 S.

Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon.D. z ′)⎥ dz ′ = − jωε E zi ( ρ = a ) ∫/ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ −l ⎣⎝ ⎦ l/2 Hallen’s equation (1938) e − jkR ε ′) ′=−j [ B1 cos(kz ) + C1 sin(k | z |)] ∫/ 2 I z ( z 4π R d z μ −l l/2 General form Linear operator L( f ) = g Unknown function Driving function 15 S.Equations for Obtaining the Current Along a Wire Pocklington’s equation (1897) ⎡⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ 2⎞ I z ( z ′) ⎢⎜ 2 + k ⎟ G ( z . CA October 17-19.

San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.Computational Electromagnetics 16 S. CA October 17-19.D.

The Universe of Antenna Modeling Methods Electrical Size Complexity of Materials Courtesy of EMSS 17 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 .

San Ramon. 4nec2. and uniform theories of diffraction Best for electrically large antennas 18 S. winNECPlus.Computational Electromagnetics Method of moments (MoM) A method for solving integro-differential equations such as Hallen’s or Pocklington’s equation at a given frequency Earliest and longest legacy of software codes for antenna modeling BRACT. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. ELNEC. 2008 . Zeland Fidelity. physical. NEC-4. Faustus MEFiSTo Geometric. NEC-3. Stearns. NEC-2. EZNEC. AMP. FEKO. WIPL-D. Zeland IE3D Finite element method (FEM) Best for design of small antennas of complex structure Ansoft HFSS Finite difference time-domain method (FDTD) Time-domain method Best for design of small antennas for broadband applications CST Microwave Studio. MiniNEC. NEC. WIRA.D.

San Ramon. Stearns.D. 2008 . CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The Method of Moments 19 S.

2008 20 S.Originators I.G. Stearns.D. K6OIK . Harrington 1925October 17-19. San Ramon. Bubnov 1872-1919 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich 1912-1986 Jack H. Richmond 1922-1990 Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin 1871-1945 Gleb Pavlovich Akilov 1924-1964 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA Roger F.

Method of Moments Published by Kantorovich and Akilov in 1959 as a general method for solving linear integro-differential equations Introduced into electromagnetics by Roger Harrington in 1967 Currents are weighted sum of basis functions Solve for the coefficients of the basis functions for all segments Calculate radiation pattern and feedpoint impedance from currents Uses two kinds of mathematical functions: basis functions and test functions Basis and test functions can be global or local (sub-sectional) Global basis functions expand the current on a wire in an infinite series. Fourier series Local basis functions break antenna into small conducting line segments. or volumes Subsectional basis functions appear to give better results when solving Hallen’s equation rather than Pocklington’s Test functions are best thought of as projections 21 S. San Ramon. surface patches. CA October 17-19. e. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.g. 2008 . Stearns.D.

Stearns.Integro-Differential Equations Made Simple Start with an equation. The analysis problem is to find f L( f ) = g Assume f can be expanded as a weighted sum of basis functions Set all projections (via test functions) of left and right sides equal ⎛ ⎞ L ( f ) = L⎜ ∑ a n f n ⎟ = g ⎝ n ⎠ n n ∑ a L( f Write as a matrix equation n • φm ) = g • φm ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ M ⎥=⎢ M ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 22 S. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .D.

Stearns. CA October 17-19.The Solution Solve for the vector of expansion coefficients ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥=⎢ ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Obtain f −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f = ∑ an f n = [ f1 L n ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ fN ] ⎢ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 23 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. 2008 . San Ramon.

Jian-Xiong Zheng. Djordjevic. San Ramon WIRA – Developed early 1970’s by M. 2008 . developed by Dr. plates. Company in Fremont. end caps and insulated wires. CA October 17-19. Stearns. B. thick wires NEC-2 (1981) – Sommerfield-Norton ground interaction for wire structures above lossy ground. F. Belgrade. CA WIPL-D (ca 2000) – Advanced MoM for wires. South Africa 24 S. numerical Green's function allows modifying without repeating whole calculation NEC-3 (1985) – Buried wires NEC-4 (1992) – Improved accuracy for stepped-radius wires and electrically-small segments. improved error detection Zeland IE3D (1992) – Adaptive meshing. Serbia FEKO (ca 2000) – Hybrid method developed by U.R. Tanner at TCI AMP/AMP2 – Developed mid 1970’s by G. multiple wire junctions. catenaryshaped wires. Stellenbosch.Principle MoM Computer Codes BRACT & ANTBRACT – Developed late 1960’s at MBAssociates. San Ramon. San Ramon NEC-1 (1979) – Added more accurate current expansions. and dielectrics based on work of A.D.M. Jakobus at EMSS. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Kolundzija. U. Andreasen. Harris and R. Burke at MBAssociates.

D.The Development of NEC 25 S. San Ramon. 2008 . Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

W4RNL.L. Stearns. Cebik.D. CA October 17-19. 2008 . San Ramon. 1939-2008 Brought the joy of antenna modeling to Amateur Radio 26 S.B. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

D. CA October 17-19. Stearns. San Ramon. 2008 .EZNEC 27 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

4 $45 (on ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) EZNEC v.5 $140 EZNEC Pro/2 v. San Ramon. This probably includes you! Form at: https://ipo.D.5 $500 EZNEC Pro/4 v. W7EL Now in version 5.5 $650 (sold only to NEC-4 licensees) EZNEC includes either the NEC-2 or NEC-4 engines NEC-4 license for qualified US academic and noncommercial users can be obtained from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for $300.com/ Developed by Roy Lewallen.eznec. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.llnl.gov/technology/software/documents/NEC.3 & v.5 demo program $0 (free) EZNEC-ARRL v.0 Six products available EZNEC v. Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 .pdf 28 S.5 $90 EZNEC+ v.EZNEC http://www.

2008 . Stearns. CA October 17-19.Key Parts of EZNEC Specifying the antenna model Wire geometry (including radials) Excitation sources Wire loads Transmission lines Ground type and parameters Frequency or sweep range Specifying the desired outputs Radiation pattern crossection at a given frequency Gain in a specific direction Pattern beamwidth Front-to-back ratio Front-to-rear ratio Impedance SWR Output data files for other programs 29 S. San Ramon.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns.D.EZNEC Main Screen and Control Panel “Model contains loss” warning 30 S. San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

2008 . CA October 17-19. Stearns. segments = 7 Copper σ = 58 MS/m (x2. San Ramon. y1.Wires and Segments Each wire in an antenna is defined by Location (coordinates) of both ends Diameter of wire Number of segments (all equal in length) Material or conductivity (x1. z2) 31 S. y2. z1) Diameter = AWG #12 No.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

San Ramon. “All About the Discone Antenna.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.” QEX. 2008 . CA October 17-19. Stearns. K6OIK.Wire Table for UHF Discone Antenna Steve Stearns. Jan/Feb 2007 32 S.

K6OIK.D.” QEX. “All About the Discone Antenna. Stearns. San Ramon. 2008 . Jan/Feb 2007 33 S. CA October 17-19.View Antenna Steve Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

**Discone SWR and Impedance Referenced to 75Ω
**

UHF TV band highlighted blue 470 to 710 MHz

Marker at 460 MHz 1. 2. 3. 4. Setup a frequency sweep 100 MHz to 1 GHz Write impedance data to MicroSmith .gam output file Use Word to reformat .gam to Ansoft .flp file format Import to Serenade SV project and design matching network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Improvement After Stub Matching Network

35

S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

EZNEC Gain Patterns of Discone at 470 MHz

36

S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Stearns. 2008 .Tips for Getting Better Accuracy from NEC-2 Segment length to wavelength rule Segment length < λ / 20 Segment length to diameter rule Segment length > 2 × diameter Equal segment length rule All segments in a model have equal length Never connect long segments to short segments Acute angle junction rule Junction angles or segment lengths large enough that middle 1/3 of joined segments don’t interpenetrate Segment alignment rule for parallel wires Closely spaced parallel and near parallel wires have their segments aligned (paired) Wires near ground All wires must be least two diameters above ground Wires cannot touch ground 37 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D.

they are in series A voltage sources and load can be assigned to a segment when it is desired to simulate the Thevenin equivalent of a real generator – needed for mutual impedance effects in phased array feeds A “split-feed” consists of putting two half-voltage sources in adjacent segments to simulates a source at the junction between the segments 38 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. Stearns. 2008 . San Ramon.Excitation Sources Ideal voltage and current sources can be inserted in any segment Sources are used to excite a feedpoint Most antennas have a single feedpoint A unit current source of 1 + j0 amperes generally works well Phased arrays with multiple antenna feedpoints can be driven with a separate current sources at each feedpoint or with a single source driving a feed network If a segment contains both source and load. CA October 17-19.

traps. CA October 17-19. non-radiating point loads can be inserted in any segment If a segment contains both source and load. San Ramon.Wire Loads Ideal. and internally to NEC. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. wire conductivity (ohmic loss) Load types available are: Constant impedance R + jX Series RLC network Parallel RLC network Trap network Laplace impedance positive-real rational function up to 5th degree P( jω ) a5 ( jω ) 5 + a4 ( jω ) 4 + a3 ( jω )3 + a2 ( jω ) 2 + a1 ( jω ) + a0 = Z( f ) = Q( jω ) b5 ( jω ) 5 + b4 ( jω ) 4 + b3 ( jω ) 3 + b2 ( jω ) 2 + b1 ( jω ) + b0 39 S. 2008 . Stearns. they are in series Loads are used to model coils.D.

e. buried radials NEC-2 has no capability for dielectrics NEC-3 and NEC-4 handle dielectrics by accurate methods NEC-3 handles wires in semi-infinite dielectric media. Cebik compared several ad hoc approximations for insulated wire (Note 83) EZNEC v. Stearns.4 and above claim to do insulated wires but use NEC-2 EZNEC Pro/4 v.D.g. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. twin-lead folded dipoles.B. CA October 17-19. e.5 uses the accurate NEC-4 dielectric capability 40 S. buried radials NEC-4 handles insulated wires by accurate methods Newer professional codes such as IE3D. polyrod antennas.g. and WIPL-D handle dielectrics accurately by surface and volume equivalence principles L. twin-lead J-poles. FEKO. 2008 .Dielectrics and Wire Insulation Dielectrics occur in antennas in bulk form or insulated wires. Butternut radials.

Federov UA3AVR 41 S.Y.H. Newman. 1.D.” Radio Science..G. Cebik W4RNL. Jan.” IEE Proc. or D.” Radio Science. Yurkov RA9MB. Richmond and E. Lee and K. 153-158. H. 1976 J. 3. 437445. no. no. 3. pp. “Dielectric Coated Wire Antennas. San Ramon. pp. 2008 . pt. CA October 17-19. May-June 1979 Good quasistatic approximation B. pp. Balmain. Nesic. 13-20.P. Stearns. “Generalisation of the Concept of Equivalent Radius of Thin Cylindrical Antennas. June 1984 Larger effective radius with extra distributed inductance to offset ⎛b⎞ a' = a × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ε ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ <b μ0 ⎛ a' ⎞ −7 ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎛ b ⎞ L = ln⎜ ⎟ = 2×10 ⎜ ⎜ ε ⎟ln⎜ a ⎟ ⎟ 2π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Equations are different from those of L. Popovic and A.Insulated Wires Done Right ! Rigorous theory J.H. vol. no.D. A. vol. “Wire Antennas Coated with Magnetically and Electrically Lossy Material. 14. vol.B. 11. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 131.

San Ramon.D.Five Ground Types and Their Restrictions Free space Perfect ground A lossless perfect electrically conducting (PEC) ground plane. CA October 17-19. i. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. but switches to dielectric ground for far-field pattern calculation – Hence no ground losses – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/5 above ground – Vertical wires may touch ground 42 S. a flat mirror Wires may touch ground Good for turning off ground losses to evaluate the ground losses of real ground Real grounds High-accuracy (Sommerfeld-Norton) ground – Most accurate and computationally expensive ground type – Best method for low horizontal wires down to λ/200 above ground – Wires may not touch ground Fast ground – Uses complex reflection coefficient method – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/10 above ground – Wires may not touch ground MININEC ground – Hybrid (compromise) calculation designed for early PCs – Assumes perfect ground for calculating currents. 2008 .e.

Ground Parameters Ground is specified by two numbers: conductivity σ and dielectric constant εr For “average” ground.010 0.005 0.D. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.002 0. dry Poor: rocky. industrial Sandy. K6OIK σ 0.0075 0. Concentrate on getting a good estimate of εr Ground Characteristics Extremely poor: cities.002 0. US Midwest Very good: pastoral. central US Fresh water Salt water 43 S. San Ramon.006 0.001 5 εr 3 5 10 13 13 13 12 14 20 80 80 October 17-19. marshy. rich. densely wooded Pastoral. σ = 5 mS/m and εr = 13 At HF frequencies. CA . mountainous Average: pastoral.001 0. rich soil.001 0. εr has more influence than σ. heavy clay Pastoral: medium hills and forest Flat. high buildings Very poor: cities. so don’t worry about the precise value of σ (stations near salt water excepted).030 0. Stearns.

Such antenna designs do not frequency scale easily. San Ramon. 2008 .General Caveats Regarding Antenna Modeling NEC is “blind” to current modes – computes total current.D. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Antennas made of insulated wire cannot be analyzed by NEC-2. Stearns. not resolved into common and differential current modes Current modes are “noumena. but NEC-4 and EZNEC Pro/4 work okay Twin lead folded dipole Twin lead J-pole Butternut radials 44 S.” total current is “phenomena” Antennas that rely on interacting modes do not scale if λ/λg or vf changes Insulation on wires affects common and differential current modes differently.

4nec2 45 S.D. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. 2008 .

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.4nec2 http://home.000 segments but can be increased by to any number by recompiling the NEC-2 or NEC-4 source codes Two versions 4nec2 – limited to machine memory 4nec2X – uses virtual memory for bigger problems Has 3D graphics and two optimizers Gradient descent optimizer Genetic optimizer Permits writing NEC script. Stearns.ict.nec files Comes with NEC-2 executables but can use NEC-4 executables Comes configured for up to 11.D.nl/~arivoors/ A free full-featured GUI for NEC-2 and NEC-4 Written and supported by Arie Voors. Netherlands Runs under Windows 2000 and XP Includes standard EZNEC models as . San Ramon. thereby giving access to all NEC-2 and NEC-4 commands 46 S. CA October 17-19. 2008 .

D. 2008 .4nec2 Wire-Grid Models of Boeing 747 and Automobile 47 S. Stearns. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

4nec2 Screen Displays Main screen Geometry screen Edit screen Wire tab 48 S.D. 2008 . Stearns. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. San Ramon. 2008 . CA October 17-19.D.4nec2 3D Pattern of Antenna on 747 – Vert Pol 49 S.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon.D. Stearns. CA October 17-19.WIPL-D Wires. and Dielectrics 50 S. Plates.

com/ WIPL-D Lite – More capable version from Artech House. optimizer Polynomial basis functions and curved bilinear quadrilateral surface meshing give high accuracy with small computation Meshed surfaces appear flat but are really curved Lacks infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground. near and farfield calculations.com/ Originated at University of Belgrade. Stearns. e. but has work-around Two limited versions of interest to Radio Amateurs WIPL-D Demo – Free download from http://www.D.wipl-d. ISBN 1580539653 ($399).wipl-d.WIPL-D http://www. surface equivalence principle Fast multipole method (FMM) added to new version 7. 2008 . dielectric and magnetic materials. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.0 Capabilities include: lossy conductors. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.exe file after installation 51 S.g. Contact WIPL-D for replacement “bug-free” . Serbia (former Yugoslavia) Handles both 3D antennas and microwave circuits Method is MoM/SIE.

Stearns. 2008 .D. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.WIPL-D Models of Single and 4x4 Array of Polyrods 52 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

WIPL-D Model of Fighter Plane 53 S. San Ramon. Stearns.D. CA October 17-19. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns. 2008 . San Ramon. CA October 17-19.FEKO 54 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.

hence the need for multiple engines Has infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground Limited LITE version of interest to Radio Amateurs FEKO LITE – Free download from http://www. dielectric and magnetic materials. FEM. 2008 .D. optimizer Curved surfaces are approximated by many flat triangles Triangle surface meshing and low-order basis functions give heavy computation burden. South Africa Switches automatically among multiple “engines” like a Toyota Prius Main method is MoM/SIE. San Ramon. FMM. but has MoM/VIE.info/sales 55 S. and several optics approximations Capabilities similar to WIPL-D: lossy conductors. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.info/ Developed and sold by EM Software & Systems (EMSS).feko.feko.FEKO http://www. near and farfield calculations. CA October 17-19.

Stearns.FEKO Model of Global Hawk (RQ-4A) 56 S. San Ramon.D. 2008 . CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D.FEKO Pattern of Horn Antenna in Wing Pod 57 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .

D. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. 2008 .Advanced Applications Terrain Analysis by MoM Meshing Silicon Valley A Rigorous Alternative to Ray Tracing 58 S.

2008 . Stearns. CA October 17-19.D. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Earth Terrain Looking Down Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road Surface meshed terrain of Saratoga Color indicates computed earth currents Zoom to see current direction arrows 59 S.

2008 . Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.Computer Used For Antenna Design and Electromagnetic Systems Analysis Description Processors Memory Disk storage Compute speed 6 Xi NetRAIDer network servers 12 AMD Opteron 64-bit 96 Gbytes 12 Tbytes > 53 GFLOPs/sec 60 S.D. San Ramon.

717 Hours 0. R un Tim e . 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.53 5.750 7. K6OIK Triangles 3.1 Memory (GB) 0.900 3. Stearns. San Ramon.38 October 17-19.150 61 S.Required Computation 60 K triangle s. M em ory U s ed 50 40 KiloTriangles 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 Frequency (MHz) 6 8 Hours Memory GB Frequency (kHz) 1. CA .834 38.D.125 1.928 12.54 52.48 9.

Stearns. 2008 62 .Ground Currents 7. Polarization = Horizontal North South Earth’s Contribution S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.15 MHz Antenna Height = 50 m. CA October 17-19.

3D Antenna Pattern Frequency = 7. K6OIK Courtesy of Keith Snyder. Stearns.D.15 MHz Antenna type = 3 element Yagi Antenna height = 164 ft (50 m) Antenna polarization = horizontal Total field strength V+H shown North South 63 S. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. KI6BDR ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .

San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.The Next Step – Modeling the Landscape 64 S.D. CA October 17-19.

San Ramon. Stearns.Landscaping Details Models of trees Details of leaves and branches Courtesy of WIPL-D 65 S. CA October 17-19. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.

San Ramon.com For interactive design of ladder networks for impedance matching Excellent tool for learning to use the Smith chart Grossly overpriced MultiNEC by Dan Maguire.com/ $149 from Amazon. Stearns. http://www.scitechpublishing. 2008 . EZNEC.com Excel/Visual Basic program.0 by Agilent (formerly Eagleware) ISBN 1884932908 $127 from SciTech Publishing http://www.Other Useful Antenna Software winSMITH 2. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. low cost but currently unavailable Puts NEC. CA October 17-19. and 4nec2 on autopilot for making a series of runs Inexpensive alternative to a real optimizer Doesn’t work with EZNEC-ARRL Temporarily unavailable 66 S.ac6la.D. AC6LA.

Feb. Pocklington. Antennas Propagat. pp. IEEE. Harrington.G. Tech. Field Computation by Moment Methods.F.C. 55. Upsaliensis. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.” Nova Acta Regiae Soc. K. vol. 136-149. Stearns. no. 2008 . vol. 2. 19. Funktsional’nyj Analiz v Normirovannykh Prostranstvakh (Functional Analysis in Normed Spaces). 4.K. vol.F. (English translation: NTIS Rept. 1967. no.References Current distribution in a wire H. Erik Hallen.P. 897-908. Harrington. “Matrix Methods for Field Problems. Kantorovich and G. 1915. May 1965. “On the Integral Equations of Thin Wire Antennas. 9. 324-332. “Theoretical Investigations into the Transmitting and Receiving Qualities of Antennae. 11. Akilov. Galerkin. 1938. Bubnov. IV. 1968.V. 1897. pp. San Ramon. (English translation: Pergamon. 3.” Cambridge Phil. 13..G. pp. no. Sci. ser. TT-63-18924) Method of Moments L. vol. R. “Electrical Oscillations in Wires. 1959. Stroitel’naia Mekhanika Korablia (Structural Mechanics of Shipbuilding). pp. pp.. 1-44. Macmillan. vol. Rept. 1914..” Vestnik Inzhenerov i Tekhnikov. 1964) R.” Proc. Soc. “Series Solution of Some Problems of Elastic Equilibrium of Rods and Plates. Mei. Bubnov and Galerkin methods I.D. B.” IEEE Trans. 374-378. Proc. 67 S. CA October 17-19.

K. Neureuther.H. Marin and J.G. CRC.L. and E. Compat. ISBN 0879422769. May 1975. Sept. Monopole Antennas. N.H. 8. Fall 1968. vol. vol.. 1992. “Sinusoidal Reaction Formulation For Radiation and Scattering from Conducting Surfaces. pp. 1967. 2008 . Gilreath. G. Tech Rept. et al. Wang and J. Electromag. Aug. A Surface Patch Model for Polygonal Plates. 23. San Ramon. “Limitations of Wire-Grid Modeling of a Closed Surface. Medgyesi-Mitschang. 14.. Thiele. 18. DTIC ADA119682. Miller.H. IEEE. Artech House. 3. 1990. 1965. Antennas Propagat. Richmond..G. “Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problems. Andreasen. vol. vol. ISBN 0824704967.. August 1967.D. no.” IEEE Trans.” URSI meeting. Final Rept.K. no. E. 53-61. 9. 588-593. no. pp. Richmond.” Proc. “Calculation of the Current Distribution on a Thin Linear Antenna. pp. ISBN 0890064660. M. 5. Newman (eds.M. TRG Division of CDC. DTIC AD0819198.H.” IEEE Spectrum.).). L. Hansen (ed. pp. also IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. July 1982. pp. 4. Castillo. 4.N. 648-649. 30. Menlo Park. Moment Methods in Antennas and Scattering. Computational Electromagnetics: Frequency-Domain Method of Moments.S. E. Antennas Propagat.References 2 Key papers in antenna modeling theory J. 796-804. R. Antennas Propagat.P. IEEE Press. vol. 68 S.” IEEE Trans. Tanner. Investigation of General Wire Antennas. no. Lee. Apr. Tulyathan. A. 1976.A. 3. Weiner. “Comparison of Numerical Methods for Thin Wire Antennas. R.C. L.C.R. Andreasen and R. pp 123-129. no. 53. M. no. 376-382.L.. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. “Digital Computer Solutions of the Rigorous Equations for Scattering Problems. Stearns. Sept.H. Tanner and M. CA. Aug. 1981. and M. 1966.. CA October 17-19. vol. 2003. Newman and P..

J. W4RNL.com L. EZNEC EZNEC User Manual. 44-48. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Cebik. G. Burke and A.J. 4-1 to 4-23. Part III: User’s Guide. Dec. Numerical Electromagnetics Code – NEC-4. CA October 17-19.” 4-part article. Nov. 2000. 2001. Part II: Program Description – Code. 1992. ARRL. 40-44.B. W4RNL. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2000. L.eznec. QST.K. ARRL. 1981. and E. Cebik.” EMC Symp. Part I: Program Description – Theory. Breakall. Poggio. Method of Moments. 34-38. J.. Burke. 1985. San Ramon. ARRL Antenna Book. pp. Miller.B.. “The Numerical/Electromagnetics Code (NEC-3).K. pp. ARRL Antenna Modeling Course. Stearns. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC2). 2008 . pp. Jan. Jan. Feb. 69 S. March 5-7. Zurich. “A Beginners Guide to Modeling with NEC. 21st ed. ISBN 0872598721. G. Burke.J. Jan.References 3 NEC G. 31-35. 2001. and pp. ISBN 0872599876. pp.D. 2002.J. download current version from http://www. Part II: Program Description – Theory. 2007. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

. Kolundzija and A. Jakobus. “Review of Advanced Electromagnetic Modeling Techniques in the Computer Code FEKO based on the Method of Moments with Hybrid Extensions. Davidson. Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering. WIPL-D Microwave: Circuit And 3D EM Simulation For RF & Microwave Applications – Software and User's Manual. vol. Artech House. May 23-27. Artech House.S.M. and T. 2008 .” ACES Newsletter.nl/~arivoors/ Zeland IE3D J-X. 18. Ognjanovic. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.M.D. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 1994. ISBN 0890063605. Cambridge University Press. vol.R. 2005. FEKO U. Kolundzija. 373376. ISBN 1580539653.B. J. Sakar.K. Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures. Stearns.1. 2002. B. July 2003. ISBN 0521838592.References 4 4nec2 http://home. Djordjevic.” IEEE MTT-S Int’l Symp. 70 S. “A General Purpose 3D Electromagnetic Simulation and Optimization Package – IE3D. 2. Zheng. 2006. pp. no. D. WIPL-D B.ict.

2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.Good Reading Bruce J.D. 1991. The Maxwellians. Hunt. Stearns. ISBN 0801482348 71 S. San Ramon. Cornell University Press.

McGraw-Hill. 3rd ed. 2001. http://snulbug. 2005. McGraw-Hill. 1952-2000 (2 DVDs). JD0301. JD0304. Laport. 72 S.A. Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas. 2006. 2007. Orfanidis.rutgers.L.J.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/ E. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071475745.J. 3rd ed. Marhefka.us/books/RadioAntennaEngineering Antenna research papers IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. Wiley. 2001-2003 (1 DVD). K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. J. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. JD0351. S.. Henry Jasik editor. Hansen. San Ramon. 1952.ca.A. Antennas. draft textbook online at http://www.Favorite Antenna Books Books for antenna engineers and students Antenna Engineering Handbook. Balanis. ISBN 047166782X. ISBN 0072321032. Antenna Theory. Stearns. CA October 17-19. Electrically Small.mtview.C. First published in 1982 by Harper & Row. Radio Antenna Engineering. Kraus and R. Superdirective. 2008 . 4th ed. ISBN 0471782556.ece. R. First published in 1950. C. J. Wiley.. Volakis editor.D. 2001-2006 (1 DVD). and Superconducting Antennas. First published in 1961..D.

ARRL Antenna Compendium series – Volumes 1 through 7 ARRL Antenna Classics series – six titles 73 S. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2nd ed. ISBN 0872599876. J. Dean Straw (N6BV) editor. 2003. 1983. 4th ed.. ISBN 1905086040. Sevick (W2FMI). ON4UN’s Low-Band Dxing. 21st ed. Practical Wire Antennas 2. 2008 . Radio Society of Great Britain.. CQ Communications. Ian Poole (G3YWX) editor. Moxon (G6XN). San Ramon. L. J. The Short Vertical Antenna and Ground Radial.D. American Radio Relay League. ISBN 0943016223. 2005. ISBN 1872309151. HF Antennas for All Locations. 2007. American Radio Relay League. 2005. ISBN 0872599140. CA October 17-19. Radio Society of Great Britain. Devoldere (ON4UN)..Favorite Antenna Books continued Books for radio amateurs ARRL Antenna Book.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The End This presentation will be archived at http://www. 2008 . Stearns.k6ya.org/docs/k6oik 74 S. CA October 17-19.D.fars. San Ramon.

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