Antenna Modeling for Radio Amateurs

Steve Stearns, K6OIK Northrop Grumman Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory San Jose, California stearns@ieee.org k6oik@arrl.net
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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA October 17-19, 2008

Outline
History of electromagnetics Computational electromagnetics
Method of Moments (MoM) BRACT, WIRA, AMP, NEC 1-4, IE3D, WIPL-D, FEKO

Four main programs for amateurs
EZNEC 4nec2 WIPL-D Lite FEKO LITE

Advanced applications
Terrain analysis by MoM

References, books, and software

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Question for 2008
Is the current the same everywhere along a wire?

Iin

Iout

I in = I out

?

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Answer: It Depends “Yes” for steady-state d-c current “Almost yes” for low-frequency a-c current or short wires But “no” for high-frequency a-c current because electrons can bunch up J. Maxwell found a way to make the answer yes Iin ∂D ∇× H = J + ∂t ⎛ ∂D ⎞ 0 = ∫∫⎜ J + ⎟ • dS ∂t ⎠ S ⎝ ∂ Iin − Iout = ∫∫ DndS ∂t S S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns.C. 2008 Iout 4 .D. CA October 17-19.

Stearns.History 5 S. CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon.

Who Does Not Belong in this Picture? 6 S. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. 2008 .

CA . San Ramon. Stearns.D. 2008 7 S.Answer: Leonardo Da Vinci and Isaac Newton Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 Andre-Marie Ampere 1775-1836 Michael Faraday 1791-1867 James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Georg Simon Ohm 1789-1854 October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 8 S.The Maxwellians George Francis FitzGerald 1851-1901 Oliver Heaviside 1850-1925 Oliver Joseph Lodge 1851-1940 Heinrich Rudolph Hertz 1857-1894 John Henry Poynting 1851-1914 October 17-19. San Ramon. Stearns. CA .

D. CA . Stearns. K6OIK J = σ eE M = σ mH October 17-19.Heaviside’s Vector Equations for Maxwell’s Theory ∂B ∇ × E = −M − ∂t ∂D ∇×H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅ D = ρe ∇ ⋅B = ρm D=ε E B=μH 9 S. San Ramon. Let there be light.” Genesis 1:3 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. and there was light. 2008 “And God said.

electrical steerable array. San Ramon. Henry Treatise on electrodynamics – J. tunable LC matching network.C. Hertz 1887 Phased arrays – S.G. Stearns. H. CA October 17-19.L. “impedance” – O.E. 2008 . ground waves – Zenneck Wave-tilt antenna – H. Lodge Goniometer. A. Dolbear 1882. radio directionfinding – Bellini & Tosi Ground losses. Mueller and W. counterpoise.E. J. Beverage Endfire array with parasitic elements – Yagi & Uda Polyrod antenna – G. Artom Radio communication.J.E.Key Dates in Antennas 1842 1873 1875-87 1889-06 1895-01 1897 1907 1907 1923 1928 1947 Discovery of radiation – J. Tyrell 10 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. fan dipole. Murray. polar plots – G.D. loading coil.H. Brown. Maxwell Early radiation demonstrations: Edison 1875. Marconi Biconical dipole.

D. Lewis.D.J.W.F. 3rd ed. Hunt Landstorfer antenna – F.W. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. M. CA October 17-19.A. Chu Antennas – J. Harrington Vivaldi antenna – L. Wheeler Fundamental limit on antenna bandwidth – L.V. Balanis Electrically Small. Landstorfer Metamaterial radomes – R.P.M.D. 2008 . and M. Jasik Matrix methods for fields problems – R. San Ramon. Superdirective.Key Dates in Antennas continued 1947-75 1948 1950 1952 1956 1959 1961 1967 1974 1976 2003 2005 2006 Small antennas – H. Kantorovich and G. Hansen 11 S.C. – C. Stearns. Akilov Antenna Engineering Handbook – H. Kipple Antenna Theory. Kraus Advanced Antenna Theory – S.P. Fasset. King “Method of moments” – A. Ziolkowski and A.A. Schelkunoff Theory of Linear Cylindrical Antennas – R.R. and Superconducting Antennas – R.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Appl. San Ramon. IEE. Phys.. IRE. 1967) Limitations and complications Not all antennas are wire antennas Not all antennas are made just of metal Math is hard 12 S. CA October 17-19. 1946) Hill’s radiation pattern integration method (Proc.D. 1943) – Middleton-King (J.Old Style Antenna Analysis Step 1 – Get the current distribution Assume sinusoidal – induced EMF method Solve Hallen’s integral equation (1938) Solve Pocklington’s integral equation (1897) How to do it – Mathematical solution Iterative and variational methods – Approximation as a ratio of infinite series – King-Harrison (Proc. Stearns. 2008 .

D.Induced EMF Method Assumes sinusoidal current distribution Method gives pattern. CA October 17-19. Stearns. radiation resistance. 2008 . and reactance Accurate for pattern and impedance of dipoles up to halfwavelength and verticals up to quarter-wavelength Inaccurate for impedance of dipoles longer than half-wavelength and verticals longer than quarter-wavelength Used widely for the design of AM broadcast vertical towers 13 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Induced EMF Method continued Radiation resistance 1 ⎧ Rin = ⎨C + ln(kl ) − Ci(kl ) + sin( kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )] 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎩ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ Terms vanish when l/λ ⎝2⎠ is a half integer Reactance η ⎡ ⎤⎫ 1 ⎛ kl ⎞ + cos(kl ) ⎢C + ln⎜ ⎟ + Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl )⎥ ⎬ 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Wire radius term ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ 2ka 2 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎪ X in = ⎨Si(kl ) + sin(kl ) ⎢Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl ) + Ci⎜ ⎜ l ⎟⎥ ⎟ 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎝2⎠ 1 ⎫ − cos(kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )]⎬ 2 ⎭ η 14 S. CA October 17-19. Stearns. 2008 .D.

2008 . z ′)⎥ dz ′ = − jωε E zi ( ρ = a ) ∫/ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ −l ⎣⎝ ⎦ l/2 Hallen’s equation (1938) e − jkR ε ′) ′=−j [ B1 cos(kz ) + C1 sin(k | z |)] ∫/ 2 I z ( z 4π R d z μ −l l/2 General form Linear operator L( f ) = g Unknown function Driving function 15 S. San Ramon.Equations for Obtaining the Current Along a Wire Pocklington’s equation (1897) ⎡⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ 2⎞ I z ( z ′) ⎢⎜ 2 + k ⎟ G ( z .D. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.D. Stearns. 2008 . CA October 17-19.Computational Electromagnetics 16 S.

The Universe of Antenna Modeling Methods Electrical Size Complexity of Materials Courtesy of EMSS 17 S. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon. 2008 . CA October 17-19.

San Ramon. EZNEC. Zeland IE3D Finite element method (FEM) Best for design of small antennas of complex structure Ansoft HFSS Finite difference time-domain method (FDTD) Time-domain method Best for design of small antennas for broadband applications CST Microwave Studio. CA October 17-19.D. FEKO. MiniNEC. AMP. WIPL-D. NEC-3. and uniform theories of diffraction Best for electrically large antennas 18 S. 2008 .Computational Electromagnetics Method of moments (MoM) A method for solving integro-differential equations such as Hallen’s or Pocklington’s equation at a given frequency Earliest and longest legacy of software codes for antenna modeling BRACT. Zeland Fidelity. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. NEC-4. physical. NEC-2. winNECPlus. ELNEC. 4nec2. Faustus MEFiSTo Geometric. WIRA. Stearns. NEC.

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The Method of Moments 19 S. Stearns. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 2008 .

G.Originators I. Richmond 1922-1990 Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin 1871-1945 Gleb Pavlovich Akilov 1924-1964 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 20 S. San Ramon. Bubnov 1872-1919 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich 1912-1986 Jack H. CA Roger F. Stearns.D. Harrington 1925October 17-19. K6OIK .

or volumes Subsectional basis functions appear to give better results when solving Hallen’s equation rather than Pocklington’s Test functions are best thought of as projections 21 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . Stearns.g. CA October 17-19. e.Method of Moments Published by Kantorovich and Akilov in 1959 as a general method for solving linear integro-differential equations Introduced into electromagnetics by Roger Harrington in 1967 Currents are weighted sum of basis functions Solve for the coefficients of the basis functions for all segments Calculate radiation pattern and feedpoint impedance from currents Uses two kinds of mathematical functions: basis functions and test functions Basis and test functions can be global or local (sub-sectional) Global basis functions expand the current on a wire in an infinite series. surface patches. San Ramon. Fourier series Local basis functions break antenna into small conducting line segments.D.

Stearns. The analysis problem is to find f L( f ) = g Assume f can be expanded as a weighted sum of basis functions Set all projections (via test functions) of left and right sides equal ⎛ ⎞ L ( f ) = L⎜ ∑ a n f n ⎟ = g ⎝ n ⎠ n n ∑ a L( f Write as a matrix equation n • φm ) = g • φm ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ M ⎥=⎢ M ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 22 S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 .Integro-Differential Equations Made Simple Start with an equation.

2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D.The Solution Solve for the vector of expansion coefficients ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥=⎢ ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Obtain f −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f = ∑ an f n = [ f1 L n ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ fN ] ⎢ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 23 S. Stearns.

Stearns. developed by Dr. San Ramon NEC-1 (1979) – Added more accurate current expansions. numerical Green's function allows modifying without repeating whole calculation NEC-3 (1985) – Buried wires NEC-4 (1992) – Improved accuracy for stepped-radius wires and electrically-small segments. improved error detection Zeland IE3D (1992) – Adaptive meshing. Harris and R. U. end caps and insulated wires. plates. South Africa 24 S. Stellenbosch. Serbia FEKO (ca 2000) – Hybrid method developed by U. thick wires NEC-2 (1981) – Sommerfield-Norton ground interaction for wire structures above lossy ground. F. multiple wire junctions. Djordjevic. B. Kolundzija. Jakobus at EMSS. Burke at MBAssociates. catenaryshaped wires. Andreasen. Jian-Xiong Zheng.Principle MoM Computer Codes BRACT & ANTBRACT – Developed late 1960’s at MBAssociates. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 2008 .R. San Ramon WIRA – Developed early 1970’s by M.D. Tanner at TCI AMP/AMP2 – Developed mid 1970’s by G. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Company in Fremont.M. Belgrade. CA WIPL-D (ca 2000) – Advanced MoM for wires. and dielectrics based on work of A.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The Development of NEC 25 S. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 .D. CA October 17-19.

Cebik.B. Stearns. CA October 17-19.L. 2008 .D. 1939-2008 Brought the joy of antenna modeling to Amateur Radio 26 S. W4RNL. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

2008 .D. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.EZNEC 27 S.

gov/technology/software/documents/NEC. Stearns. CA October 17-19.3 & v.eznec.llnl.5 $140 EZNEC Pro/2 v. W7EL Now in version 5.5 $90 EZNEC+ v.com/ Developed by Roy Lewallen.5 $650 (sold only to NEC-4 licensees) EZNEC includes either the NEC-2 or NEC-4 engines NEC-4 license for qualified US academic and noncommercial users can be obtained from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for $300.pdf 28 S. This probably includes you! Form at: https://ipo. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.EZNEC http://www.0 Six products available EZNEC v.D.5 demo program $0 (free) EZNEC-ARRL v. 2008 . San Ramon.4 $45 (on ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) EZNEC v.5 $500 EZNEC Pro/4 v.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon. CA October 17-19. Stearns.Key Parts of EZNEC Specifying the antenna model Wire geometry (including radials) Excitation sources Wire loads Transmission lines Ground type and parameters Frequency or sweep range Specifying the desired outputs Radiation pattern crossection at a given frequency Gain in a specific direction Pattern beamwidth Front-to-back ratio Front-to-rear ratio Impedance SWR Output data files for other programs 29 S.D.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.EZNEC Main Screen and Control Panel “Model contains loss” warning 30 S. Stearns. San Ramon.D. 2008 .

CA October 17-19. y1. z1) Diameter = AWG #12 No.Wires and Segments Each wire in an antenna is defined by Location (coordinates) of both ends Diameter of wire Number of segments (all equal in length) Material or conductivity (x1. z2) 31 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. 2008 . Stearns. segments = 7 Copper σ = 58 MS/m (x2. y2. San Ramon.

2008 . Stearns.D.Wire Table for UHF Discone Antenna Steve Stearns. San Ramon. K6OIK. “All About the Discone Antenna.” QEX. Jan/Feb 2007 32 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

View Antenna Steve Stearns. “All About the Discone Antenna. K6OIK.” QEX. Jan/Feb 2007 33 S. Stearns. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .D. CA October 17-19.

Discone SWR and Impedance Referenced to 75Ω
UHF TV band highlighted blue 470 to 710 MHz

Marker at 460 MHz 1. 2. 3. 4. Setup a frequency sweep 100 MHz to 1 GHz Write impedance data to MicroSmith .gam output file Use Word to reformat .gam to Ansoft .flp file format Import to Serenade SV project and design matching network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Improvement After Stub Matching Network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

EZNEC Gain Patterns of Discone at 470 MHz

36

S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 .D.Tips for Getting Better Accuracy from NEC-2 Segment length to wavelength rule Segment length < λ / 20 Segment length to diameter rule Segment length > 2 × diameter Equal segment length rule All segments in a model have equal length Never connect long segments to short segments Acute angle junction rule Junction angles or segment lengths large enough that middle 1/3 of joined segments don’t interpenetrate Segment alignment rule for parallel wires Closely spaced parallel and near parallel wires have their segments aligned (paired) Wires near ground All wires must be least two diameters above ground Wires cannot touch ground 37 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

they are in series A voltage sources and load can be assigned to a segment when it is desired to simulate the Thevenin equivalent of a real generator – needed for mutual impedance effects in phased array feeds A “split-feed” consists of putting two half-voltage sources in adjacent segments to simulates a source at the junction between the segments 38 S.D.Excitation Sources Ideal voltage and current sources can be inserted in any segment Sources are used to excite a feedpoint Most antennas have a single feedpoint A unit current source of 1 + j0 amperes generally works well Phased arrays with multiple antenna feedpoints can be driven with a separate current sources at each feedpoint or with a single source driving a feed network If a segment contains both source and load. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon. CA October 17-19. Stearns.

non-radiating point loads can be inserted in any segment If a segment contains both source and load. they are in series Loads are used to model coils. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. traps. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. and internally to NEC. Stearns. wire conductivity (ohmic loss) Load types available are: Constant impedance R + jX Series RLC network Parallel RLC network Trap network Laplace impedance positive-real rational function up to 5th degree P( jω ) a5 ( jω ) 5 + a4 ( jω ) 4 + a3 ( jω )3 + a2 ( jω ) 2 + a1 ( jω ) + a0 = Z( f ) = Q( jω ) b5 ( jω ) 5 + b4 ( jω ) 4 + b3 ( jω ) 3 + b2 ( jω ) 2 + b1 ( jω ) + b0 39 S. 2008 .D.Wire Loads Ideal.

San Ramon.B.4 and above claim to do insulated wires but use NEC-2 EZNEC Pro/4 v. buried radials NEC-2 has no capability for dielectrics NEC-3 and NEC-4 handle dielectrics by accurate methods NEC-3 handles wires in semi-infinite dielectric media. Cebik compared several ad hoc approximations for insulated wire (Note 83) EZNEC v. 2008 . Stearns. and WIPL-D handle dielectrics accurately by surface and volume equivalence principles L. twin-lead J-poles. e.g. CA October 17-19. e. polyrod antennas. twin-lead folded dipoles. FEKO. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Dielectrics and Wire Insulation Dielectrics occur in antennas in bulk form or insulated wires. buried radials NEC-4 handles insulated wires by accurate methods Newer professional codes such as IE3D.g.D.5 uses the accurate NEC-4 dielectric capability 40 S. Butternut radials.

June 1984 Larger effective radius with extra distributed inductance to offset ⎛b⎞ a' = a × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ε ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ <b μ0 ⎛ a' ⎞ −7 ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎛ b ⎞ L = ln⎜ ⎟ = 2×10 ⎜ ⎜ ε ⎟ln⎜ a ⎟ ⎟ 2π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Equations are different from those of L. 11. San Ramon. Balmain.. vol. 2008 . Richmond and E. vol. 3. “Wire Antennas Coated with Magnetically and Electrically Lossy Material. or D. Newman. pt. Federov UA3AVR 41 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.B. A. Jan. CA October 17-19. vol. “Dielectric Coated Wire Antennas. no.D. H.Insulated Wires Done Right ! Rigorous theory J. 13-20. Cebik W4RNL. Popovic and A. 437445. Yurkov RA9MB. 1976 J. 131. 1. pp. pp.Y.H. no.H. “Generalisation of the Concept of Equivalent Radius of Thin Cylindrical Antennas. May-June 1979 Good quasistatic approximation B.” Radio Science. pp.G.P.” Radio Science. no. Stearns.” IEE Proc. Nesic. 3. 14. 153-158.D. Lee and K.

D.Five Ground Types and Their Restrictions Free space Perfect ground A lossless perfect electrically conducting (PEC) ground plane. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. but switches to dielectric ground for far-field pattern calculation – Hence no ground losses – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/5 above ground – Vertical wires may touch ground 42 S. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 .e. i. CA October 17-19. a flat mirror Wires may touch ground Good for turning off ground losses to evaluate the ground losses of real ground Real grounds High-accuracy (Sommerfeld-Norton) ground – Most accurate and computationally expensive ground type – Best method for low horizontal wires down to λ/200 above ground – Wires may not touch ground Fast ground – Uses complex reflection coefficient method – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/10 above ground – Wires may not touch ground MININEC ground – Hybrid (compromise) calculation designed for early PCs – Assumes perfect ground for calculating currents.

D.030 0. σ = 5 mS/m and εr = 13 At HF frequencies.0075 0. dry Poor: rocky.002 0.001 0. mountainous Average: pastoral. rich. εr has more influence than σ. CA .002 0. rich soil. so don’t worry about the precise value of σ (stations near salt water excepted). marshy. central US Fresh water Salt water 43 S.001 0.Ground Parameters Ground is specified by two numbers: conductivity σ and dielectric constant εr For “average” ground. K6OIK σ 0.005 0.001 5 εr 3 5 10 13 13 13 12 14 20 80 80 October 17-19. heavy clay Pastoral: medium hills and forest Flat. Concentrate on getting a good estimate of εr Ground Characteristics Extremely poor: cities.006 0. US Midwest Very good: pastoral. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. densely wooded Pastoral. Stearns. industrial Sandy.010 0. San Ramon. high buildings Very poor: cities.

General Caveats Regarding Antenna Modeling NEC is “blind” to current modes – computes total current. Stearns. but NEC-4 and EZNEC Pro/4 work okay Twin lead folded dipole Twin lead J-pole Butternut radials 44 S.” total current is “phenomena” Antennas that rely on interacting modes do not scale if λ/λg or vf changes Insulation on wires affects common and differential current modes differently. not resolved into common and differential current modes Current modes are “noumena. Such antenna designs do not frequency scale easily. Antennas made of insulated wire cannot be analyzed by NEC-2.D. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .

CA October 17-19.4nec2 45 S. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. San Ramon.D.

CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.ict. Stearns.000 segments but can be increased by to any number by recompiling the NEC-2 or NEC-4 source codes Two versions 4nec2 – limited to machine memory 4nec2X – uses virtual memory for bigger problems Has 3D graphics and two optimizers Gradient descent optimizer Genetic optimizer Permits writing NEC script. Netherlands Runs under Windows 2000 and XP Includes standard EZNEC models as .nl/~arivoors/ A free full-featured GUI for NEC-2 and NEC-4 Written and supported by Arie Voors.nec files Comes with NEC-2 executables but can use NEC-4 executables Comes configured for up to 11. 2008 . thereby giving access to all NEC-2 and NEC-4 commands 46 S.D. San Ramon.4nec2 http://home.

D. San Ramon.4nec2 Wire-Grid Models of Boeing 747 and Automobile 47 S. Stearns. 2008 . CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

CA October 17-19.D. San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 .4nec2 Screen Displays Main screen Geometry screen Edit screen Wire tab 48 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 .4nec2 3D Pattern of Antenna on 747 – Vert Pol 49 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon.

Plates.WIPL-D Wires. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. 2008 .D. and Dielectrics 50 S. San Ramon.

optimizer Polynomial basis functions and curved bilinear quadrilateral surface meshing give high accuracy with small computation Meshed surfaces appear flat but are really curved Lacks infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground. CA October 17-19.wipl-d. e.0 Capabilities include: lossy conductors. near and farfield calculations. Serbia (former Yugoslavia) Handles both 3D antennas and microwave circuits Method is MoM/SIE. but has work-around Two limited versions of interest to Radio Amateurs WIPL-D Demo – Free download from http://www. San Ramon. 2008 . Stearns.D. ISBN 1580539653 ($399).com/ Originated at University of Belgrade.WIPL-D http://www.exe file after installation 51 S.com/ WIPL-D Lite – More capable version from Artech House.g. Contact WIPL-D for replacement “bug-free” . dielectric and magnetic materials.wipl-d. surface equivalence principle Fast multipole method (FMM) added to new version 7. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. 2008 . CA October 17-19. San Ramon.WIPL-D Models of Single and 4x4 Array of Polyrods 52 S. Stearns.

San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 .D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.WIPL-D Model of Fighter Plane 53 S.

Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 .FEKO 54 S.D.

info/sales 55 S.FEKO http://www.info/ Developed and sold by EM Software & Systems (EMSS). San Ramon. FMM. dielectric and magnetic materials. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. FEM. 2008 . South Africa Switches automatically among multiple “engines” like a Toyota Prius Main method is MoM/SIE. hence the need for multiple engines Has infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground Limited LITE version of interest to Radio Amateurs FEKO LITE – Free download from http://www.D.feko. near and farfield calculations.feko. Stearns. optimizer Curved surfaces are approximated by many flat triangles Triangle surface meshing and low-order basis functions give heavy computation burden. but has MoM/VIE. CA October 17-19. and several optics approximations Capabilities similar to WIPL-D: lossy conductors.

D.FEKO Model of Global Hawk (RQ-4A) 56 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 .

2008 . Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.FEKO Pattern of Horn Antenna in Wing Pod 57 S.

San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.D.Advanced Applications Terrain Analysis by MoM Meshing Silicon Valley A Rigorous Alternative to Ray Tracing 58 S. Stearns. 2008 .

D. CA October 17-19. 2008 .Earth Terrain Looking Down Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road Surface meshed terrain of Saratoga Color indicates computed earth currents Zoom to see current direction arrows 59 S. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

Computer Used For Antenna Design and Electromagnetic Systems Analysis Description Processors Memory Disk storage Compute speed 6 Xi NetRAIDer network servers 12 AMD Opteron 64-bit 96 Gbytes 12 Tbytes > 53 GFLOPs/sec 60 S. Stearns. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 2008 .D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

D.150 61 S.54 52. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.834 38. K6OIK Triangles 3. M em ory U s ed 50 40 KiloTriangles 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 Frequency (MHz) 6 8 Hours Memory GB Frequency (kHz) 1. Stearns. CA .38 October 17-19.928 12.900 3.717 Hours 0.125 1.53 5. R un Tim e . San Ramon.48 9.750 7.1 Memory (GB) 0.Required Computation 60 K triangle s.

Polarization = Horizontal North South Earth’s Contribution S. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.Ground Currents 7. 2008 62 .15 MHz Antenna Height = 50 m.D. CA October 17-19.

D. Stearns. KI6BDR ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 2008 .3D Antenna Pattern Frequency = 7.15 MHz Antenna type = 3 element Yagi Antenna height = 164 ft (50 m) Antenna polarization = horizontal Total field strength V+H shown North South 63 S. K6OIK Courtesy of Keith Snyder.

The Next Step – Modeling the Landscape 64 S. San Ramon. 2008 . CA October 17-19.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. 2008 .Landscaping Details Models of trees Details of leaves and branches Courtesy of WIPL-D 65 S.D. CA October 17-19. Stearns.

com Excel/Visual Basic program. CA October 17-19.ac6la.scitechpublishing. and 4nec2 on autopilot for making a series of runs Inexpensive alternative to a real optimizer Doesn’t work with EZNEC-ARRL Temporarily unavailable 66 S.com/ $149 from Amazon.Other Useful Antenna Software winSMITH 2. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. low cost but currently unavailable Puts NEC. 2008 .0 by Agilent (formerly Eagleware) ISBN 1884932908 $127 from SciTech Publishing http://www. San Ramon.com For interactive design of ladder networks for impedance matching Excellent tool for learning to use the Smith chart Grossly overpriced MultiNEC by Dan Maguire. http://www. EZNEC.D. AC6LA.

136-149. pp. “Electrical Oscillations in Wires. Field Computation by Moment Methods. IV. Stearns.. “On the Integral Equations of Thin Wire Antennas. 1914. 1967. ser. vol. Kantorovich and G. vol. Harrington. (English translation: Pergamon. R. vol. Feb. May 1965. 1959.D. Akilov. CA October 17-19. vol.P. Antennas Propagat. San Ramon..References Current distribution in a wire H.” Vestnik Inzhenerov i Tekhnikov. Upsaliensis. Harrington. 2008 . 897-908. Funktsional’nyj Analiz v Normirovannykh Prostranstvakh (Functional Analysis in Normed Spaces). Proc. Tech. Galerkin. 55. Stroitel’naia Mekhanika Korablia (Structural Mechanics of Shipbuilding). “Matrix Methods for Field Problems. 4. no. TT-63-18924) Method of Moments L. pp. no. B. no.V. IEEE.K. 13. 3. Mei. pp.” Proc. 1964) R. 1-44. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. (English translation: NTIS Rept. pp. 1968. 9.F. Rept. 1897.” Cambridge Phil.C. “Series Solution of Some Problems of Elastic Equilibrium of Rods and Plates.G.G. 2. pp.F.” Nova Acta Regiae Soc. vol. Soc. “Theoretical Investigations into the Transmitting and Receiving Qualities of Antennae. K. 1915. 67 S..” IEEE Trans. Bubnov and Galerkin methods I. Macmillan. Bubnov. 374-378. 1938. 11. Erik Hallen. 19. Pocklington. Sci. 324-332.

4. A Surface Patch Model for Polygonal Plates.P. 2008 . Thiele.L. “Calculation of the Current Distribution on a Thin Linear Antenna. et al. Tulyathan. ISBN 0879422769. pp. M. pp 123-129. Tech Rept. vol.).. pp.H. Miller. 18. K. Aug. vol.A.” Proc.. vol. 1990. Investigation of General Wire Antennas.M. vol.H.” URSI meeting. A. Moment Methods in Antennas and Scattering. Neureuther. “Limitations of Wire-Grid Modeling of a Closed Surface. Artech House. Compat. Monopole Antennas. 3.G. Tanner and M. Newman (eds. Hansen (ed.K. pp.. E. 1965. San Ramon. R.C. “Comparison of Numerical Methods for Thin Wire Antennas.L.” IEEE Trans.S. 53. Richmond. Castillo. CRC. also IEEE Trans. 648-649. 1976. July 1982. 23. 588-593. Menlo Park. and E. Aug. ISBN 0824704967. no. 1992. vol. no.H. Weiner. Antennas Propagat. Antennas Propagat.C. 796-804. DTIC AD0819198. Lee. IEEE. G. “Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problems. 1981. Richmond.” IEEE Trans. L. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. E.R.. vol.. Andreasen and R. CA. Stearns.” IEEE Trans. 376-382. ISBN 0890064660. DTIC ADA119682. IEEE Press. Final Rept. 53-61.D.” IEEE Spectrum. 30.). and M. no. 9. Computational Electromagnetics: Frequency-Domain Method of Moments. pp. 3. Tanner. 4. 2003. no.References 2 Key papers in antenna modeling theory J.N. 1967. 5. R. August 1967. May 1975. CA October 17-19. Sept. 1966. TRG Division of CDC. 68 S. 14.H. Medgyesi-Mitschang.H. Andreasen. M.. “Digital Computer Solutions of the Rigorous Equations for Scattering Problems. Marin and J. “Sinusoidal Reaction Formulation For Radiation and Scattering from Conducting Surfaces.G. 8. Gilreath. no. Newman and P.. N. pp. Electromag. no. Wang and J. L. Apr. Sept. Antennas Propagat. Fall 1968.

2001.J. Burke.B. ARRL Antenna Modeling Course. 40-44.” 4-part article. 2000. 2002. 21st ed. 4-1 to 4-23. 34-38.References 3 NEC G. ARRL. pp. Jan. “The Numerical/Electromagnetics Code (NEC-3). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Breakall. pp. CA October 17-19. 2000. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. ARRL Antenna Book. pp. Burke and A. Poggio. Part II: Program Description – Code. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC2). Nov.D. Numerical Electromagnetics Code – NEC-4. Part I: Program Description – Theory. Dec. G. ISBN 0872598721. Part III: User’s Guide.K. download current version from http://www. Jan. QST.. Burke. and E. L. 1981. Cebik. Cebik.J. Miller. Method of Moments. EZNEC EZNEC User Manual. J. 2007. pp.B.com L. Jan. Part II: Program Description – Theory. 69 S. W4RNL.J.J. 1985.” EMC Symp. Stearns. 31-35. Zurich. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Feb. and pp. 2008 . March 5-7. ARRL.K. 1992. 2001.eznec.. San Ramon. G. W4RNL. 44-48. ISBN 0872599876. “A Beginners Guide to Modeling with NEC.

D.” ACES Newsletter. ISBN 0890063605. FEKO U.K. WIPL-D B. Stearns.” IEEE MTT-S Int’l Symp.S. 1994. vol. Cambridge University Press. Artech House. 2. B. Kolundzija.B. no.M. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. D. Djordjevic. “Review of Advanced Electromagnetic Modeling Techniques in the Computer Code FEKO based on the Method of Moments with Hybrid Extensions. Artech House. 18. Kolundzija and A. J. Jakobus. ISBN 1580539653. Ognjanovic.. Sakar. 70 S. 2005.M.nl/~arivoors/ Zeland IE3D J-X. San Ramon. vol. 373376. and T. CA October 17-19. 2006.References 4 4nec2 http://home. “A General Purpose 3D Electromagnetic Simulation and Optimization Package – IE3D. 2002. May 23-27. July 2003. Zheng. Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering. Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures. WIPL-D Microwave: Circuit And 3D EM Simulation For RF & Microwave Applications – Software and User's Manual. ISBN 0521838592.1.R. Davidson. 2008 .ict. pp.

Hunt.D. CA October 17-19. 1991. The Maxwellians. Stearns. ISBN 0801482348 71 S. San Ramon.Good Reading Bruce J. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Cornell University Press. 2008 .

Stearns..A. 1952-2000 (2 DVDs). 2005. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill. Henry Jasik editor. Volakis editor. C. JD0351. R.Favorite Antenna Books Books for antenna engineers and students Antenna Engineering Handbook. Balanis. J..L. Marhefka. 2006.us/books/RadioAntennaEngineering Antenna research papers IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. First published in 1950. draft textbook online at http://www. Laport. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.ece.C.A. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. Electrically Small. 1952. Radio Antenna Engineering. Wiley. http://snulbug. First published in 1961. S.ca..D. 72 S. First published in 1982 by Harper & Row. J. 3rd ed. JD0304.J. Superdirective.mtview. 2001-2003 (1 DVD). Kraus and R. ISBN 0071475745. 2001. 2008 .rutgers.J. Orfanidis. Hansen. McGraw-Hill. Antenna Theory. CA October 17-19.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/ E. ISBN 047166782X. Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas. Antennas. 2001-2006 (1 DVD). and Superconducting Antennas. JD0301. Wiley. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0471782556. San Ramon. 3rd ed. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. 2007. ISBN 0072321032.

ARRL Antenna Compendium series – Volumes 1 through 7 ARRL Antenna Classics series – six titles 73 S. San Ramon. Stearns. CQ Communications. Devoldere (ON4UN). J. ISBN 0872599876. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . HF Antennas for All Locations. 2003.Favorite Antenna Books continued Books for radio amateurs ARRL Antenna Book. Radio Society of Great Britain. American Radio Relay League.. 2nd ed.D. 2007. L. American Radio Relay League.. Sevick (W2FMI). Ian Poole (G3YWX) editor.. ISBN 1872309151. ISBN 0872599140. 2005. Moxon (G6XN). ISBN 1905086040. ON4UN’s Low-Band Dxing. 1983. CA October 17-19. Practical Wire Antennas 2. 21st ed. 2005. ISBN 0943016223. Radio Society of Great Britain. Dean Straw (N6BV) editor. The Short Vertical Antenna and Ground Radial. 4th ed. J.

The End This presentation will be archived at http://www.k6ya. CA October 17-19. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.fars. San Ramon.org/docs/k6oik 74 S. Stearns.D.

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