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This volume is one of a series of six studies to be published by Greenwood Press under the auspices of the Rural Sociological Society. Professor James J. Zuiches, of Washington State University, is the series editor. ‘The topics covered by this series include community; patural resources, structure of agriculture, diffusion of innovations, population, and the history and social context of rural sociological research, Published Rural Sociology and the Environment Donald &. Field and William R. Burch, Jr. Population and Community in Rural America Lorraine Garkovich itles ee THE SOCIOLOGY OF AGRICULTURE eee FREDERICK H. BUTTEL, OLAF F. LARSON, & GILBERT W. GILLESPIE JR. UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE RURAL SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY Greenwood Press ‘ew York © Westport, Connecticut * London ‘Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ‘ute, Fredrick H. ‘The sociology of agriculture / Frederick H. Bute, Ola F. Larson, and Gilbert W. Gillespie J, + under the anspices of the Rural Sociological Society. Bom. (Contribution in sociology, ISSN 6084-9278 ; no a8) Includes bibliographical references ISBN 0-313-26444-0 (lib. bdg. = alk psper) 1. Agzicutore—Socil aspects. 2. Sociology, Rural. 1, Larson, Olaf. ML. Gillespie, Gilbert W. I Rural Sociological Society IV. Tide, V, Series, HD1S01.B88 1990 3063'49-—de20 9.17099 ciish Library Cataloguing in Publication Deta is available. Copyright ©1990 by the Rural Sociological Society Allright reserved, No portion of this book may be produced, by any processor technique, withoot the ‘xpress writen consent of the publisher Library of Congress Catalog Cacd Number: 89-17089 ISBN: 0-313-26444-9 ISSN: 0086-9278 First Published in 1990 Greenwood Press ine 88 Post Rond West, Westport, Connecticut 06881 Printed in the United States of America ‘The paper used in his book complies withthe Permanent Paper Standard esd by the National Incemation Standards Organization (739.48-1584). 1098765432 ‘spies Copyright Acknowledgments ‘The publisher and authors ar grateful tothe following for granting us of ther material: ‘Table 1 is produced by permission ftom Richard D. Rodel etal. (el. Change in Rural America, St Louis, 1978, The C. V. Mosby Co, Figure 1 is redrawn from a figure by Parick H. Mooney, “Toward a class analysis of mmidwestem agriculture,” Rural Sociology 48, no, 4 (Winter 1983). By permission of Rural Sociology. Frederick H, Butel, “The sociology of agicltare: current conceptual status," The Rural Sociologist 9 (1989), By permission of The Rural Sociologist. Frederick H, Buel and David Goodman, "Class, ste, technology, and interational ood repimes,” Sociologia Ruralis 29,0. 2(1989)By permission of Sciolgia Rurati, Frederick H. Buitl, Stove H, Murdock, F. Lary Leisuitz, and Rite R. Hamm, “Reral sironmenis."in Advances in Fnviconment, Hekavior, and Design oF. H.Sube ant ‘G.T- Moore (New York: Plena, 1987). By peonssion of auhors and Plenum Publishing. Frente ua sig 2 ‘The Sociology of Agriculture ‘were much more like the permanent farmers than were the tempo- rary farmers. CONCLUSION ; Formostof the first five decades of the: soviology ofagriclture, this area of study was largely coterminous with the sociology rural commaries By the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, | the unity of agriculture and rural communities began to break | down, in both sociodemographic and scholarly terms, There came to be an increased frequency of studies that focused on agriculture and did so outside of the community studies tradition. As we discuss at greater length in the next chapter, one of the main factors that contributed to the differentiation between sociological re- search on agriculture and rural communities was the development of survey research methodologies and quantitative techniques. ‘These methodologies and techniques permitted researchers to focus more specifically on farmers and farm households, particu- larly from. a social psychological perspective. From this point forward studies of agriculture and rural communities would in- creasingly be conducted by separate groups of scholars. = ee aS NR PON ee eran eran amet Rural Sociological Research on the Structure of Agriculture, the Early 1950s to the Early 1970s: Behaviorism and the Social Psychology of Agricultural Activities eee INTRODUCTION Rural sociology in a sense came of age in the period of concern in this chapter. Whereas U.S. sociology prior to the Korean War had been largely devoted to Chicago School-style human ecology and, increasingly, to “grand theory” (a Ia Parsons, 1937, 1951), rural sociology had been largely detached from these major themes Much of pre-1950s rural sociology had largely eschewed'an ex. plicit theoretical orientation (other than elaborating rural-urban Continuum themes derived froma portion of the work of Toennies, as, for example, in the work of Sorokin and Zimmerman, 1929) And since human ecology had been almostexclusively focused on metropolitan communities (until the publication of Hawley’s {1950} Human Ecology), there was perceived to be little of relevance in human ecology for understanding rural community dynamics. ‘This was all to change very dramatically beginning in the late 1940s and carly 1950s. During this time there emerged a new cohort of rural sociologists—principally graduates of Cornell Uni- ‘Yersity, the universities of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, and Kentucky, and lowa State University —trained in social psychol- gy. This cohort of young rural sociologists would retain the social