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The 4MOST Issue:

Overview and Information for the Call for Proposals


Scientific Operations and Survey Strategy Plan
4MOST Consortium Surveys
The Messenger
No. 175 – Quarter 1 | 2019
ESO, the European Southern Observa- Contents
tory, is the foremost intergovernmental
astronomy organisation in Europe. It is 4MOST
supported by 16 Member States: Austria, de Jong R. S. et al. – 4MOST: Project overview and information for the
­Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, First Call for Proposals 3
France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Walcher C. J. et al. – 4MOST Scientific Operations 12
the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Guiglion G. et al. – 4MOST Survey Strategy Plan 17
Sweden, Switzerland and the United
Kingdom. ESO’s programme is focussed Surveys
on the design, construction and opera- Helmi A. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 1:
tion of powerful ground-based observing The Milky Way Halo Low-Resolution Survey 23
­facilities. ESO operates three observato- Christlieb N. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 2:
ries in Chile: at La Silla, at P
­ aranal, site of The Milky Way Halo High-Resolution Survey 26
the Very Large Telescope, and at Llano Chappini C. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 3:
de Chajnantor. ESO is the European Milky Way Disc and Bulge Low-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-LR) 30
­partner in the Atacama Large Millimeter/ Bensby T. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 4:
submillimeter Array (ALMA). Currently Milky Way Disc and Bulge High-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-HR) 35
ESO is engaged in the construction of the Finoguenov A. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 5:
Extremely Large ­Telescope. eROSITA Galaxy Cluster Redshift Survey 39
Merloni A. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 6: Active Galactic Nuclei 42
The Messenger is published, in hardcopy Driver S. P. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 7:
and electronic form, four times a year: in Wide-Area VISTA Extragalactic Survey (WAVES) 46
March, June, September and December. Richard J. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 8:
ESO produces and distributes a wide Cosmology Redshift Survey (CRS) 50
variety of media ­connected to its activi- Cioni M.-R. L. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 9:
ties. For further information, including One Thousand and One Magellanic Fields (1001MC) 54
postal subscription to The Messenger, Swann E. et al. – 4MOST Consortium Survey 10:
contact the ESO education and Public The Time-Domain Extragalactic Survey (TiDES) 58
Outreach Department at:
Astronomical News
ESO Headquarters ESO Phase 1 Project Team – The New ESO Phase 1 System 63
Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2 Sedaghati E., Miotello A. – Fellows at ESO 63
85748 Garching bei München, Germany Zhang Z.-Y. – External Fellows at ESO 66
Phone +498932006-0 Personnel Movements 67
information@eso.org
Annual Index 2018 (Nos. 171–174) 69
The Messenger:
Editors: Gaitee A. J. Hussain,
Anna ­Miotello; Layout, ­Typesetting:
Jutta Boxheimer, Mafalda Martins,
Lorenzo Benassi; Graphics: Lorenzo
Benassi; Design, ­Production: Jutta
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Unless otherwise indicated, all images in


The Messenger are courtesy of ESO,
except authored contributions which are
courtesy of the respective authors.
Front cover: The Visible and Infrared
­Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA)
© ESO 2019
seen here will be converted to the 4-metre
ISSN 0722-6691 Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope
(4MOST) with operations due to start in
2022. Credit: ESO/A. Tudorică

2 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


4MOST DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5117

4MOST: Project overview and information for the


First Call for Proposals

Roelof S. de Jong 1, a Andrew Casey 30 Eduardo Gonzalez-Solares 4


Oscar Agertz 2 Isabella Cesarini1 Stefan Gottloeber 1
Alex Agudo Berbel 3 Gabriele Cescutti 33 Andrew Gould 45, 7
James Aird 4 Diane Chapuis 28 Eva K. Grebel 24
David A. Alexander 5 Cristina Chiappini 1 Alain Gueguen 3
Anish Amarsi 6 Michael Childress 34 Guillaume Guiglion 1
Friedrich Anders 1 Norbert Christlieb 18 Martin Haehnelt 4
Rene Andrae 7 Ross Church 2 Thomas Hahn 1
Behzad Ansarinejad 5 Maria-Rosa L. Cioni 1 Camilla J. Hansen 7, 46
Wolfgang Ansorge 8 Michelle Cluver 22 Henrik Hartman 2
Pierre Antilogus 9 Matthew Colless 6 Katja Hauptner 10
Heiko Anwand-Heerwart 10 Thomas Collett 35 Keith Hawkins 4
Anke Arentsen 1 Johan Comparat 3 Dionne Haynes 1
Anna Arnadottir 2 Andrew Cooper 5 Roger Haynes 1
Martin Asplund 6 Warrick Couch 36, 22 Ulrike Heiter 16
Matt Auger 4 Frederic Courbin 37 Amina Helmi 14
Nicolas Azais 1, 11 Scott Croom 23 Cesar Hernandez Aguayo 5
Dietrich Baade 12 Darren Croton 22 Paul Hewett 4
Gabriella Baker 13 Eric Daguisé 28 Samuel Hinton 39
Sufyan Baker 13 Gavin Dalton 38 David Hobbs 2
Eduardo Balbinot 14 Luke J. M. Davies 19 Sebastian Hoenig 34
Ivan K. Baldry 15 Tamara Davis 39 David Hofman 17
Manda Banerji 4 Patrick de Laverny 40 Isobel Hook 32
Samuel Barden 1 Alis Deason 5 Joshua Hopgood 12
Paul Barklem 16 Frank Dionies 1 Andrew Hopkins 13
Eléonore Barthélémy-Mazot 17 Karen Disseau 28 Anna Hourihane 4
Chiara Battistini 18 Peter Doel 29 Louise Howes 2
Svend Bauer 1 Daniel Döscher 1 Cullan Howlett 19
Cameron P. M. Bell 1 Simon P. Driver 19 Tristan Huet 1
Olga Bellido-Tirado 1 Tom Dwelly 3 Mike Irwin 4
Sabine Bellstedt 19 Dominique Eckert 3 Olaf Iwert 12
Vasily Belokurov 4 Alastair Edge 5 Pascale Jablonka 37
Thomas Bensby 2 Bengt Edvardsson 16 Thomas Jahn 1
Maria Bergemann 7 Dalal El Youssoufi 1 Knud Jahnke 7
Joachim M. Bestenlehner 20 Ahmed Elhaddad 18 Aurélien Jarno 28
Richard Bielby 5 Harry Enke 1 Shoko Jin 14
Maciej Bilicki 21 Ghazaleh Erfanianfar 3 Paula Jofre 4
Chris Blake 22 Tony Farrell 13 Diana Johl 1
Joss Bland-Hawthorn 23 Thomas Fechner 1 Damien Jones 47
Corrado Boeche 24 Carmen Feiz 18 Henrik Jönsson 2
Wilfried Boland 25, 21 Sofia Feltzing 2 Carola Jordan 7
Thomas Boller 3 Ignacio Ferreras 29 Iva Karovicova 18
Sebastien Bongard 9 Dietrich Feuerstein 1 Arman Khalatyan 1
Angela Bongiorno 26 Diane Feuillet 7 Andreas Kelz 1
Piercarlo Bonifacio 27 Alexis Finoguenov 3, 41 Robert Kennicutt 4
Didier Boudon 28 Dominic Ford 2 David King 4
David Brooks 29 Sotiria Fotopoulou 5 Francisco Kitaura 48
Michael J. I. Brown 30 Morgan Fouesneau 7 Jochen Klar 1
Rebecca Brown 13 Carlos Frenk 5 Urs Klauser 13
Marcus Brüggen 31 Steffen Frey 1 Jean-Paul Kneib 37
Joar Brynnel 1 Wolfgang Gaessler 7 Andreas Koch 24
Jurek Brzeski 13 Stephan Geier 42 Sergey Koposov 4
Thomas Buchert 28 Nicola Gentile Fusillo 43 Georges Kordopatis 40
Peter Buschkamp 18 Ortwin Gerhard 3 Andreas Korn 16
Elisabetta Caffau 27 Tommaso Giannantonio 4 Johan Kosmalski 12, 28
Patrick Caillier 28 Domenico Giannone 1 Rubina Kotak 49, 50
Jonathan Carrick 32 Brad Gibson 44 Mikhail Kovalev 7
Luca Casagrande 6 Peter Gillingham 13 Kathryn Kreckel 7
Scott Case 13 Carlos González-Fernández 4 Yevgen Kripak 13

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 3


4MOST de Jong R. S. et al., 4MOST: Project overview

Mirko Krumpe 1 Ian Parry 4 Robert Smith 51


Koen Kuijken 21 Dan Phillips 1 Jenny Sorce 28, 1
Andrea Kunder 1 Annalisa Pillepich 7 Lee Spitler 52
Iryna Kushniruk 2 Laurent Pinard 17 Else Starkenburg 1
Man I Lam 1 Jeff Pirard 12 Matthias Steinmetz 1
Georg Lamer 1 Nikolai Piskunov 16 Ingo Stilz 18
Florence Laurent 28 Volker Plank 1 Jesper Storm 1
Jon Lawrence 13 Dennis Plüschke 1 Mark Sullivan 34
Michael Lehmitz 7 Estelle Pons 4 William Sutherland 62
Bertrand Lemasle 24 Paola Popesso 56 Elizabeth Swann 35
James Lewis 4 Chris Power 19 Amélie Tamone 37
Baojiu Li 5 Johan Pragt 55 Edward N. Taylor 22
Chris Lidman 36, 6 Alexander Pramskiy 18 Julien Teillon 17
Karin Lind 16 Dan Pryer 51 Elmo Tempel 63, 1
Jochen Liske 31 Marco Quattri 12 Rik ter Horst 55
Jean-Louis Lizon 12 Anna Barbara de Andrade Queiroz1 Wing-Fai Thi 3
Jon Loveday 51 Andreas Quirrenbach 18 Eline Tolstoy 14
Hans-Günter Ludwig 18 Swara Rahurkar 1 Scott Trager 14
Richard M. McDermid 52 Anand Raichoor 37 Gregor Traven 2
Kate Maguire 49 Sofia Ramstedt 16 Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay 43
Vincenzo Mainieri 12 Arne Rau 3 Laurence Tresse 28
Slavko Mali 13 Alejandra Recio-Blanco 40 Marica Valentini 1
Holger Mandel 18 Roland Reiss 12 Rien van de Weygaert 14
Kaisey Mandel 4 Florent Renaud 2 Mario van den Ancker 12
Liz Mannering 36, 19 Yves Revaz 37 Jovan Veljanoski 14
Sarah Martell 53 Petra Rhode 10 Sudharshan Venkatesan 13
David Martinez Delgado 24 Johan Richard 28 Lukas Wagner 1
Gal Matijevic 1 Amon David Richter 10 Karl Wagner 18
Helen McGregor 13 Hans-Walter Rix 7 C. Jakob Walcher 1
Richard McMahon 4 Aaron S. G. Robotham 19 Lew Waller 13
Paul McMillan 2 Ronald Roelfsema 57, 55 Nicholas Walton 4
Olga Mena 54 Martino Romaniello 12 Lingyu Wang 57, 14
Andrea Merloni 3 David Rosario 5 Roland Winkler 1
Martin J. Meyer 19 Florian Rothmaier 18 Lutz Wisotzki 1
Christophe Michel 17 Boudewijn Roukema 58, 28 C. Clare Worley 4
Genoveva Micheva 1 Gregory Ruchti 2 Gabor Worseck 42
Jean-Emmanuel Migniau 28 Gero Rupprecht 12 Maosheng Xiang 7
Ivan Minchev 1 Jan Rybizki 7 Wenli Xu 64
Giacomo Monari 1 Nils Ryde 2 David Yong 6
Rolf Muller 13 Andre Saar 1 Cheng Zhao 37
David Murphy 4 Elaine Sadler 23 Jessica Zheng 13
Daniel Muthukrishna 4 Martin Sahlén 16 Florian Zscheyge 1
Kirpal Nandra 3 Mara Salvato 3 Daniel Zucker 52
Ramon Navarro 55 Benoit Sassolas 17
Melissa Ness 7 Will Saunders 13
Vijay Nichani 13 Allar Saviauk 1 1
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam
Robert Nichol 35 Luca Sbordone 59 (AIP), Germany
Harald Nicklas 10 Thomas Schmidt 1 2
Lund Observatory, Lund University,
Florian Niederhofer 1 Olivier Schnurr 1, 60 Sweden
Peder Norberg 5 Ralf-Dieter Scholz 1 3
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische
Danail Obreschkow 19 Axel Schwope 1 Physik, Garching, Germany
Seb Oliver 51 Walter Seifert 18 4
Institute of Astronomy, University of
Matt Owers 52 Tom Shanks 5 Cambridge, UK
Naveen Pai 13 Andrew Sheinis 36, 61 5
Department of Physics, Durham
Sergei Pankratow 1 Tihomir Sivov 1 ­University, UK
David Parkinson 39 Ása Skúladóttir 7 6
Research School of Astronomy &
Jens Paschke 1 Stephen Smartt 49 Astrophysics, Australian National
Robert Paterson 13 Scott Smedley 13 ­University, Canberra, Australia
Arlette Pecontal 28 Greg Smith 1

4 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


7 35
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, We introduce the 4-metre Multi-Object
Heidelberg, Germany University of Portsmouth, UK Spectroscopic Telescope (4MOST), a
8 36
RAMS-CON, Assling, Germany Australian Astronomical Observatory, new high-multiplex, wide-field spectro-
9
Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de Sydney, Australia scopic survey facility under develop-
37
hautes énergies, Paris, France L aboratoire d’astrophysique, École ment for the four-metre-class Visible
10
Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August ­Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, and Infrared Survey Telescope for
Universität Göttingen, Germany Switzerland Astronomy (VISTA) at Paranal. Its key
11 38
IRIDESCENCE, Paris, France Department of Physics, University of specifications are: a large field of view
12
ESO Oxford, UK (FoV) of 4.2 square degrees and a high
13 39
Australian Astronomical Optics — School of Mathematics and Physics, multiplex capability, with 1624 fibres
­Macquarie, Sydney, Australia University of Queensland, Brisbane, feeding two low-resolution spectro-
14
Kapteyn Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Australia graphs (R = λ/Δλ ~ 6500), and 812 fibres
40
­Groningen, the Netherlands Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, transferring light to the high-resolution
15
Astrophysics Research Institute, France spectrograph (R ~ 20 000). After a
41
­Liverpool John Moores University, UK University of Helsinki, Finland description of the instrument and its
16 42
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institut für Physik und Astronomie, expected performance, a short overview
Uppsala universitet, Sweden ­Universität Potsdam, Germany is given of its operational scheme and
17 43
L aboratoire des Matériaux Avancés, Department of Physics, University of planned 4MOST Consortium science;
Lyon, France Warwick, UK these aspects are covered in more
18 44
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität E. A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, detail in other articles in this edition of
Heidelberg/Landessternwarte, University of Hull, UK The Messenger. Finally, the processes,
45
Germany Ohio State University, Columbus, USA schedules, and policies concerning the
19 46
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Dark Cosmology Centre, Københavns selection of ESO Community Surveys
Research/University of Western Universitet, Denmark are presented, commencing with a sin-
47
­Australia, Perth, Australia Prime Optics, Eumundi, Queensland, gular opportunity to submit Letters of
20
Physics and Astronomy, University of Australia Intent for Public Surveys during the first
48
Sheffield, UK Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, five years of 4MOST operations.
21
Sterrewacht Leiden, Universiteit Leiden, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
49
the Netherlands School of Mathematics and Physics,
22
Centre for Astrophysics and Super- Queen’s University Belfast, UK 4MOST is being developed to address a
50
computing, Swinburne University of University of Turku, Finland broad range of pressing scientific ques-
51
Technology, Hawthorn, Australia University of Sussex, Brighton, UK tions in the fields of Galactic archaeology,
23 52
Sydney Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, high-energy astrophysics, galaxy evolu-
­University of Sydney, Australia Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia tion and cosmology. Its design allows
24 53
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität School of Physics, University of New tens of millions of spectra to be obtained
Heidelberg/Astronomisches Rechen-­ South Wales, Sydney, Australia via five-year surveys, even for targets
54
Institut, Germany Instituto de Física Corpuscular, ­distributed over a significant fraction of
25
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor ­Universidad de Valencia, Spain the sky. While many science cases can
55
Astronomie (NOVA), Leiden, the Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor be addressed with 4MOST, its primary
Netherlands Astronomie (NOVA), Dwingeloo, purpose is to provide the spectroscopic
26
Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, the Netherlands complements to large-area surveys com-
56
INAF, Italy Physics Department, Technische ing from key European space missions
27
GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université ­Universität München, Germany like eROSITA and the ESA Gaia, Euclid
57
PSL, CNRS, France Netherlands Institute for Space and PLATO missions, as well as from
28
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Research (SRON), Groningen, ground-based facilities like VISTA, the
Lyon, France the Netherlands VLT Survey Telescope (VST), the Dark
29 58
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Torun Centre for Astronomy (TCfA), Energy Survey (DES), the Large Synoptic
University College London, UK Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Square
30 59
School of Physics and Astronomy, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Kilometre Array (SKA).
Monash University, Melbourne, Australia Santiago, Chile
31 60
Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Cherenkov Telescope Array Observa- Multiple science cases must be carried
Hamburg, Germany tory, Bologna, Italy out simultaneously in order to efficiently
32 61
Physics Department, Lancaster CFHT, Kamuela, Hawaii, USA fill all the fibres in a high multiplex instru-
62
­University, UK School of Physics and Astronomy, ment like 4MOST. This necessitates
33
Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Queen Mary University of London, UK effective coordination between different
63
INAF, Italy Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, science teams. To enable this, the
34
School of Physics and Astronomy, Estonia 4MOST Consortium will perform Public
64
­University of Southampton, UK XU-OSE, Heidelberg, Germany Surveys using 70% of the available fibre-
hours in the first five years of operation.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 5


4MOST de Jong R. S. et al., 4MOST: Project overview

These Public Surveys are Guaranteed Table 1. 4MOST key instrument specifications.
Time Observations (GTO) that the Con- Instrument parameter Design value
sortium receives in return for building the
Field of view (hexagon) ~ 4.2 square degrees (Ø = 2.6 degrees)
facility and for supporting ESO in the
Accessible sky (zenith angle < 55 degrees) > 30 000 square degrees
operation of 4MOST. Public Surveys of
the ESO and the Chilean host country Expected on-target fibre-hours per year LRS: > 3 200 000 h yr –1, HRS > 1 600 000 h yr –1
communities will fill the other 30% of Multiplex fibre positioner 2436
available fibre-hours in the first five years Low-Resolution Spectrographs LRS (× 2)
of operation. These surveys will be cho- Resolution <R> = 6500
sen by a one-time, competitive, peer-­ Number of fibres 812 fibres
Passband 3700–9500 Å
reviewed selection process, similarly to Velocity accuracy < 1 km s –1
other ESO Calls for Public Surveys. Here, Mean sensitivity 6 × 20 min, mean seeing, 4000 Å: 20.2, 5000 Å: 20.4, 6000 Å: 20.4,
a fibre-hour is defined as one hour of new moon, S/N = 10 Å –1 (AB-magnitude) 7000 Å: 20.2, 8000 Å: 20.2, 9000 Å: 19.8
observing time, including overheads, with High-Resolution Spectrograph HRS (× 1)
one fibre; hence 4MOST offers 2436 Resolution <R> = 20 000
Number of fibres 812 fibres
fibre-hours every hour that it is observing.
Passband 3926–4355, 5160–5730, 6100–6790 Å
Velocity accuracy < 1 km s –1
Following this overview, which contains Mean sensitivity 6 × 20 min, mean seeing, 4200 Å: 15.7, 5400 Å: 15.8, 6500 Å: 15.8
information on instrument performance 80% moon, S/N = 100 Å –1 (AB-magnitude)
and on the procedures associated with Smallest target separation 15 arcseconds on any side
the use of 4MOST by the community, this # of fibres in random Ø = 2 arcminute circle ≥3
issue of The Messenger includes addi- Fibre diameter Ø = 1.45 arcseconds
tional articles on the 4MOST science
operations model, the survey plan of the
4MOST Consortium, and a description of
the ten Public Surveys that the Consor- The instrument is under construction Instrument
tium intends to carry out. Together these at a number of Consortium institutes,
articles are intended to prepare the ESO coordinated by the 4MOST Project The 4MOST instrument design was driven
community for the proposal process that Office located at the Leibniz-Institut für by the science requirements of its key
will commence in the second half of 2019. Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP). Once the Consortium Surveys. Within a 2-hour
The process will start with a one-off sub­systems are finished at the different observation 4MOST has the sensitivity to
opportunity for the submission of Letters institutes, they will all be transported to obtain redshifts of r = 22.5 magnitudes
of Intent to apply for Public Surveys to Potsdam and extensively tested there (AB) galaxies and active galactic nuclei
be executed during the first five years of as a full system before being shipped to (AGN), radial velocities of any Gaia source
4MOST operation. Paranal. At Paranal the 4MOST instru- (G < 20.5 magnitudes [Vega]), stellar
ment will be installed, tested, and com- parameters and selected key elemental
missioned on the VISTA telescope. abundances with accuracy better than
Organisation 0.15 dex of G < 18-magnitude stars, and
The operations branch is led by the abundances of up to 15 elements of
The 4MOST project is organised along Operations Development Group, con­ G < 15.5-magnitude stars. Furthermore,
three branches: sisting of the leads of the different sub- in a five-year survey 4MOST can cover
1. Instrument — responsible for the systems and working groups involved in > 17 000 square degrees at least twice
­development, construction, and com- observation planning and data-flow. It and obtain spectra of more than 20 million
missioning of the instrument hardware also contains the 4MOST Helpdesk sources with a resolution of R ~ 6500
and associated software; activities. and more than three million spectra with
2. Operations — for the planning, data a resolution of R ~ 20 000 for the typical
reduction, archiving, and publishing of The science programme is organised science cases proposed. The main instru-
the observations including the associ- into several surveys. The members of the ment parameters enabling these science
ated data-flow; survey teams are spread over all partici- requirements are summarised in Table 1.
3. Science — the branch that develops pating institutes and each team is led by
the different Surveys and is responsible one or more Survey Principal Investiga- Figure 1 provides an overview of the main
for science analysis and publication. tors (Survey PIs). Coordination between instrument subsystems. A new Wide
The instrument and operations branches all participating surveys is performed by Field Corrector (WFC) equipped with an
are mainly performed by the 4MOST the Science Coordination Board (SCB), Atmospheric Dispersion Compensator
Consortium and are jointly called the consisting of all Survey PIs. The science (ADC) that provides corrections to a
4MOST Facility. branch is overseen by two Project Scien- 55-degree zenith angle distance c ­ reates
tists, one for Galactic and one for extra- a focal surface with a 2.6-degree diameter.
galactic science, who have both a science Two Acquisition and Guiding (A&G) cam-
guidance and a managerial role. eras ensure correct pointing, while four

6 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


22 000
20 000 Blue
Calibration Wide Field
illumination Corrector 18 000 Green
16 000
Red

Spectral resolution
14 000
12 000
Metrology 10 000
cameras
8000
6000
4000

Fibre 2000
positioner 0
3500 4500 5500 6500 7500 8500 9500
Wavelength (Å)

Figure 2. Spectral resolution in the three channels of


the 4MOST High-Resolution (HRS, upper lines) and
Low-Resolution Spectrographs (LRS; lower lines).

High-Resolution 1 km s –1 accuracy on stellar radial veloci-


Spectrograph ties. The expected sensitivity is depicted
in Figure 3. The estimated observing
overheads are currently conservatively
Low-Resolution estimated to be 3.5 minutes per repoint-
Spectrographs ing of the telescope and 4.4 minutes
per science exposure for repositioning of
Figure 1. Layout of the the fibres, obtaining attached calibration
different subsystems
frames, and performing detector readout.
of 4MOST on the VISTA
telescope. We aim to reduce these overhead num-
bers in the future by executing more
Wave Front Sensing (WFS) cameras steer fibres attached to either end of the spec- exposure setup activities in parallel and
the active optics system of the telescope. trograph entrance slit. The covered wave- by reducing the number of attached
length range and resolution of the LRS night-time calibration exposures once we
The AESOP fibre positioning system and HRS spectrographs are as listed in have established the stability and calibra-
based on the tilting spine principle can, Table 1 and depicted in Figure 2. Each tion reproducibility of the full system.
within 2 minutes, simultaneously position type of spectrograph has three channels
all of the 2436 science fibres that are in fixed configurations covering three
arranged in a hexagonally shaped grid at wavelength bands, and is thermally invar- Operations
the focal surface. The accuracy of fibre iant and insulated (HRS) or temperature
positioning is expected to be better than controlled (LRS) for sta­bility. Each chan- The 4MOST operations scheme differs
0.2 arcseconds thanks to a four-camera nel is equipped with a 6 k × 6 k CCD from other ESO instrument operations
metrology system observing the fibre tips detector with low read noise (< 2.3 elec- in that it allows many different science
back-illuminated from the spectrograph. trons per read) and with high, broadband cases to be scheduled simultaneously
The tilting spine positioner has the advan- quantum efficiency. The spectra are during one observation. To accommodate
tage that each fibre has a large patrol ­sampled with about three pixels per reso- the range of exposure times required for
area; each target in the science field of lution element. different targets, the same part of the sky
view can be reached by at least three will be observed with multiple exposures
fibres that go to one of the Low-Resolution A calibration system equipped with a and visits. Objects that require longer
Spectrographs (LRS) and one or two continuum source, a Fabry-Perot etalon, exposures will be exposed several times
fibres that go to the High-Resolution and ThAr lamps can feed light through until their stacked spectra reach the
Spectrograph (HRS). This ensures a high the telescope plus science fibres com­ required signal-to-noise. 4MOST opera-
allocation efficiency of the fibres to tar- bination and also directly through the tions also differ from the standard ESO
gets, even when targets are clustered. simultaneous calibration fibres into the scheme in that the 4MOST Consortium
spectrograph slit to ensure accurate plays a primary role in planning the obser-
Each spectrograph accepts 812 science wavelength calibration. This will ensure vations (Phase 2) and in reducing, analys-
fibres and six simultaneous calibration that we can typically reach better than ing and publishing the data (Phase 3).

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 7


4MOST de Jong R. S. et al., 4MOST: Project overview

Figure 3. The expected 4MOST point-


Abundances: HR S/N ≥ 100.0 Å –1, sky = bright
source sensitivities for the signal-to-
14 Stellar parameters: LR S/N ≥ 30.0 Å –1, sky = bright
Radial velocities: LR S/N ≥ 10.0 Å –1, sky = grey noise levels and lunar conditions indi-
Redshift: LR S/N ≥ 3.0 Å –1, sky = dark cated in the legend. The solid lines are
Redshift: LR S/N ≥ 1.0 Å –1, sky = dark for a total exposure time of 120 minutes,
whereas the dashed lines are the limits
16 for 20-minute exposures. The approxi-
mate conversion to signal-to-noise
per pixel is obtained by dividing the
HRS values by 3.3 and the LRS values
mAB (magnitude)

by 1.7. For clarity, sky emission lines


18
are removed — this mostly affects
results redward of 7000 Å. Mean (not
median) seeing conditions, airmass
values, fibre quality and positioning
20 errors, etc., are used, in order to
ensure that this plot is representative
for an entire 4MOST survey, not just
for the optimal conditions. Typical
22 ­science cases for obtaining detailed
elemental abundances of stars
(orange), stellar parameters and some
elemental abundances (dark blue),
stellar radial velocities (light blue), and
24
galaxy and AGN redshifts (black: 90%
4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 complete, grey: 50% complete) are
Wavelength (Å) shown.

These Consortium activities are closely ity in the south with such a large field Community programmes
monitored by ESO to ensure uniform of view and multiplex capability creates
­progress and data quality for all surveys. numerous unique opportunities for In designing the 4MOST operations sys-
The details of 4MOST operations are 4MOST. Of special interest are synergies tem, the aim has been to follow normal
described in the accompanying article with new southern hemisphere facilities ESO operations as much as possible.
in this edition of The Messenger (Walcher under construction such as LSST, SKA, This means that 4MOST follows the ESO
et al., p. 12). and ESO’s ELT. The southern sky is of Public Surveys sequence of programme
particular interest for Galactic archaeol- selection (Phase 1), observation prepa­
ogy, with good access to the Milky Way ration (Phase 2), programme execution at
Science bulge and the Magellanic Clouds. For this the telescope, and finally data reduction,
science, the R ~ 20 000 of the HRS ena- analysis, and publication (Phase 3). How-
The 4MOST science programme formu- bles accurate abundance measurements ever, 4MOST, being a survey facility run-
lated by the Consortium has been organ- of many elements; the R ~ 6500 LRS ning typically many science programmes
ised into the ten surveys listed in Table 2. spectra also have higher spectral resolu- simultaneously in each observation, has
There are five surveys centred on stellar tion and better sampling of the spectral required some modifications to the nor-
objects to perform Galactic archaeology resolution elements than similar high-­ mal process, as described below.
of different components of the Milky Way multiplex, wide-field facilities, thereby
and the Magellanic Clouds, with the goal allowing better s­ tellar elemental abun- As highlighted earlier, 4MOST Surveys
of understanding their current structure dance determinations. 4MOST provides have a duration of five years. This ensures
and their assembly history. There are four an unprecedentedly large volume cover- that large projects can be accomplished
surveys of extragalactic objects aiming age of all Galactic components, thereby with carefully crafted completeness goals
to characterise cosmological parameters, expanding on the legacy of the ESA Gaia and well understood selection functions.
the nature of dark energy and dark matter, mission. New programmes will be selected and
and the formation history of galaxies started only once every five years and,
and black holes. Finally, there is a survey This Messenger edition contains suffi- after a short run-in period, the observing
dedicated to time domain discoveries, ciently detailed descriptions of the Con- strategy will stay as stable as possible
mainly in synergy with the LSST facility sortium Surveys and the overall observ- during each five-year survey programme.
where supernova transients and quasar ing strategy (Guiglion et al., p. 17) to All surveys on 4MOST will be Public
luminosity variations will be complemented enable the ESO community to develop ­Surveys, which means that the raw data
with spectroscopic observations. complementary surveys using the will be published immediately in the ESO
roughly 4.8/2.4 million LRS/HRS fibre- archive and that the science teams of
For most of these surveys, millions of hours available to them in the first 5-year the surveys have an obligation to release
spectra will be obtained, having a huge survey. The process of integrating com- higher-level data products that have
legacy value for the community and munity observing programmes into the ­legacy value for the community.
­creating an enormous potential for seren- 4MOST survey programme is described
dipitous discoveries. Being the only facil- in the next section.

8 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Table 2. 4MOST Consortium Surveys and their Principal Investigators. After selection of all Consortium and
No Survey Name Survey (Co-)PI
Community Surveys through ESO’s peer
review process for Public Surveys pro-
S1 Milky Way Halo LR Survey Irwin (IoA), Helmi (RuG)
posals, the selected programmes will be
S2 Milky Way Halo HR Survey Christlieb (ZAH)
invited to submit survey management
S3 Milky Way Disc and Bulge LR Survey (4MIDABLE LR) Chiappini, Minchev, Starkenburg (AIP) plans, approval of which by the ESO
S4 Milky Way Disc and Bulge HR Survey (4MIDABLE HR) Bensby (Lund), Bergemann (MPIA) Director General is mandatory before the
S5 Galaxy Clusters Survey Finoguenov (MPE) final acceptance of a Public Survey. The
S6 AGN Survey Merloni (MPE) survey management plan will contain a
detailed list of science data products and
S7 Galaxy Evolution Survey (WAVES) Driver (UWA), Liske (UHH)
timeline for their release. For Consortium
S8 Cosmology Redshift Survey Richard (CRAL), Kneib (EPFL)
and Participating Community Surveys a
S9 Magellanic Clouds Survey (1001MC) Cioni (AIP) single, joint survey management plan
S10 Time-Domain Extragalactic Survey (TiDES) Sullivan (Southampton) will be delivered. For Non-Participating
Community Surveys, each Survey PI will
be responsible for the delivery of a survey
The community can propose for one mate number of fibre-hours needed); an management plan.
of two types of Survey programmes with initial list of Survey team members and
4MOST. their roles (i.e., a simple management Phase 2
plan); and whether the proposal is for a After selection, the members of the Par-
1) Participating Surveys from the ESO Participating or Non-Participating Survey. ticipating Community Surveys will join
community will join the Consortium To estimate the feasibility and scope of the Consortium Surveys to form the joint
Surveys in a common observing pro- the observations an Exposure Time Science Team. The Community Survey
gramme, where they share the available ­Calculator (ETC) will be provided through PIs will become members of the Science
fibres in each observing block and are an ESO web interface for single targets, Coordination Board and it is expected
“charged” fibre-hours only for their frac- and through an ETC tool from the 4MOST that the Community Surveys will provide
tion of fibres used. They also share the Consortium for many targets at once. staff effort to the different 4MOST work-
time spent on any duplicate targets in After a peer review of the Letters of Intent ing groups, most notably those on survey
common between surveys, get full access that will be managed by ESO, a number strategy, selection functions, quality
to all data from the Consortium and par- of teams will be invited to respond to the assurance, and, if they so wish, higher-
ticipating community programmes, and 4MOST Call for Proposals, at which time level pipelines. The target catalogues of
are invited to collaborate in the higher- ESO may suggest that some of the com- the Community Surveys will be merged
level data analysis and publication efforts. munity proposals merge with other com- with those of the Consortium and through
munity or Consortium proposals. an iterative process a joint survey plan
2) Non-Participating Surveys get their will be developed to observe all targets.
own (half) nights on the telescope and At this stage a more detailed science Once the final observing strategy has
will be “charged” fibre-hours for the full case will be required as well as a full been agreed upon, only small changes
2436 fibres during that time regardless of (mock) target catalogue with template in strategy will be allowed during the
whether they can all be filled. These sur- spectra, spectral success criteria, and operations phase without approval by the
veys will receive calibrated and extracted a total survey goal encapsulated by a SCB and/or ESO. The 4MOST Operations
spectra from the Consortium data man- ­figure of merit. A web-based version of Group provided by the Consortium will
agement system, but will not have access the 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) will create all Observing Blocks running on
to any data other than their own and they be provided, allowing proposers to check 4MOST.
will be responsible for delivering higher- the feasibility of their proposed survey.
level data products to the ESO archive on 4FS will provide an estimate of the num- Non-Participating Surveys will not join
their own. While many aspects are the ber of successfully observed targets in the Science Team, but will be provided
same for Participating and Non-Participat- a five-year survey when run either stand- with software to create and submit their
ing Surveys, critical differences during alone (Non-Participating proposals) or own Observing Blocks which will be
the various execution phases of the Sur- in conjunction with the Consortium Sur- scheduled on their assigned (half) nights.
veys are highlighted below. veys (Participating proposals) and the Any significant changes from the original
required number of fibre-hours. Clearly, Non-Participating Survey plan will have
Phase 1 proposals that are well matched to the to be approved by ESO.
4MOST Phase 1 will begin with a Call for overall observing strategy of 4MOST as
Letters of Intent. Each Letter of Intent is described in the 4MOST Survey Plan arti- Phase 3
expected to set out: the science goals of cle in this edition (for example, surveys As with ESO’s Public Survey policies,
the proposed survey; a description of its with sparsely distributed targets or with 4MOST Survey programmes have data
scope (for example, the number of tar- looser completeness requirements) have delivery obligations to ESO and its com-
gets and their distribution on the sky, the a higher chance of being successfully munity. All 4MOST raw data will become
targets’ luminosity range, the approxi- executed in the amount of time available. available as soon as they have been

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 9


4MOST de Jong R. S. et al., 4MOST: Project overview

ingested into the ESO archive at the end Policies side a Code of Conduct when the Call
of each night. The raw data will be pro- for Letters of Intent is published. By sub-
cessed by the Consortium Data Manage- Given the joint use of the available fibres mitting a Participating Survey programme
ment System to remove instrumental and the corresponding mixed nature of the proposers implicitly agree to comply
effects and create one-dimensional, flux- the data products, members of the with these policies.
and wavelength-calibrated Level 1 (L1) ­Consortium Surveys and Participating
spectra. The L1 data will be released Community Surveys, i.e., members of For Non-Participating Surveys there
yearly through the ESO archive. For Par- the joint Science Team, have to abide by may be at most a 30% overlap in targets
ticipating Surveys, dedicated classifica- a number of policies to ensure fair use with other Surveys and they will not
tion, stellar and extragalactic pipelines of data and a fair return on investment. share exposure time with other Surveys.
run by Consortium working groups will Community Survey membership will be This means that any duplicate targets
produce Level 2 (L2) data products like limited to those on the original proposal in Non-Participating Surveys will be
object type likelihoods, stellar parameters, plus up to 15 additional members added observed twice as there is no means to
elemental abundances and redshifts, etc. at a later stage if a certain capability or coordinate the effort with other Surveys.
These products will be released through expertise is needed that is not available Non-Participating Surveys are free to
the ESO archive on a schedule to be within the Science Team. Participating devise their own membership, data
agreed upon with ESO before the start Community Survey targets may overlap access, and publication policies.
of the observations. All L1 and L2 prod- by a maximum of 20% with Consortium
ucts will also be released through the targets, but will share the required “cost”
4MOST World Archive operated by the in exposure time for the overlap, allowing Further information
Consortium, which will also contain both surveys to do more in their allotted
matched catalogues from other facilities amount of fibre-hours. All data products ESO and the 4MOST Consortium are
and added value catalogues with data are shared among all Science Team jointly organising the “Preparing for
processed beyond the standard pipe- members. However, all science exploita- 4MOST” workshop, which will take place
lines. While the Consortium will take care tion shall take place in projects announced at ESO Garching on 6–8 May 2019. The
of uploading the L1 and L2 products to to the whole Science Team and restric- purpose of this workshop is to transfer
the ESO archive for the joint Science tions regarding this exploitation may be knowledge from the 4MOST Consortium
Team, Non-Participating Surveys will applied when a new project overlaps sig- to the broader ESO community, and
have to produce and upload their own nificantly with an existing PhD project or hence to prepare the community for the
L2 products to ESO. with the core science of a Survey that the exciting scientific opportunity to use
project proposer is not a member of. Full 4MOST. This will assist potential commu-
details of these Science Team policies as nity PIs to successfully respond to the
approved by ESO will be released along- Call, and will foster scientific collabora-

Table 3. 4MOST Consortium institutes and their main roles in the Project.

Institute Instrument responsibility Science lead responsibility


Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) Management and system engineering, Milky Way Disc and Bulge LR Survey, Cosmology
telescope interface (including WFC), Redshift Survey, Magellanic Clouds Survey
metrology, fibre system, instrument control
software, System AIV and commissioning
Australian Astronomical Optics – Macquarie (AAO) Fibre positioner Galaxy Evolution Survey
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL) Low-Resolution spectrographs Cosmology Redshift Survey
European Southern Observatory (ESO) Detectors system
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge (IoA) Data management system Milky Way Halo LR Survey
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) Instrument control system hardware Milky Way Disc and Bulge HR Survey
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Science operations system Galaxy Clusters Survey, AGN Survey
Physik (MPE)
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität ­H eidelberg (ZAH) High-Resolution spectrograph, Milky Way Halo HR Survey
Instrument control system software
NOVA/ASTRON Dwingeloo Calibration system
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RuG) Milky Way Halo LR Survey
Lund University (Lund)
Milky Way Disc and Bulge HR Survey
Uppsala universitet (UU)
Universität Hamburg (UHH)
Galaxy Evolution Survey
University of Western Australia (UWA)
École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Cosmology Redshift Survey

10 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


tions between the community and the 2 months later, completion of the system vey: Lancaster University, Queen’s Uni-
4MOST Consortium. Members of the integration in Potsdam in July 2021, versity Belfast, University of Portsmouth,
community who are considering applying passing the full system test including and University of Southampton.
for a 4MOST Public Survey are strongly operations rehearsals for the Preliminary
encouraged to attend this meeting in Acceptance Europe by February 2022,
order to obtain detailed information, and and the installation and commissioning Acknowledgements
to have the opportunity to ask questions, of the facility at VISTA for Provisional Financial support for 4MOST from the Knut and
exchange ideas, and build collaborations. Acceptance Chile in November 2022, after Alice Wallenberg’s Foundation, the German Federal
which the first five year survey will start. Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) via
The latest information about 4MOST ­Verbundforschungs grants 05A14BA2, 05A17BA3 and
05A17VH4, and from the German Research Founda-
and its planned surveys is available on tion (DFG) via Sonderforschungsbereich SFB 881
its website1. Information can also be Consortium and Minor Participants “The Milky Way System” is gratefully acknowledged.
obtained through the 4MOST helpdesk, Institutes
which can be reached through ESO’s
References
User Support Department 2, the 4MOST The 4MOST Consortium institutes and
web site, or by mailing the project directly 3. their main roles in the project are listed Guiglion, G. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 175, 17
in Table 3. The following Minor Partici- Walcher, C. J. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 175, 12
pant institutes are also contributing to
Schedule the development of 4MOST: Durham Uni- Links
versity, University of Sussex, University
The 4MOST Project moved into full ­College London, Institute for Astrophysics 1
 he 4MOST website: www.4most.eu
T
2
­construction after passing Final Design Göttingen (IAG), University of Warwick, ESO’s User Support Helpdesk: usd-help@eso.org
3
4MOST project mailing address: help@4most.eu
Review-1 in May 2018. Major milestones University of Hull, Universität Potsdam,
in further development and construction Laboratoire d’Etudes des Galaxies,
are the release of the Call for Letters of Etoiles, Physique et Instrumentation Notes
Intent in the second half of 2019 which (GEPI), IN2P3/Laboratoire des Matériaux a
Roelof de Jong is the 4MOST Principal Investigator.
will have a submission deadline about Avancés (L.M.A.); and for the TiDES Sur-
G. Gillet/ESO

The full moon sets


behind VISTA near
Paranal.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 11


4MOST DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5118

4MOST Scientific Operations

C. Jakob Walcher 1 Elmo Tempel 21, 1 The 4MOST instrument is a multi-object


Manda Banerji 2 Wing-Fai Thi 6 spectrograph that will address Galactic
Chiara Battistini 3 Gregor Traven 4 and extragalactic science cases simul-
Cameron P. M. Bell 1 Marica Valentini 1 taneously by observing targets from a
Olga Bellido-Tirado 1 Mario van den Ancker 15 large number of different surveys within
Thomas Bensby 4 Nicholas Walton 2 each science exposure. This parallel
Joachim M. Bestenlehner 5 Roland Winkler 1 mode of operation and the survey nature
Thomas Boller 6 C. Clare Worley 2 of 4MOST require some distinct 4MOST-
Joar Brynnel 1 Gabor Worseck 22 specific operational features within the
Andrew Casey 7 overall operations model of ESO. The
Cristina Chiappini 1 main feature is that the 4MOST Consor-
Norbert Christlieb 3 1
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam tium will deliver, not only the instrument,
Ross Church 4 (AIP), Germany but also contractual services to the
Maria-Rosa L. Cioni 1 2
Institute of Astronomy, University of user community, which is why 4MOST
Scott Croom 8 Cambridge, UK is also described as a f­ acility. This white
Johan Comparat 6 3
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität paper concentrates on information par-
Luke J. M. Davies 9 Heidelberg/Landessternwarte, ticularly useful to answering the forth-
Roelof S. de Jong 1 Germany coming Call for L ­ etters of Intent.
Tom Dwelly 6 4
Lund Observatory, Lund University,
Harry Enke 1 Sweden
Sofia Feltzing 4 5
Physics and Astronomy, University of Operational context and requirements
Diane Feuillet 10 Sheffield, UK
Morgan Fouesneau 10 6
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische 4MOST is conceived as a survey facility
Dominic Ford 4 Physik, Garching, Germany that comprises the instrument and asso-
Steffen Frey 1 7
School of Physics and Astronomy, ciated operations services. The largest
Eduardo Gonzalez-Solares 2 Monash University, Melbourne, fraction of the observing time on 4MOST
Alain Gueguen 6 Australia will be allocated within a unique opera-
Louise Howes 4 8
Sydney Institute for Astronomy, Univer- tional concept in which five-year Public
Mike Irwin 2 sity of Sydney, Australia Surveys from both the Consortium and
Jochen Klar 1 9
International Centre for Radio Astron- the ESO community will be combined
Georges Kordopatis 11 omy Research / University of Western and observed in parallel during each
Andreas Korn 12 Australia, Perth, Australia exposure. These Surveys are jointly called
Mirko Krumpe 1 10
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Participating Surveys. ESO community
Iryna Kushniruk 4 Heidelberg, Germany members can also choose not to partici-
Man I Lam 1 11
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, pate in this joint observing strategy by
James Lewis 2 France proposing a Non-Participating Survey.
Karin Lind 12 12
Department of Physics and Astronomy, More details about the definitions and the
Jochen Liske 13 Uppsala universitet, Sweden selection procedures for Participating
Jon Loveday 14 13
Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität and Non-Participating Surveys can be
Vincenzo Mainieri 15 Hamburg, Germany found in the overview paper by de Jong
Sarah Martell 16 14
University of Sussex, Brighton, UK et al., p. 3.
Gal Matijevic 1 15
ESO
Richard McMahon 2 16
School of Physics, University of New In the parallel observing mode, 4MOST
Andrea Merloni 6 South Wales, Sydney, Australia will obtain spectra to serve many different
David Murphy 2 17
Department of Physics, Durham science cases simultaneously. Parallel
Florian Niederhofer 1 ­University, UK observing thus enables efficient use of
Peder Norberg 17 18
Cherenkov Telescope Array Observa- 4MOST for surveys that have comple-
Alexander Pramskiy 3 tory, Bologna, Italy mentary observing conditions require-
Martino Romaniello 15 19
Australian Astronomical Optics – ments and/or a target density lower than
Aaron S. G. Robotham 9 ­Macquarie, Sydney, Australia the 4MOST multiplexing capability. It
Florian Rothmaier 3 20
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de also implies that surveys have to agree
Gregory Ruchti 4 Lyon, France on a common survey strategy and pre-
Olivier Schnurr 1, 18 21
Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, pare Observation Blocks (OBs) jointly.
Axel Schwope 1 Estonia As a consequence, Participating Surveys
Scott Smedley 19 22
Institut für Physik und Astronomie, will not explicitly choose the atmospheric
Jenny Sorce 20, 1 ­Universität Potsdam, Germany conditions under which they wish to
Else Starkenburg 1 observe their targets. Rather, the design
Ingo Stilz 3 of the common survey strategy will be
Jesper Storm 1 driven by observational success criteria.

12 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


These could, for example, be require- tasks in observation preparation and one-dimensional (1D), calibrated, science-
ments on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data management that are provided as a ready spectra extracted from the raw
per target, or on the sky area to be service by the Consortium. data; and Level two (L2) data are prod-
­covered. An additional consideration is ucts resulting from the science analysis
that, owing to the nature of multi-object The survey nature of 4MOST operations of 1D spectra, in particular physical prop-
spectrographs, the spectra of targets will means that Targets of Opportunity or erties of 4MOST targets. Examples of L2
­partially overlap on the detector (cross- time-constrained observations on times- data include elemental abundances for
talk between neighbouring fibres on the cales shorter than a few days cannot be stars or redshifts and emission line fluxes
CCD). This implies that all Participating accommodated. However, transients for galaxies. L2 products also include
Surveys will have to fully share the raw that are numerous enough that they fall in spectra stacked over several OBs. L2
data as well as the calibrated spectra in randomly distributed 4MOST pointings products that are to be delivered to ESO
order to be able to assess and mitigate can be observed if they can be included in Phase 3 are deliverable L2 (DL2) prod-
the impact of this cross-talk effect on into the data stream with a few days lead ucts. Any survey may also generate addi-
their science. time. Also, targets that require re-visits tional L2 (AL2) products.
with a certain cadence can, in principle,
4MOST operations have been designed be accommodated, in particular for deep
to work within ESO’s La Silla Paranal fields requiring many visits. Towards the Organisational setup and roles
Observatory framework, with as few end of this paper we discuss the distinct
changes to infrastructure and processes case of Non-Participating Surveys, i.e., An organisation chart for the operations
as possible. Still, two main differences surveys that wish to use 4MOST in single phase is shown in Figure 1. The Sci-
from the standard ESO science opera- survey mode. ence Team is composed of all scientific
tions model are necessary: (1) a joint sci- ­members of all Consortium and Partici-
ence team for all Participating Surveys Within 4MOST we define three data levels pating Community Surveys; it is the
(i.e., including Community Surveys as as follows: Level zero (L0) data are raw ­primary exploiter of 4MOST data. The
well as those from the instrument-build- data, calibration data, environmental Science Coordination Board represents
ing Consortium); (2) common centralised data, and log files; Level one (L1) data are the 4MOST Surveys and consists of all

Legend ESO
ESO
4MOST Executive Board
Consortium

Community
4MOST Principal
Investigator

Science Team

Operations Manager Project scientists Science


Coordination Board

ESO Instrument
Joint Operations Group Policies Board(s)
Scientist

On-mountain Operations Community


operations System Surveys

ESO Archive Data Management Consortium


(SAF) System Surveys

Technical Infrastructure
support Working Groups Science

Quality Control 1 Consortium


Helpdesk
Exposure time Non-Participating
calculator Technical support Surveys
Figure 1. Organigram of operations and
science-related work packages during the
Operations operations phase of 4MOST.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 13


4MOST Walcher C. J. et al., 4MOST Scientific Operations

­ onsortium and Community Survey Prin-


C 5. Execution of OBs at the Visible and Observing preparations
cipal Investigators (Survey PIs). It coordi- Infrared Survey Telescope for Astron-
nates the scientific programmes of the omy (VISTA) by ESO. The Operations System is in charge of
surveys, in the spirit of a single overall 6. Transfer of raw data from the tele- preparing the OBs for the 4MOST Partici-
4MOST s­ urvey programme. It mediates scope to the Data Management pating Surveys. The target catalogues
potential conflicts of interest, and enforces System. of the Participating Community Surveys
the S­ cience Team Policies. The day-to- 7. Data reduction from raw data to cali- will be merged with those of the Consor-
day implementation of the Science Team brated spectra by the Level 1 pipeline tium, and through an iterative process a
­Policies is delegated to the Science of the Data Management System. joint survey plan will be developed to
­Policy Board. 8. Transfer of Level 1 data to advanced observe all targets. The Operations Sys-
pipelines. tem provides tools to estimate the feasi-
Coordination of the diverse group of 9. Data analysis and creation of Level 2 bility and likely success of 4MOST obser-
stakeholders for 4MOST operations is data products by advanced pipelines. vations. Its exposure time calculator
ensured by the Joint Operations Group. 10. T
 ransfer of all data to archives. delivers the same results as the one ESO
The Joint Operations Group implements 11. Science exploitation by surveys and provides, but is optimised such that
the scientific and operational guidance the world-wide community. ­hundreds of thousands of spectra can be
given by ESO, the Survey PIs, and the treated jointly.
4MOST PI. It contains representatives
from the various work packages in opera- Feedback loops The 4MOST Facility Simulator is able to
tion. Its main task is to ensure observa- simulate the operation of 4MOST, includ-
tions progress with the best possible There are three feedback loops in this ing instrument performance, observatory
quality over the entire survey duration. workflow: processes, and weather patterns. Both
1. Quality Control 0 will be carried out the simulator and the OB builder use the
Infrastructure Working Groups perform directly after an OB has been com- same target catalogues. Additionally,
tasks common to all surveys. Their mem- pleted at the telescope. Quality Con- to enable the planning of a common sur-
bers are also members of the Science trol 0 will only verify that the OB has vey strategy, the surveys are required
Team and are delegated to operations. been executed successfully in a techni- to deliver Spectral Success Criteria and
Every Participating Survey is requested cal sense. Even if some atmospheric figures of merit. The former are used to
to provide resources to the Infrastructure or other conditions have not been met determine exposure times for each target.
Working Groups. The current working in a completely observed OB, it may The latter are used to evaluate how well
groups are: “Survey Strategy”; “Selection still yield data for numerous targets a specific survey has been able to meet
Functions”; “Galactic Pipeline”; “Extraga- where sufficient photons were received its science goals. More details about the
lactic Pipeline”; and “Classification Pipe- to fit the requirements. For targets tools and procedures to develop a com-
line”. Work in these groups has already where the required S/N has not been mon Survey Strategy Plan are given in
started and Community Participating met, the exposure time still required can the 4MOST survey plan white paper by
Surveys will be invited to join. This means be optimised in a later re-observation Guiglion et al. (p. 17).
not only profiting from the work already of the same field.
done, but also providing resources for 2. The Data Management System will The Operations System will prepare OBs
ongoing development and operations. assess the observational progress per approximately every three days, taking
target as part of the Level 1 pipeline. This into account the latest information from
assessment is based on spectral suc- the Data Management System on targets
Science Data Flow for Participating cess criteria provided by each survey. that have already been (partially) com-
Surveys Progress per target will be communi- pleted in previous observations. OBs are
cated to the Operations System in order generated for the next two weeks provid-
The data flow through the 4MOST facility to be taken into account during the ing redundancy in case of a connection
(see Figure 2) will follow concepts that preparation of the next round of OBs. breakdown between Europe and Paranal.
are familiar to most astronomers working 3. The Operations System of the Con­ The regular updates of OBs allow for
with either ESO or large survey projects. sortium will provide a progress data- optimised efficiency in observations. The
In a nutshell, the following steps in the base allowing surveys and ESO to Operations System also hosts a progress
data and workflows are foreseen: monitor observational survey progress database that contains the current obser-
1. Preparation of target catalogues with at least fortnightly, using metrics such vational status for all Participating Sur-
relevant associated data (for example, as a figure of merit or the number of veys (see above).
figures of merit) by surveys. successfully observed targets. If a sur-
2. Submission of target catalogues to vey falls behind expectations, changes
the Operations System. to the survey strategy are possible Data reduction and analysis
3. Merging of catalogues and prepara- with the approval of the Science Coor-
tion of OBs by the Operations dination Board and ESO. The Data Management System is in
System. charge of developing and running the
4. Submission of OBs to ESO. Level 1 data reduction pipeline for all

14 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Figure 2. Schematic overview of work and data
Consortium Surveys Community Surveys flows of the 4MOST project during survey operations
preparation preparation for Participating Surveys.

Proposals Proposals
s­ urveys. This pipeline will remove the
Survey confirmation Survey selection
instrumental signatures and calibrate
the raw data. It will produce all Level 1
Merge surveys into data products, including the 1D spectra,
Science Team their associated variances and bad pixel
masks as well as any other associated
Targets, information. The data reduction pipeline
ESO oversight scientific will also generate per-target progress
requirements information to be used by the Operations
System in its progress monitor and for
Survey parameters, target Survey programme the preparation of future observations.
catalogues, progress monitor optimisation
The Level 1 data products are primarily
used by the advanced pipelines, which
Observation preparation
produce the advanced Level 2 data prod-
ucts. Currently, there are four advanced
pipelines: the classification pipeline; the
Executable OBs (sci & cal) Galactic pipeline; the extragalactic pipe-
line; and the selection functions pipeline.
OB database These pipelines are developed in Infra-
structure Working Groups (see above).
OB to be executed The outputs from the advanced pipelines
4MOST are described in Data eXchange Unit
instrument
Observation execution (DXU) documents, which are available on
software and
Legend the 4MOST website.
hardware
Raw data (sci & cal) ESO
In brief, the classification pipeline will
Science Team ­provide a data-driven classification of
Science archive facility
spectra into stars, galaxies, AGN, outliers
Operations and unclassifiable objects. The Galactic
Raw data (sci & cal)
pipeline will derive effective temperatures,
Per target progress surface gravities, and element abundances
Level 1: data reduction for cool stars, hot stars, and white dwarfs.
The extragalactic pipeline will deliver
Level 1 spectra object redshifts, as well as emission line
Reduced level 1 spectra
fluxes and stellar population properties.
Level 2: Finally, the selection function pipeline
Operational repository
data analysis will compute two selection functions —
geometric and target. The geometric one
Level 1 and 2 data can be used to correct for the incom-
Level 2 products
pleteness incurred owing to the size and
Quality Control shape of the field of view, tiling, and fibre
positioner properties. The target selec-
Level 1 and 2 data Level 1 and 2 data
tion function can be used to correct for
the effects of finite exposure times and
Science Archive Facility 4MOST internal and public archive the throughput of 4MOST. Surveys can
fold both of these selection functions with
Level 1 and 2 data the specific target selection procedure
per survey, providing an incentive to use
a clean and reproducible survey selection
Scientific guidance
function.
Progress monitoring and
scientific exploitation
Worldwide science The Data Management System will
community
store all data products (Levels 1 and 2)

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 15


4MOST Walcher C. J. et al., 4MOST Scientific Operations

in a 4MOST Operational Repository. The 4MOST Helpdesk and finding further can be used in single survey mode if the
quality control of data in the repository information target density is sufficiently high. In this
will be carried out by a working group mode, special thought has to be given to
coordinated by the Quality Control Scien- The Consortium-operated 4MOST Help- the use of fibres from both Low- and High-
tist. The Science Team as a whole will desk is tasked with answering questions Resolution Spectrographs. Proposed
have access to quality controlled data from all stakeholders in 4MOST (including Community Surveys wishing to use
products in three-month intervals as potential or actual proposers, Participat- 4MOST in single survey mode are called
internal releases will be pushed from the ing Survey teams, and users of worldwide Non-Participating Surveys. They will not
repository to the 4MOST Public Archive data releases). It is reachable by e-mail1, become members of the Science Team,
maintained by the Consortium. through an online form accessible from and will not be bound by the Science
the project webpage2, and will also serve Team Policies. Their time will be allocated
As for all Public Surveys carried out at as a back office for the ESO User Sup- in named nights or half-nights to enable
ESO facilities, the raw data will become port Department in respect of 4MOST-­ accurate planning. The Consortium Oper-
public automatically via the ESO Science related questions. The 4MOST Helpdesk ations System will deliver the software
Archive Facility (SAF). Level 1 data prod- is operated by Consortium members necessary to produce OBs, which Non-
ucts will be submitted by the Consortium and maintains a webpage with frequently Participating Surveys will run themselves.
to the SAF and made public by the SAF asked questions. The webpages of the The Consortium Data Management Sys-
on a regular basis (nominally yearly). 4MOST Consortium complement the tem will deliver Level 1 data products to
Deliverable Level 2 data products will be white papers in this issue of The Messen- Non-Participating Surveys through the
submitted to and made public by the ger with more information. Some key Operational Repository. Non-Participating
SAF on a schedule to be agreed between documents will be made available Surveys will not have access to the
the 4MOST survey program and ESO. through the webpages, such as the Sci- advanced pipelines developed in the
Level 2 data products will naturally lag ence Team Policies and details on the 4MOST Science Team. Non-Participating
behind Level 1 spectra by some amount planned advanced data products. Surveys will have to produce and upload
of time that may also depend on the their own Level 2 products to ESO.
­specific survey/data product type. All
Level 1 and deliverable Level 2 products Non-Participating Surveys: a special
will be released not only through the mode of operation Acknowledgements
ESO SAF, but also worldwide through In addition to the authors of this white paper, the
the 4MOST Public Archive operated by 4MOST has been designed to cover the support of many individuals within the 4MOST pro-
the Consortium, which in addition may southern hemisphere in a five-year survey ject and within ESO has been important for the
contain matched catalogues from other using a parallel mode of observation, development of the 4MOST operations planning.
facilities and added value catalogues enabling surveys that would otherwise
with data processed beyond the standard not be possible. All Consortium Surveys Links
pipelines (additional Level 2 products). will be carried out in the parallel mode of
1
observations. At the same time, 4MOST 4MOST helpdesk: help@4most.eu
2
4MOST webpage: www.4MOST.eu
is also a very powerful instrument that

G. Hüdepohl (atacamaphoto.com)/ESO

The Milky Way arches


over the VLT (clearly
deploying its laser guide
star capability) and
VISTA (on the right). By
2022, VISTA will have
transformed into 4MOST
with operations begin-
ning towards the end of
the year.

16 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


4MOST DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5119

4MOST Survey Strategy Plan

Guillaume Guiglion 1 11
Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, programmes are merged into one survey
Chiara Battistini 2 University of Portsmouth, UK and observed simultaneously. The use of
Cameron P. M. Bell 1 12
Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, the 4MOST Guaranteed Time Observa-
Thomas Bensby 3 Estonia tions was developed around this concept
Thomas Boller 4 and constitutes the Consortium Survey
Cristina Chiappini 1 Plan presented here. The ESO community
Johan Comparat 4 The current status of and motivation is invited to participate in this joint strat-
Norbert Christlieb 2 for the 4MOST survey strategy, as egy, giving such Participating Surveys the
Ross Church 3 developed by the Consortium science added benefit that the exposure time of
Maria-Rosa L. Cioni 1 team, are presented here. Key elements targets in common with other surveys will
Luke Davies 5 of the strategy are described, such as be shared proportionately.
Tom Dwelly 4 sky coverage, number of visits and total
Roelof S. de Jong 1 exposure times in different parts of The current survey plan is subject to
Sofia Feltzing 3 the sky, and how to deal with different change due to several factors. Most
Alain Gueguen 4 observing conditions. The task of importantly, the new Community Surveys
Louise Howes 3 organising the strategy is not simple, that will be added to the overall 4MOST
Mike Irwin 6 with many different surveys that have survey programme following the pro­-
Iryna Kushniruk 3 vastly different target brightnesses po­sal process led by ESO will most likely
Man I Lam 1 and densities, sample completeness introduce new strategy requirements.
Jochen Liske 7 levels, and signal-to-noise require- Changes can also be expected when fur-
Richard McMahon 6 ments. We introduce here a number of ther knowledge is obtained regarding the
Andrea Merloni 4 concepts that we will use to ensure all sensitivity of the instrument and its over-
Peder Norberg 8 surveys are optimised. Astronomers heads performance as it is further devel-
Aaron S. G. Robotham 5 who are planning to submit a Partici­ oped, built and tested. Therefore some of
Olivier Schnurr 1, 9 pating Survey proposal are strongly the information in what follows is prelimi-
Jenny G. Sorce 10,1 encouraged to read this article and any nary and subject to change. Up-to-date
Else Starkenburg 1 relevant 4MOST Survey articles in this information on 4MOST, its performance
Jesper Storm 1 issue of The Messenger such that they and Survey Strategy will be continuously
Elizabeth Swann11 can optimally complement and benefit posted on the 4MOST webpage1.
Elmo Tempel 12,1 from the planned surveys of the 4MOST
Wing-Fai Thi 4 Consortium.
C. Clare Worley 6 Basic concepts and default strategy
C. Jakob Walcher 1
and The 4MOST Collaboration 4MOST is a new wide-field spectroscopic All 4MOST observing programmes are
survey facility to be mounted on the carried out by surveys, each of which can
4-metre VISTA telescope. Observations consist of several sub-surveys. Running
1
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam are expected to start in 2022 after which 4MOST efficiently with many surveys in
(AIP), Germany 4MOST will be running multiple survey parallel demands an observing plan that
2
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität periods, each of a five-year duration. can accommodate targets requiring very
Heidelberg/Landessternwarte, More details of the 4MOST instrument different exposure times. Some of the
Germany and proposal submission process can be brightest stars may reach their required
3
Lund Observatory, Lund University, found in the 4MOST overview paper signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios in five minutes
Sweden (De Jong et al., p. 3). For more details of using the Low Resolution Spectrograph
4
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische scientific operations, we refer the reader (LRS), whereas faint extragalactic targets
Physik, Garching, Germany to the 4MOST Scientific Operations paper or faint stars observed with the High Res-
5
International Centre for Radio Astron- (Walcher et al., p. 12). olution Spectrograph (HRS) could require
omy Research/University of Western two hours of total exposure time. The
Australia, Perth, Australia The multiplex of 4MOST is so large that operations scheme must also be able to
6
Institute of Astronomy, University of few science cases have sufficiently high adapt to different observing conditions
Cambridge, UK target densities to fill all the fibres in a (for example, sky brightness and seeing).
7
Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität 4MOST field of view on their own. There
Hamburg, Germany are many important science cases that To accommodate the different exposure
8
Department of Physics, Durham need only a few targets in each field times, the total exposure time in an area
­University, UK of view but have targets spread over the on the sky is broken up into individual
9
Cherenkov Telescope Array Observa- entire sky. To efficiently fill all the fibres exposures. For each exposure, the fibres
tory, Bologna, Italy and to make low-target-density surveys are repositioned in a new configuration
10
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de possible, it was realised early on that such that targets that can be finished in
Lyon, France 4MOST would benefit from an operations one exposure receive a fibre only once,
scheme in which most 4MOST science while other targets receive a fibre multiple

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 17


4MOST Guiglion G. et al., 4MOST Survey Strategy Plan

24 h 18 h 12h 6h 0h 24 h 18 h 12h 6h 0h
30° 30°

0° 0°

– 30° – 30°

– 60° – 60°

5198 870 targets Equatorial 20 869 896 targets Equatorial

10 100 1000 10 000 10 100 1000 10 000


Object counts per degree 2 Object counts per degree 2

× 10 6
times in the different fibre configurations 1.2
Figure 1. The summed target densities of Consor-
tium Surveys for the HRS (upper left) and the LRS
until they reach the required S/N. To save
(upper right) sampled to the requested complete-
Number of targets per hour

the overheads of repositioning the tele- 1.0


ness, as a function of RA and dec. The area covered
scope and acquiring guide stars, several 0.8 is represen­tative the current survey plan. The lower
fibre configuration exposures can be LRS
panel presents histograms of the targets as a func-
0.6 tion of RA.
grouped into one Observation Block (OB) HRS
that is then observed in one telescope 0.4

visit at that pointing. While we expect that 0.2


exposure times will be typically of order Observing conditions
20 minutes, shorter times will be used in 0.0
24 20 16 12 8 4 0
areas with many bright sources at the Right ascension (hours) Because many targets from different sur-
cost of some extra overheads. The maxi- veys are observed simultaneously, pro-
mum individual exposure time for a con- posers cannot request specific observing
figuration is set at 30 minutes, because conditions (seeing, Moon) on a per target
changing differential refraction across the level. In order to avoid having too wide
field would cause fibres to drift if exposed allow one to cover the entire sky in the a range in target brightness in one area
much longer. declination range –70 < dec < 5 degrees. of the sky and to simplify scheduling, the
This particular preferred declination range Consortium has identified the disc plane
The fibre usage efficiency of a grid- was chosen for two reasons. Firstly, of the Milky Way as the region that will
based fibre positioner such as that used one needs to avoid having to cover too predominantly be observed during bright
by 4MOST is increased when the much sky in the north where observing time, with the rest of the sky devoted
target density is significantly higher than time is limited by the regular occurrence mostly to grey and dark time. This means
the fibre density in the field of view. of strong northerly winds at Paranal. that targets with a fibre luminosity fainter
Therefore, science cases that can pro- ­Secondly, the 4MOST Atmospheric Dis- than that of the bright sky will be hard to
vide many more interchangeable targets persion Corrector only functions up to schedule at low Galactic latitude, with the
than needed to fulfil the science case a 55-degree zenith distance and hence possible exception of some areas near
increase the efficiency of the joint survey observations at airmasses larger than the bulge where some dark/grey time will
programme. 1.75 will see significant sensitivity losses be used. The algorithm to assign targets
at the ends of the spectral range. There- and sky areas to dark/grey/bright observ-
To get a feeling for what is possible with fore, large numbers of particularly long ing time is still being improved and hence
4MOST, we can assume a baseline observations at dec < –70 degrees current diagrams are based on a simpli-
­strategy of visiting a large fraction of the should be avoided. fied approach and are only indicative of
southern sky twice, with each visit having the final strategy.
three fibre configurations exposed for To cover special areas on the sky with
20 minutes each. Given that Paranal pro- exposures longer than two hours or out- Observers will not be able to specify
vides about 300 useable nights per year side this fiducial declination range there- ­seeing conditions for their observations.
with on average duration of 9 hours, along fore requires giving up coverage and/or When necessary, longer exposure
with 4MOST’s field of view of 4.2 square total exposure time within certain areas times will be used for a field to match
degrees, we can expect to cover about of this sky declination range. A descrip- the observing conditions. On a larger
21 000 square degrees in a five-year sur- tion of the relative coverage of different scale, we expect to tune the scheduling
vey with two hours total exposure time, regions by the 4MOST Consortium Sur- algorithm such that areas with many
assuming about 75% effective open shut- veys is provided below. background-limited, point-like sources
ter time. Such a basic strategy would or regions that are hard to complete (for

18 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


example, high-airmass or high-right-­ is then a way to quantify the increment of The Messenger provide examples of SSC
ascension [RA] pressure regions) will scientific knowledge we acquire when and FoM usage.
automatically be assigned better seeing observing an additional target in one sur-
conditions. vey versus another. This allows surveys to
provide many more targets than needed Survey strategy simulations
for their science case and, by specifying
Encoding the scientific drivers of the that only a fraction of targets need to be To check the feasibility of the 4MOST
survey strategy completed, helps improve the fibre usage strategy, the project developed the
efficiency. Using the total observing time 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS), a soft-
In order to have an automatic routine that assigned to a region and the target expo- ware tool used to simulate the progress
can develop an observing strategy that is sure times calculated with the SSCs, of the five-year 4MOST Survey. The 4FS
both efficient and reproducible at least in an algorithm is used to assign targets to is used to plan, optimise and verify many
a statistical sense, surveys need to pro- fibres in a field of view in a probabilistic aspects of operations planning. The
vide a number of other parameters along- way such that the desired completeness 4FS contains a detailed parameterised
side their target catalogues, such that is reached for each survey, while avoid­ing model of the 4MOST Facility, including
target selections and observing sched- unwanted biases in brightness or crowd- representations of the instrument focal
ules can be optimised. These parameters ing, for example. The use of probabilities plane, the various constraints/limitations,
are described in this section. throughout selection and operation deci- and a statistical model of the operating
sions will greatly simplify re-creating the environment (for example, the long-term
In this framework, the Spectral Success selection functions that one needs to atmospheric/environmental conditions at
Criteria (SSC) were defined at the target make statistical inferences on the intrinsic Paranal, maintenance procedures, etc.).
level and are used to set the initial expo- abundances of different types of targets. Where possible, the 4FS uses prototype
sure time requirement. The SSC prescribe versions of the various algorithms that
the S/N requirements in specified wave- In order to coordinate the science goals will be used to operate the real 4MOST
length regions of the target spectrum over a large area of the sky, the Consor- Survey, for example, fibre-to-target assign-
needed for robust scientific output. As an tium uses the Large Scale Merit (LSM). ment, survey strategy, survey scheduling,
example, to achieve a sufficient precision The LSM concerns the entire observable and progress balancing/feedback algo-
in the stellar parameters, the median S/N sky and is defined by a HEALPix a, 2 map rithms. The 4FS serves as the primary
ratios in the continuum over given wave- of scientific priorities as a function of right test-bed for development and optimisa-
length ranges have to reachat least a cer- ascension and declination. The LSM tion of these algorithms and their optimal
tain value. Such criteria are provided by all maps are needed to ensure that observa- control parameters.
individual 4MOST Surveys for all of their tions concentrate on areas of higher
targets and depend on their individual ­scientific interest. As an example, surveys The simulator provides the means to
scientific goals. 4MOST operations are can use the LSM to reduce the priority inspect the simulated 4MOST perfor-
also expected to include a feedback loop of regions with high levels of extinction. mance on many levels, from individual
on already observed targets. Surveys target classes in sub-surveys, to survey
must therefore also provide “stop observ- In order to obtain an overall measure of completeness levels, fibre efficiency, and
ing” criteria for all targets. These are eval- 4MOST survey success a figure of merit tension between different survey require-
uated after the first exposure(s) of a target (FoM) is defined by each survey. This ments in different parts of the sky and with
have been taken in one OB and may be metric ranges from 0.0 to 1.0, and can be time. Here we present only a few overview
used to make decisions if subsequent a function of the successfully observed plots of the current Consortium Survey
observations in this region of the sky are targets, areas completed with sufficient plan, which will be further optimised once
planned. Examples of stop criteria are: a number of targets, and completeness combined with the Community Surveys.
minimum S/N has been reached (which of individual sub-surveys with special
can be lower than the original request); a ­targets. The FoM is defined such that it First, we present in Figure 1 the requested
redshift has been obtained; or a maxi- reaches 0.5 once a survey has met its density of targets as a function of RA and
mum exposure time has been exceeded. requirements (the minimum set of obser- dec as well as a histogram of requested
vations to accomplish the core science targets as a function of RA. These target
The Small Scale Merit (SSM) is used by case) and it reaches 1.0 once it has densities have been built from preliminary
the target scheduling tool that assigns met all its goals. The goal of the 4MOST target catalogues submitted by all Con-
fibres to targets to quantify the success observation scheduling software is of sortium Surveys, Galactic and extraga-
of observations in a small area of the course to maximise this FoM for all sur- lactic jointly, and limited to areas that are
sky. The SSM defines the completeness veys, without penalising any of the sur- in the current survey plan. Community
requirements of a (sub-)survey on a scale veys. The choice and implementation of Surveys that match these target distribu-
of one fibre configuration, i.e., an area these LSM and SSM concepts contribute tions will be easiest to schedule.
covering a 4MOST field of view. Indeed, to the final shape of the 4MOST sky.
the different surveys require different Figure 2 shows the exposure time distri-
completeness in a given local area, with The accompanying white papers from the bution over the sky in a recent realisation
differing numbers of targets. The SSM different 4MOST Surveys in this issue of of a five-year survey with 4FS. The fiducial

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 19


4MOST Guiglion G. et al., 4MOST Survey Strategy Plan

Location Area (square degrees) Average texp (hours)


Bulge and Inner Galaxy 500 4–6
Magellanic Clouds 200–300 2–10
24 h 18 h 12h 6h 0h 30° WAVES-Wide 1300 3–4
WAVES-Deep 50 7
LSST Deep Drilling Fields 4 × 4.2 4 × 60

South Ecliptic Pole area 300 4

– 30° Table 1. Planned special areas in the survey plan with their approximate total
area and typical total exposure time per pointing.
– 60°

Equatorial
irregular and there can be no guarantee
that all repeats will be performed at
1 2 5 10 20 the scheduled time. The schedule of
Exposure time (h) re-observation of targets is independent
of the final total S/N ratio. However, in
Figure 2. The total ­exposure time in various areas Table 2 lists the approximate total num- many cases there is a requirement on the
of the sky in a recent simulation with the 4MOST
bers of targets that are expected to be minimum S/N ratio to be reached for a
Facility ­Simulator.
observed by the individual surveys and given visit.
that were shown to be feasible in a recent
survey strategy of 4MOST foresees that 4FS simulation based on the preliminary Two Consortium Surveys require particu-
every field will be observed twice with target catalogues. While these numbers lar cadences: 1) TiDES, which aims at
Observation Blocks containing three fibre are close to the goals of each survey, fur- ­following up variable AGN and LSST tran-
configurations with exposure times of ther tuning and balancing between the sients, covering LSST Deep Drilling
about 20 minutes each. However, as surveys will lead to subsequent modifica- Fields; and 2) the Magellanic Clouds Sur-
mentioned before, the survey teams have tion of the final statistics. vey (1001MC) for the pulsating variables
identified the need for special survey stars. The Galactic Surveys can also ben-
areas that have higher requested target In running the 4FS it is assumed that the efit from the observing cadence as the
densities and/or have fainter targets and survey strategy remains the same over plan is to observe the whole 4MOST sky
hence require more exposure time. These the entire five-year period. In practice at least twice, and, by assuring that
regions and their approximate total expo- this may not be fully tenable and a feed- there is at least one year between revisits
sure times are listed in Table 1. To make back loop foresees that adjustments rather than a few months, a larger frac-
this possible, the current strategy avoids, may be made on about a yearly timescale tion of binary stars can be identified by
or strongly reduces, the amount of expo- to ensure that all surveys progress on a their variable radial velocities.
sure time in high extinction areas in the common scale. However, changes, espe-
Milky Way disc. In addition, some areas cially also on the target input catalogues, The planned deep fields are natural
in the – 10 < dec < 5 degree range have are expected to be kept to a minimum places to observe variable objects requir-
reduced exposure times as there are no to ensure that the calculation of selection ing repeat visits. While it will not be possi-
targets available in these areas from the functions are tractable. ble to perform timed observations, it is
X-ray eROSITA Surveys (S5 Clusters and expected that a minimum and possibly a
S6 active galactic nuclei [AGN]). A number of other key elements perti­­- maximum duration between repeats can
nent to 4MOST Surveys that cannot be be specified to drive the schedule. The
The colour code of the map of Figure 2 demonstrated with this high-level over- goal is for instance to observe the four
indicates the total exposure time allo- view are described in the next sections. declared LSST Deep Drilling Fields about
cated to each part of the sky. Typically, every two weeks plus or minus a few
the stellar (i.e., Galactic) surveys have days in order to perform reverberation
brighter targets while the extragalactic Cadence and time variable sources mapping of AGN. If LSST decides to
ones have many targets that cannot be define another Deep Drilling Field in the
observed when the Moon is present. As 4MOST is a multi-object survey facil- South Ecliptic Pole area, this field may
Therefore, most of the bright time is dedi- ity, it cannot deliver timed observations replace one of the currently defined four
cated to the Milky Way disc regions. for individual targets. However, using fields. Also repeat fields in the Milky Way
However, some dark/grey time will be minimal constraints on the scheduling of bulge area will be used to study variable
allocated to mostly stellar fields as well as the observations, variable sources and objects.
to enable deeper observations, for transients are part of the science cases
instance in the Milky Way bulge and the for some of the 4MOST Surveys. In order Another class of time-variable sources
Magellanic Clouds. Conversely, when the to deliver reliable scientific output for are transients. It will be possible to add
Milky Way disc is not visible bright time these targets, the 4MOST Survey needs a small number of transients, such as
will be used at higher Galactic latitude to to adopt a cadence in its observations. recently discovered supernovae, to a
observe bright targets there. The executed time sequence may be survey catalogue over the course of the

20 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Consortium Survey Brightness range Targets Table 2. The minimal programme have yet to be determined.
(magnitudes) (millions) number and typical
This programme consists of all stars in
S1 Milky Way Halo LR 15.0 ≤ G ≤ 20.0 1.5 magnitude range of
targets that each Gaia Data Release 3 (DR3) with dec <
S2 Milky Way Halo HR 12.0 ≤ G ≤ 17.0 1.5
Consortium Survey + 30 degrees and in the brightness range
S3 Milky Way Disc and Bulge LR (4MIDABLE-LR) 14.0 ≤ G ≤ 19.0 10.0 expects to observe 7.5 < G < 11 magnitudes for HRS, and
S4 Milky Way Disc and Bulge HR (4MIDABLE-HR) 10.0 ≤ G ≤ 15.5 2.5 in the first five-year
11 < G < 12.5 magnitudes for LRS. This
S5 Galaxy Clusters 18.0 ≤ r ≤ 22.0 1.7 survey of 4MOST.
will ensure 4MOST spectroscopy for all
S6 AGN 18.0 ≤ r ≤ 22.8 1.0
stars that form the core samples of the
S7 Galaxy Evolution (WAVES) 18.0 ≤ r ≤ 22.5 1.6
TESS and PLATO space missions. These
S8 Cosmology Redshift Survey 20.0 ≤ r ≤ 23.9 8.0
missions will ­provide key asteroseismology
S9 Magellanic Clouds (1001MC) 10.5 ≤ G ≤ 19.5 0.5
information that can be used not only to
S10 Transients (TiDES) 18.0 ≤ r ≤ 22.5 0.3
improve the precision on the derived stel-
Total > 28
lar parameters and chemical abundances,
but also to compute masses and ages.
five-year survey period. Because OBs For sky subtraction a fixed percentage This makes this sample an ideal calibra-
that drive the observations on the tele- of fibres will be allocated to empty sky tion and training set for the entire 4MOST
scope are re-created in intervals of three regions. To monitor the quality and cor- Survey. It is expected that almost all of
days, this is also the lead time for adding rectness of the data reduction process, these stars can be observed in less than
transient objects. Data from the LSST radial velocity, flux, and telluric standard five years, after which a fraction of them
survey will provide several live transients stars will be observed. Commis­sioning will be r­ egularly repeated with a cadence
with durations of several weeks that are will be used to test the data reduction that still has to be determined.
visible within one 4MOST field of view at and analysis pipelines on real data.
any pointing on the sky. These transients
are bright enough that, by adding these Prospects
targets to the 4MOST target catalogue Supplementary targets
with high priority, spectra will be obtained The 4MOST strategy described in this
by targeting several transients in each Normal completeness requirements document is not yet frozen and will need
observation, following the nominal survey of surveys that are used for statistical further optimisation. Regular updates
plan of 4MOST. inferences result in inefficiencies in will be made, especially when accommo-
assigning all fibres to targets once most dating accepted community proposals.
Finally, several surveys wish to opti­mise targets have been completed. In order Also, a better understanding of instru-
the sky coverage such that a conti­­- to increase the 4MOST scientific out- ment performances will impact the final
guous area is covered, which has impli- come, the science team will add targets strategy, as well as further advances
cations for the cadence. The optimisation to fill these unscheduled fibres. Supple- in the fields of the presented science
process for preferentially covering large mentary targets are targets that come cases. As the 4MOST project progresses
(≥ 500 square degrees), contiguous areas with no completeness requirements and towards first light more features will be
of the sky is still under development. no guarantee that any one in particular added to the 4MOST Facility Simulator to
will be observed. These extra targets are increase the fidelity of real observations
only added to avoid empty fibres. There- and to encode more science drivers from
Calibration fore the observed number of such targets the surveys. The latest released survey
in any region will depend on the availa­ strategy plan can be found via a web-
An important ingredient of the 4MOST bility of main survey targets and observ- page3 that will be regularly updated.
survey strategy is the calibration plan. ing time in a given area. Community pro-
The instrument and data calibration will posals for supplementary targets will also
follow standard procedures for multi-­ be accepted. Links
object spectroscopic instruments. The 1
The 4MOST webpage: www.4most.eu
moving spine principle of the positioner 2
HEALPix webpage: https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/
will cause variability in the throughput of Poor observing conditions programme 3
4MOST Survey Simulations webpage:
individual fibres for each science expo- https://www.4most.eu/cms/operation/simulations/
sure. Therefore the instrument has the When observing conditions are too
capability to take one additional calibration poor to carry out the normal survey pro- Notes
(a fibre flat) per science exposure during gramme, 4MOST will switch to a dedi-
a
the night if needed. Relative flux calibra- cated poor conditions programme.  EALPix is an acronym for Hierarchical Equal Area
H
isoLatitude Pixelization of a sphere, a pixelisation
tion as a function of wavelength will be Poor conditions are, for instance: twilight, procedure that produces a subdivision of a spheri-
performed with the help of white dwarf full moon without a visible Milky Way, cal surface in which each pixel covers the same
stars and Gaia spectrophotometry, which seeing full width half maximum (FWHM) surface area as every other pixel.
will be available at the time 4MOST starts > 1.5 arcseconds, and cirrus. The optimal
observing. A precision of the order of boundaries for each of these constraints
10% in the continuum slope is expected. that are required to switch to this special

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 21


Surveys

4MOST Focal Surface Units

1 Wide Field Corrector Front Baffle

2 Wide Field Corrector Lens L1



Ø = ~ 950 mm
Mass ~ 120 kg 1
3 Wide Field Corrector Tube including

internal baffles

4 Wide Field Corrector Lens L2a + L2b



Ø = ~ 650 mm
Mass ~ 47 kg + 33 kg

5 Wide Field Corrector Lens L3a + L3b


 2
Ø = ~ 650 mm
Mass ~ 68 kg + 44 kg

6 Wide Field Corrector Lens L4



Ø = ~ 650 mm
Mass ~ 44 kg

7 Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector



rotation mechanisms
3
8 Fibre Positioner electronics boxes



9 Acquisition & Guiding and Wave Front Sensing
2k × 2k technical cameras with pick-off prisms

10
Fibre Positioner
2436 Science spines
12 Guide spines


11 Cassegrain Cable Wrap including
master-slave and safety mechanisms

12 Fibre Feed and Services



2436 Science fibres
Power, control, and coolant lines
4
7

9 9 9

8 8

10

12 11 12
Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5120

4MOST Consortium Survey 1: The Milky Way Halo


Low-Resolution Survey

Amina Helmi 1 Scientific context thousand stars out to 30–60 kpc, includ-


Mike Irwin 2 ing tangential velocities with errors
Alis Deason 3 Halo stars in the Milky Way spend signifi- between 5 and 50 km s –1 depending on
Eduardo Balbinot 1 cant amounts of time at large distances their apparent magnitudes. 4MOST will
Vasily Belokurov 2 from the Galactic centre, hence their tra- push the radial velocities much further,
Joss Bland-Hawthorn 4 jectories are sensitive to the mass distri- down to G ~ 20 magnitudes at 1–2 km s –1
Norbert Christlieb 5 bution of the dark matter halo. Our survey, accuracy. Our survey will also measure
Maria-Rosa L. Cioni 6 the 4MOST Consortium Milky Way Halo line-of-sight velocities for stars at the tip
Sofia Feltzing7 Low-Resolution Survey, is therefore key of the red giant branch up to a distance
Eva K. Grebel 8 for measuring the full mass distribution of of 250 kpc, and the rarer carbon and
Georges Kordopatis 9 the Milky Way. In conjunction with the other asymptotic giant branch stars to
Else Starkenburg 6 more local Milky Way Halo High-Resolution 1 Mpc. Not only will the estimates of the
Nicholas Walton 2 Survey, and the detailed surveys of the total mass of the Galaxy be much more
C. Clare Worley 2 Milky Way disc and bulge ­carried out in precise, but also its 3D distribu­tion
the 4MOST MIlky Way Disc And BuLgE (­density and shape) will be within reach
Low- and High-Resolution Surveys using various dynamical modelling
1
Kapteyn Instituut, Rijksunversiteit (4MIDABLE-LR and 4MIDABLE-HR), it techniques.
­Groningen, the Netherlands also aims to determine the complete
2
Institute of Astronomy, University of merger and assembly history of the Gal- Our survey will also detect faint stellar
Cambridge, UK axy (see Christlieb et al., p. 26; Chiappini streams and any substructures in a com-
3
Department of Physics, Durham et al., p. 30 and Bensby et al., p. 35). bined abundance-kinematic space.
­University, UK In particular, the follow-up of thin streams
4
Sydney Institute for Astronomy, The Galactic halo contains large amounts will allow us to pin down the lumpiness
­University of Sydney, Australia of substructure at distances beyond of the dark matter halo and to constrain its
5
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität 20 kpc, discovered with wide-field photo- nature (Erkal & Belokurov, 2016; ­Bonaca
Heidelberg/Landessternwarte, Germany metric surveys more than 10 years ago et al., 2018). All of these measurements
6
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (Belokurov et al., 2006). At these large will thus lead to strong c­ onstraints on
(AIP), Germany distances, debris is more spatially coher- cosmological models.
7
Lund Observatory, Lund University, ent because the mixing timescales are
Sweden long. With the release of the Gaia astro- A significant by-product of determining
8
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität metric data in April 2018 and the availa- the metallicity distribution function across
Heidelberg/Astronomisches Rechen- bility of 6D phase-space information, it the halo will be the discovery of extremely
Institut, Germany has been demonstrated that the inner metal-poor stars, which will be the focus
9
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, halo is dominated by merger debris from of further, more detailed follow-up, most
France a single object as large as the Small likely using facilities other than 4MOST.
Magellanic Cloud at the time of accretion
(Helmi et al., 2018; Belokurov et al., 2018).
The goal of this survey is to study the Beyond our Galactic neighbourhood, the Specific scientific goals
formation and evolution of the Milky chemical characterisation of which is the
Way halo to deduce its assembly his- focus of the Milky Way High-Resolution The specific goals of our survey are:
tory and the 3D distribution of mass in Survey (Christlieb et al, p.26), there is still – Determining the density profile, shape
the Milky Way. The combination of multi- much to learn. To make significant pro- and characteristic parameters of the
band photometry, Gaia proper motion gress and pin down the full merger his- dark matter halo of the Milky Way —
and parallax data, and radial velocities tory of the Milky Way we require spectro- including testing alternative theories of
and the metallicity and elemental abun- scopic data of distant halo stars over a gravity such as Modified Newtonian
dances obtained from low-resolution large portion of the sky that can be com- Dynamics (MOND) — and possibly their
spectra of halo giants with 4MOST, will bined with the parallax and proper motion evolution in time.
yield an unprecedented characterisa- information from Gaia. – Measurement of the perturbations
tion of the Milky Way halo and its inter- induced by clumps on the spatial and
face with the thick disc. The survey Most current mass estimates of the kinematic properties of cold streams
will produce a volume- and magnitude- Milky Way have relied on small numbers leading to constraints on the mass
limited complete sample of giant stars of tracers, and hence are likely subject spectrum of perturbers and on the
in the halo. It will cover at least 10 000 to bias given the substructures present in nature of dark matter.
square degrees of high Galactic latitude, the halo. The existing data sets contain, – Quantifying the amount of kinematic
and measure line-of-sight velocities at most, 150 objects beyond 50 kpc substructure as a function of distance
with a precision of 1–2 km s –1 as well (dwarf galaxies, globular clusters, halo and location on the sky. This will allow
as metallicities to within 0.2 dex. stars; see, for example, the review article the discovery of substructures, new
by Bland-Hawthorn & Gerhard, 2016). dwarf galaxies and other low surface
Gaia will provide partial data for a few brightness objects, the characterisation

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 23


Surveys Helmi A. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 1

24h 18 h 12h 6h 0h Figure 1. Input catalogue density distribution for


30° the goal survey area of the Milky Way Halo Low-­
Resolution Survey. The stars shown here have been
extracted from Gaia Data Release 2 (Gaia colla­
boration et al., 2018) and satisfy the following crite-
0° ria: – 10 < G + 5 log10(proper motion) < 10, paral-
lax – 2sparallax < 0.2; 0.55 < G–G RP < 0.8 magnitudes,
and 15 < G < 20 magnitudes. This leads to a sample
of approximately 2 million objects satisfying the
–30° ­d eclination range and |b| > 20 degrees, after pruning
out 5- and 10-degree radius regions around the
Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, respectively.
–60° Detailed coordination with the 4MOST Consortium
Magellanic Cloud Survey (see Cioni et al., p. 54)
will be carried out to ensure a smooth transition
1752 962 targets Equatorial between the surveys, as well as refinement of the
target selection criteria. Notice the Sagittarius
streams and other halo over-densities in this version
1 10 100 1000 of the input catalogue for our survey. The goal sur­-
Object density (N/deg 2) vey area is – 80 < dec < + 20 degrees, however, it
should be noted that the baseline survey for 4MOST
is between – 70 < dec < + 5 degrees, and hence
­targets outside this footprint are less likely to be
of their properties and their relation to lar clusters. This magnitude range over- observed (see Guiglion et al., p. 17).
the build-up of the halo. laps at the bright end with the Milky Way
– Characterisation of the metallicity and Halo High-Resolution Survey, which not
elemental abundance distribution only provides cross-checks on derived
(mostly magnesium and iron) through- stellar properties, but also ensures full
out the halo, and also of each of the linkage between local and distant halo
individual structures discovered. This populations. Since the halo density is in the number of such streams and this
will yield enhanced samples of objects low, a wide-field instrument like 4MOST impacts the determination of the mass
with very low metallicities or peculiar is essential to cover a large area in a distribution in the halo (Sanderson et al.,
elemental abundances for more ­reasonable time. The depth of our survey 2015).
detailed follow-up, complementing the is perfectly suited to the goals, and
4MOST Consortium Milky Way Halo matches exactly the depth reached with Radial velocity estimates will generally
High-Resolution Survey (Christlieb et al., Gaia with useful proper motion informa- be obtained from a combination of the
p. 26) which focuses on the halo near tion. The strongest constraints on the Mg b triplet (Mgb) and the near-infrared
the Sun. Such samples should constrain mass distribution come from streams cov- Ca II triplet (CaT) regions, which both
the properties and yields of the first ering large angles on the sky, again push- contain sets of strong absorption lines,
generation of stars (Population III). ing for large area surveys. For stars with also easily detectable in stars with low
– Characterisation of the stellar halo-thick higher signal-to-noise (S/N > 25 per Å) metallicity. The velocity precision has
disc interface from overlap with the useful constraints on the a-element to be 1–2 km s –1 in order to measure the
4MIDABLE-LR survey (Chiappini et al., abundances ([a/Fe] with error ≤ 0.1 dex), mean velocity in a field to approximately
p. 30) with the aim of jointly constraining will be obtained and these are very 500 m s –1, which promises excellent con-
the temporal assembly and evolution of important to further aid subdividing and straints on the mass distribution in the
the thick disc and inner halo. characterising halo substructures (see Milky Way, and the dark matter granular-
for example, Hayes et al., 2018; Helmi et ity imprinted in the velocities of stream
al., 2018). stars (for example, Bonaca et al., 2018).
Science requirements We note that accurate constraints on the
The optimal streams for the determination Galactic potential can be obtained even
The survey we propose will lead to a of the Milky Way gravitational potential if only limited proper motion information
sample comprising on the order of (mass, shape, time evolution and granu- is available. If narrow streams are not
1.5 million giant stars in the halo (mainly larity) are thin and cold, and typically ­distributed isotropically on the sky, for
K giant stars but also including the rarer originate in objects with stellar mass example as a consequence of infall along
A stars, particularly blue horizontal smaller than a few times 105 M⊙. Models filaments, it will be important to comple-
branch stars, together with M giant stars of galaxy formation (Cooper et al., 2010) ment the kinematic maps of streams with
and carbon stars) across the virial volume predict about 50–100 such thin streams those from field stars.
of the Milky Way, with kinematics precise observable down to a G magnitude ~ 20,
to 1–2 km s –1 and overall metallicities across a 10 000 square degree region
precise to ≤ 0.2 dex. This means observ- of the sky, and there may be many more Target selection and survey area
ing all giant stars in the halo in the mag­ from disrupted globular clusters (Bonaca
nitude range 15 ≤ G ≤ 20 magnitudes, et al., 2014; and see Malhan et al., 2018 The density of the stellar halo, and hence
including those in the lower density for the first detections with Gaia DR2). of the kinematic tracers, is low. Moreover,
regions of halo dwarf galaxies and globu- A smaller area leads to a significant loss since the density profile of the halo drops

24 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


rapidly, these tracers are rare at large 1000

­distances. The expected average source


density is 100–200 stars per square
degree at a G magnitude ~ 20. A large
Mgb CaT
survey area (minimum 10 000 square 800
degrees; goal 150 000 square degrees) is
also needed to find the rare, precious red
giant branch stars near the virial radius
of the Milky Way. Candidate halo giant 600
stars will be selected on the basis of Gaia
Flux (ADUs)

photometry, parallax and proper motion


information possibly supplemented with
photometry from ground-based imaging 400
surveys (DES, SDSS, VST, PanSTARRS).
Furthermore, we will also specifically
­target stars in streams known at the time
of the survey, potentially down to the 200
main-sequence turnoff to increase the
number of objects and provide tighter
constraints on the dynamics of the
stream. Our aim is to target every star 0
lying in a cold stream area in the available 5000 5200 5400 8400 8600 8800
Wavelength (Å) Wavelength (Å)
magnitude range, since we expect (field)
contamination at a level of 70% –100%,
depending on how the stars are pre-­ Spectral success criterion and figure of Figure 2. Example of a 1D-extracted spectrum of
a halo K giant star (g = 18.73, i = 17.51 magnitudes)
selected. Although Gaia will yield some merit
from a 4MOST simulated exposure of 3 × 1020 sec-
useful prior constraints on the distances onds in dark conditions. The stellar Mgb and CaT
of stars in the inner halo, photometric The spectral success criterion of our sur- lines are blueshifted from their reference values by
­distance estimates will need to be com- vey will not be binary (i.e., passed/failed), the high negative heliocentric velocity (– 267 km s –1)
of the star. The average S/N in the continuum in
bined with the Gaia data both to improve but “fuzzy” since spectra with S/N
these regions is around 25 Å –1. According to the
the inner halo distances and to provide below the boundary value are still useful study by the Galactic pipeline working group,
a distance proxy for the outer halo. Here for deriving radial velocities, albeit with these can reach a precision of [Fe/H] ~ 0.15 and
in particular, the 4MOST spectra will be a lower precision. For computing the [a/Fe] ~ 0.1 dex.
key. The spectra will be coupled with spectral success value, we will employ a
extant broadband photometry to derive non-linear function f(S/N) that maps
photometric distances and accurate the S/N of each spectrum onto the value
radial velocities for the halo star samples range [0,1] and is defined to be 0.5 if the
(for example, Xue et al., 2014). The same S/N = 10 per Å in the continuum in the
survey will also make full use of the Mgb and CaT regions (compare Figure 2).
­combination of kinematic and positional
information combined with chemical, The survey figure of merit (FoM) is chosen
i.e., [Fe/H] and [a/Fe], signatures to char- to yield a high completeness per field
acterise substructures at large radii, be with a large fraction of the stars satisfying
they streams or dwarf galaxies. well-defined S/N constraints over specific
wavelength regions. The overall survey References
The goal survey area ranges from decli- FoM is defined to be
nations (dec) of + 20 to – 80 degrees and Belokurov, V. et al. 2006, ApJL, 642, L137
covers all right ascensions (RAs) satisfy- %N,LHM^  >
YH HLHM"%H    
 
@` Belokurov, V. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 478, 611
Bland-Hawthorn, J. & Gerhard, O. 2016, ARA&A,
ing Galactic latitudes |b| > 20 degrees. 54, 529
This yields some 4500 square degrees where Ai is the area of 4MOST field i in Bonaca, A. et al. 2014, ApJ, 795, 94
north of the celestial equator and around square degrees and CFi the complete- Bonaca, A. et al. 2018, arXiv:1811.03631
12 500 square degrees south of the ness fraction for a field, i.e., the fraction Cooper, A. P. et al. 2010, MNRAS, 406, 744
Erkal, D. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 463, 102
equator, giving a total of 17 000 square of stars satisfying the S/N constraints; Gaia Collaboration et al. 2018, A&A, 616, A1
degrees. As mentioned previously, galaxy 15 000 square degrees reflects our main Helmi, A. et al. 2018, Nature, 563, 85
formation simulations suggest a minimum survey area goal. Hayes, C. R. et al. 2018, ApJ, 852, 49
requirement for the halo survey area to Malhan, K., Ibata, R. A. & Martin, N. F. 2018,
MNRAS, 481, 3442
be at least 10 000 square degrees, while Sanderson, R. E., Helmi, A. & Hogg, D. W. 2015,
a desirable goal would be to cover at ApJ, 801, 98
least 15 000 square degrees. Xue, X.-X. et al. 2014, ApJ, 784, 170

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 25


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5121

4MOST Consortium Survey 2: The Milky Way Halo


High-Resolution Survey

Norbert Christlieb 1 will associate with their possible birth- Way halo stars show very similar trends
Chiara Battistini 1 places by means of their abundance (for example, Mashonkina et al., 2017).
Piercarlo Bonifacio 2 signatures and kinematics, allowing In ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs),
Elisabetta Caffau 2 us to test models of galaxy ­formation. ­distinctly low abundances of neutron-­
Hans-Günter Ludwig 1 Our target catalogue is also expected capture elements and low [Sr/Ba] values
Martin Asplund 3 to contain 30 000 stars at a metallicity (for example, Koch et al., 2013), and the
Paul Barklem 4 of less than one hundredth that of the abundance signature of a single r-process
Maria Bergemann 5 Sun. This sample will therefore be enrichment event (Ji et al., 2016) have
Ross Church 6 almost a factor of 100 larger than cur- been observed. Therefore, these abun-
Sofia Feltzing 6 rently existing samples of metal-poor dance signatures can be used for asso­
Dominic Ford 6 stars for which precise elemental ciating kinematically identified groups of
Eva K. Grebel 7 ­abundances are available (determined halo field stars with dSphs or UFDs. Fur-
Camilla Juul Hansen 5 from high-resolution spectroscopy), thermore, the location of the “knee” in
Amina Helmi 8 enabling us to study the early chemical the [a/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] abundance ratio dia-
Georges Kordopatis 9 evolution of the Milky Way in unprece- gram a (i.e., the value of [Fe/H] at which
Mikhail Kovalev 5 dented detail. supernovae of type Ia start to contribute
Andreas Korn 4 significantly to the chemical enrichment
Karin Lind 5 of the galaxy, thereby decreasing [a/Fe])
Andreas Quirrenbach 1 Scientific context can be used to constrain the s­ tellar mass
Jan Rybizki 5 of the host galaxy (for example Hendricks
Ása Skúladóttir 5 Galaxy formation simulations predict et al., 2014). With a large enough sample
Else Starkenburg 10 that the halo of the Milky Way consists of halo stars it is therefore possible to
in part of stars that formed in situ and in identify the building blocks of the Galactic
part of stars that were accreted from halo, determine their quantity and proper-
1
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität smaller galaxies (for example, Pillepich ties, and test numerical simulations of
Heidelberg/Landessternwarte, et al., 2015). The simulations furthermore galaxy formation.
Germany predict that the main external contribu-
2
GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université tion to the build-up of the stellar halo Additional significant contributions to
PSL, CNRS, France came from the accretion of a few massive the build-up of the Milky Way halo have
3
Research School of Astronomy & (i.e., 108 to 109 M⊙) luminous satellites been made by the accretion of stars from
Astrophysics, Australian National Uni- which merged with our galaxy more than globular clusters (for example Martell et
versity, Canberra, Australia 9 Gyr ago (for example, De Lucia & al., 2011). These stars can be identified
4
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Helmi, 2008). This has recently been con- in the halo field by their characteristic
Uppsala universitet, Sweden firmed observationally by the discovery light element abundance ratios (Bastian
5
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, of the stellar debris of the Gaia-Encela- & Lardo, 2018).
Heidelberg, Germany dus galaxy, which merged with the Milky
6
Lund Observatory, Lund University, Way 10 Gyr ago, and then had a mass Our survey will also aim to significantly
Sweden of 2.4 × 109 M⊙ (Helmi et al., 2018). Low- increase the sample of metal-poor
7
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität mass satellite accretion continues until stars (i.e., stars in which the abundances
Heidelberg/Astronomisches Rechen-­ the present day, especially in the outer of elements heavier than helium are
Institut, Germany halo, although at a much reduced rate. reduced by more than a factor of ten
8
Kapteyn Instituut, Rijksunversiteit These small satellites are minor contribu- ­relative to the Sun) in the Galactic halo.
­Groningen, the Netherlands tors to the stellar mass of the halo. These stars are tracers of the early
9
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, chemical evolution of the Galaxy (Frebel
France The remnants of such accretion events & Norris, 2015). The abundances of the
10
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik ­Potsdam are kinematically coherent substruc- elements in their atmospheres provide us
(AIP), Germany tures in the Galactic halo. Some of them with information not only on the earliest
also remain spatially coherent, so that phases of chemical enrichment of the
they can be detected in wide-field imag- Universe, but also on the nucleo­synthetic
We will study the formation history of ing surveys, and many have indeed processes contributing to the enrich-
the Milky Way, and the earliest phases been d ­ iscovered during the last decade ment. In addition, they provide observa-
of its chemical enrichment, with a (for example, Malhan et al., 2018 and tional constraints on the physics of star
­sample of more than 1.5 million stars ­references therein). formation processes in metal-poor envi-
at high galactic latitude. Elemental ronments and properties of the first gen-
abundances of up to 20 elements with Existing spectroscopic samples suggest eration of stars (for example, the initial
a precision of better than 0.2 dex will that at low metallicities, the a-elements, mass function and rotation speeds).
be derived for these stars. The sample Fe-peak elements and neutron-capture
will include members of kinematically elements in stars of classical dwarf
coherent substructures, which we ­spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and Milky

26 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Specific scientific goals Criterion # Bright survey Faint survey Deep survey
1 + 20° ≥ dec ≥ – 80°
Selected areas
The goals of the 4MOST Milky Way Halo 2 |b| > 20°
High-Resolution Survey are: 3 [Fe/H] < – 0.5
– identification and determination of the 4 12.0 ≤ G ≤ 14.5 14.5 < G ≤ 15.5 15.5 < G ≤ 17.0
elemental abundance patterns of stars 5 0.15 ≤ (GBP –GRP) 0 ≤ 1.10
that (a) formed in situ in the Galaxy, 6 (1.10 < (GBP –GRP) 0 ≤ 1.60) & (MG < 3.5)
(b) were contributed from a few major Total number of targets 1150 000 800 000 26 000
accretion events, or (c) were con­tributed Targets at [Fe/H] < – 2.0 13 000 18 000 100
by minor, low-mass accretion events;
– identification of stars that were accreted Table 1. Target selection criteria for the three At an average target density of about
sub-surveys. The criteria 5 and 6 select dwarf/sub-
to the halo from globular clusters, and 450 dwarf and giant stars per 4.2 square
giant, and giant stars, respectively. The logical
quantification of their contribution to the ­c ombination of the criteria is “1 and 2 and 3 and 4 degrees of the 4MOST field down to
build-up of the halo; and (5 or 6)”. G = 15.5 magnitudes (but varying strongly
– studying the earliest phases of chemi- with galactic latitude), this will lead to
cal evolution of the Milky Way and a sample of more than 1.5 million stars.
the nucleosynthetic processes involved At the low-metallicity end, we will be Our current target catalogue covers
by means of very metal-poor (i.e., able to increase the sample of halo stars 18 700 square degrees (see Figure 2),
[Fe/H] < – 2.0) halo stars. with elemental abundances based on including a total of about 4 700 square
high-resolution (i.e., R = λ/Dl > 18 000) degrees at dec­linations, dec > +5 degrees
To reach these goals, we plan to deter- spectroscopy by almost two orders or dec < – 70 degrees (i.e., outside the
mine the abundances of 10–20 elements of magnitude. At the time of writing, the fiducial survey footprint, see Guiglion et
in more than 1.5 million stars at high Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archae- al., p. 17). However, we expect that only
galactic latitude; the number of elements ology (SAGA) 1 database lists 323 such a small fraction of these fields outside
will depend on the stellar parameters, stars at [Fe/H] < – 2.0 with available the fiducial footprint can be observed,
including [Fe/H]. By applying our selec- high-resolution spectra, while our target because of unfavourable observing con-
tion criteria (Table 1) to the Gaia DR2 catalogue contains 31 000 stars in that ditions (for example, higher airmass or
mock stellar catalogue of Rybizki et al. metallicity range, of which we expect prevailing northern winds at Paranal), and
(2018), we estimate that our current cata- ~ 24 000 to be observed. the total amount of observing time availa-
logue contains about 200 000 ­genuine ble in a five-year survey.
halo stars. This is the number of stars Extrapolating from the currently existing
needed for the characterisation of the samples, we estimate that we will find For characterising the abundance pat-
300–600 kinematically coherent groups ~ 200 new stars at [Fe/H] < – 4.0, com- terns, all the relevant element groups
of stars that are expected to be present pared to the 24 that are known today, need to be covered, including the light
in the Galactic halo from cosmological according to the SAGA database. These elements (for example, C), a-elements (for
simulations (for example, Gomez et al., stars are presumably second-genera­tion example, Mg, Ca), and neutron-capture
2013), because several hundred stars per stars; i.e., their elemental abundance elements (for example, Ba, Sr, Eu). In
group are needed to accurately s­ ample ­patterns are the imprints of the super- the optical spectra of very metal-poor
the multi-­dimensional abundance space. nova explosions of the first stars in the stars, there are very few absorption lines
Note that most dSphs experienced Universe. Therefore, we will be able to at l > 4500 Å (see Hansen et al., 2015
extended star formation histories, so a derive indirectly properties of the first for a detailed study). For these stars, we
wide range in [Fe/H] needs to be sampled. generation of stars (including, for exam- will mostly rely on the spectra acquired
ple, their mass distribution), and to infer with the blue arm of the 4MOST high-­
We do not want to select these 200 000 information on the physics of star forma- resolution spectrograph. However, valua-
genuine halo stars by kinematic criteria, tion in low-metallicity environments. Fur- ble additional information can be derived,
to avoid kinematic biases in our sample. thermore, the larger sample will give for example, from the Mg I b triplet lines
Furthermore, precise radial velocities us a chance of identifying objects that are covered by the green arm, and from the
cannot be acquired by the Gaia Radial too rare to be included in the currently Ha and the Li I 6707 Å lines covered by
Velocity Spectrometer for the majority of existing samples. the red arm. Furthermore, the green
our stars, because most of them are too and red arm spectra of higher metallicity
faint — Gaia will obtain radial velocities (i.e., – 2.0 < [Fe/H] < – 0.5) stars will con-
with a precision better than 1 km s – 1 only Science requirements tain many more detectable lines, which
for G dwarf and K giant stars brighter will increase the precision of the derived
than G = 12.3 and 12.8 magnitudes (Vega), Since the density of stars bright enough elemental abundances.
respectively. Therefore, the third compo- for high-resolution spectroscopy with a
nent of their space motions will be known 4-metre telescope is low in fields at high Elemental abundance ratios with a pre­
only a posteriori, once the 4MOST spec- galactic latitude, this survey needs large cision of s[X/Y] < 0.2 dex are typically
tra have been obtained. sky coverage. We are therefore aiming at needed to distinguish between different
a survey area of 14 000 square degrees. stellar populations, and to determine the

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 27


Surveys Christlieb N. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 2

potential origin of the stars. For example, Star type S/N per pixelb in survey All three of our sub-surveys target dwarf,
stars with [a/Fe] ~ 0.0, which are charac- Bright Faint Deep subgiant, and giant stars. The blue colour
teristic of dwarf galaxies (for example, Dwarf & subgiant 50 25 25 limit of (GBP–GRP)0 = 0.15 magnitudes
Tolstoy et al., 2009) — as opposed to Giant 30 15 15 is chosen to match the colours of 13-Gyr-
the canonical [a/Fe] = + 0.4 in the Milky old ultra-metal-poor (i.e., [Fe/H] < – 4.0)
Way halo — can be recognised reliably Table 2. Spectral success criteria. The S/N is meas- stars near the main-sequence turnoff; the
ured in the wavelength region 4261–4270 Å, which is
only at this precision in abundance ratio red limit of (GBP–GRP)0 = 1.6 magnitudes
free of strong spectral lines in the stellar parameter
measurement. The [a/Fe] ratios of the range covered by our survey. The criteria reflect the ensures that metal-poor K giant stars are
inner and outer halo are separated by different science goals of the sub-surveys, as well as included, while main-sequence stars of
only 0.1 dex (Nissen & Schuster, 2015), the different line strengths in dwarf and giant stars of spectral type M or later are removed. To
a given metallicity.
but several a-elements can be combined remove foreground K dwarf stars belong-
to increase the precision. ing to the Galactic disc populations, we
have added an absolute magnitude crite-
Information on the binary status of the Our metallicity cut ([Fe/H] < – 0.5) will rion for the stars at (GBP–GRP)0 > 1.1 mag-
targets of our survey is important for ensure that our survey will include the nitudes. With that colour limit, metal-
the interpretation of their elemental abun- interesting metallicity range – 1.5 < [Fe/H] poor G dwarf stars are still included. The
dance patterns, since it provides con- < – 0.5, over which the [a/Fe] abundance absolute magnitude criterion for giant
straints on the nucleosynthetic origin of, ratios allow us to discriminate between stars is MG < 3.5 magnitudes. A colour-
for example, the neutron-capture e ­ lements the inner and outer halo populations magnitude diagram of the targets in a
in the atmospheres of the observed stars. ­(Nissen & Schuster, 2010). On the other narrow range around [Fe/H] = – 1.0 is
Therefore, we want as many targets as hand, the criterion removes stars of shown in Figure 1.
possible to be re-­observed on timescales the disc populations in the Milky Way.
of months to years, so that radial velocity
variations can be detected. For harmonisation with the maximum Spectral success criteria and figure of
total exposure times per high-galactic-­ merit
latitude field needed by the low-resolution
Target selection and survey area surveys, we have defined three sub-­ Our spectral success criteria are chosen
surveys: (1) a bright survey of stars in the such that precise (i.e., s[X/Y] < 0.1–0.2 dex)
The targets for our survey will be selected range 12 ≤ G ≤ 14.5 magnitudes, allowing elemental abundances of up to 20 ele-
from the Gaia Data Release 3 catalogue, us to acquire spectra with a signal-to- ments can be determined for the targets
based on their apparent Gaia magnitude noise ratio (S/N) larger than 50 per pixel b of the bright sub-survey, while for the
(G), de-reddened GBP–GRP colour (i.e., in the continuum at 4260 Å with 4MOST fainter targets at least a rough characteri-
(GBP–GRP)0), where GBP and GRP are the in less than 2 hours; (2) a faint survey sation of the abundance patterns of
integrated Gaia Blue and Red Photome- (14.5 < G ≤ 15.5 magnitudes); and (3) a the stars will be possible by means of
ter magnitudes, respectively, and abso- deep survey (15.5 < G ≤ 17.0 ­magnitudes). abundances of the most important ele-
lute G magnitude (MG), determined using In the latter two sub-surveys, the S/N ments with a typical precision of s[X/Y] <
Gaia parallaxes (or upper limits). For the requirements are reduced by a factor 0.2–0.3 dex, depending on the elements
metallicity selection, we will use the best of two with respect to the bright survey. and the stellar parameters. This will
data available at the time the 4MOST The area of the deep survey will be make it possible to, for example, identify
­survey starts; for example, from the Sky- aligned with the sky regions in which ­metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon,
Mapper survey (Casagrande et al., 2019), other 4MOST surveys will obtain longer neutron-capture elements, or combina-
Gaia BP spectra, or at dec > 0 degrees exposures, for example, the WAVES- tions thereof. Example spectra are shown
from the Pristine survey (Starkenburg et Wide and WAVES-Deep surveys. The in Figure 3, and the criteria are listed in
al., 2017). The selection criteria are sum- fainter magnitude limit in these fields will Table 2.
marised in Table 1. allow us to observe giant stars at dis-
tances of up to 25 kpc, so the fraction The current definition of the figure of
Since we are targeting halo stars, we of outer halo stars among our targets merit (FoM) of this survey increases line-
have restricted the survey footprint to is expected to be significantly higher in arly with the number of successfully
galactic latitudes of |b| > 20 degrees, these fields. observed targets, and it is 1.0 if 1.5 million
taking advantage of the fact that the stars have been observed successfully.
high-­resolution fibres of 4MOST will not We note that the magnitude ranges of the However, we are considering implement-
be used by the extragalactic surveys. 4MOST high- and low-resolution surveys ing a numerical scheme that takes into
In the range 20 < |b| < 30 degrees, there of the Milky Way halo are complementary. account “partially successful” observa-
will be a significant overlap with the t­argets In the former, the brighter magnitude limit tions such as that outlined in the White
of 4MIDABLE-HR (Bensby et al., p. 35). will result in a sample dominated by the Paper of the 4MOST Consortium Milky
The overlap is ­currently estimated to be inner halo population, while the latter will Way Halo Low-Resolution Survey (see
about 440 000 stars, so a joint target focus on exploring the outer halo. Helmi et al., p. 23), for the reasons dis-
catalogue will be created and observed cussed there.
spectra will be exchanged.

28 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Figure 1. Colour-magnitude diagram of the targets
Bright survey Faint survey Deep survey
of the three sub-surveys. We show stars at [Fe/H] = –2
–1.0 ± 0.1, taken from the Gaia DR2 mock stellar
­c atalogue (Rybizki et al., 2018), and compare them
with isochrones for [Fe/H] = –1.0 and ages 10, 12, 2.5–7.9 kpc 7.9 –12 kpc 12–25 kpc
0
and 13 Gyr. The numbers inside the panels are the
distance ranges covered by the targets at the given
absolute magnitude. The absence of stars on the
MG
subgiant branch (i.e., roughly in the absolute magni- 2
tude range 3 < MG < 4 magnitudes) is an artefact
introduced by selecting only stars for which [Fe/H]
has been determined with a precision of better than 4
0.3 dex. Note that the (GBP –GRP) 0 colours of main-
sequence turnoff stars at [Fe/H] = – 4.0 are consider-
ably bluer than those of the stars shown here, hence 6 0.16–0.50 kpc 0.50–0.80 kpc 0.80 –1.6 kpc
our choice of a colour cut-off at (GBP –GRP) 0 = 0.15
magnitudes.
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
(G BP –G RP ) 0 (G BP –G RP ) 0 (G BP –G RP ) 0

24 h 18 h 12h 6h 0h Dwarf (Teff = 6000 K/log g = 4.5) Giant (Teff = 4500 K/log g = 1.5)
30°
[Fe/H] = – 2.0 [Fe/H] = – 4.0 [Fe/H] = – 2.0 [Fe/H] = – 4.0

1.0

0.8
Relative flux

– 30° 0.6

0.4
– 60°
0.2 Fe II Fe II
1989 346 targets Equatorial Mg I Mg I Mg I Mg I Mg I Mg I
0.0
5165 5170 5175 5180 5185 5165 5170 5175 5180 5185
1 10 100 1000
Object counts per degree 2
1.0

Figure 2. Combined target density of the three 0.8


sub-surveys. The areas covered by our deep survey
Relative flux

can be recognised by their slightly higher target 0.6


­d ensities compared to the combined target density
of the other two sub-surveys, for example, at dec 0.4
~ 0 degrees and 10 < right ascension < 15 hours,
which is one of the WAVES-Wide fields (see WAVES 0.2
White Paper of Driver et al., p. 46). Note that targets Fe I Fe I Sr II Fe I Fe I Sr II
with dec > + 5 and dec < – 70 degrees have a smaller 0.0
4060 4065 4070 4075 4080 4060 4065 4070 4075 4080
likelihood of being observed in the baseline survey Wavelength (Å) Wavelength (Å)
strategy (see Guiglion et al., p. 17).
Figure 3. Synthetic spectra of a dwarf star (left pan-
els) and a giant star (right panels) at the S/N required
to reach the science goals of the bright survey
(see Table 1). At that S/N, several Fe lines, as well as
the Mg b triplet lines, are clearly detected even at
[Fe/H] = – 4.0.

Acknowledgements References Links

1
This work is supported by Sonderforschungsbereich Bastian, N. & Lardo, C. 2018, ARA&A, 56, 83  tellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology Data-
S
SFB 881 “The Milky Way System” (subprojects A3, Casagrande, L. 2019, MNRAS, 482, 2770 base: http://sagadatabase.jp/
A4 and A9) of the German Research Foundation De Lucia, G. & Helmi, A. 2008, MNRAS, 391, 14
(DFG), by the German Federal Ministry of Education Frebel, A. & Norris, J. E. 2015, ARA&A, 53, 631
and Research (BMBF) through Verbundforschungs­ Hansen, C. J. et al. 2015, AN, 336, 665 Notes
projekt 05A17VH4, by the Observatoire de Paris, and Helmi, A. et al. 2018, Nature, 563, 85
the project grant “The New Milky Way” from the Knut Hendricks, B. et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 102 a
[X/Y] = log10(N X /N Y )∗ –log10(N X /N Y )⊙, where N X and
and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Ji, A. et al. 2016, ApJ, 830, 93 N Y are the number densities of the elements X and
Koch, A. et al. 2013, A&A, 554, A5 Y, respectively.
Malhan, K. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 481, 3442 b
For a conversion from S/N per pixel into S/N Å –1, a
Martell, S. L. et al. 2011, A&A, 534, A136 factor of 3.3 has to be applied (see 4MOST over-
Mashonkina, A. 2017, A&A, 608, A89 view paper by de Jong et al., p. 3).
Nissen, P. E. & Schuster, W. J. 2010, A&A, 511, L10
Pillepich, A. et al. 2015, ApJ, 799, 184
Rybizki, J. et al. 2018, PASP, 130, 074101
Starkenburg, E. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 471, 2587
Tolstoy, E. et al. 2009, ARA&A, 47, 371

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 29


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5122

4MOST Consortium Survey 3: Milky Way Disc and Bulge


Low-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-LR)

Cristina Chiappini 1 9
Research School of Astronomy & the chemically and structurally defined thin
Ivan Minchev 1 Astrophysics, Australian National and thick discs, and the bulge. The area
Else Starkenburg 1 ­University, Canberra, Australia covered by the 4MIDABLE-LR, as well as
Friedrich Anders 2 10
Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, by the 4MOST MIlky Way Disc And BuLgE
Nicola Gentile Fusillo 3 INAF, Italy High-Resolution survey for brighter stars
Ortwin Gerhard 4 11
Institute of Astronomy, University of (4MIDABLE-HR) will be large enough to
Guillaume Guiglion 1 Cambridge, UK also enable a comprehensive study of the
Arman Khalatyan 1 12
Department of Physics and Astronomy, disc/bulge, disc/halo, and bulge/halo
Georges Kordopatis 5 Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia interfaces for the first time — the latter two
Bertrand Lemasle 6 in collaboration with the 4MOST Consor-
Gal Matijevic 1 tium Milky Way Halo LR Survey.
Anna Barbara de Andrade Queiroz 1 The mechanisms of the formation and
Axel Schwope 1 evolution of the Milky Way are encoded
Matthias Steinmetz 1 in the orbits, chemistry and ages of its Specific scientific goals
Jesper Storm 1 stars. With the 4MOST MIlky way Disk
Gregor Traven 7 And BuLgE Low-Resolution Survey Our main goals are:
Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay 3 (4MIDABLE-LR) we aim to study kine- – To better understand the current Milky
Marica Valentini 1 matic and chemical substructures in the Way disc structure and dynamics (bar,
Rene Andrae 8 Milky Way disc and bulge region with spiral arms, vertical structure, stellar
Anke Arentsen 1 samples of unprecedented size out to radial migration, merger history).
Martin Asplund 9 larger distances and greater precision – To study the chrono-chemo-dynamics
Thomas Bensby 7 than conceivable with Gaia alone or of the disc, which, when combined
Maria Bergemann 8 any other ongoing or planned survey. with the above will allow us to recover
Luca Casagrande 9 Gaia gives us the unique opportunity for the disc evolutionary history.
Ross Church 7 target selection based almost entirely – To better understand the formation of
Gabriele Cescutti 10 on parallax and magnitude range, hence the Milky Way bulge/bar using both
Sofia Feltzing 7 increasing the efficiency in sampling chemical and kinematical information.
Morgan Fouesneau 8 larger Milky Way volumes with well-­ – To study the inner disc/bulge and disc/
Eva K. Grebel 6 defined and effective selection functions. halo interfaces by covering a large area
Mikhail Kovalev 8 and ensuring high-quality chemical and
Paul McMillan 7 kinematical information.
Giacomo Monari 1 Scientific context
Jan Rybizki 8 These goals could be summarised as one
Nils Ryde 7 Observations of star-forming regions main goal — to provide a detailed chrono-­
Hans-Walter Rix 8 ­suggest that stars are born in groups chemo-kinematical extended map of our
Nicholas Walton 11 that possess a high degree of chemical Galaxy and the largest Gaia follow-up
Maosheng Xiang 8 homogeneity. Large-scale galactic down to G = 19 magnitudes (Vega). The
Daniel Zucker 12 dynamical processes (spiral arms, the complex nature of the disc components
and the 4MIDABLE-LR Team central bar, mergers) affect these stellar (for example, large target densities and
aggregates kinematically but not chemi- highly structured extinction distribution
cally. Comparison between dynamical in the Milky Way bulge and disc area),
1
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam models of the Galaxy and the observed as well as the nature of the open ques-
(AIP), Germany velocity field for a densely populated tions addressed above, prompted us to
2
Departament de Física Quàntica i homogeneous disc area will allow us, for develop a survey strategy with five main
­Astrofísica, Universitat de Barcelona, the first time, to unambiguously quantify sub-surveys that are tailored to answer
Spain the structure of the present-day bar, the main science questions, while taking
3
Department of Physics, University of spiral arms, and asymmetries across the full advantage of the Gaia data.
Warwick, UK disc mid-plane. By combining this infor-
4
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische mation with accurate elemental abun-
Physik, Garching, Germany dances and ages, we will reconstruct the The main sub-surveys are:
5
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, enrichment of the Galaxy as a function
France of Galactic radius and time. With its high 1. E
 xtended Solar Neighbourhood (ESN)
6
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität multiplex power, 4MOST will allow us to — The aim of this sub-survey is to
Heidelberg / Astronomisches Rechen- view the Milky Way as a whole. study in detail the chemistry and veloc-
Institut, Germany ity substructure in a disc volume for
7
Lund Observatory, Lund University, With the Low-Resolution Spectrographa which Gaia provides the most precise
Sweden (LRS) of 4MOST we can study the origin parallaxes (d < 2 kpc). Because we
8
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, and evolution of essentially all the domi- select stars that are fainter than those
Heidelberg, Germany nant stellar components of the Milky Way: that have been targeted for spectros-

30 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


copy by Gaia, we target this region the disc. Higher signal-to-noise (S/N) Whilst most of our survey is carried
with many more and different tracers, observations enable measurement of out under bright sky conditions, some
including sub-giant stars (~ 20%) which elemental abundances for many stars dark and grey time will be used for this
are suitable for accurate age deter­ for iron, carbon, several alpha ele- sub-­survey. Moreover, in a joint effort
mination. Additionally, we add elemen- ments and iron-peak elements, lithium, with S4, we plan a 4MOST southern
tal abundances not obtainable from sodium, and the n-capture elements bulge deep-field sub-survey with a grid
Gaia spectra, such as the n-capture Ba and Sr. Our data will allow us to of pointings in the region –8 < l < 8
elements Ba and Sr. Constraining the constrain radial and vertical chemical degrees and –10 < b < –4 degrees to be
dynamical and chemical state in this gradients, as well as velocity disper- observed for 8 hours each. This will allow
nearby region will drastically improve sions as a function of stellar age when us to extend the LR coverage down to
our understanding of the influence combined with sub-samples of stars G = 18.5–19.0 magnitudes in these fields,
that the bar, spiral arms, and external for which ages can be reliably deter- hence c­ omplementing our main survey in
perturbations (for example, from the mined (from asteroseismic measure- the 16 < G < 17 magnitude range.
Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy) ments, or otherwise). The large sample
have on the disc dynamics and stellar of stellar spectra will also allow identifi- In parallel with our main sub-surveys, we
radial migration (Minchev, Chiappini cation of stars that were born in now- will have the following six sub-surveys
& Martig, 2013). This is our brightest dissolved star clusters and associations targeting specific classes of stars. These
sub-survey and the most densely sam- via chemical labelling and kinematics, can all be pursued simultaneously and
pled region. when the cluster chemistry and/or kin- efficiently thanks to the multiplexing
ematics are sufficiently different from capabilities of 4MOST and the fact that
2. Dynamical disc (Dyn) — This sub-­ the field population. Moreover, it may they consist of targets sparsely distributed
survey targets a dense disc sample to lead to the serendipitous discovery of over the footprint of the main surveys.
detect velocity resonance structures, extra-tidal stars around surviving clus-
stellar streaming, and disc ringing in ters, imposing constraints on dynami- 6. V
 ery metal-poor stars — These are
order to better understand the current cal mass loss. important tracers of the early evolution
structure and dynamics of the Milky of the Galaxy. We will select these tar-
Way disc (Minchev, 2016). Comparing 5. B ulge/Inner Galaxy (BIG) — To better gets in the disc and inner Galaxy from
the velocity field in different parts of understand the formation of the Milky additional photometric surveys (Sky-
the Galaxy will allow us to unambigu- Way bulge/bar region and to study the Mapper and the Pristine survey), and
ously determine the physical mecha- inner disc/bulge/halo interfaces, this sub- from APOGEE. For the latter targets
nisms perturbing the Milky Way in a survey will map the inner 4–5 kpc of spectroscopy is available, but for this
way that is not possible with smaller or the Galaxy, encompassing the full bar type of target the 4MOST optical
patchy survey volumes. It is therefore length and peanut thickness, which wavelength coverage rather than the
crucial that we observe a dense sam- is still poorly covered by other spectro- (near-) infrared APOGEE wavelength
ple over multiple (four to five) disc scopic surveys (Barbuy et al., 2018). region is necessary to obtain accurate
scale-lengths, leveraging the unique This will certainly be a legacy survey, elemental abundance information and
capabilities of 4MOST, and produce an as we aim to provide the largest cover- study their chemical pattern. Our very metal-
extended map to facilitate compari- age of the inner disc/bulge volume, poor sub-survey complements the
sons between the well-studied Milky focusing on the interplay of all different 4MOST Consortium Milky Way Halo
Way and galaxies in general. Galactic components in this region. High-Resolution Survey, which is also
BIG will fully complement the surveys pre-selecting metal-poor targets, as
3. Faint dynamical disc (Fdyn) — This sub- with the Multi-Object Optical and Near- we are probing fainter targets with the
survey has an overall goal similar to infrared Spectrograph (MOONS), the LRS and are looking in the inner Galaxy
that of the Dynamical disc sub-survey, Apache Point Observatory Galaxy and in the disc footprint. Some overlap
but with the explicit aim of studying ­Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), Sloan is desired for calibration purposes.
the stellar disc to its edge, and also at Digital Sky Survey V, and the 4MOST
the other side of the Galaxy (out to MIlky Way Disc And BuLgE High-­ 7. W hite dwarfs — This sub-survey will
d ~ 30–40 kpc) providing mainly radial Resolution (4MIDABLE-HR) survey. We complement the Gaia mission and
velocity information rather than ele- will be taking advantage of complemen- other Galactic sub-surveys enabling
mental abundances for these faint tar- tary photometry from the ESO Vista the use of white dwarfs as tracers
gets. This will be a unique capability of Variables in the Via Lactea Surveys of the star formation history in the disc
4MOST, even in the 2020s. (VVV and VVVx) in the JHKs bands and and halo, which can help to disentan-
of the Blanco DECam (Dark Energy gle different scenarios of stellar radial
4. Chemodynamical disc (Chem) — Here Camera) Bulge Survey (BDBS) which migration. Additionally, these obser­
we target a sparser sample as a sub- covers 200 square degrees of the vations will provide key constraints on
set of the Dyn sub-survey described southern bulge in the ugrizY bands and the nature of SN Ia progenitors and
above, to study the chemodynamical will be publically available by the end the evolution of planetary systems.
structure of the Milky Way disc in order of 2019. The goal is to determine atmospheric
to recover the evolutionary history of ­compositions, radial velocities, and

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 31


Surveys Chiappini C. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 3

precise spectroscopic temperatures on the basis of data from Gaia and and its uncertainty in a probabilistic
and surface gravities, which, in turn, photometric surveys from the ground approach, where stars are selected ran-
will allow us to determine accurate stel- (Geier et al., 2018). Hot subdwarfs are domly in a given HEALPix 2, b area such
lar masses and ages for all targeted the helium-burning stripped cores of that the probabilistic line-of-sight parallax
white dwarfs. red giants and are likely formed via distribution has the shape of 1/p 4, imply-
diverse close binary evolution channels ing a distance distribution of the form
8. Compact X-ray emitting binaries — such as stable mass transfer, com- d 2. The ESN is constrained to a cylinder
This sub-survey addresses the high- mon envelope ejection and mergers. of radius d = 2 kpc and height |z| = 2 kpc,
energy output of the Milky Way and They are key objects to study interac- centred on the Sun. The Dyn and Chem
the evolution of close binary stars. We tions between low-mass stars as well sub-catalogues, which share the same
aim to disentangle accreting and non- as stars and sub-stellar objects. Hot volume, are selected from a cylinder with
accreting sources, and to discriminate subdwarf binaries qualify as progeni- base 2 < d < 15 kpc and height |z| = 2 kpc.
between magnetic and non-magnetic tors of type Ia supernovae and cali- The resulting hole around the Sun is com-
binaries, both on the basis of their bration sources for gravitational wave plemented by the ESN catalogue. The
emission line spectrum in the active detectors. They are chemically pecu- BIG catalogue covers the v­ olume defined
state (for example, Schwope, 2018). liar and several classes of pulsators by |l| < 30 degrees and |b| < 20 degrees,
Input sources will be drawn from the have been discovered which are well and 4 < d < 15 kpc. Given the uncertain-
eROSITA point-source catalogue. suited for asteroseismic analyses. This ties in the measurements of parallaxes,
survey will allow us to perform the first leakage of targets outside these bounda-
9. C
 epheids — Classical Cepheids have population study of these objects. ries is both expected and desired.
well-determined ages (~ 20–250 Myr).
They are intrinsically bright, thus allow- Our target selection thus balances the
ing studies of the recent Milky Way Science requirements need to sample the full Galactic disc, with
evolution to large Galactic radii. Type II an attempt to be as unbiased and efficient
Cepheids are old (> 10 Gyr) and trace By using the large wavelength coverage as possible. Therefore, for the main
the chemical thick disc and its interface and resolution of the LRS, this survey sub-surveys we foresee a selection based
with the bulge. Targets will be selected will deliver not only radial velocities with purely on apparent magnitude, parallax,
from the ESA Gaia data releases, the the high precision of 1–2 km s –1, but and parallax uncertainties with no addi-
Optical Gravitational Lensing Experi- also chemical information, providing indi- tional colour cuts. For some of the smaller
ment (OGLE), and VVVX. The goal is to vidual elemental abundances for iron- sub-surveys there might be colour cuts
obtain homogeneous radial velocities peak, α- and n-capture elements, C, Na, as they target specific stellar populations.
and metallicities/elemental abundances and Li (which is detectable in LR only in The faint dynamical disc includes a colour
for these unique tracers down to giants). Depending on the element, ele- selection to target red giant branch stars
fainter magnitudes than those mental abundances will have a precision similar to the selection performed in the
achieved with 4MIDABLE-HR. of 0.1–0.2 dex when sufficient S/N in 4MOST Consortium Survey Milky Way
the continuum is reached in the relevant Halo Low-Resolution Survey.
10. A
 steroseismology targets — A follow- wavelength regime.
up will be performed of all targets in We intend to use the latest Data Release
the survey footprint with asteroseis- from the Gaia mission at the time of final
mic information from the CoRoT, K2, Target selection and survey area 4MOST catalogue submission; the pre-
TESS and PLATO missions, allowing liminary catalogue that we present here
a much more precise determination A careful target selection with a selection is based on the currently available DR2
of elemental abundances, stellar function that can be well modelled is cru- (Gaia Collaboration, Brown et al., 2018).
parameters, distances, and ages for cial for our survey. A large down-sampling An overview of the magnitude range per
these stars (for example, Valentini et is necessary to select ~ 15 million targets sub-survey is given in the second column
al., 2018). These stars are, therefore, from over 300 million Gaia targets in of Table 1.
also key targets for survey calibration. the magnitude range we will explore in
With the exception of TESS, objects 4MIDABLE-LR. Should targets just be Unless otherwise mentioned in the first
will be distributed in specific fields picked randomly, we would predominantly column of Table 1, all sub-surveys cover
(from 2.5 square degrees for CoRoT, select nearby disc stars, which would an area that is all-sky as observed by
to 100 square degrees for K2, and greatly hamper the effectiveness of our 4MOST, restricted in declination from
2250 square degrees for PLATO). The survey to research the Milky Way as a – 80 < dec < 20 degrees. The areas of
brightest of these targets will function galaxy. dec > 5 degrees and dec < – 80 degrees
as a bad weather programme. are outside the fiducial survey area and
To ensure a homogeneous volume distri- may not get completed (see Guiglion et
11. Hot subdwarfs — The goal of this bution for the main disk coverage, for the al., p. 17). As expected, the density of
sub-survey is to compile, classify and sub-catalogues defined in the ESN, Dyn, ­targets is larger along the disc plane (see
analyse the first unbiased all-sky sam- Chem, and BIG sub-surveys above we Figure 1). Areas with extinction so large
ple of hot subdwarf stars pre-selected use the parallax (p) measured by Gaia that the target density is less than the

32 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


24 h 18 h 12h 6h 0h Figure 1. Illustration of the target density of the main
30° sub-surveys in equatorial coordinates. All current
catalogues and figures might be subject to change
with the further development of our target selection
criteria, a better understanding of the interplay of
0° all surveys together, and the implementation of later
Gaia data releases. Areas with high extinction will
be de-prioritised because the target density drops
below the 4MOST fibre density and only nearby
– 30°
­targets are observable in these regions. Note that
targets with dec > + 5 and dec < – 70 degrees have
only a smaller likelihood of being observed in the
– 60° fiducial survey strategy (see Guiglion et al., p. 17).

23 346 540 targets Equatorial

1 10 100 1000
Object counts per degree 2

–3 –3 Figure 2. Target density distributions of the current


– 2 < z < 0 kpc 0 < z < 2 kpc definition of the Extended Solar Neighbourhood
–2 –2 (ESN) catalogue using distance d = 1/p for stars
10 3
below (left) and above the disc mid-plane (right). The
selection ensures an almost homogeneous distribu-
–1 –1 tion within a cylinder of radius d = 2 kpc and height
|z| = 2 kpc, centered on the Sun. The Galactic centre
Y (kpc)

Y (kpc)

0 0 10 2 is at (x,y) = (0,0). The asymmetry between the two


plots is due to the restriction in dec of the region of
the sky that is observable with 4MOST.
1 1

2 2
101
ESN
3 3
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
X (kpc) X (kpc)

104 Figure 3. Left column: Face-on (top) and edge-on


–15 –6
(bottom) target density distributions of the current
disc catalogues. The dynamical (Dyn) and chemody-
–10 –4 namical (Chem) disc surveys cover the same area
10 3 and magnitude range but have different require-
–5 –2 ments for SNR (see Table 1). The Galactic centre is at
10 2 (x,y) = (0,0). The artefact at |b| = 45 degrees is due
Y (kpc)

Y (kpc)

0 0 to our selection of a cylinder with base 2 < d < 15 kpc


10 2 and height z = 2 kpc. The resulting hole around
5 2 the Sun is complemented by the ESN catalogue.
Right column: Same as left, but for the Bulge/Inner
101 Galaxy (BIG) catalogue, where our selection is in the
10 4
volume defined by |l| < 30 degrees, |b| < 20 degrees,
Dyn+Chem 10 1 BIG 4 < d < 15 kpc. For both catalogues we take parallax
15 6 uncertainties into account and require a homoge­
0 10 20 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 neous volume density. Star Horse distance estimates
X (kpc) X (kpc) (Anders et al., in preparation; Queiroz et al. 2018)
are used for calculating x, y, and z coordinates. The
15 6 BIG catalogue clearly shows the presence of the
bar (Anders et al., in preparation; Queiroz et al. in
10 4 preparation).

5 2
available LRS 4MOST fibres will be
Z (kpc)

Z (kpc)

0 0 avoided. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate that,


despite being based on a relatively simple
–5 –2 selection of apparent G-magnitude and
parallax only (including uncertainties and
–10 –4
flags), the resulting distribution of targets
Dyn+Chem BIG
–15 –6 in the x-y-z plane in the main sub-surveys
0 10 20 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 is balanced and sufficiently smooth. In
X (kpc) X (kpc) Figure 3, we perform the test of resulting

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 33


Surveys Chiappini C. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 3

Sub-survey name Gaia (G magnitude) Spectral success criteria Nmin Ngoal


Interval Minimum S/N Å –1 at wavelength interval FoM = 0.5 FoM = 1.0
Extended Solar Neighbourhood 14–16.5 40 at blue 50 at MgCa 20 at Li 2.5 × 10 6 4.5 × 10 6
6
Dynamical Disc |b| < 30° 14–18 12 at CaT 15 at Mgb – 3.5 × 10 4.5 × 10 6
5
Faint Dynamical Disc |b| < 15° 18–19 12 at CaT 15 at Mgb – 1.5 × 10 2.8 × 105
Chemodynamical Disc |b| < 30° 14–18 40 at blue 50 at Mgb 20 at Li 1.5 × 10 6 2.5 × 10 6
Inner Galaxy |l| < 30°, |b| < 20° 16–17 40 at blue 50 at Mgb 20 at Li 8 × 105 1 × 10 6
Southern Bulge Deep |l| < 8°, –10° < |b| < – 4° 17–18.5 40 at blue 50 at Mgb – 1.2 × 105 1.4 × 105
Very metal-poor stars 14–18.5 40 at blue 50 at Mgb 20 at Li 1.3 × 105 2.0 × 105
White Dwarfs 14–20 30 at blue 30 at Mgb 30 at CaT 1.7 × 105 2.0 × 105
3
Compact X-ray Binaries 16–22 5 at blue 50 at MgCa 5 at CaT 7.5 × 10 1.5 × 10 4
3
Cepheids 16–20.5 35 at MgCa (G < 18) – 10 at CaT 1.7 × 10 2.3 × 10 3
Asteroseismic targets 4–16 40 at blue 50 at Mgb – – 2.0 × 105
Hot subdwarfs 8–19 30 at blue 30 at Mgb 30 at CaT – 2.5 × 10 4

Table 1. This table provides key information for each – Mgb: 5140–5200 Å; Action (CA16117), supported by COST (European
of the sub-surveys. Although the information given Cooperation in Science and Technology). Else
– MgCa: 5140–6450 Å;
here reflects the philosophy of the sub-surveys, the ­S tarkenburg gratefully acknowledges funding
exact numbers are subject to change as the target – Li: 6670–6740 Å; by the Emmy Noether program from the Deutsche
selection advances further in preparation for 4MOST – CaT: 8350–8850 Å. Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Bertrand
operation. All sub-surveys target the full sky observed Lemasle acknowledges support from the Sonder-
by 4MOST, unless specific limits are given in the first forschungsbereich SFB 881 “The Milky Way System”
The figure of merit (FoM) for each sub-
column in Galactic longitude (l) and latitude (b). The (sub-projects A5) of the German Research Founda-
second column lists the magnitude range for targets survey is described by the ratio of the tion (DFG). Sub-survey #7 is funded under the
in Gaia G-band. The next three columns show the number of targets successfully observed ­European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and inno-
requested minimum S/N per Å for a successfully (Nobs) relative to the minimum number vation programme no. 677706 (WD3D).
observed target and the wavelength region(s) — up
of targets and the goal (Nmin and Ngoal
to three — where this is measured (abbreviated; see
text for details). The final two columns list the mini- respectively; see Table 1). Up to Nmin the References
mum number of targets successfully observed to relation is linear such that it reaches a
reach a FoM of 0.5 for the sub-survey, and the goal ­figure of merit of 0.5 when Nmin targets Barbuy, B., Chiappini, C. & Gerhard, O. 2018, ARAA,
number of targets, defining a FoM of 1.0. 56, 223
are successfully observed. Thereafter it
Gaia collaboration, Brown, A. et al. 2018, A&A, 616, 1
follows a square root function until it Geier, S. et al. 2018, arXiv:1810.09321
homogeneous disc coverage of targets reaches a value of 1 when Nobs equals Miglio, A. et al. 2017, Astronomische Nachrichten,
in our Dyn, Chem, and BIG input cata- Ngoal. The input catalogues all contain a 338, 644
Minchev, I. 2016, Astronomische Nachrichten,
logues using distances obtained with the larger density of targets than Ngoal, to
337, 703
Bayesian Star Horse code (Queiroz et al., provide operational flexibility. We addi- Minchev, I., Chiappini, C. & Martig, M. 2013, A&A,
2018; Anders et al., in preparation), as the tionally require a relatively homogeneous 558, A29
targets are too far out to rely on d = 1/p coverage of the footprint for our sub- Schwope, A. 2018, A&A, 619, A62
Valentini, M. et al. 2018, arXiv:1808.08569
only to calculate distances. However, we surveys, not allowing for any holes in the
stress that these Star Horse distance footprint that exceed a few square
­values are not used in the selection itself. degrees. Links

1
ESA-Gaia mission: http://sci.esa.int/gaia/
Where possible, we favour an observa- 2
HEALPix: https://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/
Spectral success criteria tion strategy that allows each field to be
observed at least twice with at least a
The spectral success criteria are defined year in between the two observations. Notes
by the median S/N ratio per Å in the con- This will provide additional information a
R > 5000 (typically R ~ 6500; see de Jong et al.,
tinuum over a wavelength interval. For on which stars are in binary systems p. 3) is mid-resolution, giving more than twice
the different sub-surveys, different wave- with detectable radial velocity variability the spectral resolution of other large low-resolution
length regions are used for this calcula- on these timescales. However, in fields spectroscopic surveys, for example, the Sloan
­D igital Sky Survey extension for Galactic Under-
tion, depending on the spectral features with many faint Cepheid targets this
standing and Exploration (SEGUE) and the Large
that are important for the science case. strategy is not favourable, since these Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope
The spectral criteria per sub-survey are variable stars will need to be observed (LAMOST).
given in Table 1; a maximum of three consecutively. b
HEALPix is an acronym for Hierarchical Equal
Area isoLatitude Pixelization of a sphere, a
spectral success criteria can be used per
­pixelisation procedure that produces a subdivision
sub-survey, as given in the subsequent of a spherical surface in which each pixel covers
columns. The wavelength regions are as Acknowledgements the same surface area as every other pixel.
follows: Cristina Chiappini acknowledges support from
– Blue: 4500–4700 Å; DFG Grant CH1188/2-1 and from ChETEC COST

34 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5123

4MOST Consortium Survey 4: Milky Way Disc and Bulge


High-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-HR)

4
Thomas Bensby 1 the Milky Way requires large observa- galaxy formation suggest that galaxies
Maria Bergemann 2 tional datasets of stars via which these like the Milky Way may experience various
Jan Rybizki 2 M I D A B L E quantities can be determined accu- evolutionary histories, with or without
HR
ion
igh esolut

 3
Bertrand Lemasle rately. This is the science driver of the multi-model structures arising in the ele-
Louise Howes 1 4MOST MIlky way Disc And BuLgE mental abundance plane (for example,
Mikhail Kovalev 2 High-Resolution (4MIDABLE-HR) survey: Grand et al., 2018). On the other hand,
Oscar Agertz 1 to obtain high-resolution spectra at radial migration of stars (for example,
Martin Asplund 4 R ~ 20 000 and to provide detailed Schönrich & Binney, 2009) might have a
Paul Barklem 5 ­elemental abundances for large samples strong impact on the disc morphology
Chiara Battistini 6 of stars in the Galactic disc and bulge. and on the observable distributions, such
Luca Casagrande 4 High data quality will allow us to pro- as the age-metallicity relationships and
Cristina Chiappini 7 vide accurate spectroscopic diagnos- spatial distribution of elemental abun-
Ross Church 1 tics of two million stellar spectra: precise dances. The mere presence and the size
Sofia Feltzing 1 radial velocities; rotation; abundances of the elemental abundance trend gap,
Dominic Ford 1 of many elements, including those that its position in the age and abundance
Ortwin Gerhard 8 are currently only accessible in the planes, and its relationship to stellar
Iryna Kushniruk 1 ­optical, such as Li, s-, and r-process; motions, are decisive constraints on the
Georges Kordopatis 9 and multi-epoch spectra for a sub-­ models of secular evolution and heating
Karin Lind 2, 5 sample of stars. Synergies with comple- of the disc, as well as on the gas accre-
Ivan Minchev 7 mentary missions like Gaia and TESS tion and merger history of the Milky Way
Paul McMillan 1 will provide masses, stellar ages and (for example, Rix & Bovy, 2013).
Hans-Walter Rix 2 multiplicity, forming a multi-dimensional
Nils Ryde 1 dataset that will allow us to explore and Further complexities are connected to
Gregor Traven 1 constrain the origin and structure of the our present understanding of the inner
Milky Way. Galaxy. It has been established that it
contains a boxy peanut-shaped bar that
1
 und Observatory, Lund University,
L impacts the dynamical properties of the
Sweden Scientific context disc. Spectroscopic observations sug-
2
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,­ gest that the bulge comprises a very
­Heidelberg, Germany One of the key questions in astrophysics complex pattern in the age-abundance
3
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität is to understand the assembly history plane, ranging from metal-rich young
Heidelberg / Astronomisches Rechen- and evolution of the Milky Way, as our α-poor to metal-poor and very old α-rich
Institut, Germany understanding of galaxy formation in the stellar populations (for example, Ness
4
Research School of Astronomy & Universe — be it using observations or et al., 2013; Bensby et al., 2017). It is not
­Astrophysics, Australian National models — is only as good as our knowl- clear whether the bulge and the α-rich
­University, Canberra, Australia edge of our own Galaxy. This requires component of the disc share the same
5
Department of Physics and Astronomy, large datasets that provide reliable physi- origin, or if this similarity is the conse-
Uppsala universitet, Sweden cal characterisation of stars across the quence of high star formation efficiencies,
6
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität full Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, includ- but separate formation scenarios. Analy-
Heidelberg / Landessternwarte, ing precise velocities, ages, multiplicity, sis of the photometric colour-magnitude
Germany rotation, and elemental abundances for diagrams suggests that the bulge has
7
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam all nucleosynthesis channels. This is the temporal properties (for example, Renzini
(AIP), Germany main goal of the 4MIDABLE-HR survey. et al., 2018) different from those revealed
8
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische by spectroscopic observations of micro-
Physik, Garching, Germany It has been established from star counts lensed dwarf stars (Bensby et al., 2017).
9
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, that the Galactic disc has two compo- How much room is there for a classical
France nents, the thin and thick discs (Gilmore & bulge component made by mergers (for
Reid, 1983). This morphological dichot- example, Barbuy et al., 2018)? A major
omy could be related to the distinct ele- challenge is to explain how all these con-
The signatures of the formation and mental abundance trends observed in stituents fit together and how they link
evolution of a galaxy are imprinted in the solar neighbourhood, as well as in the to the chemo-dynamical structure of the
its stars. Their velocities, ages, and inner and outer regions of the Galactic Galactic disc and halo.
chemical compositions present major disc (for example, Bensby et al., 2014;
constraints on models of galaxy forma- Hayden et al., 2015). Other studies, how- Disentangling all of these building blocks
tion, and on various processes such ever, either find no clear separation in the and the role that the different physical
as the gas inflows and outflows, the local volume of about 1 kpc or place it ingredients play in the formation of the
accretion of cold gas, radial migration, at a different location in elemental abun- Milky Way is hard. It requires a densely
and the variability of star formation dance space (for example, Bergemann sampled homogeneous sample of stars
activity. Understanding the evolution of et al., 2014). Cosmological simulations of with accurate elemental abundances,

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 35


Surveys Bensby T. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 4

kinematics, and ages, requiring not only Gaia-ESO (South, 0.1 × 10 6 stars)
Figure 1. Magnitude
distri­butions of our main
elemental abundances of α-elements,
GALAH (South, 0.8 × 10 6 stars) bulge and disc sample
but also of all major nuclear channels: Li, and our two deep fields,
C, N, O, the α-elements, the iron-group, WEAVE (North, 1.0 × 10 6 stars) one towards the bulge
and the neutron-capture r- and s-process and one towards the
4MOST WAVES fields.
elements. Only such a dataset will pro- APOGEE (North, 0.5 × 10 6 stars)
The horizontal lines in
vide the requisite combination of con- 10 7 the upper panel mark
straints on the gas flows, star formation, Bulge and disc (4.1 × 10 6 stars) the magnitude ranges of
and detailed chemical evolution of the 10 6 TESS overlap (0.44 × 10 6 stars) selected high-­resolution
spectroscopic ­surveys,
Milky Way. Deep bulge (0.072 × 10 6 stars)
as indicated.
Deep disc (0.065 × 10 6 stars)
10 5
These are the observed quantities that
Number of stars

4MIDABLE-HR aims to provide for about


104 4MIDABLE-HR
two million stars in the Milky Way disc
and bulge; stellar motions will be derived
10 3
by combining accurate radial velocities
from our spectra with proper motions and
parallaxes from Gaia and special sub- 10 2

surveys in 4MIDABLE-HR will address


Cepheids, deep fields in the bulge, and 101
the deep thick disc/halo field in the
4MOST Wide Area VISTA Extragalactic 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Survey viewing zone. These data will G (mag)
­provide a unique treasure trove for high-
precision stellar physics and will support The focus of GALactic Archaeology with mation from Gaia astrometric data and
the exploration of the Galaxy’s evolution the HERMES spectrograph (GALAH) is photometric variability from Optical Gravi-
through: (i) a detailed investigation of the mainly on the brighter targets, V ≲ 14 tational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) and
disc sub-structure throughout the Milky magnitudes, and it does not probe such Large Synoptic Survey Telescope data.
Way; (ii) quantifying the role of secular great distances into the Galaxy as we
processes, such as the strength of radial will do. The Apache Point Observatory
migration, resolved by time and galacto- Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Specific scientific goals
centric radius; (iii) unveiling the stellar pop- is an infrared survey and will not analyse
ulation content and its chemo-dynamical neutron-capture elements — also, by – What is the growth history of the Milky
characteristics of the Galactic bulge; probing to magnitudes H < 14, it will not Way?
(iv) constraining the formation time and have the depth of 4MIDABLE-HR. Fig- Our survey will give us direct information
growth rate of the Galactic bar. In contrast ure 1 shows a comparison between on the kinematics and detailed abun-
to 4MIDABLE-LR (Chiappini et al., p. 30), 4MIDABLE-HR and these surveys. dances in the outer disc and in the inner
the 4MIDABLE-HR Survey will focus on halo, which will help to constrain the
brighter stars and will aim to obtain spec- Our spectra will also allow transforma- masses and time of infall of the merging
tra with sufficient quality and as many tional studies of stellar physics thanks to satellites. The signatures are very weak
complementary diagnostics as possible the large sample of stars at all evolutionary and require precise elemental abun-
from asteroseismology and astrometry, stages, from the main-sequence, through dances. In addition to the clustering in
to provide a baseline against which the the red bump to the core He-burning elemental abundance space, the merger
fundamental stellar parameters of all and AGB phases, and including pulsators history can be traced by physical over-
other 4MOST Galactic surveys can be like Cepheids. For 15% of our stars, densities and streams in the disc. Also,
assessed. asteroseismic information from the TESS the velocity distribution in the vicinity of
exoplanet mission will be available. This the Sun is not smooth, but contains a lot
4MIDABLE-HR is unique amongst the information, combined with our spectro- of kinematical over-densities (for exam-
other recent, ongoing, and planned scopic characterisation, will not only allow ple, Kushniruk et al., 2017). These could
high-resolution spectroscopic surveys in us to put new constraints on the interior be due to dynamical resonances with the
several respects. It is the largest optical structure of stars, but also help to con- Galactic bar or spiral arms, dispersed
high-resolution survey in terms of the strain the masses and ages of those stars open clusters, remnants of merged satel-
number of targets, photometric depth, and to assist planet-search programmes lite galaxies, or even “ringing” signatures
and survey area. Gaia-ESO is slightly with characterising the planet-hosting of a satellite galaxy analogous to the
deeper, but has patchy sky coverage, stars. A significant fraction of stars are outer disc structures. The true nature of
lower signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), and also binaries, or even triples, allowing new such structures can be revealed through
many fewer stars. The WEAVE survey constraints on the evolution and interac- detailed comparisons of the elemental
will not target the Galactic bulge region tion of objects in multiple systems, espe- abundances in the stars in the structures
or areas close to the Galactic plane. cially when combined with binarity infor- with measurements in the foreground

36 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


104
–10
10 –10
–8
10 3
–6
5 –5

Number of stars
–4
Y (kpc)
Z (kpc)

MG
0 0 10 2
–2

0
–5 5
2 101
–10 10 4

6 10 0
−5 0 5 10 15 20 –5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4
X (kpc) X (kpc) G BP – G RP

Figure 2. The left-most and middle plots show the Science requirements and would allow us to resolve about 100
distribution of the targets in the Galactic Cartesian
different points in angular momentum
x-y-z coordinate system of our input catalogue (with
a bin size of 100 × 100 pc). The right-most plot With 4MIDABLE-HR we aim to distinguish space or physical position space. We
shows a colour-magnitude diagram, using the Gaia stellar populations in the elemental abun- also want to map the age-velocity disper-
G magnitudes and GBP -GRP colours (not corrected dance plane over three quadrants of the sion relation at different points in elemen-
for extinction).
Galactic disc, probing as deep as 10 kpc tal abundance space and physical posi-
from the Sun. For this we need a sample tion space to shed light on the heating
and background stars in the Milky Way size of more than two million stars with mechanisms in the Galactic disc in order
(Bergemann et al., 2018). elemental abundances that are accurate to differentiate between possible high
to well within 0.1 dex. The sample size i velocity dispersion at birth for older stars,
– Why does the Milky Way disc have such s necessary because a detailed under- secular heating by disc structure (for
distinct abundance structure ­patterns? standing of the Milky Way requires resolv- example, the Galactic bar, or spiral arms)
Are the thin and thick Galactic discs ing the full kinematic and chemical dis­ or giant molecular clouds, and merger
­separate or are they a manifestation of tributions in all stellar populations at induced heating. To detect a merger, we
observational biases? Could it be that different positions in the Galaxy. To char- can roughly estimate that we need to
the Milky Way only has one disc, but that acterise the moments of the kinematic precisely track an increase of 5 km s –1
radial migration has rearranged stars distributions of a single population at a in the velocity dispersion over the course
to create a sub-structure in the chemical given location, one needs of order 100 of roughly one billion years. This would
and kinematic spaces? Can we confirm stars to get a statistically robust mean require 5000 stars in each age bin or
or rule out the hiatus in star formation down to 10% of sigma (√N). The precision about 50 000 stars in total. These need
between the two components? To in elemental abundances allows us to cut to be sampled at 10 to 20 different
address these important questions, we the sample in 0.1-dex width in abundance Galactocentric radii and altitudes dis-
need large and unbiased samples of space. Sampling the abundance plane sected in metallicity to pinpoint the radial
stars beyond the solar neighbourhood in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] meaningfully would pattern of heating. With these estimates,
that cover a broad range of distances, thus require on the order of 50 abundance one would need on the order of 2.5 million
from the inner to the outer regions of the groups times 100 stars. The total sample stars to comprehensively address the
Galactic disc. size in this survey thus allows us to map ­formation of the Galactic components.
out these populations at about 400 loca-
– What is the Galactic bulge? tions. This will enable us to distinguish
The Galactic bulge was for a long time the separation of elemental abundance Target selection and survey area
considered to be a single population trends between the α-poor and α-rich
with fast formation and metal enrichment. discs, and between the halo and the metal- The Bulge and Disc field star
However, recent studies have found that poor disc, and to trace the position of sub-survey
the bulge stars span a wide range of the [α/Fe]–[Fe/H] “knee” from the solar
metallicities and ages. How much of the neighbourhood, through the inner disc, The 4MIDABLE-HR selection function
bulge could still be a classical bulge and into the bulge (Hayden et al., 2011). has been designed to be simple and
and not a buckled bar (pseudo-bulge)? reproducible. The magnitude limit is set
What mass fraction in the bulge can be To resolve waves in the Galactic disc as to G = 15.5 magnitudes, which allows us
ascribed to halo stars? Can we explore seen by, for example, Antoja et al. (2018), to obtain a high-quality spectrum with the
the prominent X-shape of the bar and one needs to resolve the mean velocity of required S/N = 100 per Å in a two-hour
can we conclude — on the basis of ages the stars to better than 0.3 km s –1, which, exposure. To avoid cool main sequence
and metallicities of the stars — when the at the velocity dispersion of 50 km s –1, stars an upper limit on the absolute mag-
buckling event happened? requires 20 000 stars for each data point nitude is set to MG < 5 magnitudes. Gaia

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 37


Surveys Bensby T. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 4

The 4MIDABLE-HR survey tudes and our catalogue contains about


800 Cepheids towards the Galactic bulge.
30°
24 h 18 h 12h 6h 0h

Spectral success criteria and the figure



of merit

The desired precision of 0.05 dex is


– 30° achievable in most elemental abundance
ratios such as the α-elements and most
iron peak elements when S/N > 100 per Å
– 60°
is reached (based on simulations with the
4MOST Galactic Pipeline). We have not
Equatorial imposed any constraints on r­ eddening in
our target catalogue, as the results from
1 10 100 1000 the pipeline indicate that the impact is
Object counts per degree 2
negligible for the stars we aim to observe.
It is, however, important to keep in mind
Figure 3. Density map of the input target catalogue. will be spent in each of our 32 fields and that some rare-earth elements that can
We aim to observe at least a random 50% of these
the target catalogue contains about only be measured in the blue spectral
targets. Note that the targets with dec > 5 degrees
have a smaller likelihood of being observed in the 72 000 targets. region, which will be difficult to obtain for
fiducial survey strategy (Guiglion et al., p. 17). highly reddened spectra.
Deep disc fields
To probe the vertical extent, the scale- The S/N requirement will be measured
parallaxes were used to estimate MG. height, and the interface between the in the continuum in the wavelength range
The range of sky declinations for 4MOST disc and the halo, 4MIDABLE-HR will do 6190–6210 Å, which is clean and free
is set to – 80 < dec < + 20 degrees. deep observations in the footprints of the from strong spectral lines.
We note that this area extends outside WAVES extragalactic survey that uses
the fiducial survey footprint, which is the low-resolution fibres. In the WAVES The figure of merit (FoM) is a measure
restricted by prevailing northern winds, deep fields (about 65 square degrees) of how successful the survey is, and for
etc. (see Guglion et al., p. 17). and in the WAVES wide fields (about 4MIDABLE-HR, it is simply the ratio
1300 square degrees) we will reach stars between the number of successfully
Applying these simple cuts in dec, G, and about ten times fainter and three times observed targets and the 4.3 million stars
MG provides us with a sample of more fainter, respectively, than the stars in our in the input target catalogue. As long as
than 21 million targets from the Gaia Data main disc and bulge catalogue. The cata- stars are chosen and observed randomly
Release 2. This sample is downsized to fit logue contains about 65 000 stars. The from this catalogue, the survey will be
into a five-year survey, and as we need to positions of the WAVES fields can be regarded as successful when a FoM = 0.5
have about twice as many targets in the found in Driver et al. (p. 46), but as stated is reached.
catalogue to allow for an efficient usage therein, the exact location of the deep
of the fibres, our target catalogue con- fields could be subject to change.
tains about 4.1 million targets. Figure 2 Acknowledgements
shows the physical positions and the colour- Bulge Cepheid survey This work was supported by the project grant “The
magnitude diagram of the stars in this Classical Cepheids are young stars that New Milky Way” from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg
catalogue. trace the chemical composition of the Foundation.
interstellar medium. Type II Cepheids are
Deep bulge fields post-horizontal-branch stars that trace References
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observations down to G = 17.5 magni- luminosity relations) even at large dis- Ness, M. et al. 2013, MNRAS, 430, 836
tudes in a grid pattern in the southern tances where Gaia parallaxes are less Renzini, A. et al. 2018, ApJ, 863, 16
Rix, H.-W. & Bovy, J. 2013, A&ARv, 21, 61
bulge between – 8 < l < 8 degrees and accurate. 4MIDABLE-HR will focus on Schönrich, R. & Binney, J. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 3
– 10 < b < – 4 degrees. Up to eight hours Cepheids with 13.5 < G < 15.5 magni-

38 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5124

4MOST Consortium Survey 5: eROSITA Galaxy Cluster


Redshift Survey

Alexis Finoguenov 1, 2 clusters of galaxies so as to perform (DESI) and the 4MOST Cosmology
Andrea Merloni 1 dynamical estimates of the total mass ­Redshift Survey, provide geometrical
Johan Comparat 1 and to measure the properties of the cosmological constraints, which are
Kirpal Nandra 1 member galaxies. The survey aims to complementary; together they can con-
Mara Salvato 1 obtain p­ recise redshift measurements strain a larger variety of cosmological
Elmo Tempel 3, 4 of the photometrically identified bright- models.
Anand Raichoor 5 est cluster galaxies at redshift z > 0.7.
Johan Richard 6 At lower redshifts (z < 0.7) the pro- Spectroscopic identification of galaxy
Jean-Paul Kneib 5 gramme aims to sample over 15 member clusters has been a cornerstone of all
Annalisa Pillepich 7 galaxies per cluster and enable dynami- galaxy cluster surveys. Recently, this field
Martin Sahlén 8 cal mass measurements to calibrate the has expanded due to developments on
Paola Popesso 9 clusters for cosmological experiments. measurements of dynamical and caustic
Peder Norberg 10 At z < 0.2, eROSITA will also detect mass and the availability of precise mem-
Richard McMahon 11 X-ray emission from galaxy groups and berships of cluster galaxies. In the last
and the 4MOST collaboration filaments. 4MOST spectroscopic data few years, a number of large-area galaxy
from the survey will be used for optical cluster surveys have been carried out.
identification of galaxy groups down The pioneering work on this has been
1
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische to eROSITA’s mass detection limits of done within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Physik, Garching, Germany 1013 M⊙, as well as the detection of the SDSS-IV survey (Clerc et al., 2016), with
2
University of Helsinki, Finland largest filaments for pioneering studies a goal to follow up on 4000 clusters. A
3
Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, of their X-ray emission. much larger demand on cluster follow-up
Estonia is set by the eROSITA survey, and the
4
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam goal of the 4MOST cluster survey is to
(AIP), Germany Scientific context follow up as many as 40 000 groups and
5
Laboratoire d’astrophysique, École clusters of galaxies, the precise details
­Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, The experimental measurement of the depending on the performance of the
Switzerland precise values of the cosmological eROSITA survey. In addition to the larger
6
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de parameters is the accepted way to pro- number of systems, eROSITA will detect
Lyon, France gress the field of cosmology. These clusters to higher redshifts than before,
7
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, observational measurements include: reaching beyond z = 1, which requires a
Heidelberg, Germany measuring the fluctuations of the cosmic deeper optical survey than SDSS-IV. The
8
Department of Physics and Astronomy, microwave background, which describe survey will constrain the physics of the
Uppsala universitet, Sweden the inhomogeneities of the Universe at warm baryons, which in turn traces the
9
Physics Department, Technische a redshift of 1100; geometric tests of the evolution of the cosmic feedback. In
­Universität München, Germany expansion of the Universe (using Super- addition to the properties of warm inter-
10
Department of Physics, Durham novae and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations); galactic gas in groups and clusters, X-ray
­University, UK and the growth of large-scale structure emission traces the state of the warm
11
Institute of Astronomy, University of throughout cosmic time. As outlined in the gas in the filaments, which completes
Cambridge, UK Dark Energy Task Force report (Albrecht the picture of warm baryons in the Uni-
et al., 2006), no single method can con- verse and complements similar studies
strain the cosmological parameters pre- using absorption techniques (Nicastro et
Groups and clusters of galaxies are a cisely and a combination of methods is al., 2018).
current focus of astronomical research required.
owing to their role in determining the
environmental effects on galaxies and The performance of a particular survey Specific scientific goals
the constraints they provide to cosmol- is judged by its ability to constrain the
ogy. The eROSITA X-ray telescope on dark energy equation of state. The 4MOST The primary scientific goal of the survey
board the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma spectroscopic survey will provide the vali- is to provide a spectroscopic study of
observatory will be launched in 2019 dation of the cluster catalogue produced 40 000 groups and clusters of galaxies
and will have completed eight scans of by the eROSITA survey, which tests cos- within the German eROSITA sky (for
the full sky when 4MOST starts operat- mology through the growth of structure details of the eROSITA survey, see Merloni
ing. The experiment will detect groups as reflected in the mass function of gal- et al., 2012), reaching a redshift of 1.4
and clusters of galaxies through X-ray axy clusters, and it belongs to the highest to maximise the expected cosmological
emission from the hot intergalactic tier of dark energy experiments. The performance of the survey (for details of
medium. The purpose of the 4MOST 4MOST eROSITA Galaxy Cluster Redshift the cosmological forecast, see Pillepich
eROSITA Galaxy Cluster Redshift Sur- Survey is the only currently planned et al., 2018). The primary uses of the
vey is to provide spectroscopic red- large-scale programme of this kind. Other 4MOST spectroscopic observations per-
shifts of the optical counterparts to the redshift survey experiments, such as the formed for the eROSITA Galaxy Cluster
X-ray emission from 40 000 groups and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Redshift Survey are:

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 39


Surveys Finoguenov A. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 5

1. To spectroscopically confirm the 360° 270° 180° 90° 0°


30°
photo­metric counterpart of the X-ray
emission by removing projection effects
in photometric galaxy membership

assignment for galaxy clusters (Clerc
et al., 2016) and to provide the spectro-
scopic counterparts to the X-ray emis-
sion coming from the galaxy groups – 30°
(halos with total mass below 1014 M⊙).
– 60°
2. To obtain a precise distance estimate
required to compute X-ray luminosity,
which enters the mass function cosmo- 1752 962 targets Equatorial
logical study as a mass proxy (Grandis
et al., 2018). 1 10 100
Object counts per degree 2
3. To perform dynamical mass calibration
(Capasso et al., 2019). The survey will a cross-correlation analysis between Figure 1. Target density of the 4MOST Cluster Sur-
vey, based on the mock catalogue tailored to the
provide dynamical mass as well as the position of X-ray photons, detected
expectations of the eROSITA X-ray survey. About
caustic mass measurements for 10 000 by eROSITA and the 2D (sky) projec- one third of the targets belong to the low-redshift
clusters of galaxies at redshifts z < 0.6 tions of the filaments. (z < 0.2) survey.
and total masses > 1014 M⊙, which
enables us to very accurately link the 7. The eROSITA Galaxy Cluster Redshift
cluster observables to their total mass Survey will coordinate with the 4MOST Target selection and survey area
— critical for constraining the cosmol- WAVES Survey, where the eROSITA
ogy. A comparison of these measure- sample will provide high-signal-to-noise The target selection for the eROSITA
ments to the weak lensing mass esti- (S/N) observations of rare systems not cluster identification is carried out using
mates can further constrain the models sampled within the WAVES Survey area; the position of the extended X-ray source
of modified gravity (Wilcox et al., 2015). 4MOST spectra with S/N > 10 per Å and running the red sequence cluster
are suitable for galaxy evolution science. finder on deep photometry provided by
4. To enable the analysis of clustering Examples of these types of rare sys- the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Dark
of groups and clusters, which have a tems are galaxies in rare high-density Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS),
­different sensitivity in constraining environments in massive clusters and Pan-STARRS1, VST ATLAS and ongoing
­cosmology through the large-scale X-ray selected lowest mass galaxy imaging surveys with the Dark Energy
structure growth estimates. Clustering groups that are selected in the Local Camera (DECam) and VST (DeROSITAs/
analysis requires at least 1000 systems Volume. KABS). Altogether, these will cover
in order to detect significant signal. A 10 000 square degrees accessible by
sample of 40 000 groups and clusters 4MOST (see Figure 1).
allows us to sample the mass function Science requirements
with five mass bins and the redshift In addition, the project to search for fila-
range with eight bins, which is required The science requirements for the 4MOST ments has a strong synergy with the
to break the degeneracy of the cluster- eROSITA Galaxy Cluster Redshift Survey 4MOST Cosmology Redshift Survey in
ing amplitude between mass, redshift consist of: achieving highly complete terms of targets. Therefore this part of
and cosmology (Pillepich et al., 2018). sampling of target galaxies required for the 4MOST Cluster survey will only be
the galaxy group and filament searches; carried out over the survey area in com-
5. To improve the link between the various covering a large area to maximise the mon with the Bright Galaxy sub-survey
baryonic phases of halos and improve number of spectroscopically confirmed of the 4MOST Cosmology Redshift Sur-
the value of eROSITA cosmology by groups and clusters of galaxies in order vey (7500 square degrees). In order to
addressing the effects of baryons on to improve the cosmological constraints; estimate the resulting target density, we
the growth of structure (Bocquet et al., obtaining uniform coverage of sufficiently have produced a mock target catalogue
2016). large areas to perform the clustering by combining the expected eROSITA
analysis to obtain additional cosmological ­performance at cluster detection with the
6. To spectroscopically identify filaments constraints; delivering accurate calibra- mocks based on the MultiDark simulation
to a redshift of 0.2, where a detection tion of cluster mass using dynamical and (Comparat et al., 2017 & in preparation).
of the X-ray signal with eROSITA is caustic mass measurement; and achiev- The low-redshift (z < 0.2) part of the sur-
expected. The study of the Warm Hot ing high S/N for a subsample selected for vey has about one million targets, which
Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) in emis- galaxy evolution studies. are bright (Ks < 18 magnitudes) and
sion will be based on the combined require short exposures (10 minutes). Multi-
4MOST and eROSITA study, through member cluster identification at high

40 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


r­ edshift depends on the total exposure additional requirement is to determine complete. As with the 4MOST WAVES
per field, with the trade-off being the redshifts for between 10 and 100 mem- Survey, this places a strong requirement
highest redshift achievable within the ber galaxies within the virial radii for for the survey completeness.
total available time for the survey. The clusters with z < 0.7. This component
brightest cluster galaxies in each cluster requires 0.4 million fibre-hours in dark The FoM of the survey is a function of the
are always considered for highest priority sky conditions to complete. ratio of the covered to total area x:
observations. – A sufficiently large area to sample FoM = 0.5 + 0.5 erf ((x – 0.75)/0.165)
­massive clusters, which are the most
sensitive probes of the cosmology. FoM = 0.5 (0.9); for an area of 7500
Spectral success criteria and figure of The requirement (goal) is to survey (9000) square degrees made of con­
merit 7500 (10 000) square degrees. tiguous 500 square-degree patches.
– Contiguous areas to enable the
The spectral success criteria are the high-order statistical tests (two-point
References:
measurements of galaxy redshifts. The and three-point correlation functions).
figure of merit (FoM) for the entire survey The requirement for the minimum size Albrecht, A. et al. 2006, arXiv:0609591
encompasses multiple components, of each patch of contiguous area on Bocquet, S. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 456, 2361
Capasso, R. et al. 2019, MNRAS, 482, 1043
including: the sky is 500 square degrees.
Clerc, N. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 463, 4490
– Obtaining redshifts for a million targets – A million bright targets to sufficiently Comparat, J. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 4157
to sample galaxy cluster members, sample low-redshift filaments and Grandis, S. et al. 2018, arXiv:1810.10553
the brightest cluster member in each groups of galaxies. It requires 0.1 million Merloni, A. et al. 2012, arXiv:1209.3114
Nicastro, F. et al. 2018, Nature, 558, 406
cluster being the highest priority. An fibre-hours in bright sky conditions to
Pillepich, A. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 481, 613
Wilcox, H. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 452, 1171
ESO/J. Emerson/VISTA/CASU

A VISTA image of the


Fornax Galaxy Cluster,
one of the closest
­c lusters beyond the
Local Group of galaxies.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 41


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5125

4MOST Consortium Survey 6: Active Galactic Nuclei

Andrea Merloni 1 the spectroscopic capabilities of a standing of how the relationship between
David A. Alexander 2 4-metre-class telescope, allowing us to AGN and their host galaxies evolves as
Manda Banerji 3 reach completeness levels of ~ 80–90% a function of redshift, AGN luminosity,
Thomas Boller 1 for all X-ray selected active galactic nuclear obscuration, host galaxy mass,
Johan Comparat 1 nuclei with fluxes f 0.5–2 keV > 10 –14 erg s –1 star formation properties, and large-scale
Tom Dwelly 1 cm –2; this is about a factor of 30 deeper environment. A complete AGN sample
Sotiria Fotopoulou 2 than the ROSAT all-sky survey. With of hundreds of thousands of sources with
Richard McMahon 3 these data we will determine the physi- spectroscopic redshifts and classifica-
Kirpal Nandra 1 cal properties (redshift, luminosity, tions is required to fully sample this multi-
Mara Salvato 1 line emission strength, masses, etc.) of dimensional parameter space. The syn-
Scott Croom 4 up to one million supermassive black ergy between eROSITA (Merloni et al.,
Alexis Finoguenov 1, 5 holes, constrain their cosmic evolution 2012), complemented by VISTA near-IR
Mirko Krumpe 6 and clustering properties, and explore and WISE mid-IR AGN selection, and
Georg Lamer 6 the connection between active galactic 4MOST will allow this to become a reality.
David Rosario 2 nuclei and large-scale structure over
Axel Schwope 6 redshifts 0 ≲ z ≲ 6. The 4MOST AGN survey will provide
Tom Shanks 2 spectroscopic identification for up to
Matthias Steinmetz 6 one million AGN out to redshifts of z ~ 6
Lutz Wisotzki 6 Scientific context over an area of about 10 000 square
Gabor Worseck 7 degrees (see Figure 1). The well under-
The presence of a supermassive black stood X-ray and mid-IR AGN identification
hole (SMBH) at the centre of virtually approaches, combined with the uniform
1
 ax-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische
M every massive galaxy in the nearby and well characterised selection functions
Physik, Garching, Germany ­Universe is a robust observational fact. of the eROSITA and WISE all-sky surveys,
2
Department of Physics, Durham However, their formation, growth, and will ensure a highly complete AGN selec-
­University, UK connection to the evolution of galaxies tion, largely independent of the presence
3
Institute of Astronomy, University of and large-scale structure remain largely of nuclear obscuration. We will aim for a
Cambridge, UK a mystery (for example, Alexander & high level of spectroscopic completenessa
4
Sydney Institute for Astronomy, Hickox, 2012). There is strong indirect for the 4MOST AGN survey to keep sta-
­University of Sydney, Australia evidence that the formation and growth tistical uncertainties to a minimal level. The
5
University of Helsinki, Finland of SMBHs and their host galaxies are WISE-selected AGN will include a sample
6
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam closely related, but it is unclear what of luminous dust-obscured quasars, which
(AIP), Germany physical mechanisms are responsible for may be responsible for powerful AGN-
7
Institut für Physik und Astronomie, this close coupling. In order to discrimi- driven feedback (for example, Banerji et
­Universität Potsdam, Germany nate between the varieties of different al., 2012) and may escape detection by
model predictions proposed in recent eROSITA given its predominantly soft
years, sizeable samples of active galactic X-ray response. Such a complete 4MOST
X-ray and mid-infrared emission are nuclei (AGN) over different periods and AGN sample will serve as a benchmark
signposts of the accretion of matter phases in their evolution are needed. To against which to test competing models
onto the supermassive black holes that this end, X-ray and mid-infrared (mid-IR) of SMBH formation and growth, and their
reside at the centres of most galaxies. AGN searches are less biased by obscu- connection to galaxies and large-scale
As a major step towards understanding ration effects than optical ones and pro- structure in the Universe.
accreting supermassive black holes vide a solid foundation for the most com-
and their role in the evolution of galaxies, prehensive SMBH evolutionary studies.
we will use the 4MOST multi-object X-ray selected AGN are also more com- Specific scientific goals
spectrograph to provide a highly com- plete at the low end of the AGN luminos-
plete census of active galactic nuclei ity function, where optical and mid-IR Our science goals are set out below.
over a large fraction of the extragalactic selection approaches are more affected
sky observed in X-rays by eROSITA that by host galaxy light dilution. Evolution of the most massive and
is visible to 4MOST. We will systemati- ­powerful SMBHs
cally follow up all eROSITA point-like Unfortunately, the current samples of X-ray The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of
extragalactic X-ray sources (mostly and mid-IR selected AGN with spectro- moderate- and low-luminosity AGN (L X ≲
active galactic nuclei), and complement scopic redshifts are relatively small (a few 1044 erg s –1) is relatively well constrained
them with a heavily obscured active thousand; see Figure 2) compared to the as a result of extensive studies following
galactic nuclei selection approach using optically selected AGN samples available up on deep Chandra and XMM-Newton
mid-infrared data from the Wide-field from large-area surveys like the Sloan small- and medium-area surveys (see Fig-
Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Consequently, ure 2 and, for example, Aird et al., 2015).
X-ray and mid-infrared flux limits of the modest source statistics of X-ray and In contrast, the eROSITA- (and WISE-)
eROSITA and WISE are well matched to mid-IR selected AGN hamper our under- selected samples in the 4MOST AGN

42 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


360° 270° 180° 90° 0° Figure 1. Sky density in equatorial coordinates of
30° the 4MOST AGN targets, including all sub-survey
components (based on the mock eROSITA catalogue
of Comparat et al. [in preparation], and the current
WISE-selected AGN catalogue).

– 30°

– 60°

Figure 2. The central panel shows the predicted


1126 070 targets Equatorial X-ray luminosity-redshift plane spanned by AGN
selected by eROSITA within the 4MOST X-ray Wide
and Deep areas (orange/red contours), compared to
1 10 100 all known X-ray sources with spectroscopic redshifts
Object counts per degree 2 detected in several deep and wide survey fields
(COSMOS, Lockman Hole, CDFS and CDFN, XMM-
XXL, black dots; SDSS/SPIDERS DR14, grey dots;
Dwelly et al., 2017). The thick green line is the
survey will be geared towards the most approximate location of the break in the AGN X-ray
luminous objects at any redshift, and are luminosity function L X where the bulk of the accre-
expected to provide an improvement of tion power is released. The thick cyan line is the
approximate limit above which the IR Wide targets
many orders of magnitude in the number will be selected, assuming a standard infrared-to-
of sources emitting above the break in X-ray conversion. The top histograms show the red-
the luminosity function (Figure 2). Red- shift distribution of eROSITA+4MOST sources (red/
shift determination for these AGN will orange) compared to all other known X-ray sources
(black, grey), while the right-hand histograms com-
provide an unprecedented look at the pare the respective luminosity distributions.
evolution of the most massive and pow-
erful SMBHs. Finally, in combination with 10 5
optical and near-IR imaging surveys over
the 4MOST survey footprints, we will also 104
search for high-redshift quasar candi-
10 3
dates at z > 4 to complement the tens of
#

z > 6 X-ray selected AGN expected from


10 2
eROSITA (see Figure 2).
101
Frequency of accreting SMBHs in the
galaxy population 10 0
The highly complete X-ray and mid-IR COSMOS+LH+CDFN+CDFS+XMM–XXL/BOSS
sample of AGN will provide a legacy RASS/SPIDERS DR14
dataset from which to measure the inci- eROSITA 4MOST
46
dence of accreting SMBHs within: (1) the IR–Wide 4MOST limit
z < 1 galaxy population; (2) merging gal-
axies and other morphological classes
(delivered by high-quality optical/near-IR 45
imaging from, for example, surveys from
the Hyper Suprime-Cam [HSC], the
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope [LSST],
log L x

44
and the Euclid mission); (3) radio galaxies
(and jet-dominated AGN of various
classes, as delivered by future deep and
wide-area radio surveys); and (4) large- 43
scale structures such as voids, filaments,
groups, clusters (from synergy with
SZ surveys, CMB lensing, and X-ray clus-
42
ter surveys, including eROSITA itself).
Given the excellent source statistics, the
EoR
4MOST AGN survey will also allow for the
most comprehensive measurements to –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 10 0 101 10 2 10 3 104 10 5
date of the accretion rate distribution of log z # of sources

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 43


Surveys Merloni A. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 6

AGN as a function of redshift, luminosity, statistics, and differences in luminosi- – To cover an overall area of ~ 10 000
and host-galaxy properties. ties. The large area and the sample square degrees.
size of eROSITA and WISE will signifi- – To target both the point-like and the
SMBH and host-galaxy spectral cantly improve these studies, boosting extended optical source counterparts
measurements our knowledge of the AGN clustering of eROSITA- and WISE-selected
The 4MOST optical spectra will allow for properties. AGN with an average sky density of
direct estimates of SMBH masses for the ~ 100–120 per square degree.
large subset of AGN with broad emission Fundamental cosmological constraints – To observe the area around the South
lines using virial relations (Shen, 2013). In recent years it has been demonstrated Ecliptic pole (~ 300 square degrees)
These measurements will probe the beyond doubt that the X-ray:ultraviolet more frequently (with a cadence of
physics of accretion onto SMBHs, and luminosity ratios of unobscured quasars at least half a year) and deeper with a
will also allow for a direct investigation of follow a tight non-linear relationship. target density of ~ 200 per square
the evolution of the SMBH-host galaxy This allows them to be used as “standard degree.
scaling relations out to z ~ 3. For the candles” to probe the geometry of the – To robustly measure redshifts for faint
population of lower-redshift AGN (z < 1) expanding universe out to z ~ 6, in much targets (down to r = 22.5–23.0 magni-
the well calibrated (see Science below) the same way that type Ia Supernovae tudes) and to derive physical character-
medium-resolution (R ~ 6500) spectra will have been used at z < 1 (Risaliti & Lusso, istics of the brighter sources from high
also deliver quantitative measurements 2018). The large AGN sample from S/N optical spectra.
of a wide variety of AGN host-­galaxy eROSITA will provide excellent source – To achieve good (better than 10%
properties (stellar masses, star formation statistics to improve the current cosmo- accuracy) relative flux calibration so as
rates, dust reddening, stellar population logical constraints, particularly thanks to use AGN and host galaxy continuum
ages, and metallicities; see, for example, to a few 104 z > 3 quasars, which offer measurements to derive physical char-
Menzel et al., 2016) and the identifica- unique probes of the expansion history acteristics from continuum and emis-
tion of AGN-driven outflows to constrain of the universe at high redshift. sion-line flux measurements.
their impact on the star formation in the
host galaxy (for example, Harrison, 2017). Constraining AGN accretion physics
In addition, the LRS ­resolution will allow via variability study Target selection and survey area
unambiguous iden­tification of the [O II] The survey area close to the South
doublet in the redshift range where it is ­Ecliptic Pole (Deep survey, see below) The goal for the 4MOST AGN survey is
the only feature in the spectrum with high will be revisited at X-ray wavelengths to obtain spectra for ~ 80–90% of the
signal to noise (S/N). This could be par- ­several times thanks to the eROSITA X-ray and mid-IR selected AGN samples
ticularly important for the faint, obscured scanning strategy (Merloni et al., 2012), to yield redshifts for up to one million
WISE AGN targets. and will also be covered by a denser AGN. The survey area is defined by the
tiling of 4MOST pointings, because of the eROSITA all-sky X-ray survey whose
AGN activity and the large-scale high source density in this region (which ­proprietary data rights lie with the MPE-
environment includes the LMC targets). This will allow led German Consortium. eROSITA will
The measurement of the spatial cluster- for additional unique scientific opportu­ observe most of the area to a relatively
ing of AGN has emerged as a major way nities for the study of time-variable AGN, uniform depth with two deeper regions
to investigate the relationship between including eclipsing sources, variable around the ecliptic poles. We have there-
AGN, their host galaxies and the larger- absorption and dramatic flux variability fore defined two separate sub-compo-
scale environment. AGN clustering events (“changing look” AGN). nents to the survey: the X-ray Wide Sur-
­measurements have the potential to: vey, covering almost all of the German
(1) determine the distribution of AGN as eROSITA extragalactic sky visible with
a function of dark matter halo mass Science requirements 4MOST (10 000 square degrees); and
(Krumpe et al., 2015); (2) infer AGN trig- the X-ray Deep Survey, covering a circle
gering mechanisms and lifetimes; and The aforementioned scientific goals of ~ 300 square degrees centred on
(3) measure the cosmological parameters require a highly complete and uniform the South Ecliptic Pole. To these will be
(for example, via baryon acoustic oscilla- set of spectroscopic redshift measure- added a third component, the IR WIDE
tion [BAO] measurements; Kolodzig et ments over a very large area. The uni- Survey, which shares the footprints with
al., 2013; Comparat et al., 2019). Direct formity of the selection, necessary to the X-ray Wide area, and selects targets
measurements of the 3D spatial cluster- achieve most of the science goals, will based on their WISE mid-IR properties.
ing in X-ray selected AGN samples at be guaranteed by the well-understood
z > 1 have mostly been limited to medium- and uniform eROSITA and WISE selection The target selection of the eROSITA
deep area surveys of only a few square functions, provided that nearly complete sources is straightforward — all eROSITA
degrees. These studies suggest that z ~ 1 counterpart identification and successful X-ray detected point sources within the
X-ray selected AGN are more clustered spectroscopic redshift measurements 4MOST extragalactic footprints will be
than optically selected AGN. However, are achieved. These simple goals drive targeted with the Low-Resolution Spec-
the results remain uncertain owing to the most of the science requirements, which trograph (LRS) fibres. The eROSITA PSF
effects of cosmic variance, small number we list here. (~ 28-arcsecond half energy width) is

44 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Name Area Average density Limiting magnitude Number of sources Selection notes
(deg 2) (deg –2) (10 3)
X-ray Wide 10 000 ~ 90 r < 22.8 ~ 800 F0.5–2 keV > 10 –14 erg s –1 cm –2
IR Wide 10 000 ~ 20 r < 22.8 ~ 180 See Mateos et al.,
2012
X-ray Deep 300 ~ 200 r < 23.2 ~ 50 F0.5–2 keV > 5 × 10 –15 erg s –1 cm –2
High-z Quasars 10 000 ~ 4 iAB < 22.5 (z > 5) ~ 40 See Reed et al.,
zAB < 22.0 (z > 6) 2017

s­ ufficient to distinguish X-ray AGN (and al., 2016). The BOSS campaign targeted Table 1. Summary of 4MOST AGN survey character-
istics: (1) area covered, requirements; (2) average
stars) from the most common extended XMM-Newton AGN with counterparts
target density; for the IR Wide survey, we quote the
X-ray sources (clusters of galaxies; Clerc brighter than r = 22.5 magnitudes to be total number of unique targets, after accounting for
et al., 2018). In the X-ray Wide Survey, we representative of the 4MOST targets. duplicates with the X-ray Wide survey; (3) approxi-
expect ~ 90% of the eROSITA sources Taking a < 3% failure rate as a target mate limiting optical magnitudes; (4) total number of
spectra to be obtained in order to satisfy the spectral
with f 0.5–2 keV > 10 –14 erg s –1 cm –2 to be threshold, and scaling for the different
success criteria.
brighter than r = 22.8 magnitudes; in the resolutions of the BOSS and 4MOST LRS,
X-ray Deep Survey we expect ~ 90% of we obtain the following S/N estimates per
the sources with f 0.5–2 keV > 5 × 10 –15 erg pixel thresholds: 2.1, 2.4 and 2.8 for the
s –1 cm –2 to be brighter than r = 23.4 mag- three arms of the 4MOST spectrograph Menzel, M.-L. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 457, 110
Merloni, A. et al. 2012, arXiv:1209.3114
nitudes, and this sets our expected sur- (i.e., blue, green and red). It is expected
Reed, S. L. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 468, 4702
vey depth. These X-ray selected AGN will that the above criteria are very conserva- Risaliti, G. & Lusso, E. 2019, Nature Astronomy,
be complemented with near- and mid-IR tive, as they are based on continuum in press
AGN selected from the VISTA Ks and measurements for a set of objects which Shen, Y. 2013, Bulletin of the Astronomical Society
of India, 41, 61
WISE W1-W3 bands using colour selec- should contain numerous narrow emis-
tion techniques (for example, Mateos et sion/absorption lines, which will be used
al., 2012), potentially supplemented with to successfully measure redshifts. We Notes
a machine-learning approach to improve envisage that all counterparts of eROSITA-
a
 ere we define completeness as the fraction of
H
the AGN-selection efficiency and com- detected point-like X-ray sources will be
X-ray and mid-IR sources in the targeting samples
pleteness (for example, Fotopoulou & observed by 4MOST with up to a maxi- for which we successfully acquire spectroscopic
­Paltani, 2018). The eROSITA X-ray sources mum of ~ 2 hours exposure. The spectral redshift measurements.
will provide the majority of the AGN sam- success criteria for the WISE-selected
ple, but the WISE mid-IR AGN will be AGN will be comparable to the eROSITA-
important to select the heavily obscured selected AGN, given the similar distribu-
AGN, which will be missed because of the tion of optical magnitudes and redshifts
relatively soft X-ray response of eROSITA, (for example, Lam, Wright, & Malkan,
to give a highly complete 4MOST AGN 2018).
sample.
The overall survey figure of merit defini-
Finally we will also carry out a High-z tion is driven by the main requirement
Quasar Survey using a combination of to reach the highest possible level of
optical, near-IR and mid-IR data (for spectroscopic completeness (minimum
example, from DES, HSC, LSST, VISTA requirement of 90% for the wide surveys,
and WISE) to i < 22.5 magnitudes for and 80% for the deep one) over an area
5 < z < 6 selection, z < 22.0 magnitudes of 10 000 square degrees (Wide) and
for 6 < z < 6.5, and spectral energy dis­ 300 square degrees (Deep).
tribution based techniques to select and
classify the targets (for example, Reed
et al., 2017). References

Aird, J. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 451, 1892


Alexander, D. M. & Hickox, R. C. 2012, NewAR, 56, 93
Spectral success criteria and figure of Banerji, M. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 427, 2275
merit Clerc, N. et al. 2018, A&A, 617, 92
Comparat, J. et al., MNRAS, submitted
Dwelly, T. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 1065
The spectral success criteria are defined Fotopolou, S. & Paltani, S. 2018, A&A, 619, 14
using an empirical relation between the Harrison, C. M. 2017, Nature Astron., 1, 0165
redshift measurement success and Kolodzig, A. et al. 2013, A&A, 558, A90
Krumpe, M. et al. 2015, ApJ, 815, 21
S/N over different broad bands from the Lam, A., Wright, E. & Malkan, M. 2018, MNRAS,
Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey 480, 451
(BOSS) of X-ray selected AGN (Menzel et Mateos, S. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 426, 3271

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 45


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5126

4MOST Consortium Survey 7:


Wide-Area VISTA Extragalactic Survey (WAVES)

Simon P. Driver 1 z = 1.0 z = 0.5 z = 0.0


Jochen Liske 2
Luke J. M. Davies 1
Aaron S. G. Robotham 1
Ivan K. Baldry 3
Michael J. I. Brown 4
Michelle Cluver 5
Koen Kuijken 6
Jon Loveday 7
Richard McMahon 8
Martin J. Meyer 1 105 cMpc
Peder Norberg 9
Matt Owers10 smallest length scales (1–10 kpc) Figure 1. Three panels showing a 105 × 105 co-­
Chris Power 1 moving Mpc simulated box of the underlying dark
WAVES will provide accurate distance
matter distribution at three redshifts (z). The pre-
Edward N. Taylor 5 and environmental measurements to dicted evolution of the density field results in the
and the WAVES team complement high-resolution space- movement of mass from voids into filaments, groups
based imaging to study the mass and and clusters. Measuring this evolution by construct-
ing group, filament and void catalogues is one of
size evolution of galaxy bulges, discs
1 the core science goals of WAVES. The figure is by
International Centre for Radio Astron- and bars. In total, WAVES will provide P. Elahi, based on the Synthetic UniveRses For Sur-
omy Research/University of Western a panchromatic legacy dataset of veys (SURFS) simulations (Elahi et al., 2018).
Australia, Perth, Australia ~ 1.6 million galaxies, firmly linking
2
Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität the very low (z < 0.1) and intermediate
Hamburg, Germany (z ~ 0.8) redshift Universe. times (see Figure 1). This mass flow, from
3
Astrophysics Research Institute, lower to higher density environments,
­Liverpool John Moores University, UK results in the late-time emergence of
4
School of Physics and Astronomy, Scientific context massive groups and clusters, which can
Monash University, Melbourne, be used to directly trace the evolution
Australia The structures which we see in the in the underlying dark matter distribution
5
Centre for Astrophysics and Super­ ­Universe today, from galaxies to groups, (Robotham et al., 2011; Alpaslan et al.,
computing, Swinburne University of clusters, filaments and voids, were 2014).
Technology, Hawthorn, Australia moulded by the underlying dark matter
6
Sterrewacht Leiden, Universiteit Leiden, distribution and its hierarchical assembly With most major spectroscopic galaxy
the Netherlands (Fall & Efstathiou, 1980; Frenk et al., 1988) surveys (for example, the Dark Energy
7
University of Sussex, Brighton, UK — without dark matter, large scale Spectroscopic Instrument [DESI] survey;
8
Institute of Astronomy, University of ­structure, galaxies, stars and indeed life DESI Collaboration, 2016) focusing on the
Cambridge, UK would not exist. Numerical simulations sparse sampling of large areas, WAVES1
9
Department of Physics, Durham of the growth of dark matter structures is unique in pursuing a fully sampled, high-
­University, UK (for example, Springel et al., 2005) start completeness strategy over relatively
10
Department of Physics and Astronomy, with initial conditions provided by obser- modest volumes. This high-­density sam-
Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia vations of the cosmic microwave back- pling will allow us to directly observe the
ground and then apply only the action emergence of fine structure (i.e., groups,
of gravity. These simulations successfully filaments and voids), trace the growth of
WAVES is designed to study the explain the very large-scale structure mass and its environmental dependence
growth of structure, mass and energy seen in the Universe today, as revealed (i.e., mergers and in-situ star formation;
on scales of ~ 1 kpc to ~ 10 Mpc over a on Mpc scales and above by surveys Davies et al., 2015), and follow the primary
7 Gyr timeline. On the largest length such as the Two-degree Field Galaxy energy production pathways (i.e., star
scales (1–10 Mpc) WAVES will measure Redshift Survey (2dFGRS; Colless et al., ­formation and active galactic nuclei) on
the structures defined by groups, fila- 2001), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey kpc to 100 Mpc scales — length scales
ments and voids, and their emergence (SDSS; York et al., 2000), and the Galaxy over which the interaction of dark matter
over recent times. Comparisons with And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey with baryons is strongest.
bespoke numerical simulations will be (Driver et al., 2011; Liske et al., 2015).
used to confirm, refine or refute the WAVES will test the Cold Dark Matter
Cold Dark Matter paradigm. At inter­ The latest dark matter simulations (for (CDM) paradigm by measuring redshifts
mediate length scales (10 kpc–1 Mpc) example, Ishiyama et al., 2015; Ludlow for ~ 1.6 million galaxies, split between
WAVES will probe the size and mass et al., 2016) predict fine details in this two sub-surveys. WAVES-Wide will cover
distribution of galaxy groups, as well as structure down to relatively low masses an area of ~ 1200 square degrees, probing
the galaxy merger rates, in order to (108 M⊙), as well as strong evolution in the to significantly lower galaxy and halo
directly measure the assembly of dark growth of large-scale structure on scales masses in the low-redshift Universe than
matter halos and stellar mass. On the of 1 to 100 Mpc over relatively recent previous surveys. WAVES-Deep will cover

46 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


an area of ~ 70 square degrees to quantify – Identify 10 000 Milky-Way-mass Depth: For WAVES-Deep we aim to
the evolution of structure, mass and (1012 M⊙) halos to study galaxy prop­ probe below the “knee” of the stellar
energy production over a ~ 7 Gyr base- erties in the most typical environment mass function, to ensure we capture the
line. Within the environments probed by in which most mass resides. majority of stellar mass at all epochs,
WAVES, we will extend studies of the out to a redshift of ~ 0.8. This requires a
­galaxy population and its evolution to WAVES-Deep (~ 0.75 million galaxies with limiting magnitude of Z ~ 21.25 magni-
lower stellar masses and to more diffuse Z ≲ 21.25 magnitudes and zphot ≲ 0.8): tudes. For WAVES-WIDE we will go as
and lower-surface-brightness systems – Identify 20 000 dark matter halos down deep as time allows over the required
than was previously possible, while trac- to a halo mass of ~ 1014 M⊙ over a area (~ 1200 square degrees), resulting in
ing a timespan over which half of the broad redshift range and measure the a limit of Z ~ 21.1 magnitudes. This pro-
stars in the Universe formed and within predicted evolution of the high-mass vides a 1.3-magnitude improvement over
which the Hubble sequence emerged. end of the Halo Mass Function. the previous GAMA survey (236 square
Our goal is to understand the physical – Measure the major and minor galaxy degrees) and the planned DESI Bright
processes that drive the evolution of gas merger rates across a broad range Galaxy Survey (14 000 square degrees).
to stars and the dependence of these of environments and dark matter halo
processes on the host galaxy, halo prop- mass to z ~ 0.8. Field locations: WAVES-Wide is confined
erties and the larger-scale environment. – Quantify the gas, stellar and dust mass to the footprint of the Kilo-Degree Survey
growth of galaxies and of their struc- (KiDS) and the VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared
tural components as a function of envi- Galaxy Survey (VIKING), as these surveys
Specific scientific goals ronment to z ~ 0.8. provide the data necessary to construct
– Measure the evolution of the cosmic the WAVES-Wide input catalogue. These
Below we briefly list some of the core spectral energy distribution, and thus data are of sufficient depth, resolution
­science goals we plan to pursue with the evolution of energy production in and quality to enable robust flux meas-
WAVES-Wide and WAVES-Deep. In the the Universe, to z ~ 0.8 by combining urements matched to the 4MOST spec-
following, Z refers to the apparent AB WAVES-Deep with complementary troscopic limit, to achieve robust star-­
magnitude in the Z-band, and zphot to the X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared and galaxy separation, and to provide reliable
photometric redshift as estimated from radio imaging data. photometric redshifts to a precision of
broad-band ugriZYJHKs photometry. ± 0.03 (Bilicki et al., 2018), required to
select targets with zphot ≲ 0.2.
WAVES-Wide (~ 0.9 million galaxies with Science requirements
Z ≲ 21.1 magnitudes and zphot ≲ 0.2): WAVES-Deep comprises the G23 region
– Identify 50 000 dark matter halos down Completeness: For both WAVES-Wide of the GAMA survey, because of its
to a halo mass of ~ 1011 M⊙ and meas- and WAVES-Deep we require spectro- extensive multi-wavelength coverage, as
ure the Halo Mass Function as well as scopic completeness of > 90% to be able well as the central 4 square degrees of
the halo mass–baryonic content relation to robustly identify galaxy groups. each of the four declared Deep Drilling
over 4 orders of magnitude in mass. Fields of the Large Synoptic Survey Tele-
– Measure the void distribution function Area: We require mostly contiguous sur- scope (LSST). These will be key focus
within a representative volume of the vey areas of sufficient extent to ensure areas for future observations with ground-
Universe (i.e., with sample variance that sample variance is smaller than 5% based radio interferometers and space-
< 5%). at all redshifts (Driver & Robotham, 2010): based imaging facilities, including the ESA
– Measure the length, width and mass – At z ≲ 0.2 we require an area > 1200 Euclid mission (cf. Figure 2). The exact
content of filaments and tendrils within square degrees (~ 0.075 Gpc3). locations of these deep fields are, how-
a representative volume of the Universe – At z ~ 0.50 we require an area > 50 ever, subject to change.
(i.e., with sample variance < 5%). square degrees (~ 0.04 Gpc3 for
– Quantify the star formation rates, Δz = 0.05).
masses and structural properties of – At z ~ 0.80 we require four areas, each
central and satellite systems, across a with > 4 square degrees (~ 0.015 Gpc 3
wide range of dark matter halo mass. for Δz = 0.05).

Survey region Right ascension (a) Declination (δ) Area Target Target density No. of targets
(deg) (deg) (deg 2 ) selection (deg –2 ) (10 3 )
WAVES Wide North (WWN) 157 < a < 225 −3 < δ < 4 545 Z < 21.1 750 410
WAVES Wide South (WWS) –30 < a < 52.5 −35.9 < δ < −27 625 z phot ≲ 0.2 750 470

WAVES Deep (WD23) [GAMA23] −21 < a < −9 −35 < δ < −30 50 Z < 21.25 11 000 550
WAVES Deep (WD01) [ELAIS-S] 8.95 −43.70 4 z phot ≲ 0.8 11 000 45
WAVES Deep (WD02) [XMMLSS] 35.5 −5.55 4 11 000 45
WAVES Deep (WD03) [ECDFS] 53.0 −28.0 4 11 000 45 Table 1. WAVES field
WAVES Deep (WD10) [E-COSMOS] 150.12 2.50 4 11 000 45 locations and areas,
selection criteria and
Total 1236 1610
input catalogue size.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 47


Surveys Driver S. P. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 7

• MW Centre 12.0 h
GAMA
— MW Plane
SDSS
— Ecliptic
180
60 WAVES
120 240
60 300
0

30 8.0 h 16.0 h

Lookback time, Gyr


2 4 6 8 10 

–30

–60

■ Euclid ■ GAMA 4.0 h 20.0 h


• eROSITA ■ WAVES-Deep
■ WFIRST ■ WAVES-Wide

Figure 2. Left: The WAVES Survey footprint (blue


regions), along with the Euclid and WFIRST footprints
0.0 h
and the eROSITA sky division. Right: Cone plot illus-
trating the spatial depth of WAVES-Wide, WAVES-
Deep and two other prominent spectroscopic galaxy 26
surveys. MOONS-D WAVES
VUDS Existing
Deep2 PFS-highz
Limiting magnitude (equivalent ~ i-mag [AB])

Ongoing
VANDELS-SF VVDS-UD
24 Future
VVDS-D MOONS-W
Target selection and survey area Deep3
VVDS-W
VANDELS-passive
zCOSMOS VIPERS
22
Table 1 specifies our current survey DEVILS PFS-lowz
design, indicating the survey regions and WAVES-Deep WAVES-Wide
AGES
the selection criteria we are likely to apply 20
hCOSMOS
to our input catalogue in terms of the SHELS
GAMA
­limiting Z-band flux (Z), and a photometric DESI-BGS
18
redshift estimate (zphot) based on our 2dFGRS
ugriZYJHKs data from KiDS and VIKING. SDSS
Taipan
An additional criterion is star-galaxy 16
­separation, which will likely be based on
the J–Ks colour and the measured half- 6dFGS
light radius. Objects classified as stars by 14
their colour or size will not be targeted. 10 –1 10 0 101 10 2 10 3 104 10 5
Area (deg 2 )
The above survey design was derived
from a combination of factors which 10 5 WAVES
include: detailed simulations of the growth Deep3 Existing
PFS-highz
of structure; the need to reduce sample Ongoing
Future
variance to below 5% (Driver & Robotham, VVDS-D MOONS-W 10
M
VUDS
2010); observability with 4MOST; the 104 Deep2 DEVILS VIPERS
VANDELS-LBG zCOSMOS
re
ds
hif
availability of appropriate data for an input VANDELS-passive PFS-lowz WAVES-Deep ts
Density of redshifts

AGES 1M
catalogue; and declared future multi- hCOSMOS re
VVDS-W ds
wavelength survey programmes likely to VVDS-UD
SHELS hif
ts DESI-BGS
10 3 WAVES-Wide
complement and maximise the survey’s VANDELS-SF 10
0k
GAMA
legacy value (for example, those currently re
ds
hif
expected from the LSST, the Square ts
10
­K ilometre Array [SKA], Euclid, and the 10 2 k re 2dFGRS SDSS
ds
Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope hif
ts Taipan
[WFIRST]). 1k
r ed
sh
i f ts 6dFGS
101
Figure 3. A comparison of recent, ongoing and
future surveys showing the competitive edge of
WAVES in the parameter space of area, limiting 10 0 101 10 2 10 3 104
­m agnitude and target density. Area (deg 2 )

48 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


The left panel of Figure 2 shows the and hence the value of WAVES, depends Department of Industry, Innovation and Science (DIIS)
and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
WAVES footprint on the sky and its over- sensitively on its spectroscopic com-
lap with the forthcoming Euclid and pleteness. We have thus chosen to define
WFIRST space-based imaging pro- the WAVES figure of merit (FoM) purely in References
grammes. The right panel indicates the terms of completeness and to do so
Alpaslan, M. et al. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 177
improvement of WAVES over the SDSS highly non-linearly; the FoM is a power-
Bilicki, M. et al. 2018, A&A, 616, A69
and GAMA surveys as it pushes to law function of the completeness, with an Colless, M. et al. 2001, MNRAS, 328, 1039
both higher density nearby and to higher exponent of 3 up to a completeness of Davies, L. J. M. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 452, 616
lookback times (indicated by the radial 0.9, and an exponent of 6 thereafter. The DESI Collaboration: Aghamousa, A. et al. 2016,
arXiv:1611.00036
axis). Figure 3 shows the competitiveness normalisation is chosen such that our
Driver, S. P. & Robotham, A. S. G. 2010, MNRAS,
of WAVES compared to recent, ongoing requirement of a completeness of 0.9 407, 2131
and future spectroscopic programmes results in a FoM = 0.5, whereas our goal of Driver, S. P. et al. 2011, MNRAS, 413, 971
in terms of area, limiting magnitude and a completeness of 0.95 gives a FoM = 1.0. Elahi, P. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 475, 5338
Fall, S. M. & Efstathiou, G. 1980, MNRAS, 193, 189
­target density.
Frenk, C. S. et al. 1988, ApJ, 327, 507
The above FoM is first defined inde- Ishiyama, T. et al. 2015, PASJ, 67, 61
pendently for WAVES-Wide and WAVES- Liske, J. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 452, 2087
Spectral success criteria and figure of Deep. The overall WAVES FoM is then Ludlow, A. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 460, 1214
Robotham, A. S. G. et al. 2011, MNRAS, 416, 2640
merit defined as the lower of the two sub-­
Springel, V. et al. 2005, Nature, 435, 629
survey FoMs. York, D. G. et al. 2000, AJ, 120, 1579
A WAVES target will be deemed success-
fully observed if its redshift can be meas-
Acknowledgements Links
ured with a confidence greater than 90%
from its 4MOST spectrum. The ability to We acknowledge funding from our universities, the
1
The WAVES survey: https://wavesurvey.org/
construct a high-quality group catalogue, Australian Research Council (ARC), the Australian
ICRAR/GAMA and ESO

Near-Infrared

Optical Mid-Infrared

Far-Infrared
Ultraviolet
A typical galaxy from the
GAMA survey observed
at different wavelength
regimes.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 49


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5127

4MOST Consortium Survey 8:


Cosmology Redshift Survey (CRS)

Johan Richard 1 sion-line galaxies and quasars, totalling with spectroscopic redshift information
Jean-Paul Kneib 2 about 8 million objects over the redshift in order to construct the most precise
Chris Blake 3 range z = 0.15 to 3.5, will allow definitive available observational tests of gravity,
Anand Raichoor 2 tests of gravitational physics. Many key and mitigate the most significant system-
Johan Comparat 4 science questions will be addressed by atic effects that limit the efficacy of these
Tom Shanks 5 combining CRS spectra of these targets tests, such as the calibration of photo-
Jenny Sorce 1, 6 with data from current or future facilities metric redshifts and galaxy bias. Spec-
Martin Sahlén 7 such as the Large Synoptic Survey troscopy of the southern hemisphere is
Cullan Howlett 8 ­Telescope, the Square Kilometre Array vital to enable these advances; there is
Elmo Tempel 9, 6 and the Euclid mission. currently no existing large-scale southern
Richard McMahon10 hemisphere redshift survey beyond the
Maciej Bilicki 11 local Universe. DESI will survey the
Boudewijn Roukema 12, 1 Scientific context ­northern sky, and the future Taipan Gal-
Jon Loveday 13 axy Survey 3 and Euclid satellite will map
Dan Pryer 13 A wide variety of cosmological observa- structure in the redshift ranges z < 0.2
Thomas Buchert 1 tions suggest that, in the standard inter- and 1 < z < 2, respectively, missing
Cheng Zhao 2 pretation, the Universe has entered out the 0.2 < z < 1 interval which is key
and the CRS team a phase of accelerating expansion pro- for tracing the physical effects of dark
pelled by some form of dark energy. energy. Moreover, current deep imaging
The physical nature of dark energy is not from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) 4
1
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de yet understood, and may reflect the and Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) 5, future
Lyon, France ­general-relativistic nature of structure for- imaging by the Large Synoptic Survey
2
Laboratoire d’astrophysique, École mation, new contributions in the matter- Telescope (LSST) 6, CMB Stage 4 experi-
­Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, energy sector, or new fundamental the- ments, and future radio surveys by the
Switzerland ory, such as modifications to gravitational Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its
3
Centre for Astrophysics and Super- physics on cosmic scales. Past studies ­precursors, MeerKAT and the Australian
computing, Swinburne University of of the effects of dark energy have par- Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder
Technology, Hawthorn, Australia ticularly focused on mapping the expan- (ASKAP), will all concern the southern
4
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische sion history of the Universe, for example, hemisphere. Southern-hemisphere spec-
Physik, Garching, Germany using baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) troscopic follow-up with 4MOST is critical
5
Department of Physics, Durham as a standard ruler or Type Ia Superno- for successfully completing the multiple
­University, UK vae as standard candles. These probes science cases for these facilities.
6
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik ­Potsdam have yielded important constraints on
(AIP), Germany the homogeneous expanding Universe, The 4MOST CRS will make a fundamen-
7
Department of Physics and Astronomy, including ~ 1% distance measurements tal contribution to tests of gravitational
Uppsala universitet, Sweden and a ~ 5% determination of the equation physics by constructing a unique red-
8
International Centre for Radio Astron- of state of dark energy. Future surveys, shift-space map of the large-scale struc-
omy Research/University of Western for example by the Dark Energy Spectro- ture for ~ 8 million galaxies and quasars
Australia, Perth, Australia scopic Instrument (DESI) 1 or Euclid 2 in the southern hemisphere out to red-
9
Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, will improve these distance constraints to shift z = 3.5. This map will be cross-cor-
Estonia sub-percent measurements in narrow related with complementary current and
10
Institute of Astronomy, University of redshift bins. future datasets to carry out key cosmo-
Cambridge, UK logical tests. The area of overlap between
11
Sterrewacht Leiden, Universiteit L­ eiden, However, in order to distinguish between CRS spectroscopy and lensing-quality
the Netherlands the different possible manifestations of deep imaging is about three times that
12
Torun Centre for Astronomy (TCfA), dark energy, these measurements of currently planned for DESI, thus enabling
Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland expansion must be supplemented by compelling and competitive science.
13
University of Sussex, Brighton, UK accurate observations of the gravitational
growth of the inhomogeneous clumpy
Universe. There are several important sig- Specific scientific goals
The 4MOST Cosmology Redshift Sur- natures of gravitational physics which
vey (CRS) will perform stringent cosmo- may be used for this purpose, including Testing gravitational physics with
logical tests via spectroscopic cluster- the peculiar motions of galaxies or clus- ­overlapping lensing and spectroscopy
ing measurements that will complement ters and the patterns of weak lensing Weak gravitational lensing and galaxy
the best lensing, cosmic microwave imprinted by the deflections of light rays peculiar velocities imprinted in redshift-
background and other surveys in the from either distant galaxies or the cosmic space distortions are complementary
southern hemisphere. The combination microwave background (CMB). These observables for testing the cosmological
of carefully selected samples of bright probes rely, to a significant degree, on model because they probe different
galaxies, luminous red galaxies, emis- the cross correlation of imaging datasets ­combinations of the metric potentials.

50 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


The overlapping datasets created by the Auxiliary science Science requirements
4MOST CRS are particularly beneficial
for these tests (Kirk et al., 2015) because: Large-scale structure mapping – The minimum survey area needed is
(1) they allow for the additional measure- CRS will offer a spectroscopic view of 6000 square degrees. The minimum
ment of galaxy-galaxy lensing, which is both large and small scales of the cosmic survey area for photometric redshift
subject to a lower level of systematics web. In particular, its high galaxy number calibration is 1000 square degrees.
than cosmic shear; (2) measurements of density will allow structural studies of – The minimum required target densities
quasar magnification bias can be com- voids down to relatively small scales over for each target category (Bright Galax-
pared with these other lensing measure- a wide redshift range. At larger scales, ies — BG, Luminous Red Galaxies —
ments and redshift-space distortion CRS will further enable cosmological dis- LRG, Emission-Line Galaxies — ELG,
­analyses in the same volume; (3) imaging tance and effective expansion rate meas- Quasars — QSO) are defined such
can mitigate key redshift-space distortion urements accurate to 1–5% to be made that clustering measurements are not
systematics by constraining galaxy bias in bins of dz = 0.1 up to z = 3.5 using gal- limited by Poisson noise.
models; and (4) the same density fluctua- axies and quasars, complementing DESI – We require a spectroscopic success
tions generate both the lensing and clus- BAO measurements in the northern hem- rate (SSR) > 95% for BGs, > 75% for
tering signatures, thus potentially reduc- isphere. The CRS Lya survey will exploit LRGs, > 80% for ELGs and > 50% for
ing statistical uncertainties. the higher spectral resolution compared QSOs.
to DESI (by a factor of almost 2) to meas-
Source redshift distributions via ure structure in the Lya forest down to The survey area is required to be as wide
cross-correlations sub-Mpc scales, allowing new limits to be as possible, a requirement driven by
Weak gravitational lensing is one of the placed on warm dark matter models as ­carrying out the best measurements and
most powerful and rapidly developing well as high-redshift BAO measurements covering all of the existing high-quality
probes of the cosmological model, being (for example, Bautista et al., 2017). Com- imaging in the southern hemisphere from
particularly advanced in the southern bined with chronometric measures of the DES and KiDS. The minimum area of
sky thanks to imaging surveys such as effective expansion rate, these BAO dis- 6000 square degrees (current baseline at
KiDS, DES, and LSST. A principal source tances will also provide tests of average 7500 square degrees) is based on ensur-
of systematic error for cosmic shear curvature and effective expansion rate ing a much wider area (and therefore a
tomography is the calibration of the consistency (for example, Clarkson et al., strong impact) for CRS compared to the
source redshift distribution which enters 2008), to test the standard hypothesis planned overlap area of 3000 square
the cosmological model. Different meth- that comoving space is rigid (Roukema et degrees for DESI at z < 0.7, where targets
ods of calibrating this distribution exist al., 2015). have the strongest galaxy-galaxy lensing
and usually they require spectroscopic signal and are best placed to lens
overlap, which should, however, be deep Synergies with other surveys sources in DES and KiDS. The latter two
enough. The planned 4MOST galaxy and Cross-correlation of large-scale H I inten- requirements are there to ensure sample-
quasar redshift surveys will allow for sity maps across the southern sky with variance-limited measurements on large
this calibration to be accomplished up to optical spectroscopy will allow the evolu- scales and for the efficiency of the sur-
high redshifts for all overlapping imaging tion of the neutral hydrogen content of vey; these are based on previous experi-
surveys in the southern sky. galaxies to be mapped in detail, paving ments with similar target types (for exam-
the way to surveys with the SKA (Wolz ple, eBOSS).
Synergies with CMB experiments et al., 2017). CRS cross-correlations with
As the only planned large southern spec- overlapping optical and eROSITA X-ray
troscopic survey at intermediate red- imaging will allow us respectively to Target selection and survey area
shifts, 4MOST is uniquely positioned for measure the effect of quasar feedback
synergies with CMB Stage 4 experiments on the local clustering environment and Cross-correlation with deep lensing and
mapping the CMB across the southern to investigate novel routes to cosmological CMB surveys motivates the use of LRG
hemisphere with unprecedented resolu- parameters (for example, Risaliti & Lusso, as the most efficient tracers of large-
tion and accuracy. The CMB contains 2018). CRS, in conjunction with the scale structure with the maximal lensing
a wealth of information about the late- 4MOST TIDES Survey (Survey 10; Swann imprint. These targets should span a
time cosmic evolution through its interac- et al., p. 58), can map the host-galaxy range of redshifts where the lensing
tions with the large-scale structure. redshifts of a significant population of geometry is most efficient and cosmolog-
Of particular importance are the S­ unyaev- SNe discovered by LSST, allowing pre- ical physics is dark-energy dominated,
Zel’dovich and integrated Sachs-Wolfe cise gravitational tests using peculiar i.e., z < 0.7. Photometric redshift calibra-
effects, and weak gravitational lensing of velocities (Howlett et al., 2017). CRS will tion by cross-correlation requires full red-
the CMB. CRS will provide growth-rate also be a valuable tool to follow up the shift coverage to the limit of the source
measurements by allowing cross-correla- numerous galaxy-galaxy strong lensing sample, where each target class covers
tion with spectroscopically confirmed events found by Euclid and LSST (Collett, at least 1000 square degrees (Newman et
targets. 2015), which can be used as probes al., 2015).
for the dark matter distribution at galactic
scales.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 51


Surveys Richard J. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 8

Table 1. Properties of each target category in CRS.

Name z Selected (AB) R-band Sky area Density Colour Redshift Number of targets
magnitude range (magnitude [AB]) (deg 2) (deg 2) selection completeness (10 6)
BG 0.15–0.4 16 < J < 18 20.2 ± 0.4 7500 250 J–Ks, J–W1 95% 1.88
LRG 0.4–0.7 18.0 < J < 19.5 21.8 ± 0.7 7500 400 J–Ks, J–W1 75% 3.00
ELG 0.6–1.1 21.0 < g < 23.2 23.9 ± 0.3 1000 1200 g–r, r–i 80% 1.20
QSO 0.9–2.2 g < 22.5 22.2 ± 0.7 7500 190 g–i,i–W1,W1–W2 65% 1.43
QSO-Lya 2.2–3.5 r < 22.7 22.2 ± 0.7 7500 50 g–i,i–W1,W1–W2 90% 0.38

10

0 1000

–10

Object counts per degree –2


–20
Declination (degree)

100
–30

–40

–50
4MOST/CRS 10
DESI
–60
Euclid
DES
–70
ATLAS not DES
KiDS
–80 1
18 h 12h 6h 0h 24 h
Right ascension (degree)

Figure 1 (above). Footprints of the discussed imaging


BG (250/deg 2) surveys and target densities from mock catalogues.
The CRS area (7500 square degrees), demarcated
LRG (400/deg 2) by a thick cyan line, consists of DES and VST-ATLAS
ELG (1200/deg 2) excluding DESI and of the two main KiDS regions.
QSO+Lyα (240/deg 2) The 1000 square degrees covering ELGs is shaded
in yellow, with a higher target density.
10 2
N/deg 2

101

Figure 2 (left). The expected redshift distributions


for the different tracers. These are obtained by
10 0 applying our target selection on real data, using the
HSC p ­ hotometric redshifts for the BG/LRG/ELG,
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 and using SDSS DR14 spectroscopic redshifts for
Redshift the QSO.

52 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


BG (16.0 < VHS J < 18.0) LRG (18.0 < VHS J < 19.5) ELG (22.0 < DES g < 23.2)
1.5 1.5 2.0
zphot = 0 (star) zphot = 0 (star) zphot = 0 (star)
1.0 0.005 < zphot < 0.4 1.0 0 < zphot < 0.4 0 < zphot < 0.7
0.4 < zphot 0.4 < zphot < 0.8 1.5 0.7 < zphot < 1.1
0.5 0.5 0.8 < zphot 1.1 < zphot

70%
VHS J – WISE W1

VHS J – WISE W1

DES r – DES i
1.0
0.0 0.0

–0.5 –0.5
30% 0.5 70%
30% 9 0%

9 0%
–1.0 –1.0 %
70
0.0
–1.5 –1.5

–2.0 –2.0 –0.5


–1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
VHS J – VHS K VHS J – VHS K DES g – DES r

Figure 3. Colour selection for the BG (left), LRG metric selection. In addition, colour area, which is the main criterion for high
(middle), and ELG (right), using real data (VHS, DES,
selections are applied to each target accuracy in clustering, as well as the high
and the CFHT Legacy Survey photometric redshifts).
For each tracer, we display the typical loci of the based on empirical regions in the colour- total number of targets N. Each part is
objects passing the magnitude cut reported in the colour d ­ iagrams. The colour selections equally accounted linearly in the figure of
title: grey contours are for stars, blue/green/red con- are based on the availability of the rele- merit calculation.
tours are for objects with redshifts lower/within/
vant filters in the imaging data contained
higher than the aimed redshift range; our selections
are shown using black semi-transparent dots. in each region (combining DES as well
as the VISTA Hemisphere Survey [VHS] Acknowledgements
and WISE). The selections foreseen are We acknowledge support from the French Pro-
tuned to obtain the desired target den- gramme National Cosmologie Galaxies (PNCG),
Targets from the CRS are therefore sity, ­maximising the fraction of targets in the ERC starting Grant 336736-CALENDS and the
divided into the following subcategories: the desired redshift range and favouring ERC advanced Grant 740021-ARTHUS.
BG, LRG, ELG, QSO, including quasars a certain type of objects (red for BG and
probed through their Lyman-forest at LRG, blue for ELG, see Figure 3). References
z > 2.2 (QSO-Lya). This allows the survey
to cover targets at all redshifts from z = 0 Bautista, J. E. et al. 2017, A&A, 603, 12
Clarkson, C. et al. 2008, Physical Review Letters,
to z = 3.5 (Figure 2). Table 1 summarises Spectral success criteria and figure of 101, 011301
the main properties of the magnitude and merit Collett, T. E. 2015, ApJ, 811, 20
colour selections. Comparat, J. et al. 2016, A&A, 592, 121
We use the following spectral success Howlett, C. et al. 2017, ApJ, 847, 128
Kirk, D. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 451, 4424
There are two main survey regions: criteria to estimate the usefulness of a Newman, J. A. et al. 2015, Astroparticle Physics,
one larger area of 7500 square degrees given target to achieve our science goals: 63, 81
for BG, LRG, QSO and QSO-Lya targets, –B  G and LRG: median signal-to-noise Risaliti, G. & Lusso, E. 2018, Nature Astronomy,
and a smaller region of 1000 square S/N > 1 per Å in continuum region arXiv:1811.02590
Roukema, B. F. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 448, 1660
degrees for ELGs (included in the larger 4000–8000 Å. Wolz, L. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 470, 3220
one). The baseline sky area (7500 square –E  LG: S/N > 0.5 per Å in continuum
degrees) for CRS is constructed by com- region near 6700 Å or 9000 Å.
bining the DES, KiDS and VST-ATLAS –Q  SO low-z: S/N > 1 per Å in continuum Links
area which are not c ­ overed by DESI (Fig- region near 6700 Å. 1
 ark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI):
D
ure 1). The 1000-square-degrees area – QSO Lyman-alpha: S/N > 0.1 per Å in www.desi.lbl.gov
for ELG targets is chosen within the best Lyman-alpha forest. 2
Euclid: https://www.euclid-ec.org
3
quality imaging region (KiDS-S and DES, Taipan Galaxy Survey:
https://www.taipan-survey.org
Figure 1). There is almost no overlap in These spectral success criteria are very 4
Dark Energy Survey (DES):
ELG targets with the 4MOST WAVES Sur- similar to the ones used for the eBOSS https://www.darkenergysurvey.org
vey (Driver et al., p. 46), which targets survey (for example, Comparat et al., 5
K ilo-Degree Survey (KiDS):
lower redshift sources. 2016) and correspond to our goal of http://kids.strw.leidenuniv.nl
6
L arge Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST):
reaching a certain redshift completeness https://www.lsst.org
To achieve the 4MOST CRS science at the faintest magnitudes (Table 1).
goals, it is important to reach a suffi-
ciently large target density in each target The figure of merit accounts for the
category. This density directly translates achieved surface density of successful
into a magnitude range in the photo­ targets and its homogeneity over a large

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 53


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5128

4MOST Consortium Survey 9: One Thousand and One


Magellanic Fields (1001MC)

Maria-Rosa L. Cioni 1 et al., 2013). This has motivated many MAgellanic Stellar ­History (SMASH), and
Jesper Storm 1 studies aimed at explaining the structure the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experi-
Cameron P. M. Bell 1 and the star formation history of the ment (OGLE), were made possible by the
Bertrand Lemasle 2 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small development of wide-field cameras at
Florian Niederhofer 1 Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and their tidal ­telescopes dedicated to survey observa-
Joachim M. Bestenlehner 3 features, i.e., the Magellanic Bridge and tions for a large fraction of the available
Dalal El Youssoufi 1 Stream. Furthermore, with the increased time.
Sofia Feltzing 4 number of deep imaging observations
Carlos González-Fernández 5 we have discovered potential satellite Next to this wealth of photometric obser-
Eva K. Grebel 2 ­galaxies of the Magellanic Clouds and vations, which have yet to reach their full
David Hobbs 4 new stellar streams possibly associated exploitation (also including data from the
Mike Irwin 5 with tidal stripping events (for example, Gaia satellite), there is a pronounced lack
Pascale Jablonka 6 Koposov et al., 2018). of spectroscopic observations across
Andreas Koch 2 the range of stellar populations and sub-
Olivier Schnurr 1, 7 The Magellanic Clouds are the largest structures of the Magellanic Clouds. The
Thomas Schmidt 1 and most massive satellite galaxies of largest samples of moderate resolution
Matthias Steinmetz 1 the Milky Way. The LMC resembles a (at least R = 4000) spectra, suitable for
­spiral galaxy, with a rotating disc, an off- kinematics and metallicity measurements,
centre bar, and a few spiral arms. Young, comprise about 9000 giant stars (for
1
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam intermediate-age and old stars show example, Dobbie et al., 2014). Chemical
(AIP), Germany ­different levels of substructures extending tagging, a powerful tool to discern the
2
Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität to large radii. The LMC hosts the most history of stellar populations, requires
Heidelberg/Astronomisches Rechen-­ massive stars known today (for example, high-resolution (at least R = 20 000) spec-
Institut, Germany Bestenlehner et al., 2014). The SMC is a tra and these only exist for about 4000
3
Physics and Astronomy, University of dwarf spheroidal galaxy, with a significant giant stars and 1300 early-type massive
Sheffield, UK depth along the line of sight and a mor- stars, and for much smaller samples of
4
Lund Observatory, Lund University, phology shaped by tidal interactions (for other stellar types (for example, Nidever
Sweden example, Niederhofer et al., 2018). The et al. 2019). Despite the major scientific
5
Institute of Astronomy, University of SMC formed half of its stellar mass prior advances of these programmes, where
Cambridge, UK to an age of ~ 6 Gyr (for example, Rubele two thirds of the spectra refer to LMC
6
L aboratoire d’astrophysique, École et al., 2018). The Magellanic Bridge is stars and one third to SMC stars, they are
­Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, the product of an LMC–SMC collision far from providing a comprehensive view
Switzerland ~ 200 Myr ago; it is likely formed of SMC of a system where stars span the age
7
Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ­atory, material and it contains both gas and range of the Universe and that is strongly
Bologna, Italy stars. The origin of the Magellanic Stream, shaped by dynamical interactions.
which is made of both LMC and SMC gas
(for example, Richter et al., 2013), depends
The One Thousand and One Magellanic on the orbital history of the Magellanic Specific scientific goals
Fields (1001MC) survey aims to measure Clouds and their one-to-many interactions
the kinematics and elemental abun- with the Milky Way and with each other. The 1001MC survey aims are as follows:
dances of many different stellar popu­ – To find and characterise kinematic and
lations that sample the history of for­ Large amounts of telescope time have chemical patterns within the Magellanic
mation and interaction of the Magellanic been invested in imaging the Magellanic Clouds system.
Clouds. The survey will collect spectra Cloud stars, studying their distribution, – To study links between kinematics and
of about half a million stars with G < 19.5 and measuring their ages, distances, chemical patterns as well as their spa-
magnitudes (Vega) distributed over an and motions. A major ESO programme, tial distribution across different stellar
area of about 1000 square degrees and that will provide targets for spectroscopic populations.
will provide an invaluable dataset for follow-up studies, is the VISTA survey – To establish how the star formation his-
a wide range of scientific applications. of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC 1), tory and the dynamical evolution of the
aimed at deriving the spatially resolved system are related to these patterns.
star formation history and three-dimen- – To study the metallicity-dependent
Scientific context sional geometry of the system. The VMC physical and wind properties of massive
is the most sensitive high-spatial-resolution stars and their evolutionary stages.
During the last decade, our view of survey of the Magellanic Clouds in the – To quantify the metallicity dependence
the Magellanic Clouds has changed sig­ near-infrared to date. The VMC and other of key distance indicators.
nificantly. These galaxies most likely contemporary surveys in the optical
approached the Milky Way only a few Gyr domain, such as the SMC in Time: Evolu- A comprehensive study of the kinematics
ago, rather than having orbited around it tion of a Prototype interacting late-type and chemistry of a large number of stars
for a Hubble time (for example, Kallivayalil dwarf galaxy (STEP), the Survey of the at different evolutionary phases and with

54 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


a wide spatial distribution is needed to radial velocity variations (for example, solar to very metal-poor (D[Fe/H] > 2 dex),
address these goals. Sana et al., 2013) and derive approxi- and uncertainties in the Fe abundance
mate systemic velocities of variable stars of 0.2 dex or better are needed to distin-
Line-of-sight (radial) velocities are one of using templates, for example in the case guish between different stellar popula-
the fundamental components of motion of Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, and long-­ tions. These can be derived from spectra
to describe the internal kinematics of gal- period variables (for example, Nicholls et of individual stars, but for some faint
axies from which the distribution of mass al., 2010). ­targets the spectra will be combined to
is estimated. Radial velocities, together reach a minimum signal-to-noise ratio
with proper motions, are necessary to The 1001MC survey data will also be (S/N) of 20 per Å within the spectral
derive space velocities from which to used to quantify and map the dust regions above. We aim to reach similar
infer orbital motions. The 1001MC survey absorption within the Magellanic Clouds accuracies in measuring the abundance
will provide radial velocities that match using background galaxies. This is of other prominent elements.
the accuracy of the tangential velocities achieved by comparing the rest-frame
(proper motions) that are measured using spectra of galaxies with a reddening free A fraction of the 1001MC targets are
astrometry from, for example, the VMC template where the adjustment of the ­variable stars, which means that they
survey (Niederhofer et al., 2018) and continuum level will provide a measure change temperature across the pulsation
Gaia. These are of the order of 2.5 km s –1 of the dust content along the line of sight cycle. To derive elemental abundances
for an ensemble of stars (which corre- (for example, Dutra et al., 2001). Com- for ­Cepheids it is necessary to acquire
sponds to 1% of the radial velocity of the pared to an ongoing study, based on the spectra before the temperature changes
Magellanic Clouds and is a factor of 10 analysis of spectral energy distributions, significantly and therefore we plan to
smaller than the internal motion), consid- spectra provide the redshifts of galaxies observe for 1 hour at any given epoch,
erably improving our capability to spa- which are needed to scale the templates, this time being sufficient to reach the
tially sample kinematical substructures reducing considerably the uncertainties required S/N. RR Lyrae stars, instead, are
within the Magellanic Clouds. associated with a photometric determi­ faint and for them we will focus on kine-
nation. We estimate that with 120 galax- matics. However, we will explore the pos-
The iron abundance [Fe/H] is usually ies per square degree we would obtain sibility of also measuring average Fe
used as a proxy for the metallicity of stars. a dust map with a spatial resolution of abundances by combining, for example,
Age and metallicity of red giant branch 0.143 square degrees, directly compara- stars with similar metallicities as esti-
stars are, however, degenerate in the ble to that of current star formation history mated from the Fourier decomposition of
­colour-magnitude diagrams. More­over, studies (for example, Rubele et al., 2018). their light-curves.
the dependence on metallicity of key dis-
tance indicators (for example, the peri-
od-luminosity relations of Cepheids, the Science requirements Target selection and survey area
luminosity of red clump stars) is still not
well assessed. The 1001MC survey will The 1001MC survey aims to reach accu- The 1001MC survey will cover an area of
derive the metallicity of different ­stellar racies of ± 2 km s –1 for the radial veloci- about 1000 square degrees (Figure 1).
populations, provide a metallicity map of ties of individual stars. This accuracy is This area comprises targets that trace
the system as a function of age, and lift designed to match the accuracy of the the extent of different stellar populations
some of the degeneracies that affect proper motion obtained with other facili- and that describe substructures through-
the tracers of stellar population parame- ties. For example, for individual bright out the Magellanic Clouds. The 1001MC
ters. For bright stars, in addition to their stars in the Magellanic Clouds Gaia will survey will obtain 4MOST spectra of about
radial velocity and iron abundance, we provide proper motion accuracies of half a million stars with G < 19.5 magni-
will measure the abundances of several 2.5 km s –1 or obtain similar accuracies tudes and produce a sample that is a
a-elements, Fe-peak elements, and on bulk velocities from the average of factor of 20 larger than the largest sam-
­elements produced in the slow (s-) and about 200 G-type or 3000 M-type stars. ple of Magellanic Cloud stellar spectra
rapid (r-) neutron-capture nucleosynthesis These values have been calculated assembled in the past. Spectra from the
processes (for example, Zr, Ba, Sr, Eu), assuming the Gaia end-of-mission proper Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrograph reach
elements that will provide further con- motion accuracies 2 and considering that bright red and blue supergiant stars,
straints on the chemical enrichment his- at the distance of the Magellanic Clouds while c­ ompleted and ongoing observing
tory of the different components of the 0.01 milliarcseconds per year is roughly campaigns with 2dF and APOGEE-2S
two galaxies. We will also classify stars equivalent to 2.5 km s –1. observe giant stars well above the red
throughout the Hertzsprung-Russell dia- clump in the Magellanic Clouds. The
gram from their spectral features. In par- We also aim to obtain metallicities for 1001MC observations will prioritise areas
ticular we will obtain a complete census individual stars with accuracies better with the highest legacy value (i.e., the
of massive stars (> 15 M⊙) including O than ± 0.2 dex. This will be achieved central LMC and SMC areas).
main-sequence stars, blue, yellow, and using Fe lines and/or indirectly using the
red supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars. Ca II and Mg b triplets. Stars in the The 1001MC targets span a range of about
We aim also to provide some indication Magellanic Clouds span a relatively large 10 magnitudes (Table 1, Figure 2) and
of the binary nature of these stars from range of metallicities, from about half comprise young massive and supergiant

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 55


Surveys Cioni M.-R. L. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 9

100 within the Magellanic Clouds. Table 1


10 N shows the approximate number of targets
that belong to each sub-survey while
50
E ­Figure 2 shows the magnitude and colour
5
30
criteria adopted to select the targets.

Number of stars per pixel


ΔDeclination (degrees)

0 20 The central regions of the Magellanic


Clouds (a few hundred square degrees)
will be observed more frequently (3–6
–5 10
visits) because of the high target density.
This will then allow us to monitor a ­sub-
–10 5 set of stars across the different types.
Some stars will be monitored with the
3 HRS and others with the LRS. The main
–15 goal of these monitoring campaigns is to
2
trace the variation in the radial velocity
curves that are directly linked to the inter-
–20
1 nal structure of pulsating stars and/or to
20 10 0 –10 –20 the presence of companions, as well as
ΔRight ascension (degrees) to establish the effect of binaries on the
dynamics of the different stellar systems.
Figure 1. Spatial source density distribution of the bles, and RR Lyrae stars). The number of In addition, we will make use of the poor
1001MC stars in a zenithal equidistant projection with
targets reflects the need to statistically observing conditions programme (Guiglion
the origin at a right ascension of 50 degrees and
declination of – 67.5 degrees. Pixels are 0.05 square characterise and spatially trace substruc- et al., p. 21) for those targets that fall
degrees. The total area covered results from the tures of the Magellanic Clouds by age, within the 1001MC area.
combination of two circular regions, each centred chemical content and, if possible, multi-
on one of the Magellanic Clouds, that encompass
ple diagnostics.
their extended structure and possible tidal features.
The circular cutout in the coverage at the bottom of Spectral success criteria
the figure is caused by a declination > – 80 degree The selection of 1001MC targets results
selection limit, which was implemented because from the combination of near-infrared To meet the goals of the 1001MC survey
observing at lower declinations becomes really
observations from VISTA and 2MASS with we require spectra with a S/N per Å of
­inefficient with 4MOST.
optical observations from Gaia, where about 100–1500 encompassing both LRS
variable stars are identified in OGLE and and HRS observations of targets distrib-
stars, intermediate-age giant stars Gaia data. In particular, Gaia parallaxes uted across the Hertzsprung-Russell dia-
(asymptotic giant branch stars of M and are used to remove Milky Way stars and gram. Depending on stellar magnitude
C type, red clump stars), old red giant to create a catalogue with homogeneous and type of star, we will measure elemen-
and horizontal branch stars. They also coordinates. The VISTA selection data tal abundances and/or radial velocities.
include different types of variable stars originate from the VMC survey for the In practice, for the abundance of specific
(Cepheids of any type, long-period varia- central regions of the Magellanic Clouds elements we will use spectra with S/N >
and from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey 80–100 per Å, while for determining indi-
(VHS) for the outer regions. VISTA data rect Fe abundances with either the Ca II
Table 1. Sub-surveys and preliminary numbers of will be used to select targets for the Low- and the Mg b triplets we will use spectra
1001MC targets. For the main sequence, red clump Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) while with S/N > 20–30 per Å. From all of the
giant and red giant branch stars, these numbers ­targets for the High-Resolution Spectro- other spectra of individual stars with S/N
represent only fractions of the respective popula-
tions (Figure 2; LRS only): 15% for main sequence
graph (HRS) will be selected from 2MASS. < 20 per Å we will derive radial velocities.
stars, 5% for red clump stars, and 10% for red giant Several sub-­surveys are defined to repre- Furthermore, we will combine spectra
branch stars. sent the range of stellar populations of individual stars, for example RR Lyrae
stars, to estimate median element abun-
Star type Spectrograph Magnitude range Number of targets dances and radial velocity.
(10 3)
Main sequence stars LRS 11.9 < G < 19.5 87 The S/N is measured in the continuum
Red clump giant stars LRS 16.9 < G < 19.5 64 within one of the following spectral ranges:
Red giant branch (RGB) stars LRS, HRS 14.1 < G < 19.5 310 5140–5200 Å (including the Mg b triplet
RR Lyrae stars LRS 12.2 < G < 19.5 36 at: 5167, 5172, 5183 Å) and 8350–8850 Å
Cepheids HRS, LRS 11.5 < G < 19.5 9 (including the Ca II triplet at: 8498, 8542,
Supergiant stars HRS, LRS 10.5 < G < 19.5 36 and 8662 Å). In this way there will be at
O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars HRS 10.8 < G < 19.5 25 least one spectral region with sufficient
Carbon stars HRS 12.4 < G < 19.5 9 S/N to derive the radial velocity and some
Background galaxies LRS 120 elemental abundance(s) of each star.

56 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


6 11 Figure 2. Near-infrared,
LMC J–Ks versus Ks,
A: Supergiants colour-magnitude Hess
7 12
B: O-rich AGB stars diagrams of the 1001MC
A stars across the LMC
C: RGB stars
B 13 (targets in the SMC
8 D: Carbon stars
x : Cepheids are ~ 0.5 magnitudes
14 D fainter). The red dashed
9 lines indicate the sepa-
D rations between the
15
Ks (mag)

Ks (mag)
HRS targets (left) and
10 A B the LRS ­targets (right),
16 except for Cepheids. All
sources have G < 19.5
11 magnitudes except
A 17 C for the RR Lyrae stars
LMC
A: Main-sequence stars that extend to fainter
12
18 B: Supergiants magnitudes.
C
C: Red clump giants
13 19 D: RGB stars
: Cepheids
: RR Lyrae stars
14 20
–0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 –0.25 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25
J–Ks (mag) J–Ks (mag)

To estimate the progress of the 1001MC Acknowledgements Koposov, S. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 479, 5343
Kozlowski, S. et al. 2013, ApJ, 775, 92
survey we define a figure of merit (FoM).
We acknowledge funding from the European Nicholls, C. P. et al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 1770
The FoM for each sub-survey is the ratio Research Council (ERC) under the European Nidever, D. et al. 2019, ApJ, submitted
of observed targets to the goal number, Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation pro- Niederhofer, F. et al. 2018, A&A, 613, L8
and the FoM for the whole survey corre- gramme (grant agreement No 682115 as well as Richter, P. et al. 2013, ApJ, 772, 111
from the German Research Foundation (DFG) via Rubele, S. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 478, 501
sponds to the minimum FoM among
Sonderforschungsbereich “The Milky Way System” Sana, H. et al. 2013, A&A, 550, A107
the sub-surveys. In this way each stellar (SFB 881).
­population will be sufficiently represented
across the Magellanic Clouds system. Links
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V
Bestenlehner, J. M. et al. 2014, A&A, 570, A38 (VMC): http://star.herts.ac.uk/~mcioni/vmc/
2
Dobbie, P. D. et al. 2014, MNRAS, 442, 1663 E xpected nominal science performance of the Gaia
Kallivayalil, N. et al. 2013, ApJ, 764, 161 mission: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/
science-performance
ESO/M.-R. Cioni/VISTA Magellanic Cloud survey. Acknowledgment: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit

This VISTA image of the


30 Doradus star-forming
region (or Tarantula
Nebula) from the VMC
Public Survey is being
used to study the
detailed star formation
history of the Magellanic
system.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 57


Surveys DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5129

4MOST Consortium Survey 10: The Time-Domain


Extragalactic Survey (TiDES)

Elizabeth Swann 1 cal detail of the objects discovered: their the accreting matter and its delayed
Mark Sullivan 2 classifications, chemistry, distances (red- response mirrored in the optical emission
Jonathan Carrick 3 shifts), luminosities, energetics — and lines of the surrounding material, can be
Sebastian Hoenig 2 ultimately their physical natures. TiDES (i) turned into a standard candle similarly
Isobel Hook 3 addresses this spectroscopic challenge to SNe Ia, but out to higher redshifts
Rubina Kotak 4, 5 with 250 000 fibre-hours of spectroscopy (Watson et al., 2011) and (ii) used to
Kate Maguire 4 of transients, their host galaxies, and directly measure the masses of the black
Richard McMahon 6 active galactic nuclei (AGN). These meas- holes (for example, Shen et al., 2016).
Robert Nichol 1 urements will allow TiDES to tackle three TiDES will establish a Hubble diagram
Stephen Smartt 4 key science goals. of AGN between 0.1 < z < 2.5, providing
an independent standard candle and
The first goal is the nature of dark energy. delivering the largest catalogue of dynami-
1
Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, This is one of the most puzzling prob- cally measured black hole masses on
University of Portsmouth, UK lems in physics, and studying dark energy cosmological scales as a new basis for
2
School of Physics and Astronomy, is the goal of major ground- and space- understanding galaxy evolution.
­University of Southampton, UK based facilities over the next decade,
3
Physics Department, Lancaster for example, Euclid, the Large Synoptic The majority of TiDES targets will come
­University, UK Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Wide from LSST, which will produce millions
4
School of Mathematics and Physics, Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). of transient alerts and photometric data
Queen’s University Belfast, UK Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a on hundreds of thousands of SNe and
5
University of Turku, Finland mature and well-exploited probe of the other variable objects. TiDES will exploit
6
Institute of Astronomy, University of accelerating universe (for example, DES the fact that wherever 4MOST points in
Cambridge, UK Collaboration et al., 2018), and their use the extragalactic sky there will be known
as standardisable candles is an immedi- time-variable sources, both recently dis-
ate route to measuring the equation of covered transients, and older, now faded
The Time-Domain Extragalactic Survey state of dark energy. LSST 1, for example, events. Around 30 low-resolution spec-
(TiDES) is focused on the spectro­- could assemble around 100 000 SNe Ia a trograph (LRS) fibres (2% of the total) in
scopic follow-up of extragalactic optical to z = 1, giving unprecedented insight into every pointing will be allocated to extra-
transients and variable sources the expansion history of the Universe. galactic transients, their host galaxies,
selected from forthcoming large sky But a major systematic uncertainty will and AGN. TiDES will therefore “piggyback”
surveys such as that from the Large be the photometric classification and on the general 4MOST survey strategy
Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). ­redshift measurement of the supernova (Figure 1) and will not normally drive the
TiDES contains three sub-surveys: (i) detections. pointing of 4MOST. In addition, 4MOST
spectroscopic observations of supernova- will regularly (twice per lunation, when
­like transients; (ii) comprehensive The second goal is to study the extra­ schedulable) observe the four announced
­follow-up of transient host galaxies to galactic transient universe. The extraga- LSST Deep Drilling Fields (DDFs). These
obtain redshift measurements for cos- lactic time-domain universe is a far more fields are also planned to be observed by
mological applications; and (iii) repeat diverse environment than was imagined the 4MOST WAVES survey (see Driver et
spectroscopic observations to enable only a decade ago. New “superlumi­nous al., p. 46).
the reverberation mapping of active supernovae”, “calcium-rich transients”,
galactic nuclei. Our simulations predict exotic thermonuclear explosions, and
we will be able to classify transients even the newly-discovered kilonovae Specific scientific goals
down to r = 22.5 magnitudes (AB) and, (Smartt et al., 2017) have all demonstrated
over five years of 4MOST operations, how little is known about explosive tran- i. Spectroscopic classification of live
obtain spectra for up to 30 000 live sient populations. LSST will enlarge all transients (TiDES-SN)
transients to redshift z ~ 0.5, measure these populations by many orders of The aim of TiDES-SN is to observe live
­redshifts for up to 50 000 transient host magnitude and likely uncover entirely new transients discovered by LSST and other
galaxies to z ~ 1 and monitor around forms of explosions. The key to studying transient surveys as soon as feasible
700 active galactic nuclei to z ~ 2.5. all of these classes of objects is spec- after discovery. The science goals for
troscopy that is rapidly prioritised, which TiDES-SN include (i) classification of live
we will implement in TiDES. SNe, including uncovering rare and unu-
Scientific context sual events, and (ii) construction of an
The third goal is cosmology and galaxy optimised training sample for the photo-
The next decade will see an unprece- evolution with AGN. AGN are the most metric classifiers that will be used to
dented sampling of the extragalactic energetic sources in the Universe, show- assemble the next generation of SN Ia
time-domain universe via massive photo- ing variability at all wavebands as mass cosmological samples.
metric surveys of the sky. Follow-up is accreted onto supermassive black
spectroscopy of photometric detections holes in the centres of galaxies. The varia­- The combination of LSST discoveries and
is critical to extracting the full astrophysi- bility of the optical continuum light from fast turnaround spectroscopic data from

58 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


24h 18 h 12h 6h 0h
30°

– 30°

– 60°

Equatorial

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Objects counts per degree 2

Figure 1. An example distribution of TiDES targets techniques are fundamentally dependent Australian Telescope using the AAOmega
using an example LSST-discovered supernovae
on large, homogenous and representative spectrograph with the 2dF multi-object
­distribution as input. The colour scheme shows the
typical number a of supernovae and their host galax- training samples (Lochner et al., 2016). fibre positioner, which conducted deep
ies per square degree that could be t­ argeted by Although TiDES-SN cannot provide a spectroscopic observations of the host
TiDES. TiDES will optimise the relationship between complete sample of SNe, it can provide galaxies of SNe discovered in 27 square
the two surveys and ensure LSST transients are in
an unbiased sampling of the whole SN degrees of imaging from the Dark Energy
the 4MOST queue.
population down to r = 22.5 (AB) magni- Survey (Childress et al., 2017). 4MOST is
tudes. When combined with the optical expected to obtain host galaxy redshifts
TiDES-SN will naturally provide spectro- (LSST) light curves, this will provide an for at least 10 times as many SNe Ia, dis-
scopic follow-up in the first days after unsurpassed training sample for future covered out to z ~ 1.
explosion for large samples of transients, photometric classifiers.
including both classical SN types, and iii. Repeat spectroscopic observations
more exotic events. Early-time observa- ii. Spectroscopy of supernova host of AGN for reverberation mapping
tions (< 3–4 days from transient detec- galaxies (TiDES-Hosts) (TiDES-RM)
tion) will allow new insights into the explo- With TiDES, we will obtain spectroscopic The primary goal of TiDES-RM is to use
sion environments and outer layers of redshifts for host galaxies of SNe that AGN broad-line lags to build a Hubble
the SN ejecta. Rare, fast transients that have faded away. This will provide: (i) the diagram out to z = 2.5, and to constrain
rise and fall rapidly and that could make SN redshifts required for LSST SN Ia the cosmological equation of state. AGN
important contributions to galactic chem- cosmology (see the LSST Dark Energy as standardisable candles are comple-
ical evolution (for example, calcium-rich Science Collaboration Document by mentary to SNe Ia, with a redshift distri-
fast transients), will also be explored sta- Mandelbaum et al., 2018); (ii) improve- bution that extends to higher redshift.
tistically for the first time. We will also ments in SN photometric classification In addition, by using two independent
­target potential lensed SNe that fall within via the use of spectroscopic redshift standard candles, TiDES will be insensi-
our survey fields (for example, Goldstein ­priors in the classification algorithms; tive to systematic errors in any individual
et al., 2018) and other transients such as and (iii) detailed spectral information on method, thus increasing the reliability
tidal disruption events. the brighter host galaxies, such as metal- of the results. This will be particularly
licity and star formation rates. 4MOST important when constraining the equation
For SN Ia cosmology, even with TiDES, should reach r = 22.5 magnitudes in two of state of dark energy. Our goal is to
spectroscopic resources are not available hours for galaxy redshifts. This limit will extend the redshift range of current sur-
to target all candidate SNe Ia, and photo- be fainter in the deep fields, where our veys, and to exceed the state of the art in
metric classification techniques are repeat observations will allow the stack- early 2020 by at least a factor of two for
­therefore critical for future SN Ia cosmo- ing of many hours of spectra. Our model reverberation-mapped AGN (King et al.,
logical analyses. But even the most is the Australian Dark Energy Survey 2015). This leads us to target around 700
advanced machine-learning classification (OzDES), a programme at the Anglo-­ AGN over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 2.5.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 59


Surveys Swann E. et al., 4MOST Consortium Survey 10

As a secondary science goal, we will


1.0
be measuring dynamical masses of r = 20.0 r = 21.0
S/N = 27.7 S/N = 12.0
super­massive black holes in AGN out to 0.8
z ~ 2.5. Black hole mass is a key parame-

Relative flux
0.6
ter in understanding galaxy evolution.
Most current black hole mass measure- 0.4
ments outside the local universe rely on 0.2
indirect relations between black hole
mass and galaxy properties, for example 0.0
the M-sigma relation (i.e., the correlation 1.0 r = 22.0 r = 23.0
the mass of the supermassive black hole S/N = 2.2
S/N = 4.9
and stellar velocity dispersion). These 0.8
methods are prone to biases depending
Relative flux

0.6
on the spatial resolution, which becomes
increasingly problematic at higher red- 0.4
shifts. Reverberation-mapped black hole 0.2
masses have become a standard in the
local universe, and we will now push this 0.0
out to the early universe. 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Wavelength (Å) Wavelength (Å)

Science requirements Figure 2. Mock 4MOST spectra based on the areas that have a “rolling cadence”), as
4MOST ETC. Shown here is a maximum-light spec-
well as the narrow-area DDFs. We also
trum of a SN Ia at redshift z = 0.2 after “observation”
The science requirements for the three by 4MOST over a series of r-band magnitudes, require repeat observations of these
sub-surveys are as follows. and rebinned to 5 Å (light grey). The mock spectra DDFs. At the time of writing, the LSST
are calculated assuming an exposure time of 3 × observing strategy and survey area have
1200 seconds, average conditions (seeing = 1.1
TiDES-SN: Our main requirement to not been finalised, particularly with
arcseconds, airmass = 1.3) in dark time, and with
deliver our live transient science is a turn- 2% sky subtraction residuals. The black lines are regard to cadence optimisation, and this
around time from transient discovery the (weighted) Savitzky-Golay filtered mock spectra, will evolve over the coming months and
to implementation in the 4MOST sched- and the red spectra show the original template years. As a result, the exact numbers
for comparison. The mean S/N per 15 Å bin over
ule of < 3–4 days. Other requirements in this section should only be regarded as
4500–8000 Å is also given.
include a knowledge of the 4MOST point- indicative.
ings well in advance (> 7 days) of a field’s
being observed, facilitating a smooth link The current TiDES-SN strategy is to target
with our transient discovery surveys, and dependent luminosity function of AGN all bright (r < 22.5 magnitudes) live tran-
allowing us to focus our target selection and simulated C IV and Hb emission line sients in a 4MOST field. We expect there
on transients in defined areas of the sky. lags based on established lag-luminosity to be of order 5–10 a such transients in
We aim for 30 000 live transient observa- relations. Based on these lags, a five-year any 4MOST extragalactic field on any one
tions, generating datasets large enough survey duration and the 4MOST signal- night. Over five years with 180 dark/grey
to construct a meaningful training sample to-noise (S/N) estimate for grey time, we nights for extragalactic observations per
for photometric classifiers, and statistical determine the required cadence of obser- year, this equates to ~ 30 000 live tran-
samples of rare events. vations and exposure time per epoch to sients. These targets will be selected in a
recover lags for at least the targeted 700 “blind” fashion, i.e., TiDES-SN will not
TiDES-Hosts: Wherever 4MOST points, AGN. We find that we require one-hour use colour or other cuts to preferentially
LSST will have previously discovered SNe exposures, corresponding to objects with select from these objects. However, we
in the field. We will put a 4MOST fibre r < 21 magnitudes, and a typical cadence will use colour selection or contextual
on the host galaxy to measure a redshift. for repeat observations of 14 ± 4 days information to prioritise additional interest-
Our target is at least 50 000 successful over an observing semester for each ing, unusual or very early transients that
host galaxy redshifts, which will enable LSST Deep Drilling field. may be fainter than r = 22.5 magnitudes.
the largest sample of cosmological SNe
Ia by at least a factor of 10. TiDES-Hosts will preferentially select SNe
Target selection and survey area with a full (LSST) light curve. The number
TiDES-RM: The reverberation mapping of such hosts will increase with time as
survey is built on repeat observations in TiDES will target the extragalactic fields LSST builds up the variability history for
pre-defined and well established LSST of major time-domain experiments in the each field. Simulations using the expo-
extragalactic deep fields that are shared southern hemisphere. We anticipate our sure time calculator (ETC) show that, for
among several Galactic and extragalactic principal source of targets to be LSST. a typical SN Ia host galaxy, we expect
4MOST surveys. We created an AGN This will include both the wide-area LSST to be able to obtain a redshift from a
mock catalogue based on the redshift- deep-wide-fast survey (particularly those spectrum with S/N > 2 per Å. We antici-

60 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


pate successful redshift measurements wide, and thus our SSC are defined observed. While technically this applies
for galaxies approximately 2 magnitudes using S/N in 15 Å bins. Our criteria are for each individual source, the survey
fainter after 10 hours of exposure time based on earlier studies of high-redshift average is a good measure of the typical
before reaching the Poisson limit, a tech- SNe Ia (Balland et al., 2009), where a number of epochs observed for a source
nique adopted by OzDES (Childress et robust classification can be achieved with in the survey.
al., 2017). a mean S/N = 10 per 15 Å over 4500–
8000 Å in the observed frame. This is a
TiDES-RM will pre-select targets from conservative success criterion; Balland Acknowledgements
known AGN in the LSST Deep Drilling et al. (2009) demonstrate probable TiDES acknowledges funding from Queens Univer-
fields with a final selection based on ­classifications of transients with a mean sity Belfast, Lancaster University, the University
their variability history in LSST. The LSST S/N = 3 per 15 Å. We have also con- of Portsmouth and the University of Southampton.
commissioning data preceding 4MOST ducted i­nitial simulations using the
will be used, with semi-annual updates 4MOST ETC to check our likely classifi­ References
of monitoring catalogues as LSST builds cation limits for SNe Ia. We use the ETC
up a longer time baseline. We will then to output mock “observed” SN Ia spectra Balland, C. et al. 2009, A&A, 507, 85
take one initial spectrum for each candi- (Figure 2) and attempt a classification Childress, M. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 472, 273
DES Collaboration et al. 2018, ApJL,
date AGN to assess whether the emission with the machine-learning SN classifica- arXiv:1811.02374
line profile is suitable for reverberation tion tool DASH ­(Muthukrishna et al., in Goldstein, D. A. et al. 2018, ApJS, submitted
mapping. If broad lines are detected with preparation). DASH can classify, with King, A. L. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 453, 1701
S/N > 10 per 15 Å bin in a single 1-hour 95% confidence, an r = 22.2 magnitudes Lochner, M. et al. 2016, ApJS, 225, 31
Mandelbaum, R. et al. 2018, arXiv:1809.01669
exposure, the AGN will be monitored SN Ia (z ~ 0.45) with spectra of S/N = 6 Shen, Y. et al. 2016, ApJ, 818, 30
until a lag can be determined (depend- per 1.5 Å bin without using the host red- Smartt, S. J. et al. 2017, Nature, 551, 75
ing on luminosity and redshift, this may shift as a prior. These simulations were Watson, D. et al. 2011, ApJ, 740, 49
take between six months and five years), performed with SN spectra free of host
at which point, if feasible, they will be ­galaxy contamination and with “perfect” Links
replaced by new sources to maximise the sky subtraction.
number of measured lags. We require 1
 he Large Synoptic Survey Telescope:
T
repeat ­observations of typically one hour, For TiDES-Hosts, we require a S/N ≥ 3 https://www.lsst.org/
with a cadence from 14 days to 42 days, per Å over 4500–8000 Å based on the
depending on redshift and luminosity. OzDES survey, which has obtained more Notes
Based on a mock catalogue selected than 1700 redshifts with a 95% confi-
a
from the OzDES quasar sample (Tie et al., dence level of host galaxies with this S/N.  he exact number will depend on the final LSST
T
observing strategy and implementation.
2017) of AGN with r < 21.0 magnitudes, Based upon the OzDES project we
the expected total execution time will be expect a redshift success rate of approxi-
approximately 25 000 fibre-hours. We mately 70% for a galaxy with magnitude
note that a sizeable fraction of the AGN brighter than r = 24 magnitudes in a
monitored by TiDES are also likely targets two-hour exposure. For TiDES-RM, spec-
of the 4MOST AGN survey (S6; see tral success is defined by achieving a
­Merloni et al., p. 42). S/N = 10 per 15 Å bin for an AGN spec-
trum within a predefined cadence.

Spectral success criteria and figures Our figures of merit (FoMs) encapsulate
of merit our broad goals — as many observa-
tions of transients and their hosts, and
Our qualitative spectral success criteria as many time lags measured as possible,
(SSC) are: a successful transient classi­ for use in astrophysical and cosmological
fication (TiDES-SN); a successful redshift analysis. Our total FoM function is a
measurement (TiDES-Hosts); and a weighted sum of the three sub-surveys.
­successful AGN spectrum taken (TiDES- For TiDES-Hosts and TiDES-SN, the SSC
RM). The first two criteria are difficult to is represented by the error function, with
quantify. a dependence on the number of objects
targeted by 4MOST. For TiDES-RM, the
For TiDES-SN, the success will depend FoM is equal to x 1.7, where x is the ratio
on the S/N in the 4MOST spectrum, of successfully observed AGN epochs
the transient type (and hence spectral divided by the total number of AGN
features), and the amount of “contaminat- epochs requested. This functional form
ing” light from the transient host galaxy. captures the fact that no time lag can be
Supernova spectra are dominated by determined with fewer than ~ 50% of
broad features many tens of Angstroms the requested epochs being successfully

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 61


Astronomical News

Above: Participants in the Fifth ELT Management Below: Members of the ESO Adaptive Optics
ESO/M. Zamani
Both images:

Advisory Committee in between discussions on Facility (AOF) team at the ESO Supernova Plane-
the current status of the ELT instruments. tarium & Visitor Centre. The team was awarded
the 2018 Paul F. Forman Team Engineering Excel-
lence Award by the Optical Society (OSA).

62 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5130

The New ESO Phase 1 System

ESO Phase 1 Project Team1 The new p1 system is web-based, existing LaTeX proposals into the new
resembling the new p2 tool. This system system. Finally, the ESOFORM package
includes many new features including: — which served the community for
1
ESO allowing the Principal Investigator and ­decades — will be retired.
Co-Investigators (CoIs) to edit proposals
in a collaborative way; graphically plotting Please stay tuned, as there will be further
ESO announces the forthcoming deploy- target visibilities and the probability of announcements related to the new p1
ment of its new tool for the preparation realising the requested observing condi- system and its rollout via the usual ESO
and submission of observing proposals. tions; retrieving target information directly communication channels.
This represents the first part of a broader from Simbad 1; and updating a submitted
overhaul of the ESO Phase 1 system (p1) proposal (before the deadline). There
that, in the near future, will also entail a are also some practical implications: Links
significant modernisation of the Observ- each of the CoIs will need to have an 1
Simbad: simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad
ing Programmes Committee (OPC) refer- ESO User Portal account 2, and it will no 2
ESO User Portal: www.eso.org/UserPortal
eeing process and related tools. longer be possible to directly resubmit

DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5131

Fellows at ESO

Elyar Sedaghati student in the UK, and to handle the end-


less complications associated with stay-
Growing up in 1980s Iran during the war, ing in the UK with my passport. Fast
looking up at the night sky was the only ­forward a few years; having obtained
thing that gave me some form of comfort enough pieces of paper to be allowed to
and hope. You see, quite often electricity live in the EU, I finally went back to uni-
supplies of entire cities were cut for versity and obtained my Master’s degree
whole nights to give enemy bombers in physics from the Freie Universität
minimal visibility; a small win for my curi- ­Berlin, with a thesis on the detection of
ous eyes during an otherwise desperate exoplanetary atmospheres using ground-
situation. Observing with my toy tele- based facilities. It was during this thesis
scope, looking up at the Moon and the that I had the chance to work on some
planets, served as a form of escapism Very Large Telescope (VLT) data using
from the ugliness of the reality unfolding the FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spec-
around me. It is hence fair to say that I trograph (FORS2) instrument, and I got
owe a lot to astronomy for carrying me to know ESO and Paranal through my
through such difficult times. Fast forward interactions with my then long-distance
a couple of decades, and fortunate supervisor, Petr Kabath, who was work-
enough to have escaped with my life, I ing at Paranal.
found myself studying Natural Sciences
at Cambridge University in the UK. While, After that, it was only natural to continue
by now, the figurative scars of war had with doctoral studies in the same field of
been healed, fascination and curiosity research, which I managed to start under
with the heavens had very much made a the supervision of Heike Rauer, the
permanent impression on me. ­Principal Investigator for the ESA mission
PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of
After obtaining my Bachelor’s degree, stars (PLATO) at the German Space
with a specialisation in astronomy, I had Agency (DLR), in Berlin. Having previously
to leave science and work in industry, worked on FORS2 exoplanet transmis- Elyar Sedaghati
both in order to deal with the financial sion spectroscopy data — obtaining
burdens resulting from being a foreign observations tracing minute variations in

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 63


Astronomical News Sedaghati E., Miotello A., Fellows at ESO

exoplanet transit depths that can reveal instrument will be back after its upgrade
the presence of exoplanet atmospheres (CRIRES+), which will open a further
— I had the perfect platform to apply for channel towards the infrared for us, ena-
an ESO studentship here in Chile. The bling us to probe exoplanetary atmos-
then instrument scientist of FORS2, Henri pheres for heavier molecular species.
Boffin, was planning an intervention in
the optical path precisely for the purpose I have so far absolutely loved the experi-
of improving such observations. So I ence of the fellowship, where I have
applied to work with him here at ESO for learned so much about the operational
a two-year project. This turned out to and technical aspects of astronomy,
be the best decision I have ever made in being at the forefront of research in other
my life, not taking for granted the gravity areas of astronomy, and having the
of such a statement. freedom to explore different and new
ways to detect exoplanetary atmos-
During those two years at ESO, under pheres. It is this freedom in research, as
Henri’s supervision, I worked intensely well as the operational duties at Paranal,
on a number of FORS2 transmission that attracted me to ESO, and I have yet
spectroscopy datasets rigorously testing, to be disappointed. And this is not even
analysing and validating the improve- mentioning having the chance to go
ments that the interventions had made ­skiing and surfing on the same day from
to the aforementioned science with this Santiago!
instrument. As a consequence of this we
published a number of results in various So if I can summarise this piece in two
journals, including the first-ever detection short points, they would be: one, try not
of a long sought-after metal oxide in the to be born in the Middle East (!); and two,
atmosphere of a giant and hot exoplanet. if you have the chance to work with Henri Anna Miotello
It was due to the efficiency with which Boffin, take it.
Henri guided me through my work that I and, under the supervision of Marco
managed to fulfill the German universities’ Potenza (Milano) and Massimo Robberto
requirement for a cumulative thesis Anna Miotello (Space Telescope Science Institute,
(i.e., the requisite number of first-author STScI), I carried out a thesis project on
papers), which I defended within just If you ask my daughter what my job is, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observa-
over two years; much to the annoyance she will surely say “the stars”. Actually, in tions of a protoplanetary disc in the Orion
of the bureaucrats at DLR, who had diffi- the kind of data I usually handle the stars star forming region to study its dust
culty re-routing the funding I had already do not shine, but you can clearly see ­particle properties. Marco Potenza is an
secured for the third year of my PhD back the cold gas and dust emitting at (sub-) experimental physicist in the field of
in Germany. millimetre wavelengths surrounding them optics. His expertise on dust scattering
while they form. I study protoplanetary and absorption properties was key and
Naturally, there was no doubt in my mind discs in order to understand how planets gave an interesting angle to our HST
what my next step would be: an ESO such as our Earth and her fellow Solar study. The following summer I completed
­Fellowship, which I started exactly a System planets formed. The discs I am this project as part of the 2011 summer
month after the day I defended my thesis. interested in can also be observed during program at STScI. Massimo’s mentoring,
I have now been working at Unit Tele- the day using interferometers such as the together with such a high-profile interna-
scope 1 (UT1; also known as Antu) for Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter tional research experience — so different
over a year as the FORS2 fellow. During Array (ALMA). from anything I had previously seen in
this time, I have loved operating and Italy — was probably the turning point
improving its instruments. I feel very privi- At school I liked everything, ranging from that made me decide I wanted to
leged to be at Paranal just now; these philosophy to maths, from sport to art. become an astronomer. The project, in
are exciting times for the research field I got interested in physics during my last particular, was very exciting and led
of exoplanetary science. The Echelle year of high school, after meeting a me to very interesting results which were
SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and young teacher who taught us about then published in 2012.
Stable Spectroscopic Observations ­Einstein’s special relativity theory and
(ESPRESSO) has recently started opera- after visiting an exhibition about the Milky After the summer, I presented these
tion in single-UT mode, giving us unprec- Way. There was so much I did not know results in a poster at an ESO workshop,
edented and unparalleled precision and about this and that I could learn, so I “Formation and Early Evolution of Very
accuracy in radial velocity measurements decided to study physics at the Universitá Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs”.
of exoplanets. Soon atmospheric results degli Studi di Milano. Towards the end There, I met Leonardo Testi, who offered
will follow. Furthermore, soon the CRyo­ of my Bachelor’s degree it was clear that me the opportunity to carry out my Mas-
genic InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer my interest was mainly in astrophysics ter’s degree thesis at ESO in Garching.

64 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


That was the chance to work in (sub-)mil- position and started my PhD in June the support they gave me. They allowed
limetre interferometry, a totally new tech- 2013, as that was the best opportunity to me to carry out and fully enjoy high-level
nique for me, and to continue working on learn about the gas content in proto­ research, without obliterating my per-
discs, but at a younger and still embed- planetary discs, very complementary sonal life. In my experience, support, flex-
ded phase. The goal was to understand to the knowledge I had already acquired ibility, trust and encouragement are
whether dust grains, which will eventually on dust. I spent my first year at the key to truly enable full inclusion of women
coagulate to form planets, already start Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische — more specifically, mothers — in
growing to millimetre sizes in the enve- Physik in Garching, where I learned to astronomy.
lopes of extremely young protostars. I carry out physical-chemical models of
enthusiastically accepted and started discs with the physical/chemical model I concluded my PhD thesis in September
working on that project from the theoreti- Dust And LInes (DALI), under the supervi- 2017 and I joined ESO Garching as a
cal point of view in Milan in 2013, under sion of its developer Simon Bruderer. In ­fellow in October that same year. It felt
the supervision of Giuseppe Lodato. In 2014 I moved to Leiden, where I contin- like coming back home. On top of enjoy-
September of the same year I moved to ued augmenting the DALI code. The goal ing the great scientific environment, as
Garching where I learned to calibrate of my thesis was to solve “The puzzle a fellow I can concretely support the
and image Australia Telescope Compact of protoplanetary disc masses”, as its title observatory, and share the load — as
Array (ATCA) observations, analyse the reads, by employing observations of CO you do in a family — with “functional
data and model them using a radiative isotopologues, which needed to be care- work” for up to 25% of my time. Joining
transfer code. This pre-ALMA experience fully modelled. After four years and four the ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) and
was extremely formative as I saw with papers, comparing models to ALMA working on reducing data was a natural
my own eyes some aspects of interfero- observations, the puzzle is not solved yet. choice. However, I decided to combine
metric data that are essentially hidden to In fact, I now understand that getting disc this duty with a less usual one, that is to
ALMA users nowadays. Also, Leonardo’s masses right is an even more compli- join the editorial team of The Messenger.
experience in interferometric data and cated riddle than expected. Nevertheless, I find both activities enrich my scientific
his didactic abilities helped me to con- it is an extremely important question to career and are unique opportunities to
cretely understand interferometry, which answer if one wants to understand how learn new skills.
otherwise would have been only a set of planet formation really happens. All this
equations. work established the basis of my current Astronomy was born out of the astonish-
research, where the interplay between ment of people who stared at the starry
One thing was clear: ESO was a unique gas and dust seems to be key. sky and asked themselves what was
place and I was really tempted to con- the link between their existence and such
tinue my education there as a PhD stu- In Leiden I really enjoyed the combination immensity. Visiting the ESO telescopes,
dent through the IMPRS programme. of high-level research and care for the one sees how far this amazement and
I was, however, also offered a PhD posi- students. Between the start of my PhD curiosity have brought us. I feel privileged
tion at Leiden Observatory by Ewine van and the beginning of my fellowship to be an astronomer and to be at
Dishoeck, one of the world leaders in at ESO, I have had three children. I can ESO, and I hope that I will always be as
astrochemistry, specifically in the field of never thank my supervisor, Ewine, the astonished and curious as those first
star and planet formation. I accepted that Leiden Observatory and ESO enough for astronomers.

G. Lombardi/ESO

La Silla and the sur-


rounding mountains
seen at dusk.

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 65


Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5132

External Fellows at ESO

In addition to the ESO fellowships, a My first project was to study the line
number of external fellows are hosted at emission of carbon monoxide towards a
ESO. A profile of one of these fellows is Galactic supernova remnant, IC 443,
presented here. which is interacting with ambient molecu-
lar clouds. The energetic blast wave from
the massive star exploded a few thou-
Zhi-Yu Zhang sand years ago, brutally tearing up the
interstellar medium (ISM), dissociating
I still feel moved when I recall the moment molecules, ionising atoms, and returning
that I happened to watch the Geminid newly processed elements to the gas.
meteor shower, on one freezing winter It is only a tiny part of the baryon cycle
night in 2009, during a gap in my obser- in the evolutionary history of our host
vations at Mount Graham in the USA. It ­galaxy, the Milky Way. Actually, I did not
was my first year as a PhD student when know much about what I was doing until
I started to learn about the Universe as I arrived at the PMO 14-metre telescope
much as possible. Actually, this observ- in Delingha on the 3200-metre high
ing trip was associated with my first ­Qinghai-Tibet plateau. My first observa- Zhi-Yu Zhang
­successful observing proposal, which tions blew my mind. Operating a large
was to use the 10-metre Heinrich Hertz ­telescope, pointing it to science ­targets, warmer and warmer in the distant Uni-
Submillimeter Telescope to observe collecting photons, and being the first to verse, its temperature becomes almost
dense molecular gas in external galaxies. see a small “secret” of the Universe, is a equal to that of the cold, optically-­dark
That day was also my birthday, full of non-stop exciting feeling. ISM in galaxies. This effect makes
­surprises and fun — just like my research that ISM nearly invisible against the rising
career. Which gases form stars? This is the key glow of a warmer CMB, and thus it
question that my PhD project addressed. becomes very hard to detect molecular
I was born in the mountainous south- Only when the molecular gas is dense gas where new stars will form in distant
west region of China, in the Guizhou enough can the gas collapse by gravity galaxies. It would be like trying to see
Province, which is now well known for and initiate the formation of stars. But a swan in the snow, or the shrinking of an
hosting the Five-hundred-meter Aperture what is the density range, and what kind ocean island in a rising tide.
Spherical radio Telescope, FAST. When I of initial physical conditions matter for
was four years old, my family moved to the molecular gas? To answer these After I moved to ESO Garching as an
the eastern part of China, the Anhui prov- questions, I went to the Max Planck Insti- external fellow, my science interests
ince, where I spent a large portion of my tute for Radio astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn, extended to elementary abundances in
childhood reading. The book series titled Germany, as a visiting student working galaxies and their evolution across cos-
“One hundred thousand Why” enlight- with Christian Henkel and Karl Menten for mic time, especially the isotopes of CNO
ened me in the exploration and under- two years. At the MPIfR, I had opportuni- elements, which in principle could be
standing of the principles that the world ties to observe with the Atacama Path- measured in the ISM. We selected C13
follows. Therefore, I selected particle finder EXperiment (APEX 12-metre) tele- and O18 isotopes as the target because
physics for my major in my bachelor scope several times; this is my favourite C13 is mostly synthesised by low- and
degree, at the University of Science and single-dish sub-millimetre facility — both intermediate-mass stars, while the O18
Technology of China (USTC) — with for its world-leading ­performance and for production is dominated by massive
ambitions to understand the ultimate the family feel. Onsite observing at the stars. We performed simultaneous obser-
rules of the Universe. I was involved 5000-metre high Atacama plateau, where vations of 13CO and C18O emission lines
in research into quantum information and it is extremely dry and lacks oxygen, has using the Atacama Large Millimeter/
quantum computers, which have the been my most exciting adventure. submillimeter Array (ALMA), towards a
potential to provide revolutionary technol- sample of dusty starburst galaxies at
ogy for human beings. After my PhD, I moved to Edinburgh to z ~ 2–3, less than 3 Gyr after the Big
continue research as a postdoc, working Bang. Our new measurements, com-
However, after a two-year struggle with closely with Rob Ivison. There, I started bined with 13CO/C18O ratios found in
trying to understand quantum physics, to work on galaxies in the early Universe, other types of galaxies, show a systemat-
I realised that it takes talent to make a especially on their ISM properties, includ- ically decreasing trend from galaxies
real breakthrough in fundamental phys- ing ionised gas, molecular gas and dust. with low-level star-formation to dusty
ics. Keeping an enthusiasm for physics, We realised that the afterglow of the Big starburst galaxies — indicating that more
I made a life-changing decision and Bang, the so-called cosmic microwave massive stars are needed to supply the
switched to astrophysics. Yu Gao kindly background (CMB), can seriously frus- O18 overabundance in starburst galaxies.
accepted me as a masters student at the trate our efforts to image the cold hydro-
Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO), at gen gas molecules and cosmic dust Working at ESO Garching is a unique
which point I started my astronomical life. found in galaxies in the distant Universe. experience for me. There are so many
As the CMB background becomes ongoing interesting scientific activities

66 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Astronomical News

every week, for example: Gas Matters, are fully independent and great minds do Acknowledgements
Informal Discussions, Knowledge meet together, as a result of which I enjoy
I would like to acknowledge the support received
Exchange Series, Wine & Cheese, AGN collaborating with ESO fellows and staff. I from the University of Edinburgh through the
Club, Journal Club, etc., not to mention learned from the ESO community that, no ­European Research Commission Advanced Grant
the other regular seminars and work- matter how crazy your idea is, give it a COSMICISM, 321302 (Principal Investigator:
Rob Ivison).
shops on the campus. I appreciate the good try and you will always be pleas-
chance to see so many different fields antly surprised by new discoveries, new
converge and overlap, and to learn some- physics, and challenges to classical
thing new every day. At ESO, all ­fellows knowledge with critical thinking.

Personnel Movements

Arrivals (1 January– 31 March 2019) Departures (1 January– 31 March 2019)

Europe Europe

Caillier, Patrick (FR) Project Manager Aros Pinochet, Francisco Ignacio (CL) Student
Fiorellino, Eleonora (IT) Student Brucalassi, Anna (IT) Astronomer
Wassill, Sebastian, (DE) Logistics Officer De Cia, Annalisa (IT) Fellow
Escate Giribaldi, Riano (PE) Student
Flörs, Andreas (DE) Student
Guha, Rebonto (DE) Senior Clerk
Jethwa, Prashin (UK) Fellow
Kravchenko, Kateryna (UA) Student
Lucchesi, Romain (FR) Student
Patig, Markus (DE) Deputy Director for Science
Prole, Daniel (UK) Student
van de Ven, Glenn (NL) Astronomer
Watkins, Laura (UK) Fellow

Chile Chile

Azcarate, Camilo (CO) Ombuds Aguilar, Max (CL) Hospitality Operations Supervisor
Blanco Lopez, Leonardo (FR) Instrumentation Engineer Carcamo, Carolina (CL) Procurement Officer
Moulane, Youssef (MA) Student Gonzalez, Leonardo (CL) Mechanical Technician
van Holstein, Rob (NL) Student Mejia-Restrepo, Julian (CO) Fellow
Vasquez, Paulina (CL) Safety Engineer Sánchez Sáez, Paula (CL) Student
Santamaría Miranda, Alejandro (ES) Student

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 67


Annual Index
ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

One of ALMA’s 66 antennas at


­sunset — overlooked by a young
crescent moon.

68 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Annual Index 2018 (Nos. 171–174)

Subject Index APEX Band 9 Reveals Vibrationally Excited Water Witnessing the Early Growth and Life Cycle of
Sources in Evolved Stars; Baudry, A.; Herpin, F.; Galaxies with KMOS 3D; Förster Schreiber, N. M.;
Humphreys, E.; Torstensson, K.; Vlemmings, W.; Wilman, D.; Wisnioski, E. S.; Fossati, M.; Mendel,
Richards, A.; Gray, M.; De Breuck, C.; Olberg, M.; J. T.; Bender, R.; Genzel, R.; Beifiori, A.; Belli, S.;
Telescopes and Instrumentation
171, 37 Brammer, G.; Burkert, A.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.;
ALMA Constrains the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Davies, R. L.; Fabricius, M.; Galametz, A.;
40+ Years of Instrumentation for the La Silla Paranal Dusty Starburst Galaxies; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Romano, Herrera-Camus, R.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Momcheva,
Observatory; D’Odorico, S.; 171, 2 D.; Ivison, R. J.; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Matteucci, I.; Naab, T.; Nelson, E. J.; Price, S. H.; Renzini, A.;
End-to-End Operations in the ELT Era; Hainaut, F.; 172, 14 Saglia, R.; Seitz, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.;
O. R.; Bierwirth, T.; Brillant, S.; Mieske, S.; Patat, MIKiS: the ESO-VLT Multi-Instrument Kinematic Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.-i.; Übler, H.; van
F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Sterzik, M.; 171, 8 Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters; Ferraro, Dokkum, P. G.; Wuyts, S.; 174, 28
The VLTI Roadmap; Mérand, A.; 171, 14 F. R.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Pallanca, C.; Shedding Light on the Geometry of Kilonovae; Bulla,
The ELT in 2017: The Year of the Primary Mirror; Origlia, L.; Lapenna, E.; Dalessandro, E.; Valenti, M.; Covino, S.; Patat, F.; Kyutoku, K.; Maund,
Cirasuolo, M.; Tamai, R.; Cayrel, M.; Koehler, B.; E.; Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Vesperini, E.; Varri, J. R.; Tanaka, M.; Toma, K.; Wiersema, K.;
Biancat Marchet, F.; González, J. C.; Dimmler, M.; A. L.; Sollima, A.; 172, 18 D’Avanzo, P.; Higgins, A. B.; Mundell, C. G.;
Tuti, M.; & the ELT team; 171, 20 Constraining Convection in Evolved Stars with the Palazzi, E.; 174, 34
Enhanced Data Discovery Services for the ESO VLTI; Paladini, C.; Baron, F.; Jorissen, A.;
Science Archive; Romaniello, M.; Zampieri, S.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Freytag, B.; Van Eck, S.;
Delmotte, N.; Forchì, V.; Hainaut, O. R.; Micol, A.; Wittkowski, M.; Hron, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Berger, Astronomical News
Retzlaff, J.; Vera, I.; Fourniol, N.; Khan, M. A.; J.-P.; Siopis, C.; Mayer, A.; Sadowski, G.;
Lange, U.; Sisodia, D.; Stellert, M.; Stoehr, F.; Kravchenko, K.; Shetye, S.; Kerschbaum, F.;
New President of Council; Benz, W.; 171, 43
Arnaboldi, M.; Spiniello, C.; Mascetti, L.; Sterzik, Kluska, J.; Ramstedt, S.; 172, 24
M. F.; 172, 2 Review of the Last Three Years at ESO; Roche, P.;
A Planet with a Disc? A Surprising Detection in
171, 44
HAWK-I/GRAAL Science Verification; Leibundgut, Polarised Light with VLT/SPHERE; Ginski, C.;
B.; Hibon, P.; Kuntschner, H.; Opitom, C.; van Holstein, R.; Juhász, A.; Benisty, M.; Schmidt, Report on the ESO Workshop “QUESO:
Paufique, J.; Petr-Gotzens, M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; T.; Chauvin, G.; de Boer, J.; Wilby, M.; Manara, Submillimetre/Millimetre/Centimetre Q & U (and
Valenti, E.; Zanella, A.; 172, 8 C. F.; Delorme, P.; Ménard, F.; Muro-Arena, G.; V)”; Andreani, P.; Laing, R.; Lu, H.-Y.; 171, 46
Should I stay, or should I go? Service and Visitor Pinilla, P.; Birnstiel, T.; Flock, M.; Keller, C.; Report on the MOSAIC Science Colloquium
Mode at ESO’s Paranal Observatory; Rejkuba, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Milli, J.; Olofsson, J.; Pérez, L.; “Spectroscopic Surveys with the ELT: A Gigantic
Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Mieske, S.; Anderson, J.; Snik, F.; Vogt, N.; 172, 27 Step into the Deep Universe”; Evans, C.; Puech,
Gadotti, D.; Marteau, S.; Patat, F.; 173, 2 Rendezvous with `Oumuamua; Hainaut, O. R.; M.; Hammer, F.; Gallego, J.; Sánchez, A.; García,
Meech, K. J.; Micheli, M.; Belton, M. S. J.; 173, 13 L.; Iglesias, J.; 171, 47
The Time Allocation Working Group Report; Patat,
F.; 173, 7 The Accretion Discs in Ha with OmegaCAM Fellows at ESO; Kakkad, D.; Bartlett, E.; Lu, H.-Y.;
(ADHOC) Survey; Beccari, G.; Petr-Gotzens, 171, 49
The SPECULOOS Southern Observatory Begins its
Hunt for Rocky Planets; Jehin, E.; Gillon, M.; M. G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jerabkova, T.; Romaniello, Personnel Movements; ESO; 171, 52
Queloz, D.; Delrez, L.; Burdanov, A.; Murray, C.; M.; Areal, M. B.; Carraro, G.; Celis, M.; De Marchi, Report on the ESO Workshop “Planning ESO
Sohy, S.; Ducrot, E.; Sebastian, D.; Thompson, S.; G. D.; de Wit, W.-J.; Drew, J. E.; Fedele, D.; Observations of Future Gravitational Wave
McCormac, J.; Almleaky, Y.; Burgasser, A. J.; Ferrero, L. V.; Kalari, V. M.; Manara, C. F.; Events”; Leibundgut, B.; Patat, F.; 172, 33
Demory, B.-O.; de Wit, J.; Barkaoui, K.; Pozuelos, Mardones, D.; Martin, E. L.; Meza, E.; Mieske, S.; Report on the ESO Workshop “Imaging of Stellar
F. J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Grootel, V. V.; 174, 2 Panagia, N.; Testi, L.; Vink, J. S.; Walsh, J. R.; Surfaces”; Wittkowski, M.; Humphreys, L.; 172, 35
The Life and Times of AMBER: The VLTI’s Wright, N. J.; 173, 17 Report on the Workshop “Dispersing Elements for
Astronomical Multi-BEam combineR; de Wit, Life at the Extremes — Massive Star Formation and Astronomy: New Trends and Possibilities”;
W.-J.; Wittkowski, M.; Rantakyrö, F.; Schöller, M.; Evolution in the Galactic Centre; Clark, S.; Lohr, Bianco, A.; Bernstein, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.;
Mérand, A.; Petrov, R. G.; Weigelt, G.; Malbet, F.; M.; Najarro, F.; Patrick, L.; Evans, C.; Dong, H.; Garzon, F.; Holland, W.; Manescau, A.; Navarro,
Massi, F.; Kraus, S.; Ohnaka, K.; Millour, F.; Figer, D.; Lennon, D.; Crowther, P.; 173, 22 R.; Riva, M.; 172, 40
Lagarde, S.; Haubois, X.; Bourget, P.; Percheron, Investigating the Formation and Evolution of Massive Report on the ESO–Radionet Workshop
I.; Berger, J.-P.; Richichi, A.; 174, 8 Disc Galaxies with the MUSE TIMER Project; “Submillimetre Single-dish Data Reduction and
Modelling Data in CASA; Möller, T.; Schilke, P.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Falcón- Array Combination Techniques”; De Breuck, C.;
Hogerheijde, M.; Stewart, I.; Schaaf, R.; Harsono, Barroso, J.; Husemann, B.; Seidel, M.; Leaman, Teuben, P.; Stanke, T.; 172, 42
D.; 174, 14 R.; Leung, G.; van de Ven, G.; Querejeta, M.; Report on the ESO Workshop “La Silla Paranal
Fragkoudi, F.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Méndez- Users Workshop”; Boffin, H. M. J.; Rejkuba, M.;
Abreu, J.; Pérez, I.; Kim, T.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; 172, 44
Coelho, P.; Donohoe-Keyes, C.; Martig, M.;
Astronomical Science Report on the ESO–NEON Observing School at
Neumann, J.; 173, 28
La Silla Observatory; Selman, F.; Melo, C.;
Resolving the Interstellar Medium at the Peak of Beccari, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Ivanov, V.; Sani, E.;
Exploring the Sun with ALMA; Bastian, T. S.; Bárta, Cosmic Star Formation; Calistro Rivera, G.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Korhonen, H.;
M.; Brajša, R.; Chen, B.; Pontieu, B. D.; Gary, Hodge, J.; 173, 33 172, 46
D. E.; Fleishman, G. D.; Hales, A. S.; Iwai, K.; ALMA Observations of the Epoch of Planet
Hudson, H.; Kim, S.; Kobelski, A.; Loukitcheva, Fellows at ESO; Opitom, C.; Harrison, C.; Querejeta,
Formation; Andrews, S. M.; Huang, J.; Pérez, M.; 172, 50
M.; Shimojo, M.; Skokić, I.; Wedemeyer, S.; White, L. M.; Isella, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Kurtovic, N. T.;
S. M.; Yan, Y.; 171, 25 Raymond Wilson, 1928–2018; Cullum, M.; 172, 53
Guzmán, V. V.; Carpenter, J. M.; Wilner, D. J.;
The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Band Large Exploration Zhang, S.; Zhu, Z.; Birnstiel, T.; Bai, X.-N.; Benisty, Personnel Movements; ESO; 172, 55
Survey (EDIBLES); Cami, J.; Cox, N. L.; Farhang, M.; Hughes, A. M.; Öberg, K. I.; Ricci, L.; 174, 19 The ESO Digital Object Identifier Service; Bordelon,
A.; Smoker, J.; Elyajouri, M.; Lallement, R.; A First Spectroscopic Census of the Dwarf Galaxy D.; Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.; 173, 38
Bacalla, X.; Bhatt, N. H.; Bron, E.; Cordiner, M. A.; Leo P; Evans, C.; Castro, N.; Gonzalez, O.; Report on the ESO Workshop “Diversis mundi: The
de Koter, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Evans, C.; Foing, Garcia, M.; Bastian, N.; Cioni, M.-R.; Clark, S.; Solar System in an Exoplanetary context (OPS-
B. H.; Javadi, A.; Joblin, C.; Kaper, L.; Davies, B.; Ferguson, A.; Kamann, S.; Lennon, D.; III)”; Lillo-Box, J.; Opitom, C.; 173, 40
Khosroshahi, H. G.; Laverick, M.; Le Petit, F.; Patrick, L.; Vink, J. S.; Weisz, D.; 174, 24 Report on the ESO Workshop “Proposal Submission
Linnartz, H.; Marshall, C. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Tools”; Biggs, A.; Bridger, A.; Carpenter, J.;
Mulas, G.; Roueff, E.; Royer, P.; Salama, F.; Sarre, De Breuck, C.; Glendenning, B.; Iono, D.; Schmid,
P. J.; Smith, K. T.; Spaans, M.; van Loon, J. T.; E.; Testi, L.; 173, 44
Wade, G.; 171, 31

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 69


Report on the ESO–INAF Workshop “VST in the Era Fellows at ESO; Dias, B.; Zanella, A.; van der Burg, Report on the ESO Workshop “Take a Closer Look:
of the Large Sky Surveys”; Schipani, P.; Arnaboldi, R.; 173, 54 The Innermost Region of Protoplanetary Discs
M.; Iodice, E.; Leibundgut, B.; 173, 46 Leon B. Lucy, 1938–2018; Baade, D.; Danziger, J.; and its Connection to the Origin of Planets”;
Report on the ESO–European Interferometry Hook, R.; Walsh, J. R.; 173, 58 Manara, C. F.; Schneider, P. C.; Hussain, G.;
Initiative School “The 9th Very Large Telescope Personnel Movements; ESO; 173, 59 Facchini, S.; Miotello, A.; 174, 44
Interferometer School”; Garcia, P. J. V.; Filho, M.; ESO Conference Proceedings 2.0 at Zenodo; Fellows at ESO; Chen, C.-C.; Gallenne, A.;
Amorim, A.; Mérand, A.; 173, 49 Meakins, S.; Gómez, M. E.; Bordelon, D.; Wylezalek, D.; 174, 48
The First ESO Astronomy Research Training — Grothkopf, U.; 174, 38 Riccardo Giacconi (1931–2018); Barcons, X.;
Ghana 2018; Arrigoni-Battaia, F.; Löbling, L.; Man, Report on the ESO Workshop “A Revolution in Stellar Spyromilio, J.; 174, 53
A.; Asabere, B. D.; Kerzendorf, W.; Valenti, E.; Physics with Gaia and Large Surveys”; Smiljanic, Personnel Movements; ESO; 174, 55
173, 51 R.; Hussain, G.; Pasquini, L.; 174, 40

Author Index Bianco, A.; Bernstein, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; D


Garzon, F.; Holland, W.; Manescau, A.; Navarro,
R.; Riva, M.; Report on the Workshop “Dispersing D’Odorico, S.; 40+ Years of Instrumentation for the
Elements for Astronomy: New Trends and La Silla Paranal Observatory; 171, 2
A
Possibilities”; 172, 40
De Breuck, C.; Teuben, P.; Stanke, T.; Report on the
Biggs, A.; Bridger, A.; Carpenter, J.; De Breuck, C.; ESO–Radionet Workshop “Submillimetre Single-
Andreani, P.; Laing, R.; Lu, H.-Y.; Report on the ESO Glendenning, B.; Iono, D.; Schmid, E.; Testi, L.;
Workshop “QUESO: Submillimetre/Millimetre/ dish Data Reduction and Array Combination
Report on the ESO Workshop “Proposal Techniques”; 172, 42
Centimetre Q & U (and V)”; 171, 46 Submission Tools”; 173, 44
Andrews, S. M.; Huang, J.; Pérez, L. M.; Isella, A.; de Wit, W.-J.; Wittkowski, M.; Rantakyrö, F.; Schöller,
Boffin, H. M. J.; Rejkuba, M.; Report on the ESO M.; Mérand, A.; Petrov, R. G.; Weigelt, G.; Malbet,
Dullemond, C. P.; Kurtovic, N. T.; Guzmán, V. V.; Workshop “La Silla Paranal Users Workshop”;
Carpenter, J. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Zhang, S.; Zhu, Z.; F.; Massi, F.; Kraus, S.; Ohnaka, K.; Millour, F.;
172, 44 Lagarde, S.; Haubois, X.; Bourget, P.; Percheron,
Birnstiel, T.; Bai, X.-N.; Benisty, M.; Hughes, A. M.;
Bordelon, D.; Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.; The ESO I.; Berger, J.-P.; Richichi, A.; The Life and Times of
Öberg, K. I.; Ricci, L.; ALMA Observations of the
Digital Object Identifier Service; 173, 38 AMBER: The VLTI’s Astronomical Multi-BEam
Epoch of Planet Formation; 174, 19
Bulla, M.; Covino, S.; Patat, F.; Kyutoku, K.; Maund, combineR; 174, 8
Arrigoni-Battaia, F.; Löbling, L.; Man, A.; Asabere,
J. R.; Tanaka, M.; Toma, K.; Wiersema, K.; Dias, B.; Zanella, A.; van der Burg, R.; Fellows at
B. D.; Kerzendorf, W.; Valenti, E.; The First ESO
D’Avanzo, P.; Higgins, A. B.; Mundell, C. G.; ESO; 173, 54
Astronomy Research Training — Ghana 2018;
Palazzi, E.; Shedding Light on the Geometry of
173, 51
Kilonovae; 174, 34

E
B
C
Evans, C.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Gallego, J.;
Baade, D.; Danziger, J.; Hook, R.; Walsh, J. R.; Leon Sánchez, A.; García, L.; Iglesias, J.; Report on the
Calistro Rivera, G.; Hodge, J.; Resolving the MOSAIC Science Colloquium “Spectroscopic
B. Lucy, 1938–2018; 173, 58
Interstellar Medium at the Peak of Cosmic Star Surveys with the ELT: A Gigantic Step into the
Barcons, X.; Spyromilio, J.; Riccardo Giacconi Formation; 173, 33 Deep Universe”; 171, 47
(1931–2018); 174, 53
Cami, J.; Cox, N. L.; Farhang, A.; Smoker, J.; Evans, C.; Castro, N.; Gonzalez, O.; Garcia, M.;
Bastian, T. S.; Bárta, M.; Brajša, R.; Chen, B.; Elyajouri, M.; Lallement, R.; Bacalla, X.; Bhatt, Bastian, N.; Cioni, M.-R.; Clark, S.; Davies, B.;
Pontieu, B. D.; Gary, D. E.; Fleishman, G. D.; N. H.; Bron, E.; Cordiner, M. A.; de Koter, A.; Ferguson, A.; Kamann, S.; Lennon, D.; Patrick, L.;
Hales, A. S.; Iwai, K.; Hudson, H.; Kim, S.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Evans, C.; Foing, B. H.; Javadi, Vink, J. S.; Weisz, D.; A First Spectroscopic
Kobelski, A.; Loukitcheva, M.; Shimojo, M.; A.; Joblin, C.; Kaper, L.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Census of the Dwarf Galaxy Leo P; 174, 24
Skokić, I.; Wedemeyer, S.; White, S. M.; Yan, Y.; Laverick, M.; Le Petit, F.; Linnartz, H.; Marshall,
Exploring the Sun with ALMA; 171, 25 C. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Mulas, G.; Roueff, E.;
Baudry, A.; Herpin, F.; Humphreys, E.; Torstensson, Royer, P.; Salama, F.; Sarre, P. J.; Smith, K. T.;
K.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A.; Gray, M.; Spaans, M.; van Loon, J. T.; Wade, G.; The ESO F
De Breuck, C.; Olberg, M.; APEX Band 9 Reveals Diffuse Interstellar Band Large Exploration Survey
Vibrationally Excited Water Sources in Evolved (EDIBLES); 171, 31 Ferraro, F. R.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Pallanca,
Stars; 171, 37 Chen, C.-C.; Gallenne, A.; Wylezalek, D.; Fellows at C.; Origlia, L.; Lapenna, E.; Dalessandro, E.;
Beccari, G.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; ESO; 174, 48 Valenti, E.; Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Vesperini,
Jerabkova, T.; Romaniello, M.; Areal, M. B.; Cirasuolo, M.; Tamai, R.; Cayrel, M.; Koehler, B.; E.; Varri, A. L.; Sollima, A.; MIKiS: the ESO-VLT
Carraro, G.; Celis, M.; De Marchi, G. D.; de Wit, Biancat Marchet, F.; González, J. C.; Dimmler, M.; Multi-Instrument Kinematic Survey of Galactic
W.-J.; Drew, J. E.; Fedele, D.; Ferrero, L. V.; Kalari, Tuti, M.; & the ELT team; The ELT in 2017: The Globular Clusters; 172, 18
V. M.; Manara, C. F.; Mardones, D.; Martin, E. L.; Year of the Primary Mirror; 171, 20
Meza, E.; Mieske, S.; Panagia, N.; Testi, L.; Vink,
Clark, S.; Lohr, M.; Najarro, F.; Patrick, L.; Evans, C.;
J. S.; Walsh, J. R.; Wright, N. J.; The Accretion
Dong, H.; Figer, D.; Lennon, D.; Crowther, P.; Life
Discs in Ha with OmegaCAM (ADHOC) Survey;
at the Extremes — Massive Star Formation and
173, 17
Evolution in the Galactic Centre; 173, 22
Benz, W.; New President of Council; 171, 43
Cullum, M.; Raymond Wilson, 1928–2018; 172, 53

70 The Messenger 175 – March 2019


Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wilman, D.; Wisnioski, L S
E. S.; Fossati, M.; Mendel, J. T.; Bender, R.;
Genzel, R.; Beifiori, A.; Belli, S.; Brammer, G.; Leibundgut, B.; Hibon, P.; Kuntschner, H.; Opitom, Schipani, P.; Arnaboldi, M.; Iodice, E.; Leibundgut,
Burkert, A.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.; Davies, R. L.; C.; Paufique, J.; Petr-Gotzens, M.; Siebenmorgen, B.; Report on the ESO–INAF Workshop “VST in
Fabricius, M.; Galametz, A.; Herrera-Camus, R.; R.; Valenti, E.; Zanella, A.; HAWK-I/GRAAL the Era of the Large Sky Surveys”; 173, 46
Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Momcheva, I.; Naab, T.; Nelson, Science Verification; 172, 8 Selman, F.; Melo, C.; Beccari, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.;
E. J.; Price, S. H.; Renzini, A.; Saglia, R.; Seitz, S.;
Leibundgut, B.; Patat, F.; Report on the ESO Ivanov, V.; Sani, E.; Schmidtobreick, L.;
Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki,
Workshop “Planning ESO Observations of Future Dennefeld, M.; Korhonen, H.; Report on the ESO–
K.-i.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Wuyts, S.;
Gravitational Wave Events”; 172, 33 NEON Observing School at La Silla Observatory;
Witnessing the Early Growth and Life Cycle of
Lillo-Box, J.; Opitom, C.; Report on the ESO 172, 46
Galaxies with KMOS3D; 174, 28
Workshop “Diversis mundi: The Solar System in Smiljanic, R.; Hussain, G.; Pasquini, L.; Report on
an Exoplanetary context (OPS-III)”; 173, 40 the ESO Workshop “A Revolution in Stellar
Physics with Gaia and Large Surveys”; 174, 40
G

M
Gadotti, D. A.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Falcón- W
Barroso, J.; Husemann, B.; Seidel, M.; Leaman,
R.; Leung, G.; van de Ven, G.; Querejeta, M.; Manara, C. F.; Schneider, P. C.; Hussain, G.;
Fragkoudi, F.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Méndez- Facchini, S.; Miotello, A.; Report on the ESO Wittkowski, M.; Humphreys, L.; Report on the ESO
Abreu, J.; Pérez, I.; Kim, T.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Workshop “Take a Closer Look: The Innermost Workshop “Imaging of Stellar Surfaces”; 172, 35
Coelho, P.; Donohoe-Keyes, C.; Martig, M.; Region of Protoplanetary Discs and its
Neumann, J.; Investigating the Formation and Connection to the Origin of Planets”; 174, 44
Evolution of Massive Disc Galaxies with the MUSE Meakins, S.; Gómez, M. E.; Bordelon, D.; Grothkopf, Z
TIMER Project; 173, 28 U.; ESO Conference Proceedings 2.0 at Zenodo;
Garcia, P. J. V.; Filho, M.; Amorim, A.; Mérand, A.; 174, 38
Zhang, Z.-Y.; Romano, D.; Ivison, R. J.;
Report on the ESO–European Interferometry Mérand, A.; The VLTI Roadmap; 171, 14
Papadopoulos, P. P.; Matteucci, F.; ALMA
Initiative School “The 9th Very Large Telescope Möller, T.; Schilke, P.; Hogerheijde, M.; Stewart, I.; Constrains the Stellar Initial Mass Function of
Interferometer School”; 173, 49 Schaaf, R.; Harsono, D.; Modelling Data in CASA; Dusty Starburst Galaxies; 172, 14
Ginski, C.; van Holstein, R.; Juhász, A.; Benisty, M.; 174, 14
Schmidt, T.; Chauvin, G.; de Boer, J.; Wilby, M.;
Manara, C. F.; Delorme, P.; Ménard, F.; Muro-
Arena, G.; Pinilla, P.; Birnstiel, T.; Flock, M.; Keller, O
C.; Kenworthy, M.; Milli, J.; Olofsson, J.; Pérez, L.;
Snik, F.; Vogt, N.; A Planet with a Disc? A
Surprising Detection in Polarised Light with VLT/ Opitom, C.; Harrison, C.; Querejeta, M.; Fellows at
SPHERE; 172, 27 ESO; 172, 50

H P

Hainaut, O. R.; Bierwirth, T.; Brillant, S.; Mieske, S.; Paladini, C.; Baron, F.; Jorissen, A.; Le Bouquin,
Patat, F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Sterzik, M.; J.-B.; Freytag, B.; Van Eck, S.; Wittkowski, M.;
End-to-End Operations in the ELT Era; 171, 8 Hron, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Berger, J.-P.; Siopis, C.;
Mayer, A.; Sadowski, G.; Kravchenko, K.; Shetye,
Hainaut, O. R.; Meech, K. J.; Micheli, M.; Belton,
S.; Kerschbaum, F.; Kluska, J.; Ramstedt, S.;
M. S. J.; Rendezvous with `Oumuamua; 173, 13
Constraining Convection in Evolved Stars with the
VLTI; 172, 24
Patat, F.; The Time Allocation Working Group
J Report; 173, 7

Jehin, E.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.; Delrez, L.; Burdanov,


A.; Murray, C.; Sohy, S.; Ducrot, E.; Sebastian, D.; R
Thompson, S.; McCormac, J.; Almleaky, Y.;
Burgasser, A. J.; Demory, B.-O.; de Wit, J.;
Barkaoui, K.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Rejkuba, M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Mieske, S.;
Grootel, V. V.; The SPECULOOS Southern Anderson, J.; Gadotti, D.; Marteau, S.; Patat, F.;
Observatory Begins its Hunt for Rocky Planets; Should I stay, or should I go? Service and Visitor
174, 2 Mode at ESO’s Paranal Observatory; 173, 2
Roche, P.; Review of the Last Three Years at ESO;
171, 44
Romaniello, M.; Zampieri, S.; Delmotte, N.; Forchì,
K
V.; Hainaut, O. R.; Micol, A.; Retzlaff, J.; Vera, I.;
Fourniol, N.; Khan, M. A.; Lange, U.; Sisodia, D.;
Kakkad, D.; Bartlett, E.; Lu, H.-Y.; Fellows at ESO; Stellert, M.; Stoehr, F.; Arnaboldi, M.; Spiniello, C.;
171, 49 Mascetti, L.; Sterzik, M. F.; Enhanced Data
Discovery Services for the ESO Science Archive;
172, 2

The Messenger 175 – March 2019 71