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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

AMA Computer College Pampanga

3rd Floor, OYG Building, B Mendoza St. City of San Fernando Pampanga

Senior High School

Factors affecting the Reading Comprehension Grade 11 students:

Reading Comprehension

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research 1

By:

Group 4- PH112

Cabasa, Joy Kylene

Bengco, Chrisanto

Pangilinan, Ciari Mae

Colasito, Roberto

Evangelista, Christel

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Garma, Mary Ann

Gozum, Andrei

Titco, Patricia Andrei

Tangle, Jessica

Mendoza, Andrea

Pring, Paula Nicole

APPROVAL SHEET

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research I that entitled “Factors Affecting the Reading

Comprehension of Grade 11 Students of AMA ”prepared and submitted by Cabasa, Joy Kylene,

Bengo, Chrisanto, Colasito, Robert, Evangelista, Christel, Garma, Mary Ann, Gozum, Andrei, Mendoza,

Andrea, Pangilinan, Ciari Mae, Pring, Paula Nicole, Tagle, Jessa, Titco, Patricia. Grade 11 HUMMS of AMA

is hereby recommended for final examination.

Jorren P. Manalo

Adviser

Approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research I by the Examination Committee.

Rosielyn P. bautista
Principal

March 2019

Table of Contents

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Chapter 1: Introduction

Background of the study

Conceptual Framework

Theoretical Framework

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Hypothesis

Scope

Delimitation

Significance of the study

Definition of Terms

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Studies

Local Studies

Foreign Literature

Local Literature

Theoretical Framework

Relevant theory

Conceptual Framework

Definition of Variable

Chapter III

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Methods and Techniques of the study

Process

Instrument

Questioners

Chapter IV:

analysis

interpretation

Chapter V:

Finding

summary

conclusions

recommendations

Chapter I

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Introduction

Putting letters and words together to form words, phrases and sentences is what Reading

is all about, but one must comprehend what is learned to fully understand a text one has to

interact with the text and add meaning to it. Astrid Roe (2014) state that ” Reading

Comprehension is to make meaning of what we read’

Reading Comprehension is also simply known as the kind of thinking process which

requires the readers to make interferences from the text. Without using thinking processes, the

readers may not attain any or all the information and may not fully understand the text (Fitriani

2015), In this sense reading comprehension involves process of extracting information from the

text and constructing comprehension through the interaction between the text and the readers

background knowledge.

Reading comprehension involves various factors such as Background knowledge,

Vocabulary and Fluency, Active reading skills and Critical thinking that must work together.

However, Reading plays a very crucial role in one’s a life as the benefits of the reading are

plenty. It helps an individual to grow. It widens our mind and imagination. It improves our

knowledge and also our selves. It discovers new things in help building good communication

skills.

Background of the study

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Reading comprehension plays an important role in our lives. It opens up new knowledge

for individual and it also gives many benefits to us. Reading is the window of our world. It does

not only happen in educational field but also in our daily life. Comprehension is reading with

understanding it is the ability to read text and process its meaning. Although reading

comprehension is very important, but there still most of the people who are able to read but they

do not what they are reading about. Reading process requires continuous practices, development

and refinement. Without the solid foundation of reading skills the researcher feels the students

will struggle hard throughout their schooling and adult life.

Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output

Demographic of the
Respondents:

-age

-gender

Factors of Reading Mini Seminar


Data gathering procedure
Comprehension to through interview

students in terms of:

Figure 1.1: The Input-Process- Output will be used in this study:


-Mother’s educational
According to Eusebio (2014) it is viewed as series of boxes connected by input and
attainment and
output. It Students
will provide the general structure and guide for the direction of the study.

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

The arrows represent the direct connection between the frames. The left frame, which is

the input show the profile of respondents like age, gender. It also covers factors affecting the

reading comprehension of students in terms of mother’s educational attainment and students

attitude toward reading. The middle frame represent the gathering data through the use of survey

questionnaires. While the right frame which is the output displays the factors affecting the

reading comprehension .

Statement of the Problem

The main problem of this study is to determine the Factors Affecting the Reading

Comprehension of Grade 11 students of AMA Computer College San Fernando Pampanga.

Specially, to answer the following questions:

The researchers will search for the possible factors of the reading comprehension of Grade

11 students in AMA and then will eventually create some recommendations to help the school

to determined what are the factors affects the reading comprehension of students.

1. How can students improve their reading comprehension?

2. What are the factors affecting the reading comprehension of students?

Objectives of the study

This study aims to determine the Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade

11 students of AMA Computer College San Fernando Pampanga. The following objectives were

used in this study; students attitudes towards reading: mothers, educational attainment .

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

.All the factors that mentioned can all be contributing factor that would affect the learner’s

reading comprehension.

Hypothesis

The research hypothesis for this study is that student who has reading difficulties can

affect their performance task in school. And also can have a problem with their daily interaction

and building a good communication skills

Scope

Out of grade 11 students of AMA Computer College San Fernando Pampanga, 15

students were use as a sample in Conducting the survey.

This study limits its coverage on the Grade11 students only. And to identify the Factors

Affecting the Reading Comprehension and also to find the possible solution regarding this

problem.

Delimitation

The study will conduct at AMA Computer College San Fernando Pampanga Researcher

randomly selected the 15 Respondents were in the Researchers will give the survey

questionnaires for them to gather data to this study.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will redound to the benefits of the Students, Teachers School

and also to the Future Researcher, considering that Reading plays an important role in our lives.

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Students

The findings of this study can help the students to know the importance of proper reading

and will develop students and learning that can help to empower the school to promote

intelligence. Practicing and learning good reading is not only used in school but also in their

daily living and everyday interaction.

Teachers

The findings of this study will help the teachers on how they can teach and guide their

students in terms of Proper Reading. This study can support nor supply the teachers a lot of ideas

and strategies based on the gathered information that this study have.

Future Researchers

The results of this study may help the future researchers to have a reference in their

research which can be related to this study.

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter represent related literature and studies that were the basic foundation of this

research.

Foreign Literature

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

In the educational domain, Reading is one of the most common and often compulsory

activities that students have to do all the time, all around the world. They are required to read

many kinds of text for various types of purpose dealing with their assignment and other

academic demands. Yukselir (2014) consider that reading is one the most beneficial, fundamental

and central skills for students to master in order to learn new information, to gain access to

alternative explanation and interpretation and to start synthesis of critical evaluation skills.

Hung and Ngan (2015) have also said that reading is basic skill that cam improve

student’s Vocabulary. Fluency, Speaking & Writing and finally can help to master their target

language. Therefore, it is a no-brainer to state that having good skills is essential for successful

students

Local Literature

According to Salehi, Lari and Razaneja (2014)the most important reader variable that

affect reading comprehension is gender. Males and Females have different perspective about

reading. This difference, is also evident in reading comprehension. The males are more analytic

compare to females (Salehi: et. Al, 2014) Males are much engaged in many extra

curricularactivities that lessen their time to practice reading. On the other hand, females are less

active and have ample time to read and make it as a habit. Although both males and females use

the same strategies, but females apply them more qualitatively. In addition, gender difference can

affect reading motivation.

Males and Females can have different outlook towards reading. The more the person is

persistent that have end goal, the more he or she is likely to be successful in reading. A person

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

who has positive view towards reading will find reading enjoyable and can see progress in this

reading performance (Salehiet, Al. 2014)

Foreign Studies

Many EFL students still struggling to overcome their reading comprehension problem

.Davoudi andYousefi (2015) have listed a number of EFL learner’s reading difficulties and

problem such as deficits in vocabulary knowledge and background knowledge, problems with

grammatical knowledge and also poor reading strategies which is in fact very important to

reduce the difficulties (Sammad, Sannah, Fitriani, 2017)

Reading comprehension problems have been popular issue in EFL teaching-learning

setting for a long time. Numerous studies have shown that most EFL students often have

difficulties in Comprehending English text. Chen and Chen (2015) has said about 52% of adults

with L2 reading comprehension had difficulties in learning foreign language. In this sense, there

are number of reading problems which may be encounter by EFL students. First, they have to

work hard to comprehend it. Second, studies mentioned several common problems in the EFL

classroom such as insufficient vocabulary, poor reading skills, problem understanding linguistic

complexity including lexical and syntactic knowledge (Fitriani 2014).

Local Studies

Comprehension is the prime goal reading and comprehension failures can lead to school

failures. Despite the Philippines supposedlyhigh literacy rate 88.6%, many Filipinos can barely

read and write (Juan Miguel Cruz, Selangan 2015). He noted;

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

This is true especially of those living areas as well as the slum areas of country. Someone

once remarked that, We are not a nation of readers; We are a nation of storytellers. Our is a

culture of oral history passed on by word of mouth not through the written word. According to

the result 2015, Function Literacy, Education and Mass Media survey (FLMMS) Almost all

Filipino 10 years old and above were basically literate it means they can barely read and write

and out of 10 Filipinos 10-64 years of age were functionally literate. While in the 2003 result

about one of the population 10-64 years old cannot read and write basically illiterate. With low-

level literacy comes poor reading.

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

CHAPTER III

This chapter contains the methods and techniques, process, and instrument. This chapter

will provide on what to do in this research.

Method and techniques:

This study utilized the qualitative descriptive method of research. It is descriptive since it is

concerned in determining the different factors that affects the low percentage of STEM

Enrollees. Qualitative descriptive method involves a straight forward descriptive summary of the

data content, that requires being organized and logical.

Process:

The researchers created a questionnaire that consists of the different questions that will

help the researchers to identify the different factors that affects the reading comprehension of

Grade 11 students of AMA.

Questionnaire will be validated by the research adviser and by the school ’s Principal of AMA

Computer College Pampanga.

The questionnaires will be released answered by the chosen respondents (using random

sampling) of the researchers.

Instrument

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Researcher-developed survey-questionnaires that have the content been validated by the

research adviser in Senior High School. Content validation is a method of validating the test

instrument with the help of critiques, who have authorities in their own discipline.

The Instrument was divided into two parts. Part I or the first part was consist of the Personal

Profile of the respondents.The second Part was modified to address and identify the different

factors that affects the reading comprehension of Grade 11 Students in AMA.

The target population for this research includes some Grade 11 students, since they were

the one who is capable to answer the given questionnaires. In this study, the accessible

population is comprised of selected students from the 7 sections from Grade 11 in AMA

Computer College Pampanga.

Questionnaire:

Direction: Answer the following question honestly.

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

We, the Grade 11 HUMMS students of AMA Computer College Pampanga, are currently
conducting our research which is a requirement for our Practical Research 1 subject. Our study
entitled “Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 students”.

Your assistance in completing the following questions is greatly appreciated.

Name: _____________________________________ Grade & Section: ________________

Age: _____________ Gender: ____________________

1. Mother’s Educational Attainment


______________________________________________________________________

2. What do you think about the necessity of reading to your everyday life?
______________________________________________________________________

3. How much do you like reading?


______________________________________________________________________

4. What are the things that disturb you from understanding what you read?

______________________________________________________________________

5. What are the things that disturb you from understanding what you read?

CHAPTER IV

This chapter will provide the results, findings , and analyzing so that it will answer the
main problem of this study.

In this study the research want to determined what are the factors affecting the reading
comprehension of Grade 11 students in AMA.

Base on the results and finding that the reseacher gather from the given questioners this are the
following results:

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

Mother Educational Attainment ( if their mother have a problem about their educational

attainment it would be difficult to teach their child in proper reading, learning and understanding)

8 out of 15 students answered that their mother education attainment are graduated in

high school. 5 out of 15 answered that their mother education attainment are finished college

degree and lastly 2 out of 15 answered that their mother education attainment are under

graduate in high school.

Base on there answered it is very important for a student that they have the guidance

of their parents to enhance their reading comprehension so that they can also reach out with

their classmates in reading.

What do you think about the necessity of Reading to your everyday life? (to know how essential

reading to them and how can it help in their daily living)

Reading is very essential and continues process to gain knowledge. Base on there

answered some of them said that reading is important through communication we learned

alot. Some of them said through reading it can improve our speaking skill specially in

English or other languages that we are using in our daily lives. And others said that reading

helps them alot to understand what going on in our surrounding.

Base on there answered the necessity of reading in everyday lives is very important inorder

to gain new knowledge and enhance our reading comprehension.

How much do you like reading? (having interests in reading can help students to learn more and

can improve their understanding)

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

6 out of 15 student's answered that they like reading specially in English and Tagalog

language because of the learning that they aquired through reading. 5 out of 15 said that they

slightly like reading because they preferred watching instead of reading. And others 4 out of 15

said that they don't like reading.

Base on there answered we should always give importance in reading because through

reading we can communicate with others and we can also exchange thoughts and ideas.

What are the things that disturb you from understanding what you read? (things that can disturb

them is also one of the reason why they can’t understand what they reading about)

13 out of 15 said that the things that disturb them to understand what they are reading is the

different noisy barrier that they encountered when they are reading. And 2 out of 15 students said that

because of the online games that are very popular nowadays are the reason that disturb them in reading

and the some statement that they cant understand specially the jargon words.

Base on there answered one one the main causes that can disturb the students in reading are the

different kind of noisy barrier that they can encountered when they are reading. And it can also

contribute the popular online games nowadays.

What language of materials are you fond of reading? (language barrier can also be a factor that

would affect learner’s understanding

7 out of 15 said that the laguage that they used in reading are English and Tagalog, because

they want to enhance their reading comprehension and to learn new things such as vocabulary

words, proper grammar, and pronoucing of words. And 8 out of 15 they preferred to used only

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

the Tagalog language instead of English because they believe that they can easily understand

what they read in Tagalog.

Base on there answered English and Tagalog are essential language that can use of a student

in reading so that they can easily understand what they need to understands for.

Chapter V

This chapter contains the summary, findings, conclusion, and recommendation about the

dfferent Factor Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students of AMA.

Findings:

The findings of this study showed that mother should motivate their children to read different
materials, recognize their learners’ comprehension difficulties, and have positive opinions about
their reading activities to easily understand the different texts. Mother should provide
information about the weaknesses of their learners to develop a good reading comprehension
skill.And also the choice of language that they used in reading inorder to improve their reading
comprehension skill.

Summary

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of reading
comprehension and reading strategies of the Grease 11 students of AMA. And help the students
to know how importance the reading is. And what learning materials that they need to use to
develop their reading comprehension and in this study it can also help to empower the school to
promote intelligence. Practicing and learning good reading is not only used in school but also in
their daily living and everyday interaction. With the help of the given questioners that are
answered properly and the data that the research gather inorder to solve the given problems of
what the studets facing about reading comprehension.

Conclusion:

There are factors that can influence them to get a deep understanding about what they read.
These learners should be involved in the reading process through the use of various strategies.
All of the factors that indicate in the given questioners and strategies work together to make the
meaning processes easily and effectively. Eventually, it is recommended that commended that
effective teaching strategies and other activities may be devised by the parents specially Mother
and Teacher to improve the level of reading comprehension of a students.

Recommendation:

This are the recommendation that can help the students to improve their reading comprehension.

*Students tend to read more often when they are encouraged by parents or siblings and when
they see their close friends in school read.

*To encourage students to read on the course topics in advance, they can be asked to read
different kinds of reading material like novels, short stories, newspaper and etc. son that it can
help the students to enhance their reading skill.

* Students can also use technology like social media in the improvement of their reading
comprehension.

*Teachers can also help the students to improve their reading skill they should teach their
learners on how to use reading comprehension strategies appropriately and effectively. They
have the responsibility of teaching reading comprehension strategies to their learners either
separately or in combination. They should teach their learners to recognize and apply the text’s
organizational structures to understand, learn, and remember content. They can guide their
learners by high-quality discussion on the meaning of texts. They can choose appropriate texts to
support comprehension development in learners. They should teach reading comprehension skill
with many types of texts. In addition, they can choose texts with word recognition and
comprehension difficulty that are suitable for the learners’ reading ability and the educational
tasks, and finally they can help their learners find the goals and advantages of reading
comprehension.

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Researchers would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude and

appreciation to our family who supported and encouraged us, as we embarked on this phase of

our education. All of the challenges we encountered this period of the research were alleviated

by their support in helping us to pursue and finish all of these. A special thanks to Jeslie Lapuz

who helped and spent numerous of time in guiding us throughout the research.

Thank you to our mentor Sir. Jorren P. Manalo for his patience in checking our papers, for

his effort in supporting all our decisions and for his guidance as we create this research. We

appreciate all of the efforts you gave to us.

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

We would also like to express our gratitude to the school administrators, teachers,

classmates, and friends who contributed their time and assistance in so many ways and to our

dearest adviser Mrs. Marielle Basilio for supporting and helping us in everything we need to

finish this research.Lastly we want to thank god for the guidance, for helping us in our everyday

problem and for pushing us to work harder and to not give up until the end of this research.

DEDICATION

Our parents were the one who want us to finish our studies for us to have a

good life that’s why they ensured that we can able to finish our studies. They

supported and encouraged us in our different performance and projects

through their actions and sacrifices. We dedicate this efforts and the

accomplishment to our parents who supported and gave us unconditional

love and unending understanding for all the late nights they spent waiting for

us to go home and for all the money they gave us every day.

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Factors Affecting the Reading Comprehension of Grade 11 Students

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