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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 2001 Ph5O1 Set 6, ‘olution 3 23, 3. For a linearly polarized wave, Z, and E) are in phase, while for a circularly polarized wave their phase difference is Ag = +90" In Fresnel’s thom, there are two internal reflections, each of which causes phase changes Ad, and Ady for light polarized perpendicular and parallel to the plane of incidence, respective ely. Hence, if Ad, — Ady = 445° (57) at each reflection, we will achieve the desired conversion of linearly into circularly polarized light, In ease of total internal reflection where media 1 and 2 have indices ny =n and nz = 1, we use Snell’s law to write sinO2=nsinO;, and cos) = y/1 — n® sin, = inysin?@, —1/n®. (58) ‘Then, eqs. (49) and (54) can be written as Boy sin(0y — 02) __ sin; -iny/sin? @, — 1/r2 — cos 0; -nsin Oy Foil, sin(®1+ 62) sin 0; - inysin® 0, — 1/n? + cos 0; -nsin 0, cos, ~ isin? — 1]? cos 0; + tysin® i —1/ and For! __ tan(0x ~ 62) Baily tan(@, +) cos 0; — iyin® Oy — If? cos -iny/Sin® 0; — 1]? 1/n? + sin 0, -nsin 0, —_—____ —_ cos, — ys pm? 00801 (cos, + éysin?O) — 17a?) — 1 ee eee cond + iain? — Tn? — cos; (cos ~ isin? Oy Wt) +1 cos 0; + ty/sin? 0: = 1/n 60803 - tryin’ cos 0,(1 — 1/n? — 1) + ty/sin? 0 — 1/r? ~ cos 6;(1 = 1/n® = 1) + iy/sin? 0; — 1) 76, — 1k £08 — in? si = (60) 08 0; + in?/sin® 8 — Af? Both eqs. (59) and (60) have the form a~il a? — b — Dial a Be -2iab ing (a) a+ib +R PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 2001 Ph501 Set 6, Solution 3 24 so 2ab 2(a/b) tds = SS -a 2tan(Ad/2) = tan = Zhang /2)— ) tan 2(A¢/2) cont) (62) and hence, tan(A@/2) ; (63) Thus, | »y/sin? 0; — 1/nt tan(A¢, /2) = and tan(Ag,/2) = n° (64) and tan(Ag, /2) — tan(Ady/2) an(Ag, /2 — Agy/2) = 2aAes/2) — tanto?) | tan(Ad, /2 — AG4/2) T+ tan(Ad, /2) tana /2) asin? @, = 1/n? lan? = sh TIE aT 0s 0 y/sin® 8 — T/n? = ay (65) sin? ‘The angle of incidence, 1, is the same as angle @ shown in the figure for Fresnel’s thomb. Thus, condition (57) implies that cos 6y/sin? 0 — jn? amo = £tan22.5° = 4(v2— 1), (66) or (3 — 2V2) sin* @ = (1 — sin? 6)(sin? 6 — 1/n?) (67) (4 = 2V2) sin’ @ — (1 + 1/n?) sin? @ + 1/n? = 0, (68) 1+ Ln? + (1+ 1/n?)? (69) sin? @ = 2(4 — 22) For n = 1.5, we find 6 = 50.2° and 53.3°