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# Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Moratuwa
Electrical Machines Laboratory

## Apparatus: 3phase induction motor (Squirrel cage and wound rotor)

3phase Autotransformer, Contactors & Timer
Direct on line starter
Rheostats

## Theory: The methods of starting a 3phase induction motor depends to a great

extent on starting torque required, starting current limitation and the
type of motor. The basic methods available are,

## 1. Direct on line starter

2. Star-Delta starter
3. Auto transformer starter
4. Rotor impedance starter
5. Power electronic starter

DOL method is the direct connection of the motor terminals to the supply terminals
through a suitable starter having contactors operated by a coil. This method is restricted
to small motors below 5 hp (3.75 kW). Otherwise reduced-voltage starters are employed
with motors above 5 hp. DLO method causes a high starting current at a lagging power
factor. It also can causes voltage fluctuation on the supply network. DOL starting is
sometimes used to start small water pumps, compressors, fans and conveyor belts. In
the case of an asynchronous motor, such as the 3-Phase Squirrel-Cage Motor, the motor
will pull a high starting current until it has run up to full speed. This starting current is
commonly around 6 times the full load current, but may as high as 12 times the full load
current.

In the star – delta method the stator windings are star connected at start and when
it reaches a substantial speed, then the stator winding are connected delta. At start the
winding votage is reduced by the factor of 1/√3, and hence starting torque wold be 1/3
of the normal. Starting current is also redused by the factor of 1/√3.How ever during the
change over period the air gap flux decreases to zero. When the delta contactor is
reclosed the transient current can be still high. Thus this method dose not necessarily
reduse the peak valuve of the starting current.

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Fig 1: Star – Delta Starter

## By connecting auto transformer, the starting voltage to the motor can be

reduced by an arbitrary factor “k” unlike the fixed factor of 1/√3, in the star delta metod
to limit starting current. The torque is then reduced a factor of “ k2 “.

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Fig 2: Auto-transformer Starter

The line impedance starting method is widly used for the wound rotor type
3phase induction motors. Additional rotor resistances are introduced at start and
gradualy decreases with the speed & time to the zero. This method gives a higher
starting torque and a lower starting current.

Procedure:

## i. Study the construction of wound rotor and squirrel cage induction

motors. Note down their operating speed and rated data on the
name plate

## ii. Study the manually operated star-delta switch (rotary type)

available on the panel. Start the induction motor by using this
switch.

## iii. Simulate an automatic star-delta starter using block diagram given

at the end of the labsheet. Varying the timer setting, observe the
difference.

iv. Study the rotor impedance starter. Keep the external impedance
maximum valuve ( zero mark at the motor control pannel) at the
beginning and star the wound rotor type induction motor.

method.

Discussion:

## i. What is the purpose of employing a starting method for an 3-

phase induction motor.

ii. Explain the construction and working principal of the DOL with a
circuit schematic diagram.

## iii. Discuss of the short comings of the DOL starter.

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iv. Comment on the suitability of the star-delta and auto-
transformer starting methods. Compare advantages and