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Neo — Zapatismo: Networks of Power and War Vol. I of II A Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law. 2001 Xochitl Leyva — Solano Department of Social Anthropology In London and Berlin, the neo-Zapatistas are also part of the local socio-political networks built around Chilean exiles who fled their country to escape the repression, following the military coup led by Augusto Pinochet in 1973. In Berlin, the presence of these political Tefugees led to the foundation of a research and documentation centre on Latin America, which in recent years has provided a supportive environment for the creation of solidarity groups like the one supporting the indigenous peoples of Chiapas. Other Chileans, resident in London, circulate information through local Spanish language newspapers and news bulletins distributed in salsa clubs and schools (which are owned by Colombian immigrants), giving another dimension to intemationalist neo-Zapatismo. The importance of neo-Zapatismo in Spain, Germany and England is closely linked not only to the presence of a revolutionary and alternative left in each country, but also to the colonial history of these former imperial powers. For example, political and social events in England's ex-colonies (India, Africa, and the “West Indies”) occupy a privileged position in the country’s foreign policy and its media coverage. During the two and a half years that | lived in England, the broadsheets and quality television channels hardly ever mentioned Mexico except in connection with scandals involving drug-trafficking or corruption. This is in marked contrast to the importance that Mexico has for Spain. For almost three centuries, Mexico was ‘one of Spain's most important colonies, and currently is among the countries receiving most of the Spanish capital investment. In the case of Germany, its relations with Mexico have historically been overshadowed by the latter's relations first with Spain and later with the United States. So, for example, during the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, “Mexico accounted for 45.5% of American investments, whereas it only received 5.5% of all European investments, and only 1.1% of German JOHN RYLANDS UNIVERSPIY- UBRARY OF MANCHESTER Contents Abstract Declaration Acknowledgements Glossary of Acronyms in the Main Text INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 PART | CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 THE ORIGINS OF THE THESIS. MAIN OBJECTIVES AND STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS ACADEMIC APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF NETWORKS 1.1. From Classic “Network Analysis” to New Trends in Anthropology 1.2. The ‘Transnational Advocacy Networks” Approach 1.3. Networks, “Network Society’, and the “Information Age” 1.4. The “Social Netwar" Approach 1.5. Neo-Zapatista Networks and the Study of Social Movements in Latin America 1.6. My Own Perspective: Networks, “Moral Grammars’, and “Cognitive Frames" 1.6.1. Networks, Values and Recognition 6.2. Neo-Zapatismo, “Cognitive Frames”, and the Memories of Grievances CIVIL NEO-ZAPATISTA NETWORKS AGRARISTA NEO-ZAPATISTA NETWORKS DEMOCRATIC-ELECTORAL NEO-ZAPATISTA NETWORKS 10 4 14 19 20 26 33 37 4 45 53 59 69 74 81 97