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INDEX

Page numbers in italic text indicate Andean epistemological system:


illustrations. integration of, 28; relationship
between entities and energy in, 30
absolutism, 185n7 Andean ideology: on creation, 54;
Akashic Records of Mother Earth, 153 Fernandez on, 6; inclusiveness of, 5;
alchemy, 82 on time and space, 51–52
Allen, C. J., 41, 45, 66, 75, 140 Andean model: of reality, 30, 65, 70, 72;
altitude sickness. See sorache of time and space, 53
Amado, 19, 110, 162, 187n1; on Andean people, 136, 183n1, 183n3;
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adaptability, 57; on Andean cosmos, marriage of, 4, 140; world as


44–45; on ayni, 41; background of, dialectical process for, 64–65
24; on Chavín, 92; on death, 111–12; Andean philosophy: complementary
on energy blockages, 44; on hanaq dualism allegiance of, 4, 6; Glass-
pacha, 41; as healer and teacher, 25; Coffin on, 73–74; global interaction
Juan Luis compared to, 35–36; on kay and, 178; ideological commitment
pacha, 42; on Lanzón, 96, 102; on within, 23; illness and, 43; on male
nothingness, 31; on pachacuti, 51; on and female polarity, 137, 140; mind
reaction to energy, 107–8; on reality, or spirit or soul perceived by, 40;
29, 175; on unpartnered people, 139 symbols and, 120; Taoism compared
Andean cosmos: Amado on, 44–45; to, 2; understanding of, 16; Western
Christianity incompatibility with, culture compared to, 120, 175–78
44–45; on destiny, 108; energies of, Andean shaman, 43, 67
41, 187n2; on good and evil, 106, Ani, M., 52–53
108, 113–14, 176; on karma, 112; on animals, 94–95, 191n8. See also condor;
murder, 108, 109; reincarnation and, puma; serpent
112–13 antagonistic split, in Western
philosophical models, 2

199
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Mexico Press, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/huntercollege-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1118942.
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200 index

Apffel-Marglin, F., 29, 121 on, 93–94; ritual activity in, 92–93;
Apu Ausangate (mountain), 126, 170 vibrations of, 97; yanantin-masintin
apus (trickster energy): power of, 108; and, 92
reaction toward, 106–7; response Chavín iconography, 191n7; animals and,
to, 107 94–95, 191n8; Burger and Rowe on,
Apu Yanantin (mountain), 118, 130, 95; fang motif in, 98, 191n10; as mind
132–33, 135 challenging, 95; tenon heads motif in,
autoethnography, 7, 180–82; approach 90, 98, 191n11; visual confusion of, 95
of, 8; Chang on, 10–11; Ellis on, 8, chawpi (masculine), 87, 190n10
10–11; interpretation phase of, 11–13; Christian devil, ukhu pacha compared
validation process and, 14 to, 42
Avenida del Sol (Avenue of the Sun), 49 Christianity: Andean cosmos
ayahuasca (hallucinogen), 78, 92 incompatibility with, 44–45; good
ayni (reciprocity), 51; Allen on, 41; as and evil and, 114
Andean life hallmark, 40–41; as Classen, C., 59, 138, 188n6, 188n7
balancing principle of Creation, 65; coca tea. See maté de coca
complementary dualism and, 40; complementary dualism, 2, 184n5;
global interaction for, 179; need for, Andean philosophy allegiance
41; tinkuy and, 189n2 to, 4, 6; ayni and, 40; in Cuzco,
23; high art inspired by, 182;
Bastien, J. W., 66, 188n7 modernists and postmodernists
Behar, R., 14 on, 174; multidimensional, multi­­
binary classification, 184n6 voiced interpretation of, 8–9;
as philosophical model, 14–15,
Black and White Stone Portal, 99–100
174; research validity on, 13, 182;
brujo (sorcerer), 109–10
worldview of, 23
Burger, R. L., 94, 95, 100, 105
complementary opposites. See yanantin
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Bush, George W., 108–9, 171, 172


condor, 45; carving representation of,
54–56; hanaq pacha and, 41
Campo Ganadero, 67 Conklin, W. J., 191n7
Campo Justiciero, 67 consciousness, 174, 186n12; energy
Campo Medio, 68 blockages and, 46; hard problem
Caputo, J. D., 177 of, 45; stream-of, 10; time as
ceremony: apprehension of, 39–40; unidirectional progression of, 53;
balance needed for, 111; for finding tinkuy battle of, 69; of yanantin,
yanantin, 27–28. See also San Pedro 57–58
ceremony cosmic referential program, 58
certain. See seguro cosmic weaving. See illawi
chakra, 5 Cosmic Will, 110
Chang, H., 10–11 Cosmos and History: The Myth of the
chaupin (feminine), 77–89, 191n4; de­­ Eternal Return (Eliade), 52
scription of, 88; translation of, 87, creation, 40; Andean ideology on, 54;
190n10 ayni as balancing principle of, 65; as
Chavín, 91, 190n1, 191n4; Amado on, 92; daily activity, 54; of Pachamama, 96;
as mother culture, 92–93, 190n2; Rick of tinkuy, 64; wisdom and, 96

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
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index 201

Cruz, A. C., 53, 64 68; trickster, 106–7, 108. See also apus;
culture: Chavín, 92–93, 190n2; of Cuzco, hucha; sami
23. See also Western culture energy blockages: Amado on, 44;
curanderismo, 73 consciousness and, 46
cuscan (union of two equal parts), 190n8 entheogens, 27
Cusqueño shamans, 3, 5 epistemology, 11
Cuzco, 17, 20, 76, 172; complementary ethnocentrism, 74
dualism in, 23; as cultural melting ethnography, 180
pot, 3–4, 176; culture of, 23; Inca
stonemasonry in, 22; laws modified Father Sun. See Inti Tayta
in, 22; modernity of, 21; murals in, female and male. See male and female
49–50; resilience of, 22; twoness of, 21 feminine. See chaupin
Fernandez, E. G., 6, 30–31
death: attitude on, 115–16; as daily Field of Divine Justice, 67
activity, 112; experienced in San
Field of Domination, 67
Pedro ceremony, 111; journey of, 115;
Field of Justice, 67
preparation for, 112; as rebirth, 111–12;
as rite of passage, 116 Field of Personal Gain, 67
deconstruction, 177 Field of the Magician, 67
despacho (offering), 1, 23, 110, 125 Field of the Middle, 68
destiny, 179; Andean cosmos on, 108; forgiveness, 144; Juan Luis on, 82; levels
Western culture on, 110. See also of, 82–83; power of, 113–14
karma fugue, 20
The Dictionary of Philosophy and future. See taripay pacha
Religion, 178
divorce, 71, 142 gender, balance between, 138
dream, 29, 174–75; analyzing of, 120–21; Glass-Coffin, Bonnie: on Andean
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Mama Elena on, 125; as narcissistic philosophical models, 73–74; on


endeavor, 120; Western culture on, tinkuy, 73–75
120. See also reality global interaction, 178, 179
dualism: of antithetical terms, 2; of soul, good and evil: Andean cosmos on, 106,
45. See complementary dualism 108, 113–14, 176; Christianity and, 114
Gringo Capital of South America. See
Edelman, G. M., 186n12 Cuzco
Eliade, M., 52
Ellis, C., 8, 10–11 habits of mind, 28
emotion, 11–12 hallucinogen. See ayahuasca; huachuma;
encounter. See tinku vilca
energy, 40; Andean cosmos comprised of, hampi qhatu (medicine market), 22–23
41, 187n2; balance between, 43, 129–30, hanaq pacha (upper world), 41, 96, 188n3
138; harmonizing of, 67; Heckman Handwerker, S. E., 11
on, 43–44; knowledge and, 30; Mama Harrison, R., 64, 139
Elena shifting of, 129; of mesas, healer. See paqos
67; reaction to, 107–8; relationship heart, power of, 45, 188n6
between, 73; tinkuy battle exchange of,

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
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202 index

The Heart of the Healer (THOTH), 73 knowledge: acquiring of, 31; cultural
Heavenly Bank, 67 assumptions about, 28; energies
Heckman, A. M., 43–44 exchanged within, 30; Fernandez
Hegel, G. W. F., 69–70, 189n7 on, 30–31; of reality, 176; symbol
Hemingway, E., 167 and, 123–24; yanantin and, 25, 36, 89,
162–65, 181
huachuma (hallucinogen), 92, 159, 191n5
Krippner, S., 186n12
hucha (energy), 40, 107; moving of,
66–67; release of, 67 kuraq akulleq, 183n2
“Hunting the Hidden Dimension,” 133
Lakoff, G., 39
Ignacio, don, 38, 60, 78, 121, 129, 155; Lanzón: Amado and Juan Luis on,
on wisdom, 29–30, 123; on yanantin- 96, 102; appearance of, 96; Burger
masintin, 37 on, 105; characteristics of, 96, 101;
experience of, 99–102; as Master of
illa (symbolic representation), 120
Masters, 95; Old Temple and, 93;
illawi (cosmic weaving), 155
Rowe on, 96, 100–101; as something
illness: Andean philosophy and, 43; that cuts to heal, 105
Silverblatt on, 42–43
Lévi-Strauss, C., 59
Inca cosmology, 188n7
Inca stonemasonry, 22
MacCormick, S., 51
individualism, 185n7
Machu Picchu, 118, 130
Interdimensional Doorway, 48
male and female, 125–27; earth’s fertility
interpersonal relationship, 70–71 strengthened by, 138; emotions and,
interpretation technique, 11–13 144; fundamental polarity of, 137,
intimacy, 70 140; gender roles and, 138; as healers,
Inti Tayta (Father Sun), 138 127; Jung on, 137; qualities compared
Inti Texymuyuc, 80–81, 190n3 to differences between, 141; specific
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Isbell, B. J., 93, 140 teachings and trainings on, 143; time
reflected by, 143–44; yanantin as, 130,
Johnson, M., 39 137–38, 141
Joralemon, D., 67, 68, 93 Mama Elena, 124–25; on acceptance, 128;
Josephson, B. D., 186n12 on dreams, 125; energy shifted by, 129;
male conflict of, 126–27; reading of,
Juan Luis, 27, 54, 110–11; Amado com­
128
pared to, 35–36; on forgiveness, 82; on
Lanzón, 96, 102; medicine teachings marriage: of Andean people, 4, 140;
of, 78–79; on pachacuti, 60; on reality Isbell on, 140; self-other relationships
and dream, 29, 174–75; on tinkuy and, 141–43; Silverblatt on, 138; of the
battles, 66 soul, 145; taqe and, 142; tinkuy and,
141–42; tinkuy battle in, 71; tupay
Jung, Carl, 2, 137, 163, 182
and, 141
masculine. See chawpi
karma, 5, 82, 112–13, 190n8
masintin, 37, 142
kay pacha (physical world), 41–42, 96,
“The Master and the Slave” (Hegel),
188n4
189n7
Kembel, S. R., 190n2

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
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index 203

Master Jesus, 4, 109 pacha (time and space), 50, 143


maté de coca (coca tea), 36 Pachacamac, 4, 23, 80–81, 190n1
Maximo, don, 104 Pachacuteq, 50
Maybury-Lewis, D., 189n7 pachacuti (return of soul): Amado on, 51;
Medicine, 160–61. See also San Pedro carving representing, 56; Classen on,
cactus; San Pedro ceremony 59; Juan Luis on, 60; MacCormick on,
medicine market. See hampi qhatu 51; occurrence of, 51; translation of, 51
meeting. See tupay Pachamama (Mother Earth), 42, 128, 138,
merging. See taqe 190n7; creation of, 96; offerings to, 23,
mesa (ritual items): balancing of, 189n6; 80–81, 115; time and space and, 52; as
complementarity of, 68; as cosmic unchanging, 143
reflection, 121–22; of don Ignacio, Pachayachacheq, 80–81, 190n5
121; energy of, 67; fields of, 67, 109, Palomino, S., 4
189n5; gift of, 114–15; left side of, 67; paqos (healer), 43
right side of, 67–68; ritual, 68; type people, unpartnered, 139–40
and variety of, 189n4; yanantin and, perfection versus wholeness, 163–65
122–23 Peru, 3, 4, 34
mind, Andean philosophy on, 40 physical world. See kay pacha
mind-body problem, 45 pilgrimage, 161–62
“The Mind is a Brittle Object,” 39 Platt, T., 137
modernists: on complementary dualism, Plaza de Armas, 19–20, 49
174; morality belief of, 177 Pleistocene epoch, 149
moon cycles, 72–73 politics, 162, 173–74, 179–80
morality, 176–77 ponche de leche (regional drink), 36
Mother Earth. See Pachamama postmodernists: on complementary
murder, Andean cosmos on, 108, 109 dualism, 174; morality belief of,
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mythological time, 59 176–77


princesa, 26, 187n2
native ethnography, 8 psychology, 186n13
naturalistic generalization, 11 psychotherapeutic process, 11
neurotic one-sidedness, 2, 3 puma, 42, 95; Amado on, 44–45;
New Age, 5, 16, 186n10 carving representation of, 54–55, 161;
nothingness, 31, 158 pachacuti and, 56; sleeping, 161–62
Putucusi (mountain), 131–35
Obama, Barack, 140–41, 153–54, 171, 172
objectivity, 185n7 Qaylla, 80–81, 190n4
observer’s paradox, 85 Q’espi, don Manuel, 1
Ochoa, Jorge Flores, 87, 138 quantum indeterminacy, 85
offering. See despacho Quechua, 23; characteristics of, 63;
Old Temple: Joralemon and Sharon on, translation of, 63, 73, 189n1
93; labyrinth in, 100; Lanzón and, 93;
llamas in, 99 Rabinow, P., 180, 181
opposing forces, paring of, 65 “rapid-fire memoing,” 10

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
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204 index

reality: Amado on, 29, 175; Andean shaman, 62, 185n8; Andean, 43, 67;
model of, 30, 65, 70, 72; continuous brujo compared to, 109–10; female
change of, 167; dreams and, 29; Juan experience of, 125–27; Mama Elena
Luis on, 29, 174–75; knowledge of, as, 124–25; training for, 125–26. See
176; Western culture and, 30 also Cusqueño shamans
reciprocity. See ayni Sharon, D., 38, 67, 68, 93
“Rectangular Sunken Court,” 98–99 silence, 158–60
reductionism, 185n7 Silverblatt, I., 42–43, 138, 188n1
regional drink. See ponche de leche sorache (altitude sickness), 36, 187n1
reincarnation, 112–13 sorcerer. See brujo
relationship: between energies, 73; sorcery, 78, 107, 110
between symbolic and actual, 134 soul: Andean philosophy on, 40; dualism
return of soul. See pachacuti of, 45; eclipse of, 101; marriage of, 145.
revelation, 155–59, 168 See also pachacuti
Rick, J. W., 93–94 soul mate, 71, 147
ritual items. See mesa Spanish Conquest, 3–4, 138, 183n1
Rowe, J. H., 95, 96, 100–101, 191n10 spirit: Andean philosophy on, 40; will
Rubik, B. A., 186n12 of, 67–68
Stone-Miller, R., 94
sami (energy), 40, 67–68 stream-of-consciousness journaling, 10
San Pedro cactus: apprehension of, 39, Sullivan, L. E., 51, 58
78; archaeological evidence for, 191n3; symbol: Andean philosophy and,
experiences from, 38–39, 131–35, 120; deeper levels allowed by, 123;
155–58; liberation provided by, 60; distraction and confusion from, 123–
revelation and, 155–59; Sharon on, 38 24; of hanaq pacha, 41; of kay pacha,
San Pedro ceremony: beer and, 86, 42; knowledge and, 123–34; need for,
124; of ukhu pacha, 42
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190n9; connections from, 83; cosmos


teachings from, 83; death experienced symbolic representation. See illa
in, 111; experience of, 83–87; for symbolic versus actual, 119; distinction
healing, 81–82; prayer during, 80–81; of, 132–33; fern analogy for, 133–35;
preparation for, 79–80; at Putucusi, rationalistic split between, 120;
131–35; tinkuy and, 84–85 relationship between, 134
Schrödinger’s Cat, 85
seguro (certain), 68 Taoism, Andean philosophy compared
self-other relationships: conflict in, to, 2
144–45; levels in, 146; marriage and, taqe (merging), 70, 71, 142, 151
141–43; stages of, 70–71, 169; Western taripay pacha (future), 57
culture and, 143 Tarnas, R., 53, 185n7
self-reflective storytelling, 14 Tello, Julio C., 190n2
separation and continuation. See trujiy Tenon Head, 90, 98, 191n11
serpent, 94–95, 188n1, 191n8; carving THOTH. See The Heart of the Healer
representation of, 54–56; ukhu pacha Time, 2–3
and, 42, 44 time and space: access to, 59–60;
Andean ideology on, 51–52; Ani on,

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
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index 205

52–53; as cyclic, 52, 59, 60; historical upper world. See hanaq pacha
epochs and, 50; as linear, 52, 53; male Urton, G., 72–73, 138, 190n8
and female reflection of, 143–44;
mythological, 59; Pachamama and, validation process, 13, 14
52; as unidirectional progression of Vasquez, G. R., 53, 72, 139
consciousness, 53; Western culture
Veronica, 63–64
on, 58; widespread use of, 50. See also
vilca (hallucinogen), 92, 191n6
pacha
Viracocha (creator deity), 138
Tinajani, Peru, 150, 154–55
tinku (encounter), 189n3
Western capitalist market, 4, 185n9
tinkuy (unity), 70, 71, 151; Allen on,
75; Amado on, 64; ayni and, 189n2; Western culture: Andean philosophy
children from, 142; creation of, 64; compared to, 120, 175–78; on destiny,
Cruz and Harrison on, 64; divorce 110; on dreams, 120; habits of mind
and, 71, 142; encounter of, 65; Glass- and, 28; reality and, 30; self-other
Coffin on, 73–75; marriage and, relationships and, 143; on time and
141–42; San Pedro ceremony and, space, 58; as Ultimate Meanings, 28;
84–85; translation of, 64, 65 unpartnered people and, 140
tinkuy battle: Allen on, 66; Bastien on, Western philosophical models, 184n4;
66; of consciousness, 69; energy adaptation to, 4; antagonistic split
exchange during, 68; experiences of, seen in, 2; neurotic one-sidedness
65–66; in interpersonal relationships, of, 3
70–71; intimacy and, 70; Juan Luis “What Makes Us Moral” (Time), 2–3
on, 66; in marriage, 71; positive Wilcox, J. P., 41
aspects of, 69; stages of, 70–71 Wiracochan, 4, 80–81, 190n2
trickster energy. See apus wisdom, 25, 56, 89; acquiring of, 163;
trujiy (separation and continuation), 152, creation and, 96; don Ignacio on,
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176; experiences of, 155–58; silence as, 29–30, 123


160; yanantin and, 152
Trujiys: as best of the best, 153; Obama yanantin (unity between two beings), 1;
as, 153–54 boundaries pushed by, 32; carvings
Tunupa Usapa, 80–81, 190n6 as example of, 54–56; ceremony for
tupay (meeting), 70–71, 141, 151, 176 finding, 27–28; consciousness of,
57–58; Cusqueño shaman’s view on, 5;
ukhu pacha (underworld), 42, 44, 96 defining of, 26–27, 31, 63; essence of,
75, 148, 162, 164, 169; etymology of, 24;
Ultimate Meanings, Western culture as,
experience of, 6, 85–86; as first and
28
last, 56; as fundamental life principle,
underworld. See ukhu pacha
23–24; knowledge of, 89, 162–65,
union of two equal parts. See cuscan 181; lack of knowledge for, 25, 36; as
unity. See tinkuy male and female, 130, 137–38, 141;
unity between two beings. See yanantin; manifestation of, 148, 173; meaning
yanantin-masintin of, 172–73; mesa and, 122–23; New
Universal Truth, 29 Age influence on, 5; as north and
unpartnered people. See people, south, 55–56; participant observation
unpartnered on, 9–10; personal biases for, 172–73;

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
Mexico Press, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/huntercollege-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1118942.
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206 index

politics associated with, 172–74, 179– yanantin-masintin (unity between two


80; reflections on, 171–82; revelation beings), 145, 148; Chavín and, 92; don
of, 168; soul mate and, 147; Tinajani Ignacio on, 37; sacredness of, 152
rock figure and, 154–55; translation of,
24; trujiy and, 152; understanding of, Zuidema, R. T., 189n7
37–38, 46
Copyright © 2012. University of New Mexico Press. All rights reserved.

Webb, Hillary S.. Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean World : Complementary Dualism in Modern Peru, University of New
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