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Agradecimientos

Acknowledgements
Este numero ha contado con la ayupa de distintas personas A number of different Individuals and entities have contnbuted
y organismos sin cuya colaboraci6n y comentarios hubiera to this Issue, and without their collaboration and comments It
sido imposible lIevar el trabajo a buen termino. would have been impossible to bring the work to a successful
Quisiera sefialar las siempre precisas puntualizaciones de conclusion.
Lisbet Balslev Jorgensen, junto a las de Hans Dissing, las de I would like to draw attention here to the always precise
Erik Moller y las del profesor Jorgen Sestoft. Los comenta- clanflcations of Lisbet Balslev Jorgensen, together with those
rios de Teit y Brigitt Weitland junto a los de Kjeld Vindum. of Hans Disslng, of Erik Moller and of Professor Jorgen Sestoft,
AI Comissionat per a Universitats y Recerca, CIRIT, de la and the comments oITeit and BnglttWeitland as well as those
Generalitat de Catalunya por la ayuda que me concedi6 du- of Kjeld Vindum.
rante mi estancia en Copen hague para la realizaci6n de este To the CIRIT Universities and Research Board of the Generalltat
trabajo. de Catalunya for the grant which supported my stay In
A la firma de arquitectos Dissing+Weitiing (continuadores de Copenhagen while working on this proJect.
la obra de Arne Jacobsen), y muy en especial a Edith Lang y To the Disslng+Weltiing firm of architects (continuers of Arne
a Jess Stork, quienes han resultado fundamentales para la Jacobsen's work), and especially to Edith Lang and Jess Stork,
realizaci6n de este trabajo. who have been of fundamental importance In realiZing this
Todo el personal de la Kunstakademiets Bibliotek ha demos- undertaking.
trado, asimismo, su increible paciencia en mi con stante deam- To all for the staff of the Kunstakademlets Blbliotek, for their
bular por los archivos. Quisiera agradecer en especialla ama- incredible patience with my constant prowling around their
bilidad de Claus Smidt, Hakon Lund y Jorgen Watz. archives. I would like to express particular thank to Claus
A las facilidades obtenidas gracias al Dansk Design Center y Smidt, Hakon Lund and Jorgen Watz for their fnendliness.
muy especial mente a mi buen amigo el arquitecto Mikael Fuhr. To the Danish Design Center for the facilities placed at my
A Ida Prestegaard, arquitecta de la firma Louis Poulsen. disposal, and very specially to my good friend, the architect
A la firma Fritz Hansen y a Suzanne Meyer. Mikael Fuhr.
A Peter Homblad director de la firma Stelton. To Ida Prestegaard, architect with the Louis Poulsen firm.
A M' Angeles Negre, arquitecta, que con sus reflexiones siem- To the Fritz Hansen firm, and to Suzanne Meyer.
pre me ofrece un interesante contrapunto .. To Peter Homblad, director of the Stelton firm.
... mientras Ana y Maria jugueteaban, absortas, por los espa- To M' Angeles Negre, architect, whose simple refelctlons
cios dibujados por la arquitectura de Arne Jacobsen, de Hansen, affored me an interesting counterpoint..
de Bindesboll, de Rafu, ·de Utzon, de Sorensen, de Fisker, de ... while Ana and Maria played, totally absorbed, In the spaces
Abilgaard, de Hackmann, de Petersen .. drawn out by the architecture of Arne Jacobsen, of Hansen,
Y de un modo muy especial a Johan Jacobsen y a su encan- of Blndesboll, of Rafu, of Utzon, of Sorensen, of Fisker, of Abll-
tadora mujer. gaard, of Hackmann, of Petersen ..
And a very special thanks to Johan Jacobsen and his charming
wife.

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Indice Contents

4 Introducci6n Introduction '


4 Arne Jacobsen 1902·197l. Arne Jacobsen 1902-1971
Lisbet Balslev Jorgensen

17 Obras y proyectos Works and projects


18 Stelling Hus, Copenhague. Stelling Hus, Copenhagen. 1934-1937
24 Ayuntamiento de Aarhus . Aarhus City Hall. 1937-1941
34 Ayuntamiento de S0I1er0d. S011er0d City Hall. 1939-1942
42 Escuela Munkegards, Gentofte. Munkegards School, Gentofte. 1951-1958
52 Oficinas Jespersen & Son, Copenhague. Jespersen & Son Offices, Copenhagen. 1953-1955
58 Ayuntamiento de R0dovre. R0dovre City Hall . 1954-1956
66 Edificio SAS/Royal Hotel, Copen hague. SAS BUlldlng/Royal Hotel, Copenhagen. 1956-1961
74 St. Catherine's & Merton College, Oxford. st. Catherine's & Merton College, Oxford. 1960-1963
86 Banco Nacional, Copenhague. National Bank, Copenhagen. 1961-1978
98 Oficinas Hew, Hamburgo. Hew Offices, Hamburg. 1963-1969
104 Gimnasio Christianeum, Hamburgo. Chrlstianeum Gymnasium, Hamburg. 1966-1972
112 Banco Central de Kuwait. Kuwait Central Bank. 1966-1976
116 Embajada Danesa, Londres. Danish Embassy, London. 1969-1977

126 Biografia Biography

129 Nexus
Sobre forma y diseiio en la actualidad.
On form and deSign at the present time. Arne Jacobsen
Discurso para la inauguracion de la exposicion de Arne Jacobsen en Aarhus.
Speech at the opening of the Arne Jacobsen exhibition In Aarhus. Knud Aerbo

La cubierta
Edlficlo SAS/Royal Hotel,
Copenhague

The cover
SAS BUlldmg/Royal Hotel.
Copenhagen

Fotografia Photography
Jordi Bernad6
2G IntroducClon Introduction

l. The landscapes of childhood


It IS the Impressions and experiences of childhood which lay
down the foundations of the work of the mature man or
woman . The perception and recognition of the external world
IS the basis from which the artist develops hiS or her work,
experimenting With and proposing new colours, new forms
and new spatial ambiences .
As a boy, Arne Jacobsen grew up beside the sea, by the
0resund strait, In a region of beech woods and small ponds
which give a special luminosity to thiS part of the Danish coast.
A sensitive Child, he was receptive to the subtle nuances of
the landscape, as these changed In the course of the day,
and from season to season. An only Child, he wanted to be a
Arne Jacobsen 1902-1971 painter.
At the age of eleven, his parents sent him to a boarding school
Arne Jacobsen 1902-1971 not very far from hiS home; the education he received there
was based on order and discipline. Amongst his classmates
Lisbet Balslev Jorgensen were his friends Mogens and Flemming Lassen, who had
already deCided at a very early age that they were gOing to
be architects. The friendship continued Into adulthood,
although according to Mogens Lassen It waned after their
respective marriages.
There were no artists in Arne Jacobsen's family, but the
parents of the Lassen boys were both artists, trained at the
Academy of Art, although after the mother's death, the father
was obliged to give up the world of painting.
Usbet Balslev Jorgensen, nace en l. Los paisajes de la infancia For the Lassens, the Academy was the Ideal place for people
1928 en Suecla. Llcenclada en Histona
del arte por la Umversldad de Son las impresiones y las experiencias infantiles las que re- With an Interest In art to receive a training; for the brothers,
Copenhague. Conservadora del Museo
Thorvaldsens (1964 a 1969) sultan fundamentales en la labor creativa del individuo adul- becoming an architect was a cherished ambition, which would
Conservadora de la Colecci6n de to. La percepcion y el reconocimiento del mundo exterior es enable them to deSign houses for affluent clients. Meanwhile,
OIbufQs de Arqultectura de laReal
Academia de Bellas Artes de la base a partir de la cual el artista desarrolla su labor expe- the young Jacobsen was devoting hiS efforts to painting
Copenhague (de 1969 a 1996).
PubllCaClones sobre plfltura danesa del rimentando y proponiendo nuevos colores, nuevas formas y landscapes and flowers, and selling hiS pictures. Finally, thanks
palsaJe y arqUilectura. Monografia nuevos ambientes espaciales. to the influence of hiS friends, he deCided to become an
sobre el arqurtecto Mogens Lassen
(1989) y coautora del libra sobfe Arne Jacobsen fue un nino que crecio junto al mar, frente al architect. "HIS father thanked me: Mogens Lassen was later
Vilhelm Lauritzen (1994). Edllora
lOVltada de Archlfhese, 4-85 sobre Kay
estrecho de 0resund, en un area de bosques de hayas y to recall.
F,sker y Architectural Des,gn, 3/ 4, pequenos estanques que aportaban un brillo especial a esta The Naerum boarding school stood In a setting very Similar
1987, junto a Demetr, PorphYrios
sobre )a arqUitectura neoclaSlCa en zona de la costa danesa. Tenia una sensibilidad que captaba to that of Jacobsen's home. In their free time the boys
Copenhague y Alenas. estos pequenos matices del paisaje a 10 largo del dia y du- explored, uSing all of their senses, the secrets of nature.
U5bet Balslev Jeraensen. born rante las distintas estaciones. Queria ser pintor. EI nino era None of them was an outstanding pupil, although young Arne
192811'1 Sweden. Mag ,art. 1964. art
history from Copenhagen lKliverslty. hijo ';nico. excelled at draWing. The three were United by a total dedication
Ass. curator, Thorvaldsens Museum A los once anos sus padres Ie enviaron a un internado no to their shared interests . They constructed machines, anI!.
1964-69. Ass. curator, Architectural
DraWings CollectlOO at the Royal muy lejos de su casa donde recibiria una educacion basad a measured and drew houses . "We were CUriOus. That IS the
Academy of Fille Arts, Copenhagen
1969-1996. Pubhcatlons about Danish en el orden y la disciplina. Entre sus com pan eros de clase se only way to discover the secrets of buildings and find out
landscape painting and architecture. encontraban sus amigos Mogens y Fleming Lassen quienes how they function,' Mogens remarked. There was no teacher
Monograph on the architect Mogens
Lassen 1989 and co.auth, of V'1Ihe1m ya de muy pequenos decidieron ser arquitectos. La amistad In the world who could divert them from their ambition, and
lawtzen, 1994. Guest ed. Archlthese,
4-85 Kay Fisker and Architectural continuo, pero seg,;n Mogens Lassen se fue deteriorando the zeal with which they devoted themselves to It. Their great
DeSign With Demetn PorphYrios no 3/4 tras sus respectivos matrimonios. capacity for selectIOn allowed them to absorb all the
1987 on NeoclaSSICal Architecture If)
Copenhagen & Athens. En la familia de Arne Jacobsen no habia artistas. Por contra, knowledge they needed.
los padres de los hermanos Lassen eran artistas formados On leaving school, at the age of 16 or 17, the three friends
en la Academia de Arte. Tras la muerte de la madre, el padre were accepted for a course In construction. In Denmark at
se vio forzado a abandonar el mundo de la pintura. that time, when there was no higher school-leaving certificate,
Para los Lassen la Academia era el lugar idoneo de forma- to be admitted to Architecture School it was necessary to
cion para la gente interesada en el mundo del arte. Llegar a complete a prior period of training at a building school learning
ser arquitecto era el reto sonado por los hermanos pues some specific trade. Jacobsen enrolled in the bricklaYing
podrian disenar casas para clientes acaudalados . Mientras course, and thiS was to serve him well in later years, winning
tanto, Jacobsen se dedicaba a pintar paisajes y flores que him the real respect of the men who worked on his buildings.
vendia posteriormente. Finalmente, y ante la influencia de As an apprentice bricklayer he spent a summer working in
sus amigos, decidio convertirse en arquitecto. "Su padre me Germany, and as a student he vIsited that country whenever
dio las gracias' contaba Mogens Lassen. he could; he felt a particular attraction for the Bauhaus and
EI internado de Naerum tenia el mismo entorno que los alre- everything that was coming out of It. In 1963, In a speech he
dedores de la casa de los Jacobsen. En sus ratos libres los delivered in Hannover, he acknowledged the great benefits
ninos investigaban , con todos sus sentidos, los secretos que he derived from these trips.
encerraba la naturaleza. Ninguno de ellos era un estudiante Jacobsen was fluent in German, although it IS worth noting
brillante, pero el joven Arne destacaba en dibujo. Tenian en that from 1864 on the Danish goverpment was committed to

4
Introducci6n Introduction 2G

comun una total entrega a los mismos intereses. Construian a vigorous policy of promoting English as the preferred foreign
m<iquinas, median y dibujaban casas. "Teniamos curiosidad. language in schools, in an attempt to break away from the
Solo asi se pueden descubrir los secretos de los edificios y influence of Germanic culture. Perhaps fortunately, this
averiguar como funcionan", dijo Mogens. Ningun pedagogo objective was never fully achieved. "The best thing for all of
del mundo podia obligarles a perder el tiempo y las alegrias del us is collaboration and the exchange of ideas," Arne Jacobsen
deber. Sus grandes aptitudes selectivas les permitian absor- declared many years later, after the horrors of the Second
ber el saber que les hacia falta. World War.
Tras este periodo escolar, hacia los 16-17 anos, los tres
amigos fueron admitidos para ser formados en el ramo de la 2. The Architecture School of the Royal Academy
construccion. En Dinamarca, en aquella epoca, cuando no of Art in Copenhagen
se disponia del bachillerato superior, para ser admitido en la As a child (1924), Arne Jacobsen was regarded as something
Escuela de Arquitectura habia que realizar un periodo de for- of a prodigy. His talent for drawing and watercolour was
macion en una escuela de construccion para ejercitar un de- discovered by his teacher Kay Fisker (1893-1965), who
terminado oficio. Jacobsen tomo parte en el curso de albani- ir:nmediately found a place for him in his own stUdio. Fisker
leria, hecho que Ie ayudo en los anos sucesivos a que se Ie had himself entered the Academy in 1909, and when he
tuviera un gran respeto en la obra. finished his studies there in 1920 he was appointed assistant
Como aprendiz de albanil trabajo durante un verano en Ale- to Professor Edvard Thomsen (1884-1980). Thomsen was a
mania. Como estudiante, siempre que podia viajaba a este witness to the picturesque and curious coincidence that both
pais ya que se sentia especialmente atraido por la escuela of the new students arrived to commence their studies at the
de la Bauhaus y por sus resultados. En 1963, en un discur- Academy dressed in a sailor suit. He, too, was quick to
so que pronuncio en Hannover, reconoceria el gran prove- perceive the great qualities of these young disciples of
cho que obtuvo de estos viajes. Architecture, and their gift for watercolour painting.
Jacobsen dominaba la lengua alemana a pesar de que el In 1924 Fisker was commissioned to design the Danish
estado panes se esforzo en introducir, desde 1864, el idio- pavilion and the exhibition of Danish crafts for the World's
ma ingles como primera lengua extranjera, para intentar des- Fair in Paris in 1925. One of the ideas for the great Exposition
arraigarse de este modo de la influencia de la cultura y del was that each country should present a new architecture and
mundo germano. Por suerte, no se consiguio ... "Lo mejor a new design that would stand as the physical and functional
para todos es la colaboracion y el intercambio de ideas", referential framework for the modern age, dispensing with
opinaba Arne Jacobsen mucho mas tarde y tras los horrores the theatrical accessories of the past.
de la II Guerra Mundial. The approach adopted by the Danish, however, was essentially
one of a continuity of development, of assimilation, not only
2. La Escuela de Arquitectura de la Real Academia In politics but in the applied arts. Where a total break with the
de Arte de Copen hague past did occur was in the new postulates emerging in the
Desde el principio (1924) Arne Jacobsen fue considerado field of design, in relation to new techniques and new functions.
como un alumno prodigio. Su talento como dibujante y acua- Here the lamps designed by Poul Henningsen constituted the
relista fue descubierto por su profesor Kay Fisker (1893-1965) single example. For Fisker, the goal was a simplification of
que 10 contrato inmediatamente para su estudio. En 1909 form; the concern of his generation was "to find the idea that
Fisker habia sido recibido en la Academia de igual modo, y gave rise to the form of the stone axe". The object was to do
tras acabar los estudios (1920) se convirtio en ayudante del away with the superfluous and allow the material to play its
profesor Edvard Thomsen (1884-1980) quien, de forma pin- part in the most intrinsic way. At the same time, another
toresca, fue testigo de la coincidencia de que los dos estu- challenge was seen as fundamental: that of not losing touch
diantes iniciaran la carrera vestidos de marinero. Thomsen with the traditions, the culture and the identity inherited from
tambien se percato de las grandes cualidades de los jovenes the past.
discipulos para la arquitectura y de que destacaban como Arne Jacobsen worked for a brief period in Fisker's studio,
grandes acuarelistas. where his role was limited, he said, to producing the occasional
En 1924 Flsker recibe el encargo de disenar el pabellon danes watercolour of the pavilion project. He subsequently devoted
y la exposicion de artesania danesa que se iba a realizar con his efforts to designing a chair, which he presented at the
motivo de la Exposicion Mundial de Paris en el ano 1925. En World's Fair, and to preparations for his "Grand Tour" of southern
esta expo sic ion el objetivo era que todos los paises presenta- Europe. The chair did not shock anyone, but it did win a silver
ran una nueva arquitectura y un nuevo diseno que se convirtie- medal. We do not know what this chair was like, but on the
ra en el marco referencial, fisico y funcional, del hombre me- basis of its "middle class" motto we can deduce that simplicity
derno, prescindiendo de los accesorios teatrales del pasado. was not yet to the taste of the higher social strata.
En Dinamarca, sin embargo, la actitud era la de un desarrollo Two years later, Jacobsen's furniture designs for the reading
continuista -de asimilacion- tanto en politica como en las room of a library were exhibited and these clearly represent
artes aplicadas. La ruptura total con el pasado se realizaria the course of developments in Copenhagen at that time, and
en las nuevas propuestas que aparecian en el campo del the methods applied in Kaare Klinfs classes. In 1926 Jacobsen
diseiio para las nuevas tecnicas y funciones. Las l<imparas designed with Klint a sideboard for china and cutlery in which
de Poul Henningsen constituian el unico ejemplo. Para Fisker not a centimetre is superfluous. This piece became an object-
la meta era la forma simplificada; el interes de su generacion lesson, absorbed by many of Jacobsen's contemporaries:
era "encontrar la idea que origino la forma del hacha de pie- form follows from function, or rather, the best tool is also the
dra". Se queria eliminar 10 superfluo y dejar que el material one that looks best. Aesthetic value and functional value are
jugara su papel de la forma mas intrinseca. Pero un reto two faces of the same coin.
adicional resultaba fundamental: no perder la tradicion, la The disciplined student followed the evolution of the
cultura y la identidad emanada del pasado. environment he found himself in. All of his course work

5
2G IntroducCion Introduction

Arne Jacobsen cola bora durante poco tiempo en el estudio delivered what hiS tutors asked for, while sticking to the path
de Fisker donde, segun se decia, su trabajo se limito a reali- he had chosen for himself. Although some people ascnbed
zar alguna acuarela del proyecto del pabellon. Con posterio- this to a fear of conflict, others were quick to see that It was
ridad, Jacobsen se dedicaria a la realizacion de una silla que the best way of successfully completing the course and
presentaria en la Exposicion Mundial y a la preparacion de su moving on to professional practice.
"grand tour" al sur de Europa. La silla no escandalizo a nadie Dunng the years Immediately following the First World War,
pero obtuvo una medalla de plata. No sabemos que aspecto Interest was centred on traditional Danish architecture, and
tenia, pero a raiz de su lema "clase media" se puede deducir In particular the classical country houses of the penod around
que la sencillez todavia no gustaba a las clases superiores. 1800. As points of reference, these houses were studied
Dos anos mas tarde fueron expuestos sus muebles para la and measured. Liselund In Moen, or "SpurveskJul", the small
sala de una biblioteca; representaban la evolucion que se summer house by the sculptor and architect Nicolai Abllgaard,
seguia en Copen hague asi como el metodo docente en el were amongst the most widely quoted sources for the pnvate
arte del mobilia rio que se seguia en las clases de Kaare Klint. houses of the 20s . These two houses were published,
En cola bora cion con Klint, Jacobsen diseno en 1926 un ar- complete with measured draWings and detailed descnptlons,
mario para guardar porcelana y una cUberteria de mesa. No while Arne Jacobsen was a student, and were obligatory
podia sobrar ni un centimetro. Este armario se convirtio en studies on the Architecture course at the time. We might recall-
un objeto-modelo a seguir para muchos de sus contempora- here the visits to Liselund made by Erik Gunnar Asplund dunng
neos: la forma sigue a la funcion, 0 bien, la mejor herramien- the war, or Kay Fisker and Aage Rafn's Journey to Sweden to
ta es tambien la mas bonita. La estetica y la funcion son dos see the work by Lewerentz and Asplund In Stockholm; to the
vertientes del mismo asunto. south it was Impossible to go beyond Moen.
EI disciplinado alumno siguio el camino de la evolucion de su The measunng of bUildings was a baSIC part of the course,
entorno. En todos sus proyectos de estudiante proporciona- and Jacobsen briefly assisted In the measunng of the "huts"
ba aquello que Ie exigian sus profesores, pero sin perder su that the architect Michael Gottlieb Blndesboll had constructed
camino. "Temor a los conflictos" pensarian algunos, pero otros for the Klampenborg public baths In 1844. Blndesboll11808-
sabian que era el mejor mecanismo para acabar y ejercer la 1856) was the most admired Danish architect of this penod.
profesion sin mediaciones. HIS Simple forms and restraint of expression were well SUited
Durante los anos inmediatamente posteriores a la I Guerra to the the new times. Arother of his bUildings to receive attention
Mundial el interes se centraba en la arquitectura tradicional was the Thorvaldsen museum 11839-184 7). Here the students
dane sa. Sobre todo en las casas de campo clasicistas que se from the School of Architecture studied the light, the use of
realizaron alrededor de 1800. Estas referencias eran estudia- colour, the form of the rooms and the textures of the materials.
das y medidas -Liselund en Moen 0 la pequena casa estival There was nothing extravagant about Blndesboll's design: the
"Spurveskjul" del arquitecto-escultor Nicolai Abilgaard- eran silky matt finish of the marble, the painting and the bright colours
las citas, entre otras, de las viviendas unifamiliares de los anos of the Pompeiian stucco outlined by Simple socles. These
20. Ambas obras fueron publicadas con sus mediciones y features were applied by Carl Petersen 11874-1923) to hiS
descripciones en la epoca de estudiante de Arne Jacobsen, y own projects and In hiS classes, and hiS articles of 1919 and
eran referencias obligadas en los estudios de arquitectura. 1920 were read with great Interest. These texts were published
Recordemos los viajes de Erik Gunnar Asplund a Liselund du- In Arkltekten, the magazIne of whIch Flsker had recently been
rante la guerra, 0 el realizado por Kay Fisker y Aage Rafn a appOinted editor1rH:hief. Petersen was also a connoisseur of
Suecia para visitar la obra de Lewerentz y Asplund en Oriental crafts, and he sought to foment the same mastery of
Estocolmo, pues hacia el sur solo se podia lIegar hasta Moen. matenals In Europe. ThIS tendency was definitIvely confirmed
Medir edificios era un referente obligado y Jacobsen participo, In the late 1930s wIth the appearance of two Influential books: _
aunque por poco tiempo, en la medicion de las "cabanas" que Tetsuro Yoshida's Oas japanrsche Wohnhaus (Berlin, 1935) and
el arquitecto Michael Gottlieb Bindesboll habia realizado para Bruno Taufs Houses and People of Japan (London, 1938),
los banos publicos de Klampenborg en 1844. Bindesboll (1808- together WIth the books on Liselund and Spurvesk,ul.
1856) era el arquitecto mas admirado de entonces. Sus for- The new generation was aware that the clear pure colours
mas sencillas y su contenida expresividad se adaptaban bien a on the walls of the Thorvaldsen museum, with their SIlky
los nuevos tiempos. Tambien el museo Thorvaldsen 11839- matt tone, were those of the Acropolis in Athens. Carl
1847) era obra de Bindesboll. En el los alumnos de la Escuela Petersen had also used them in hiS museum in Faaborg
de Arquitectura estudiaban la luz, el color, la forma de las sa- 11915-1916), and the same colours were in eVIdence in the
las y la textura de los materiales. En el proyecto no habia nada Bauhaus , In the De Stijl movement and In Le Corbusler, and
extravagante; el marmol de un mate sedoso; la pintura y el their close association with the colours of Antiquity was
estucado pompeyano de colores vivos perfilados por senc~ clearly perceived. It was wonderful to be a part of European
lIos zocalos. Todo ello 10 aplicaba Carl Petersen 11874-1923) culture, but to share in the spiritual hentage of all humanity
en sus proyectos y 10 exponia en sus clases. Sus articulos would be better still.
publicados en Arkitekten durante los anos 1919 y 1920 se The study of the peoples of the world and theIr artistIC
leyeron con mucho interes. Fisker era el nuevo redactor jefe. achievements was the Enlightened mIssion manifested In the
Ademas Carl Petersen conocia la artesania de Asia oriental, y founding of the Academy of Art (1754). It was a key part of
era su deseo que los europeos lograran la misma perfeccion the vocabulary of the School of ArchItecture, and It had now
en el dominio sobre la materia. Se trataba de unos conoci- become hIghly topical once again . "The greater our
mientos que fueron confirmados definitivamente a finales de understanding of one another, the more equalIty we shall be
1930 a traves de Tetsuro Yoshida. Oas japanische Wohnhaus able to attain," Bruno Taut had wntten.
(Berlin, 1935), y ellibro de Bruno Taut Houses and People of Arne Jacobsen's architectural traIning did not suffer from the
Japan (Londres, 1938), Estos libros eran referentes obligados ngorous imitation of academic styles. All of his tutors belonged
junto con los libros dedicados a Liselund y a Spurveskjul. to the first generation of modernist,s, who felt thay they had

6
Introducci6n Introduction 2G
La nueva genera cion sabia que los colo res claros y puros de wasted their time with a stylistic approach to architecture
un tono mate sedoso de las paredes del Museo Thorvaldsen which they had now to move beyond. As a result, the
eran los mismos que los de la Acropolis de Atenas. Carl achievements of earlier ages were relegated to the status of
Petersen tambien los habia utilizado en el museo de Faaborg mere curiosity, and the younger generation was to be spared
(1915-1916). Tambien reconocieron los mismos colores en such fruitless studies. In the School of Architecture, study of
la escuela de la Bauhaus, en el movimiento de Stijl y en Le the styles of classical architecture had become a mere token
Corbusier; se palpaba su parentesco con los de la antigue- subject. However, if style had lost its importance, classical
dad. Era maravilloso formar parte de la cultura europea. Pero proportion still retained all its interest. There was now no
formar parte de las manifestaciones espirituales de toda la question of imitating the models of the past as sources of
humanidad seria todavia mejor. inspiration; it was not style that raised building to the level of
Estudiar los pueblos de todo el mundo y sus resultados artis- architecture. Proportion was looked to as the key to improving
ticos constituia el mensaje de la ilustracion del acta de funda- project design and expressive capacity.
cion de la Academia de Arte (1754). Formaba parte del voca- This fundamental lesson was analysed and absorbed by the
bulario de la Escuela y ahora volvia a ser actual. "Cuantos new students on their 1925 trip to Paris, the south of France
mas conocimientos tengamos unos de otros, tanto mas po- and Italy. Under the supervision of Professor Kaj Gottlob (1887-
dremos recabar en las igualdades", habia escrito Bruno Taut. 1976) the students chose which buildings they would measure.
La formaci on escolar de Arne Jacobsen no fue excesivamen- During this trip they also visited Le Corbusier's l'Esprit Nouveau
te rigurosa con los estilos academicos. Todos sus profesa- pavilion, although their Professor warned them against "the
res pertenecian a la primera generacion de arquitectos ma- modern trick". Gottlob felt that this was no more than an
dernos que consideraban haber perdido el tiempo con la ar- expression of the new formal ism, but we know that his
quitectura estilistica, a la cual tuvieron que superar progresi- students smiled indulgently at this view, and were familiar
va mente. Asi, la nueva generacion no debe ria malgastar es- with Le Corbusier's work.
fuerzos pues la referencia a 10 antiguo quedaba rele-gada a The students' academic achievements, together with
una mera curiosidad. En la Escuela, los estudios estilisticos organizational details and photographs of the trip, can be
y las clases sobre la antiguedad habian sido reducidas a asig- seen in the archive of the Academy of Art, and these serve to
naturas simbolicas. Ahora bien, si el estilo carecia de impor- demonstrate the interest and the dedication of the young Arne
tancia, las proporciones clasicas mantenian todo el interes. Jacobsen, who evidently favoured simplicity of form. The study
No era cuestion de imitar las fuentes de inspiracion; no era el trip concluded in Paestum; Jacobsen was later to hang his
estilo 10 que convertia la construccion en arquitectura. Se own 1953 watercolour of the temple there in his house, where
apropiaban de las proporciones que mejoraban los proyec- he could contemplate it every day.
tos y su expresividad. Jacobsen had perfectly assimilated the principles of classical
Este aspecto fundamental 10 analizaron y asimilaron los nue- proportion , and could utilize these like a great pianist
vos alumnos durante su viaje de estudios en 1925 a Paris, al performing a piece from the concert repertoire. His virtuosity
sur de Francia y a Italia. Bajo la direccion del catedratico Kaj was such that style presented him with no difficulties once he
Gottlob (1887-19761105 alumnos elegian los edificios a me- had resolved the function and the visual premiss.
dir. Durante este viaje visitaron la exposicion de Paris donde His student projects tend in the main to be situated in the
admiraron el pabellon de I'Esprit Nouveau de Le Corbusier a landscape of his childhood, in Klampenborg. The styles
pesar de que su profesor les advirtio del "engano moderno". developed in these are denved from the since-demolished
Gottlob opinaba que solo era una expresion del nuevo forma-
lismo, pero sabemos que los alumnos sonreian indulgentes Proyecto Un Mu seo Nacional,
1928.
pues conocian los trabajos de Le Corbusier.
Los resultados de los estudiantes, la organizacion del viaje, A National Museum Project,
1928.
asi como fotografias del mismo, se encuentran en el archivo
de la Academia de Arte. En elias se puede comprobar el
interes y la dedicacion del joven Arne Jacobsen, asi como su
preferencia por las formas sencillas. EI viaje acabo en Paestum,
de cuyo templo hizo una acuarela en 1953 que observaba a
diario en la pared de su casa.
Tenia totalmente asimiladas las proporciones clasicas, y las
podia utilizar como el mejor pianista tocando un piano en un
concierto. Su virtuosismo Ie permitia que el estilo no Ie re-
presentara ningun esfuerzo una vez resueltas la funcion y su
proposito visual.
Los proyectos de estudiante los situaba, preferentemente,
en el paisaje de su infancia, en Klampenborg. Los estilos a
desarrollar nacian de las "cabanas" destruidas de M.G.
Bindesboll, aunque ya se pod ria observar un sello personal:
los edificios siempre se integran en el paisaje, junto a la pla-
ya 0 en ellinde del bosque. Los colores, ligeros, amarillos ..
Tras su graduacion en 1927, en 1928 fue premiado con una
pequena medalla de oro por el proyecto "Un Museo Nacia-
nal". La propuesta estaba situada en aquel terreno que fue la
zona de juegos de su infancia y donde habian estado las
cabanas de Bindesboll. En aquel momento seguia la linea de
2G IntroduCCI6n IntroductIon

la Academia, aunque simplificando aun mas las formas. En "huts" by M. G. Blndesboll, although they bear an unmistakable
una magistral perspectiva acuarel ada podemos observar personal stamp: the buildings are always Integrated into the
como el prismatico edificio principal es previa a la propuesta landscape, by a beach or on the edge of a wood; the colours
de Kay Fisker para la Universidad de Aarhus de 1930. are light, with yellows predominating ... Following his graduation
In 1927, In 1928 Jacobsen was awarded a small gold medal
3. EI estilo blanco. Monumento y contraste for his project for "A National Museum". This scheme was
en el paisaje designed for a site in the area where he had played as a boy,
Sabemos que no existe determinismo en la evolucion biologi· at one time occupied by Blndesboll's huts. Dunng thiS penod
ca . Quizas encontremos la misma figura en la arquitectura: he was still adhering to the Academy line, although simplifying
la naturaleza creada par el ser humano. No se puede regir ni the forms even further. A superb, and still extant, watercolour
par leyes ni par prohibiciones, solo se puede retrasar un poco. perspective shows how the cuboid main building prefigures
Can todos los honores y can un brillante futuro par delante, Kay Fisker's 1930 project for the University of Arhus.
Arne Jacobsen y Flemming Lassen disenaron "La Casa del
Primera casa de A. Jacobsen, Futuro" para la feria de la Construccion y Vivienda en el Forum
Klampenborg 1928·1929.
de Copenhague de 1929. En aquel mo'mento Jacobsen vivia
First private house by en una casa moderna, can pulidos muros blancos, azotea,
A. Jacobsen, Klampenbora:
1928·1929. escalera nautica, ventanas can carpinteria metalica y una
cocina can aspecto de laboratorio para alimentos. En el alfei·
zar cactus en gravilla. Pero aun asi la decoracion era de
muebles antiguos y cortinajes en las ventanas de la planta
baja. Su propia silla de la biblioteca no era 10 suficientemente
modern a aunque era parecida a la de la Bauhaus de Weimar.
La ley danesa requeria que una vivienda tuviera los cimientos de
piedra. En este caso esta imposicion se combinaba can dinte-
les metalicos como soporte de la fachada sit,uada encima de
las ventanas en esquina: el futuro debia tener olra imagen.
Las exposiciones de Breslau y Barcelona en el mismo ana 3. The white style . Monument and contrast
representaban la actualidad, aunque nadie era capaz, toda· in the landscape
via, de darse cuenta de la elegante aportacion de Mies van We know that determinism does not exist In biological
der Rohe a la de Barcelona. Pero todo el mundo habia visita· evolution, and It may well be that the same thing is true of
do ya la Weissenhof. architecture, that nature created by human beings, which IS
EI circulo y la esfera, par alguna razon, constituyen formas not to be governed by laws or prohibitions, although it can be
progresistas. La planta de la Casa del Futuro tenia forma held In check for a time.
de espiral. Se habia pensado que la vivienda estuviera junto Crowned with academic success and with a bnlliant career
al mar. Desde tierra se lIega en cache; desde el agua en bar· ahead of them, Arne Jacobsen and Flemming Lassen designed
co a motor; desde el aire el senor de la casa aterriza en el "The House of the Future" for the 1929 Construction and
tejado can su helicoptero. Alii se encuentra la senora to· HOUSing trade fair in the Forum in Copenhagen . At that time
mando el sol mientras la maquinaria se encarga de las tao Jacobsen was living In a modern house, with smooth white
reas domesticas. EI ser humano moderno no necesitaba walls, a flat roof, a manne·style staircase, metal·framed
hacer trabajos fisicos y, par 10 tanto, tendria que disponer windows and a kitchen that resembled a laboratory for food.
de una estancia para hacer gimnasia. En el circulo de habi· There was a cactus in gravel on the wlndow·ledge.
taciones una se destina para estudio desde donde un can· Nevertheless, the furniture was old·fashloned, and there were
ducto tubular esta conectado can la oficina local de co· curtains on the ground-floor windows. Even Jacobsen's own
rreos. La estancia central es una sala solemne can una teo library chair was not really modern enough, although It was
rraza orientada hacia el sur. similar in style to the Weimar Bauhaus chairs.
En Dinamarca, asi como en otros paises del norte de Euro- Damsh law required that the foundations of a house be of
pa, otorgamos un gran valor a la luz y el calor. "Tenemos una stone. In Jacobsen's house, these stone foundations were
altura del sol baja; en consecuencia hemos de disponer de combined with metal lintels, which supported the facade above
otros tipos de aberturas para la entrada de luz", comentaba the corner windows: the future was to look different.
Mogens Lassen, y "desafortunadamente no vivimos junto al The International Exhibitions of that year in Breslau and
mar Mediterraneo". Barcelona manifested the contemporary splnt, and although
EI mobiliario de la Casa del Futuro fue disenado ex profeso. no-one as yet was capable of appreciating the significance of
Era en su mayor parte de acero y de vidrio. La unica excep- Mles van der Rohe's elegant contnbutlon to the latter, by now
cion, en esta vision futurista, era la de un sillon de mimbre. everyone was familiar with the Welssenhof'siedlung.
La propuesta obtuvo el primer premia can comentarios como: The Circle and the sphere were for some reason regarded as
"La vivienda tipica surge de las necesidades de cad a mo- progressive forms. In plan, the House of the Future had a
menta, automaticamente, al igual que la casa de un cara· spiral layout, and was envisaged as standing on a site by the
col". "Esto era alga que se decia en broma pero can un tras· sea, with land access by car, access from the sea by
fonda de gran seriedad", dijeron los arquitectos a la prensa. motorboat, and a helicopter landing·place on the roof for the
En los anos treinta Jacobsen construyo mas casas can un master of the house. There he would find the lady of the
acabado blanco pulcro. En la calle Klampenborgvej 37 se house sunbathing, while machines took care of the housework.
encuentra la casa Rothenborg (1931), situada en una gran The modern human being would not have to do phYSical work,
finca en media del bosque. Habia que proyectar un canal que so a gymnasium was needed to enable people to keep fit.
atravesara todo el jardin y que una embarcacion blanca estu· One of the rooms in the circular s~quence was a study,

8
IntroduCClon Introduction 2G

, viera amarrada a un muelle situado entre las altas hayas. EI equipped with a tube connecting It with the local post office.
diseno miutico simbolizaba una arquitectura racional y ade- The central space was a solemn liVing room with a terrace,
cuada, 10 que los alemanes llama ban Zweckbau. EI cliente open to the south.
queria un mobilia rio actual. In Denmark, as In the other countries of northern Europe,
La planta tiene forma de "U" y una de las alas tiene dos people place great value on light and heat. "The sun here has
pisos. En la habitacion de musica 0 en el jardin de invierno, a low altitude; as a result, we have to have other kinds of
las ventanas lIegaban al techo: hasta el piano de cola pare- openings through which light can enter," Mogens Lassen
cia moderno. Cactus y otras plantas estaban colocadas en observed, "and unfortunately we do not live on the shores of
macetas de hormigon debajo de las ventanas. EI suelo the Mediterranean."
era blanco "Snowcrete Terrazzo". Una terraza se situaba The furniture In the House of the Future, all of it purpose-
sobre el jardin de invierno, imaS modernidad era impensable designed, was for the most part of steel and glass; the single
en Copenhague! exception, in this vIsion of the shape of things to come, was
Muchos clientes preferian una casa mas tradicional, al estilo a wicker chair. Jacobsen and Lassen's scheme was awarded
"ingles", 0 bien que se pareciera a Spurveskjul. Y la tuvieron. (lrst prize, and attracted comments such as: "The typical
Pero ni Arne Jacobsen ni Mogens Lassen se habian encon- dwelling house IS something that arises In response to the
trado con una familia que deseara una vivienda poco practi- needs of each moment, in the same way that the snail's shell ,
ca. No tenian nada contra ello. EI estilo no importaba con tal does". "ThiS was something said as a loke, but against a
de que las proporciones fueran las correctas y de que nada backdrop of great seriousness," as the architects told the
superfluo perturbara todo el conjunto. Pero se supone que press.
ningun arquitecto jamas ha pensado que estaba construyen- During the 30s Jacobsen constructed other houses with a
do otra cosa que no fueran viviendas funcionales. Esto se radiant white finish. At no. 37, Klampenborg, on a large plot
deduce de todos los escritos sobre arquitectura, desde In the middle of a wood, stands the Rothenborg house, built
Vitruvio hasta nuestros dias. In 1931. The scheme had to accommodate a canal that
AArne Jacobsen se Ie encargo construir los Banos de Bellevue traversed the garden; a white boat was moored to a letty
(193H932), en Klampenborg, en el paisaje de la infancia. beneath the tall beech trees. ThiS nautical design effectively
No era en los hog ares donde se desarrollaba la vida moder- symbolized a rational, functionally adequate architecture, what
na y libre, sino en el tratico, en los cines y en la playa. Creo the Germans would call a Zweckbau. The client wanted
que el alcalde del municipio de Gentofte habia realizado un contemporary furniture.
viaje a Frankfort del Meno donde la arquitectura sana y blan- The floor plan was U-shaped, with one of the sides two storeys
ca de Ernst May atraia a todos los politicos locales y visiona- high. The windows in the music room and the conservatory
rios de Escandinavia. En todo caso, el municipio de Gentofte were full height, and even the grand piano looked modern.
queria una "ciudad blanca de veraneo junto aI 0resund". Con Cacti and other plants were planted in concrete window-boxes.
los nuevos tiempos surgian unas exigencias sociales y el The floor was of white "Snowcrete Terrazzo", and there was
deseo de una sociedad sin clases. Gente de cualquier nivel a terrace on the roof of the conservatory. Anything so modern
social estaria en traje de bano, sin ropajes apretados, y se was all but Inconceivable in Copenhagen.
moverian libremente por playa y en el agua. Todos eran igua- Of course many clients preferred a more traditional house, In
les hasta el momento en que se volvian a vestir y se subian a the "English" style or following the Spurveskjul model, and
los medios de transporte publico que les permitia volver a that is what they got; and neither Arne Jacobsen nor Mogens
Copenhague. Lassen ever encountered a family who wanted a house that
Los pequenos quioscos blancos y las hileras de cabinas para was anything but practical. They had nothing against thiS.
cambiarse de ropa se erigian como pequenos monumentos The style was unimportant, so long as the proportions were
en la arena; mar adentro habia una preciosa baliza. Toda la right and there was nothing superfluous to upset the overall
obra acabada, con el teatro de Bellevue (1933-1937), un compOSition. But it seems probable that no architect has ever
restaurante para -creo- muchos centenares de clientes, el believed he was constructing houses that were anything other
complejo de Bellavista (1933-1934) en que todos dispo- than functional, as we can see from all that has been written
nian de un balcon orienta do al mar, y el picadero Mattson about architecture, from Vitruvius to the present day.
(1930) de hormigon armado y boveda de canon, todo se Arne Jacobsen was commissioned to design the Bellevue
encontraba alii como parte de un diseno total y como con- baths (1931-1932) In Klampenborg, in the landscape of his
traste con el paisaje. Cada uno de los detalles estaba disena- childhood. It was not inside the home that the modern life
do por el arquitecto. was lived, but in the traffic, in the cinemas and on the beach.
Los entuslastas seguidores de la epoca com para ban la ima- I believe that the mayor of Gentofte had been on a study tour
gen de esta ciudad blanca de veraneo con el cuerpo huma- to Frankfurt am Main, where the hygienic white architecture
no. Fue el americano del MIT, y tan popular en Escandinavia, of Ernst May was attracting all of Scandinavia's forward-looking
Lewis Mumford (The Culture of Cities, 1938), quien inventola local politiCians. At all events, Gentofte town council was eager
expresion la edad biotecnica. La autopista era el pulso de la to build "a white summer resort by the 0resund". The new
vida. La gasolinera de Arne Jacobsen de 1937 junto a la nueva times saw the emergence of new social needs and the ideal
carretera de la playa era el banco de sangre y las construc- of a classless society. People from every stratum could relax
ciones de viviendas, para el ocio y para el trabajo, podian In their SWimsuits, liberated from their tight formal clothes,
considerarse los biotopos del ser humano ajustando, segun and move freely on the beach and In the water. Everyone was
la necesidad fisica, la luz, el aire y la higiene de los usuarios. equal for a few hours, until they got back into their clothes
Pero no a todo el mundo Ie causaba el mismo entusiasmo la and boarded the public transport that carried them back Into
ciudad blanca. Muchos querian volver a tener los estableci- Copenhagen.
mientos del estilo Old Inn y escribieron feroces criticas en la The little white kiosks and the rows of changing huts were set
prensa local atacando el ambiente yermo y esteril de unos up like small monuments on the sand; out in the sea there .

9
2G IntroducCI6n Introduction

muras blancos que deslumbraban, con una asimetria des-


orientadora, y con un restaurante en el que cabia demasiada
gente. La falta de rincones en penumbra donde las parejas
pudieran besarse y acariclarse fue crucial en el fracaso eco-
nomico que sobrevino poco tiempo despues. No obstante, "
nadie se quejaba de que el nuevo impulso de vida, con un
tratico en aumento, fuera rUidoso y que los coches atrapella- :0;. '.~
ran a la gente que se dirigia a la playa.
. ~ ..... ,;' , .. --
Su propia casa de veraneo (1938) en Gudmindrup Lyng, el ,~. .

.... .
chalet en Kongehojen, 0 el ahumadero de pescado en
Odden (1943), estan entre los ultimos monumentos blan-
cos que contrastaban con el paisaje. EI contraste como
:-- ~..

- - -...
~

recurso estaba agotado. Los muras blancos resultan mas


Casa de verano de matizados bajo un fuerte sol y en las claras sombras del was a beautiful buoy. All of the completed elements, Including
A. Jacobsen, Gudmindrup Lyng,
1937. mar Mediterraneo. Aqui, con una altura baja del sol, tene- the Bellevue theatre 11933-19371, a restaurant capable of
mos unas sombras negras y los nitidos muras blancos se seating several hundred people, the Bellavlsta complex 11933-
Summer house of A. Jacobsen,
Gudmindrup Lyng, 1937. vuelven elementos duros. Las posib,lidades de variacion 1934), In which every apartment had a balcony with a view of
no abundan. the sea, and the Mattson riding school 11930), of reinforced
A la pregunta de si cambia ria de estilo (marzo de 1935) Arne concrete with a barrel-vaulted roof, were laid out here as
Jacobsen contesto: "Un estllo no se cambia en un ano 0 dos, parts of a total deSign, contrasted with the natural landscape.
pero a mi me parece que del funclonalismo se estan extrayen- All of the details were deSigned by the architect.
do aquellas cuestiones que tlenen un valor permanente, de Various enthusiastic contemporary observers compared the
modo que la tendencla se orienta, lentamente, hacia un estilo appearance of this white summer city with the human body.
mas racional, sin la uniformidad del funcionalismo". It was the American LeWIS Mumford (The Culture of Cities,
A las condiciones climatic as de la region, sin grandes cam- 1938), then at the M.l.T. and extremely popular In Scandinavia,
bios bruscos pero con muchos matices, les hacia falta una who cOined the expression "the blotechnlcal age". And If the
arquitectura moderna mas variada que se asimilara a la natu- motorway was the pulsing artery of life, the petrol station
raleza. Tenia que ser una arquitectura mas organica y menos that Arne Jacobsen bUilt In 1937 on the side of the new beach
abstracta: la eleccion estaba entre dominar el paisaje 0 inte- road was the blood bank, and the construction of buildings
grarse en la naturaleza. for residential, work and leisure uses can be regarded as the
biotopes of the human being, regulating light, air and hygiene
4. Arquitectura, paisaje y flores according to the physical needs of the users.
Durante la epoca como refugiado en Suecia (1943-1945) se But the white City was not greeted With enthusiasm by everyone.\
dedico al diseno de tejidos y de tapizados. Las cortinas y los Many people wanted the new facilities to return to the Old Inn
tapices con motivos florales eran muy populares. De nino, en style, and fiercely critical letters were published In the local
la escuela de Naerum, ya ganaba algun dinero pintando flo- papers, attacking the barren, sterile enVIronment With ItS blinding
res naturales; ahora 10 ganaba para el sustento diario. Seis white walls, ItS diSOrienting asymmetry, and ItS restaurant that
disenos diferentes fueran adquiridos por el Museo Nacional held too many people. The lack of secluded corners where
de Estocolmo. Sus praductos fueron alta mente elogiados y couples could kiSS and cuddle was Instrumental In the economic
se vendian muy bien. failure which soon overtook the complex. At the same time,
Continuo con este tipo de trabajo en Dinamarca con disenos however, the fact that the new pace of life brought more nOise
tanto naturales como abstractos. Durante su estancia en Sue- with the increase In traffic, and that cars ran people down on-
cia solo proyecto una casa de verano, en Arild, junto al estre- their way to the beach occasioned no complaints.
cho de 0resund, para un cliente danes. La forma y la casa Jacobsen's own summer house 11938), in Gudmlndrup, Lyng,
estan adaptados organicamente a la naturaleza, en un terreno the chalet In KongehoJen or the fish-smoking plant In Odden
inclinado y sobre el granito sueco. Dinamarca es de arena y 11943) are amongst the last of the white monuments that
arcilla. En Suecia la naturaleza es diferente. EI suelo del bos- stood out In contrast to the landscape. Contrast had exhausted
que y del arrecife a 10 largo de la costa es de granito, 10 cual Itself as a resource. White walls are richer In nuances under a
proporciona nuevas Impresiones de espacio y color. Un refll- strong sun and In the clear shadows of the Mediterranean.
giado en un pais extrano permanece especialmente atento a Here In Denmark, with the sun at a low altitude, the shadows
las novedades. En aquellos tiempos habia un enorme interes are opaque black and the clean white walls are hard and cold.
por una casa de te japonesa reconstruida en el Museo There are not enough possibilities for variation.
Etnogratico de Estocolmo (actualmente el Museo de los Pue- When he was asked If he was gOing to change hiS style (March
blos). Esta experiencia sirvio para que los arquitectos y los 1935), Arne Jacobsen replied, "A style is not changed In one
artesanos reflexionaran y les praporciono una buena base para or two years, but It seems to me that those qualities which
su prapio trabajo creativo: segun la sensibilidad, los visitantes have some permanent value are being extracted from
apreciaban el valor del diseno de conjunto, el tratamiento de functionalism, so that the movement is gradually turning
los materiales, la estructuracion modular y la evolucion de la towards a more raltonal style, free from the uniformity of
tradicion. Estas vivencias contenian muchos factores de iden- functionalism'.
tificacion. Los libras ya citados acerca de viviendas japonesas In the climatiC conditions of northern Europe, without great
podian dar cuenta de la relacion entre el interior y el exterior, sudden changes but rich In nuances, what was called for was
de la relacion entre la casa y el jardin, entre la casa y la natura- a more organic, less abstract modern architecture: the choice
leza no domesticada. Tambien aqui la identificacion praporcio- thus lay between seeking domination over the landscape or
naba la posibilidad de un reconoclmlento mas amplio. Integration with nature.

10
Introduccion IntroductIon 2G

Arne Jacobsen se interesaba por el arte del cine: tenia bue- 4. Architecture, landscape and flowers
nos conocimientos de este medio y estaba al dia en cuanto a During his years In exile in Sweden (1943-1945), Arne
las ultimas tecnicas y trucos. EI mismo realizaba peliculas y Jacobsen devoted himself to designing fabncs and carpets.
participo en una semana dedicada al cine en la Union Sovie- Curtains and rugs with floral patterns were very popular. As a
tica en 1935. EI arte del cine ampliaba el concepto de espa- boy, at school in Naerum, he had made a little money from
cio de muchos arquitectos que intentaron plasmarlo en el hiS paintings of wild flowers; now he was earning his daily
diseno de nuevos cinematografos. EI teatro de Bellevue de bread from his textile deSigns, SIX of which were purchased
Jacobsen, interesado en el cine y el teatro, era organico, by the National Museum In Stockholm. Jacobsen's work
tanto espacial como tactilmente. Todo el mundo estaba de received the highest praise, and the finished products sold
acuerdo en que Arne Jacobsen, en el fondo, no era un teori- well; he was to carryon working in the field of decorative
co, sino que el mismo constituia una teoria y que su persona- fabncs on hiS return to Denmark, producing both naturalistic
lidad se evidenciaba en todo 10 que creaba. Sus teorias se and abstract deSigns.
basaban en sus propias impresiones sensoriales, sin pala- Dunng his penod in Sweden, Jacobsen received only one
bras. EI resultado de su trabajo era arte sin palabras, creado ,commission as an architect, for a summer house - In Arild,
por una necesidad interior. close to the 0resund - for a Danish client. The form, and
Durante la guerra la construccion estaba practicamente pa- Indeed the whole house, are adapted organically to the natural
rada debido a la escasez de materiales. EI tiempo de los setting, on a sloping site of Swedish granite. Geologically,
arquitectos se destinaba a participar en concursos -que nunca Denmark IS formed of sand and clay, but Sweden IS very
se realizaban- y las pocas obras que obtenian autorizacion different. The bedrock beneath the forest floor and the great
para ser construidas se solucionaban con los materiales que reef that runs the length of the coast are of granite, and thus
se tenian al alcance, como ceramica, hormigon aligerado y provided Jacobsen with new impreSSions of space and colour;
madera. La arquitectura tradicional japonesa se convirtio en la a refugee in exile In a strange land IS always especially attentive
catalizadora. Sobre todo el palacio imperial de verano en to all that IS new. At that time, tremendous Interest was being
Kioto (1589-1643) servia de inspiracion. Para muchos repre- aroused by the reconstruction of a Japanese tea house In the
sento todo un descubrimiento y fue una influencia decisiva Ethnographic Museum In Stockholm (now known as the
para el programa de la escuela de Klint asi como de su volun- Museum of the Peoples). Experience of this tea room gave
tad perfeccionista. A partir de la casa del te de Estocolmo y architects and craftsmen much matter for reflection and a
de los muchos libros ilustrados sobre el Japon, publicados basis for their own creative design work; visitors might
en los anos cincuenta, los arquitectos ampliaban sus conoci- appreciate In particular the overall design, the handling of the
mientos y se basaban en los pilares establecidos por Bruno materials, the modular structure or the evolution of a tradition,
Taut y Tetsuro Yoshida. Se pulia la madera, segun el tipo, according to their own individual sensibility. The expenence
para obtener una superficie mate sedosa. Se detestaban las also contained a number of elements of identification; the
referencias orientales pintadas aloleo por Carl Petersen. Co- books on the Japanese house referred to above had already /

lor al oleo y lustre ya no eran "acabados validos en la cons- drawn attention to factors such as the relationship between
truccion". Armarios empotrados de maderas nobles recubren interior and extenor, the relationship between house and
paredes enteras y el tratamiento de la superficie acentua su garden and between house and undomesticated nature. Here,
caracter. Puertas correderas conectan la sala de estar con too, identification served as the basis for a fuller appreciation.
el jardin. En el exterior la maleza de bambu cimbrea cada dia Arne Jacobsen was keenly interested In the cinema: he had a
de sus cincuenta anos de vida mientras unas plantaciones detailed knowledge of the medium, and kept up to date with
artisticas cambian de colorido segun la estacion del ano. the latest techniques and tricks, He also made films himself,
Todo esto se convirtio en una de las especialidades de Arne and took an active part in a week-long festival devoted to Soviet
Jacobsen. En el arte de la jardineria estaba secunda do por film in 1935. The art of the cinema expanded the conception
su jardinero Christian Petersen, que conocia las condiciones of space of many architects, who sought to reflect this In the
de vida de las plantas y cultivaba el arte de la jardineria japo- design of cinema foyers. The Bellevue theatre deSigned by
nesa. EI reto de la lIustracion de ir en busca de conocimien- Jacobsen, as a lover of cinema and theatre, was organic In its
tos habia conducido a los europeos a todos los rincones del spatial and tactile values. There seems to be universal
mundo. Los recursos personales encontraban una nueva ins- agreement that Arne Jacobsen was not, at bottom, a theorist,
piracion, no en la imitacion sino en la ampliacion de una idea but the living embodiment of a theory, and that his character
arquitectonica existente. manifested itself in everything he produced. All of his "theories"
EI camino hacia Japon pasaba por Frank Lloyd Wright y were based on his own sensory impressions, unmediated by
California, donde la nueva generacion buscaba elegantes ca- words. The outcome, the result of his working process, was
sas unifamiliares en una unica planta, la tradicion Bay-Region y an art without words forged out of an inner necessity.
la sencilla arquitectura de William Wurster. Mies van der Rohe Throughout the war years construction was at a virtual
y Walter Gropius, y muchos otros del viejo mundo, ya se en- standstill due to the shortage of materials. Architects spent
contraban en aquella epoca muy bien establecidos en el pais their time deSigning competition projects that would never
del progreso. Lo que se apreciaba entonces era una arquitec- be built, and the few works that were authOrIZed for
tura internacional pero, ademas, observaron matices regiona- construction had to be executed uSing whatever matenals
les segun las condiciones climaticas y el uso de materiales. En were to hand, such as tiles, lightweight concrete and wood.
1953 Walter Gropius escribio: "Quisiera sacarme de enci- Traditional Japanese architecture thus came to act as a
ma, como minimo, una de las etiquetas enganosas con las catalyst. Above all, the imperial summer palace in Kyoto (1589-
que se nos identifica a mi y a otros. No existe algo como el 1643) was a direct source of inspiration. This came as a
'Estilo Internacional', a no ser que se quiera hablar de una revelation to many, and was a radically deciSive Influence on
determinada realizacion tecnica de nuestra epoca y que per- the teaching of Klint and hiS spirit of perfectionism. The tea
tenece al bagaje intelectual de cualquier nacion civilizada". house in Stockholm and the numerous Illustrated books on,

11
2G IntroduCClon Introduction
La Escuela de Copenhague siempre ha enseiiado a proyectar Japan published In the 50s contributed to Increasing the level
en ellugar. Para cada problema planteado los alumnos, debe· of Interest and awareness, bUilding on the foundations laid by
rian conocer las condiciones climaticas y geologicas, las cos· Bruno Taut and Tetsuro Yoshida . For example, wood was
tumbres del cliente y las limitaciones economic as. polished to give a silky matt finish, while the Orlentalist allusions
painted In oils by Carl Petersen were relected out of hand: 011
5. Paisaje y plantas verdes paint and lacquer were no longer conSidered "valid finishes In
Las experiencias con la naturaleza estan presentes en el arte construction". Fitted wardrobes of fine hardwoods were
plastico y en la poesia, pero tambien en la arquitectura cuan· extended across entire walls, and the treatment of the finish
do los conocimientos del arquitecto se basan en impresio· accentuated the effect. Sliding doors opened up the living
nes sensoriales y en las experiencias de la vida. Los colabo· room to the garden. OutSide the house, the bamboo thicket
radores del estudio de Jacobsen comentan el proceso hacia swayed In the wind throughout ItS 50·year lifetime, and the
el resultado final. Jacobsen trabajaba de forma intuitiva. En el plants artistically arranged In groups changed their colours
origen de un proyecto parecia que estuviera investigando y With the season. Such elements came to be one of Arne
meditando con una cierta inseguridad en si mismo. "Estaba Jacobsen's specialities. In the art of landscaping he was ably
abierto a todas las posibilidades iniciales" (Teit Weitland). "Su assisted by the gardener Christian Petersen, who had
metodo de trabajo podia variar bastante. Recuerdo cuando extensive knowledge of plants and their requirements and
teniamos que bosquejar un proyecto para Herrenhausen: un himself cultivated the art of Japanese gardening. The
estrado para una orquesta y un restaurante. Entro en el estu· Enlightened commitment to the pursUit of knowledge had
dio con una hoja de papel, la levanto y dijo que ese era el taken Europeans all over the world . Individual repertoires and
aspecto que debe ria tener el proyecto. Un buen ejemplo de resources found a new source of inspiration not In Imitation
como, a veces, podia pensar y captar Ideas" (Otto Weitling). but In the widening out of an eXisting architectural Idea.
"Por encima de todo Arne era un hombre practico. No era un The road to Japan went by way of Frank Lloyd Wright and
teorico. No habia reglas escritas ni ideas a seguir. Si habia, California, where clients of the younger generation were
por supuesto, un cierto espiritu entre los empleados, pero looking for elegant slngle·storey houses, In line With the Bay
se manifestaba mas bien como un metodo de trabajo que Region tradition and the Simple architecture of William W.
Wurster. Mles van der Rohe, Walter Gropius and many others
Viviendas Soholm I. from the Old Continent were by thiS time well established In
Klampenborg, 1950.
the USA, the Land of Progress. What was wanted, then, was
Housing Soholm I. an International architecture that nevertheless reflected
Klampenbor&, 1950.
regional nuances associated With the speCifiCS of climate and
the handling of materials.
In 1953, Walter Groplus wrote: "I would like to get rid of at
least one misleading label which is used to Identify me and /
others. There IS no such thing as the 'International Style', unless
It is a matter of a speCific technical realization of our age which
is part of the Intellectual baggage of every CIVilized nation".
The Copenhagen School of Architecture has always insisted
on the need to deSign on the site. For each design problem,
the students were expected to have a thorough understanding
of the climatic and geological conditions, the way of life of
the client and the constraints of the budget.

5. Landscape and plants


Experiences of nature are Significantly present in Visual art
and In poetry, and also in architecture when the architecrs
deSign approach is based on sensory Impressions and lived
personal experience. The people who worked in Jacobsen's
studiO have left valuable testimony to the process that led
him to the finished result. He worked IntUitively, and at the
start of a prolect It might seem as If he were engaged In
research and meditation, and by no means sure of himself.
"He was open to every Initial pOSSibility" (Telt Weltland); "HIS
como una filosofia" (Hans Dissing). (Citas de Arne Jacobsen, working method could vary a great deal. I remember when
Architect & Designer. DOC, Copenhaguel. we had to sketch out a scheme for Herrenhausen: a stage
Las cinco casas en hilera (S0holm-e1 Rincon de Bellevue en for an orchestra and a restaurant. He came into the studio
Klampenborg) quedaron acabadas en 1952. Arne Jacobsen with a sheet of paper, held It up and said that this was what
se mudo a la casa orientada hacia 0resund. En los aiios cin· the prolect ought to look like. A good example of the way he
cuenta los obreros tenian los conocimientos necesarios y los could think and come up With Ideas at such times" (Otto
trabajos de carpinteria se realizaban in situ. La prefabricacion, Weltling); "Above all else Arne was a practical man. He was
contratacion completa y los autocraticos estudios econom" not a theOriSt. He had no written rules or concepts to follow.
cos de rentabilidad, todavia se encontraban en fase inicial. There was, of course, a certain SPIrit that linked everyone In
Tenia prioridad el bienestar del hombre. La armonia y la cal" the StUdiO, but this manifested Itself more as a way of working
dad artesanal constituian el objetivo de los arquitectos y era el than as a philosophy" (Hans Dlssing). (Quoted from Arne
orgullo de los artesanos. Con las casas de S0holm los con- Jacobsen, Architect & DeSigner, DOC, Copenhagen.)

12
IntrodUCClon Introduction 2G

trastes de la ciudad blanca vecina frente a 0resund pertene- The first group of five terraced houses at S0holm - the
cian al pasado. Elegia los ladrillos amarillos relativamente pa- Bellevue Corner in Klampenborg - was completed in 1952.
rosos que con el tiempo adquirian una patina gris. Los tejados and Arne Jacobsen moved Into the house onented towards
son grises y la carpinteria blanca. La casa se habia construido the 0resund. The construction workers of the 50s were skilled
pensando en el entorno y se mezclaba con los colores de la craftsmen. and the carpentry detailing was all carned out In
naturaleza. Desde las habitaciones de la primera planta se situ. Prefabncatlon. total contractmg and the autocratic
tenia una vista hacla 0resund y hacia el jardin de unos 300 m' . profitability study were then only In their Infancy. and people's
Tupidamente plantado con una surtida variedad vegetal que well-being was stili the prlOnty. Harmony and the quality of
cambiaba de color segun el tiempo y la estacion del ano. "No the finishing were the objective of the architect and the pnde
era tanto la abundancia de flores 10 que interesaba sino los of the craftsman. With the S0holm houses. the contrasts of
matices verdes", conto su jardinero. Encargo varias especies the nearby white city on the shores of the 0resund were a
de bambu y experimento con vegetacion baja que crecia entre thing of the past. At S0holm. Jacobsen used a slightly porous
las baldosas del suelo. EI jardin era una fuente de colorido, yellOWish bnck. that would develop a grey patma over time.
parecido a la -para el tan necesaria- acuarela. Se sustituian Jhe roofs are grey and the carpentry work white. The houses
unas plantas por otras. AI fondo estaba el mar donde se rna- were deSigned and bUilt With the setting very much In mmd.
vian barcos y pajaros en la niebla sin horizonte, al igual que los and chromatically they blended With the colours of nature.
aviones volando desde y hacia el aeropuerto. The rooms on the first floor had views of the 0resund. and
Quizas esta expenencla Ie diera la idea de crear la mlsma overlooked the 300 m2 garden. densely planted With a nch
sensacion de Ingravidez para el edificio SAS, cuyas 22 plan- vanety of plants whose colours changed With the seasons.
tas se erigen, desde la calle. sobre el invisible soporte. La As Jacobsen's gardener observed. It was not so much an
division entre antepecho y ventana enmarca las lammas abundance of flowers that was of Interest. but the subtle
acristaladas de la fachada que son. por deseo expreso de range of shades of green. The architect ordered several
Jacobsen. "10 mas delgadas posibles, y jamas colocadas en different species of bamboo. and expenmented With low-
el centro". EI color es gris verdoso al igual que la hierba de la growing vegetation that would be sown between the pavmg
playa. y cambia de matiz segun la luz y la humedad atmosfe- flags. The garden was a constant source of colour.
rica. EI edificio se ha construido adentrandose en la atmosfe- something like the watercolour palntmg that was so vitally
ra y se erige como un gesto en el paisaje urbanistico. En el Important to Jacobsen. and he kept on changmg It. taking
vestibulo del hotel las paredes estan revestidas con paneles out old plants and trymg new ones m their place. For
de madera de wengue (marron con vetas negras). EI suelo backdrop there was the sea, with boats and seabirds movmg
es de marmol gris y el techo oscuro de color gns verdoso In the honzonless mist. as well as planes on their way Into
cuenta con pequenas lamparas empotradas que se pueden and out of the airport.
asociar tanto a un clelo estrellado como a una pista de aterri- Perhaps thiS expenence gave him the Idea of bestowing the
zaje. Sentados en una de las butacas en forma de huevo. same weightlessness on the SAS/Royal Hotel bUilding. With
sobre la alfombra a rayas. tam bien los huespedes sienten ItS 22 Iloors nSlng up from the street on their InVISible support.
"
una cierta mgravidez. Todos los ruidos estaban amortlgua- The separation between piers and Window served to frame
dos. Las sensaciones aeronauticas se perciben en esta area. the glazed planes of the facade. which on Jacobsen's express
EI arquitecto ha disenado todo el edificio. la porcelana y la Instructions were to be "as thm as pOSSible. and never placed
cuberteria del restaur ante. los muebles. los accesorios del In the centre". The extenor was a greeny grey. like the grass
alumbrado. todo. Nada era Old Inn ni estilo presidencial. Los of the dunes. ItS tonal quality shifting m response to the light
materiales eran madera noble. marmol negro 0 gris. cuero y and the atmosphenc humidity. The bUilding was. in effect.
tejidos de alta calidad especialmente disenados para la oca- designed to constitute an element of the atmosphere. standing
sian. Cada objeto habia sido seleccionado despues de un lar- out as a point of emphaSIS In the urban landscape. The walls
go proceso de trabajo. Desde el vestibulo los huespedes te- of the hotel vestibule were clad With panels of wengue wood
nian acceso al jardin de las orquideas. un espacio a doble (brown With a black grain). The floor was of grey marble. and
altura con luz cenital: en un clima tropical. entre altas paredes the dark ceiling was a greeny grey colour. dotted With small
de vidrio. con diferentes orquideas colgando de sus biotopos recessed lights that suggested both a starry sky and an airport
especificos. EI hotel SAS fue acabado en 1961 y fue califica- runway at night. And the guests. too. slttmg In the egg-shaped
do por la prensa como el edificio mas feo de Copenhague al armchairS on the stnped carpet. expenenced a certam
Igual que muchos de los mejores proyectos de Jacobsen. EI sensation of weightlessness. Here. In thiS lounge space. every
rechazo de la gente siempre resulta el mejor elogio. sound was deadened; the terminal area effectively conveyed
EI jardin de las orquideas ya no existe y el resto del hotel ha the sense of air travel.
sido destrozado. Los muebles han sido sustituidos por ar· Jacobsen personally deSigned the entire bUilding. down to
ticulos de saldo. el porte de los colores ha sido quebrantado the tableware and cutlery In the restaurant. the furniture. the
y las exigencias cualificativas mermadas. light flttmgs. everything. Nothing was in the Old Inn style or
Arne Jacobsen tenia un control completo tanto de la produc- the PreSidential style. The matenals used were fine hardwood.
cion como de los medios. Para los sillones Cisne. Huevo y black and grey marble. leather and high-quality fabrics
otros en forma de fuente Jacobsen desarrollaba una nueva deSigned espeCially for the bUilding. With the greatest care
tecnica. una imitacion libre del sillon de Charles Eames. No being devoted to the selection of each piece. The vestibule
los disenaba SinO que trabajaba con maquetas hasta conse· led In to the orchid garden. ThiS was a double-height space
guir la forma correcta. "Primero se debe desarrollar una tec- With glass walls. lit from above. malntamed as a tropical
nica infalible y luego dedicarse al cosido de la inspiracion". climate With different species of orchid. each growing In ItS
es el consejo de un viejo maestro de Zen a quien cito Walter own speCial biotope_ The SAS/Royal Hotel bUlldmg was
Gropius (Japan. Land der Architektur. 1954). "Yo mismo es- completed m 1961. and was declared In the Danish press to
tuve realizando maquetas durante un ano con el fin de conse- be the ugliest bUilding In Copenhagen; Similar verdicts were.,

13
2G IntroduccI6n Introduction

guir 'Ia linea de corte' la cual determina si la linea lateral es passed on some of Jacobsen's other projects. Popular relection
satisfactoria y si se encuentra descanso en el sillon. Una vez IS always the highest eulogy.
alcanzada la linea de corte, siempre se puede arreglar el The orchid garden no longer eXists, and the hotel part of the
aspecto del sillon de acuerdo can el concepto personal de 10 complex has Since been demolished. The anginal furniture has
que es bonito. Pero en primer lugar investigaba las posibili- been replaced With Infenor mass-produced pieces, the colour
dades tecnicas", decia Arne Jacobsen acerca de la silla Hor- scheme has been ruined and all of the qualrtabve values degraded.
miga para la cantina de la fabric a N0VO (1952). De la misma Arne Jacobsen was given complete control over every aspect
manera se realizaron las sillas para el hotel SAS. Su linea de of the deSign and construction. He developed a new process
asiento es la acertada para cualquier espalda. for the production of the chairS -the Swan, the Egg and those
La escuela de Munkeg~rds, Vangedevej 178, construida en In the shape of a fountain, a free Interpretation of a deSign by
1954, mostraba un nuevo tipo de planta donde las aulas es- Charles Eames. He not only deSigned these chairS, he worked
tan orientadas hacia patios can voluntad de atria. A la escue- on successive models until he felt he had arrived at the right
la habia que darle una proporcion humana y una atmosfera form . "It IS first necessary to develop an Infallible technique,
calurosa e intima. Los alum nos debiaQ estar a gusto en sus and then devote oneself to the needlework of the InSpiration."
obligaciones escolares. Mesas y sillas can estructura de tuba In the words of an old Zen master quoted by Walter Groplus
de acero, madera curvada al vapor y pintada de verde mate (Japan, land der Arch/tektur, 1954). "I personally spent a year
sedoso. Cada uno de los cinco carre dares de conexion te- modelling In order to arrive at the 'cut-off line' which determines
nian un color diferente. Las aulas no se estorbaban entre si. whether the lateral section IS satisfactory and If the chair IS
Si el tiempo 10 permitia pod ian utilizar el patio-jardin. La sos- comfortable to Sit on. Once you have arrived at the cut-off hne
pecha de que el municipio hubiera excedido el limite de la you can always modify the appearance of the chair accordIng
frugalidad danesa para caer en el puro lujo, era manifestado to what you think looks good. But the first thing IS to explore
par la prensa. ,Como concebirian la vlvienda de los padres the technical possibilities", Arne Jacobsen remarked about hiS
cuando volvieran a casa desde esa lujosa escuela? La critica Ant chair for the canteen of hIS new N0VO factory (1952). He
positiva admiraba a Jacobsen par su capacidad al realizar adopted the same approach when he came to deSIgn the chairS
sus ideas en un pais donde unicamente los compromisos y for the SAS/Royal Hotel building. The line of the seat IS perfectly
los criterios a medias permiten la realizacion de un proyecto. sUited to any back.
EI hecho de que solo unos pocos arquitectos lIegaran a for- The Munkeg~rds School, at Vangedevej 178, constructed In
malizar las ideas iniciales hizo que todo el mundo se pregun- the mid-50s, featured a new type of floor plan In which the
tara como conseguia convencer a los clientes, a las autori- classrooms open onto atnum-I/ke courtyards. A school must
dades, a los tecnicos, para construir las casas tal y como las have a human scale and proportions, and a warm and Intimate
habia previsto. Todas las entrevistas can las partes afecta- atmosphere. The pupils need to be provided With the nght
das despues de su muerte tratan de aclarar este misterio. conditions In which to learn. The desks and chairS here have
Los nuevas materiales y, en especial, las nuevas construc- a tubular steel structure, and the wooden elements are steamt'
ciones se hacen rapidamente internacionales. EEUU suminis- moulded and stained a Silky matt green. Each of the five
traba el muro cortina y nuevas esqueletos de hormigon. EI distribution COrridors was painted a different colour. The
edificio SAS se in spira en el Lever House de Nueva York (SaM, classes did not encroach on one each other's space, and
1952), y el ayuntamiento de R0dovre en el Technical Center de when the weather was fine they had the use of the courtyard·
la GM en Warren (Eero Saarinen 1949-1955). EI edificio garden. A susp,c,on that the local authOrity had overstepped
the bounds of Danish frugality and Indulged themselves In
Dos vistas de los alios sesenta extravagant excesses was VOiced In the press. How would
del edificio SAS
correspondientes al cuerpo these children view the family dwelling when they came home
principal del edificio from thiS lUXUriOUs school? However, the positive CritiCS
y al vestibulo del hotel.
praised Jacobsen for haVing managed to carry through hiS
Two views of the SAS buildina: Ideas In a country In which proJects could only get bUilt on the
in the 1960s; the main volume
of the buildina: and the hotel baSIS of compromIses and half measures.
vestibule. The fact that so few architects manage to give form to their
Initial ideas prompted people to ask how Jacobsen managed
to convince clients, planning authOritIes, engineers and
bUilders to construct hiS houses Just as he had deSigned them.
After Jacobsen's death, all of the Interviews With people who
had worked WIth him attempted to throw light on thiS mystery.
New matenals and, In particular, new bUildings rapidly become
International. The USA supplied the curtain wall and new
concrete frames. The SAS/Royal Hotel building draws ItS
·,nsplratlon from the Lever BUilding In New York (SaM, 1952),
and the town hall In R0dovre from the GM Technical Center In
Warren, Mich. (Eero Saannen, 1949-1955), No doubt the
Jespersen Offices at Nyropsgade 18, dating from 1953-1955,
could also be traced to a source of inspiration. It IS worth
noting that In each of these three buildings, the curtain walliS
handled differently, as are the facades. In each case, hundreds
of sketches of the elevatIons were done before Jacobsen
was satisfied With the dlstnbutlon of the austere profIle. The
Importance of the facade and the siting of the bUilding

14
Introducclon Introduction 2G

de oficinas Jespersen, Nyraspgade 18, es de 1953-1955 y


seguramente tambien tenga una fuente de inspiracion. Es
importante senalar que estos tres muras cortina son diferen-
tes, al igual que sus fachadas. Para cada proyecto se dibuja-
ban cientos de bocetos de los alzados antes de que Jacobsen
quedara satisfecho de la distribucion del escueto perfilado.
La Importancia de la fachada y la ubicacion del edificio condi-
cionan su proporcion y su colorido. EI arquitecto tambien
seleccionaba la vegetacion del interior. Queria asegurarse
de que estuvieran en consonancia con los colores grises,
verdes y azules de las paredes.
Cada nuevo encargo implicaba realizar un estudio del empla-
zamiento y de su entorno. Cuando Jacobsen regreso de su
primer viaje a Oxford, traia consigo estudios y fotografias de
los alrededores, de los viejos edificios destinados a colegio
mayor, del emplazamiento concreto. Seguramente habia ob-
servado que la hierba era mas verde que en Dinamarca, y que
la nlebla y la bruma tambien eran diferentes. Tambien en Oxford
conseguiria convencer a sus clientes de cuan maravillosas eran
sus ideas. St. Catherine's College fue acabado en 1963.
Arne Jacobsen siempre construia para ellugar especifico. Si
comparamos sus edificios en Dinamarca, Alemania e Inglate-
rra, observaremos que todos ellos estan realizados en con-
sonancia con la atmosfera del lugar sin perder el rasgo ca-
racteristico del arquitecto.
Aunque la arquitectura sea un arte aplicada y cada obra per-
tenezca a un lugar concreto, podemos comparar a Arne effectively determined Its proportion and its coloration. The
Jacobsen con el escultor danes de la epoca clasicista Bertel architect also chose the plants for the interior, anxious to
Thorvaldsen. Si veia una hermosa escultura de su rival Anto- ensure that these were in consonance With the greys, greens
niO Canova, pensaba que el podia hacerlo mejor; a pesar de or blues of the walls.
que ambos eran humildes reconocian 10 sublime. Las esta- Each new commission thus Involved a study of the site and
tuas de Thorvaldsen respiraban armonia intern a y fuerza the surroundings. When Jacobsen returned from hiS first triP
mental. La luz resbalaba por la superficie de marmol al igual to Oxford, he brought back studies and photographs of the
que se acaricia la seda mas suave. area, of the old college bUildings, of the specific location. He
Arne Jacobsen no era teo rico, no hablaba mucho de sus would of course have noticed that the grass there was greener
obras, pera captaba todos los elementos que necesitaba de than In Denmark, and that the fog and mist were also different.
los seres humanos y de la naturaleza. Si mencionaba algo And of course in Oxford, too, he managed to convince the
todos recordaban sus palabras. Vivia con el arte de su epo- clients that his ideas were the best. St Catherine's College
ca. Comenzo sus estudios como nino prodigio en la Acade- was completed in 1963.
mia de Arte. Alcanzo autoridad con los anos y fallecio subita- Arne Jacobsen always built for the specific Individual site. If we
mente por causa de un para cardiaco. compare his buildings in Denmark, Germany and England ,
Sus obras lIevan su sello personal, la de una "idea noble de we find that all of these were created in consonance with the
sllenciosa grandeza". De esta manera todo quedaba como atmosphere of the setting, Without sacrificing anything of
estaba, solo que en otro tiempo. the architecfs own individual character.
Although architecture IS an applied art, each work belonging
to a particular site, it is interesting to compare Arne Jacobsen
and the Danish Neoclassical sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. If
Thorvaldsen saw a fine sculpture by hiS great rival, Antonio
Canova, his reaction was to feel that he was not good enough,
that he needed to do better. Both Thorvaldsen and Jacobsen
were humble men, yet both recognized the sublime.
Thorvaldsen 's sculptures exhibit an Inner harmony and
intellectual strength; the light caresses the surface of the
marble as If It were the smoothest Silk. Arne Jacobsen was
not a theorist. He did not talk about his work very much, but
he absorbed all of the elements he needed from other human
beings and from nature. When he did make an observation,
everyone who heard him remembered his words. H; was at
one with the art of his time. He commenced hiS student career
at the Academy of Art. He put on weight as he grew older,
and he died suddenly of heart failure.
Each of hiS works bears hiS own personal stamp, which ' is
that of a "noble Idea of silent grandeur". In this way everything
remained as it was, but in another time.

15
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Stelling Hus, Copen hague


Stelling Hus, Copenhagen
En 1934 Arne Jacobsen realiza , la primera propuesta In 1934 Arne Jacobsen produced his first proposal for
para la construccion de un edificio en el casco historico de the construction of a bUilding In the historic centre of
Copenhague: el edificio Stelling. Copenhagen: the Stelling bUilding.
Los estudios iniciales parten de un edificio en la esquina don- The Inlbal studies start from the Idea of a building on the
de se construyo definitivamente pero en un solar mas peque- corner on which construction was subsequently carried out,
no. Par necesidades del programa que necesitaba el cliente, although the plot was smaller. The demands of the programme
y ante la limitacion fisica del solar inicial, Jacobsen contem- called for by the client and the physical limitations of the ori-
pia la posibilidad de construir en la esquina opuesta, la de ginal site then prompted Jacobsen to consider building on
Gamel Torv can Norregade. the opposite corner, at the lunctlon of Gamel Torv ilnd
AI poderse ampliar la superficie del primer solar, se aborda Norregade. When the area of the first site was Increased, the
la solucion definitiva. deflnlbve scheme took form.
EI edificio se entiende como un claro ejercicio de moderni- The bUilding asks to be understood as a clear exercise 10
dad. Poco tiempo antes Jacobsen habia realizado la amplia- modernity. A short bme before, Jacobsen had completed an
EmpJazamlento Site cion de la fabrica N0VO. En ella, el nuevo lenguaje funcionalista extension to the N0VO factory; there, the new funcbonalist
Copenhague Copenhagen
que estaba arraigando en el entorno nordico se exterioriza language that was takIOg root In the Nordic countries IS
ProyectoyConstrucclon en la piel curva en que se formaliza la fachada. exteriorized In the curving skin that defineS the facade.
Design and Construction
1934-1937 EI edificio Stelling sigue el mismo camino de equilibria entre The Stelling bUilding follows the same path of balance between
tradicion y modernidad. Tradicion en cuanto a proporcion y tradition and modernity: tradition In terms of proportion and
Fotografias Photography
Vagn Guldbrandsen A-S sencillez; mode mid ad en su compromiso can el nuevo len- simplicity; modernity in the commitment to the new language.
guaje. Asi, el edificio de la plaza sirve de referencia en la Thus the building on the square serves as a reference for the
disposicion tripartita de la propuesta, en un ejercicio de con- tripartite layout of the proposal in an exerCise of contrast-
traste-continuidad: la pesadez de la piedra opaca contrasta continUity: the weight of the opaque stone contrasts with the
can la ligereza de la superfi cie transparente de la tienda, el lightness of the transparent surface of the shop; the matt
material mate can el de piezas ceramicas. Se mantiene material with the pieces of ceramic cladding. The classical
el concepto clasico de un basamento, un homogeneo cuer- concept of the pllOth, the homogeneous middle section and

18
Dbr.s y proyectos Wor~ and or 2G
po medio y un ausente entablamento. La fachada se do- Ie abse'lt eetablature IS retained throughout The facade IS
bla introduclendo la fachada de la calle en la plaza, elu- Iided to Introduce the street frontage to the square, avoiding
dlendo el camblo de plano que representaria una esqui- e change of plane thai a orner would have Inv0lved. The
na. La ventana cuadrada se repite sistem<iticamente e qC3re Window IS repeated systematically, Indifferent to the
mdiferente a la curvatura. urvature.
La normatlva oblig6 a que el edificio se separase del limite BUilding regclatlons required a separation from the boundary
de la parcela en la calle Skindergade. Este hecho deja par- the plot on Sklndergade. ThiS CIrcumstance left the party
clalmente al descublerto la medianera del edificio vecino wal of the neighbouring bUilding partially exposed to the street.
desde la calle y permlte al arquitecto eludir el posible contlic- enabling the architect to aVOid a possible contl,ct In the
to del orden compositivo de la fachada. Esta nace desde la om positional order of the facade. That commences on the
calle, articulando el encuentro con el muro abstracto me- street, articulating the meeting with the abstract wall by means
diante tres ligeros balcones. of three lightweight balconies,

Emplazamiento y vista
del edificio con el nuevo
lenguaje funcionalista.

Site plan and view of the


building with its new
functionalist langu3ee

19
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

7L r-1JI
.lff" .
.
r
'"
~
Las plantas, seccion y
perspectiva, junto con la vista
exterior, muestran el edfficio
entre tradicion y modemidad.

The plans, section and a


perspective, to&ether with
the exterior view, show the
balance between tradition
and modernity.

dC B~-~ -'. --
1-
t-


/

20
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

21
2G Obras y proyectos Wor~ md proJects.
Obras y proyectos Work and project! 2G

Diversas vistas que muestran


el nuevo lenguaje utilizado:
en la fachada con fa piel curva
y en el diseiio de mobiliario
del interior.

Various views which show the


new lan&ua&e used on
the facade . with the curvina
skin . and in the design of
the interior furnishings.

2
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Ayuntamiento de Aarhus
Aarhus City Hall
En el mes de abril de 1937 se convoca el concurso para In April 1937 the competition was announced for the
la realizacion del nuevo ayuntamie~to de la localidad de construction of a new City Hall for the town of Aarhus. The
Aarhus. EI resultado se hace publico en agosto del mismo result was declared in August of that year. The designers of
aiio. Los autores del proyecto seleccionado eran Arne the selected project were Arne Jacobsen and Enk M0l1er. The
Jacobsen y Erik M011er. EI edificio fue inaugurado en agosto building was opened In August 1941.
de 1941. The winning scheme is composed of four linked volumes
La propuesta ganadora se compone de cuatro volumenes situated along Park Aile. The combination of these elements
maclados situados a 10 largo de la calle Park Aile. La combi· allows for an asymmetrical layout, leaving virtually Intact the
nacion de estos elementos permite una disposicion asimetrica park and the enormous trees in the block designated for
dejando pnicticamente intacto el parque y los enormes arbo- construclion.
les que existian en la manzana de la intervencion. The most symbolic volume, the one containing the most
EI cuerpo mas simbolico, el que contiene las estancias sign;' important spaces and the main entrance, finishes off the
ficativas y la entrada principal, remata el conjunto liberando whole, liberating an existing raised space looking onto Sonder
EmpJazamlento Site un espacio previo, sobreelevado, frente a la calle Sonder Aile. Aile.
Aarhus
Exteriormente el edificio muestra un gran reconocimiento a On the exterior the building manifests a great recognition of
Equlpo Team la obra de Asplund ya desde la fase del concurso: una piel Asplund's work, right from the compelition phase: a skin which
Arne Jacobsen
Erik MoUer aparece en un primer plano generando una reticula abstrac· presents Itself in the foreground, generating an abstract
ta revocada de un color claro. EI hueco era completado por reticule With a light·toned cladding. The opening was
Proyecto y ConstruCClon
Design and Construction una ventana cuadrada y un panel ligero de color oscuro. Fi· completed with a square Window and a lightweight dark·
1937-1941 nalmente se utilizo marmol gris de Porsgrunn en lugar del coloured panel. In the end, grey Porsgrunn marble was used
Fotografias Photography revoco. instead of plaster.
Jens lindhe Una de las premisas importantes del proyecto era la crea· One of the important premisses of the project was the creation
cion de grandes espacios que relacionasen el interior y la of large spaces to relate the interior and the natural
naturaleza exterior, combinado con una jerarquizacion del surroundings, in combination with a hierarchical ordering of
espacio tal y como preconizaba el neoclasicismo nordico. the space as ordained by Nordic Neo-classlclsm.
En el interior se elude el cambio de plano. Los angulos son The abrupt change of plane IS avoided in the Interior. The
redondeados, las paredes y los techos ligeramente curvados corners are rounded, and the slightly curving walls and ceilings
dan una sensacion de ambiente continuo que envuelve al create the sensation of a continuous space that embraces
visitante. the visitor.
Los paneles de madera contrastan con la estructura blanca. The wooden panels contrast with the white structure . In
Ademas de su buena calidad acustica, su uso advierte una addllion to their good acoustic qualities, their use reveals a
voluntad de sintesis contrapuesta a los recargados interio- concern With synthesis, In opposition to the overelaborate
res que se realizaban por aquel entonces en los edificios Interiors typical of public buildings of the lime. The Interiorizing
publicos. Interiorizar el exterior mediante el uso de la made- of the exterior by means of the use of wood , stone and brick
ra, de la piedra, delladrillo, indica una voluntad de aproxima· indicates a desire to come closer to nature , to the exterIOr.
cion a la naturaleza, al exterior. In Aarhus, virtually everything is of wood: the walls, the floor,
En Aarhus casi todo es de madera: las paredes, el suelo, el the furniture, etc. The remaining elements -handrails ,
mobiliario, etc. EI re sto: pasamanos, barandillas, picaportes, balustrades, door handles, lamps- are also of a tonal quality
lamparas, son tam bien de una tonalidad calida que invita a that Invites us to touch them. The taclile, the use of natural
tocarlos. Lo tactil, el uso de materiales naturales, la delica· materials, the delicacy In the detailing, are all suffiCiently
deza en los detalles, son 10 suficientemente significativo s Significant to exemplify In thi s bUilding the special asslmilalion
como para ejemplarizar en este edificio la especial asimilacion of modern architecture from the ScandinaVian perspective .
de la arquitectura moderna desde la optica escandinava.

EI edificio con la torre del reloj .

The building with the clock


tower.

24
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects
Emplazamiento y detalle del
revestimiento petree
del edificio.

Site plan and detail of


the stone claddine
of the buildine.

26
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

27
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

C J
28
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

Plantas y vistas deJ interior


con 105 angulos y techos
ligeramente curvados .

Plans and views of the interiors


with the sJi&hUy curving corners
and ceiling.

29
2G Obras y proyectos W(lr~ and proJect'
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

32
Obras y proyectos Work and pro t< 2G

EI uso de materiales naturales


y la delicadeza en los detalles
muestran el equilibrio entre
la arquitectura modema
y la tradici6n escandinava.

The use of natural materials


. and the sensitivity of the
detailine reveal the equilibrium
between modern architecture
and the Scandinavian tradition.

33
2G Obras y proyectos Work~ and prOtects

Ayuntamiento de S0l1en~d
S011er0d City Hall
Arn e Jacobsen y Fleming Lassen ganaron el concurso Arne Jacobsen and Fleming Lassen won the competition
para el nuevo ayuntamiento de S011emd en el ano 1939. EI for the new town hall In S011er0d In 1939. Their winning scheme
conjunto contemplaba la reallzaci6n de un equipamiento que contemplated the creation of a facility that Included the town
consistia en el propio ayuntamiento, una biblioteca, un cine/ hall Itself, a library. a film theatre-cum·functions hall and the
sala de actos y la vivienda para el responsable del manten~ caretaker'S residence.
miento. Of the Original proposal. only the town hall was actually
De la propuesta sola mente se realiz6 el proyecto del ayunta- constructed. The building was subsequently extended, In the
miento. Posteriormente, en la dEkada de los sesenta, el edi· sixties, under the supervision of Fleming Lassen
ficio se ampli6 bajo las directrices de Fleming Lassen. The town hall as bUilt stands on the Junction of S011er0dvej
EI edificio realizado se situa en el cruce de las calles and Vangebovej with Kongevejen.
S0l1er0dvej·Vangebovej con Kongevejen. Many of the premisses utilized a few years before for the City
Se repiten muchas de las premisas utilizadas unos anos an· Hallin Aarhus are returned to here, although In S011er0d the
tes en el ayuntamiento de Aarhus, aunque en S011emd la par· part actually constructed kept faith with the Initial deSign Ideas.
Emplazamlento Ite te realizada fue fie I a las ideas iniciales. The project takes form In the linking of two CUbOids, In which
Sollerod
EI proyecto se formaliza en la macla de dos paralelepipedos the vertical circulation elements are situated: the stairs and
EqUipo Te~m donde se situan los elementos de conexi6n vertical: escale· lift. The first of the two contains the more symbolic spaces,
Arne Jacobsen
Fleming lassen ra y ascensor. EI primero contiene las estancias mas sim· while the second IS occupied by municipal offices.
b61icas mientras que el segundo se destina a las oficinas The main access IS located at the meeting of the two volumes.
Pmyecto y ConstrUCCI6n
DE: Ign and tl :.tp:t municipales. In the InteriOr, Inside the connecting element, are the vertical
1939· 1942 En el encuentro de los dos volumenes se resuelve el acceso circulation nucleI.
Fotos en colO( It pft'lt(''' principal. Interiormente, en la mac la, se ubican los elemen- The homogeneous facades are of grey Solvag stone. The
Jordi Bemad6 tos de conexi6n vertical. windows are repeated In a rhythmical sequence, and Jacobsen
Fotosen blanco y negro
Las fachadas homogeneas son de piedra gris de Solvag. Las and Lassen managed to express the most symboliC parts of
BI· :k&whlte pt)j( ventanas se repiten ritmicamente , y Jacobsen y Lassen con- the programme in a balanced manner, free of exaggeration,
strtiwing reklamefoto resorting to compositional mechanisms similar to those used
siguen expresar las partes mas simb61icas del programa de
un modo equilibrado, sin exageraciones, recurriendo a me· by the great Asplund. The vOid IS related to the filled. The
canismos compositivos similares a los utilizados por el maes· axes both elude and maintain symmetry. The claSSical
tro Asplund. EI vacio se relaciona con ei lleno. Los ejes elu· compositional logic utilized here In the definition of the parts
den la simetria y la mantienen. La 16gica compositiva clasica IS subject to the general order, that of the whole, which seeks
utilizada en la definici6n de las partes se someten al orden an abstract equilibrium with the natural surroundings, In par·
general, al del conjunto, que busca un equilibrio abstracto tlcular with the woodland.
con el entorno natural, en especial, con el bosque. Beyond the vestibule, In the InteriOr, the scheme defined and
Tras el vestibulo, en el interior se definen y disenan todos los designed all of the elements, from the furniture to the lighting,
elementos; desde el mobiliario a la iluminaci6n, los picapor' Including door handles and ashtrays, and these were laid out
tes, los ceniceros, y se disponen de un modo preciso en el With great precIsion In the warm ambience of thiS elegant
calido ambiente de este elegante edificio. building

34
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

II II iT
~ II II 1-1
1 HI III II II II II
1I11III. II II II II II II II II II II II II iT
~ II II II II II II
l~ I~ I 1I

Situacion. emplazamiento
y alzados acompaflan
las distintas vistas de
las fachadas homogeneas
de piedra gris de Sotvag.

location plan. site plan


and elevation accompany
the various views
of the homogeneous facades
of grey Solvag stone.

35
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

las plantas muestran como


se resuelve el acceso principal
en el encuentro de los dos
voh,imenes.

The plans show how the main


access is resolved in the
meeting of the two volumes.

T II II II II II II II II II II
,J,.l.i
II II II
T II II II II II II II fI II II II II
]I II II
I I ,-l,-LI .- .u .
~

36
2G Obras 'I pro'lectos Works and projects

38
Obras 'I pro'lectos Works and projects 2G

los elementos de conexi6n


vertical: escaJera y ascensor,
y el cuerpo principal del
ve stibulo .

The elements of vertical


connection: stairs and lift
and the main vestibule volume .

39
2G Obras y proyectos WI ( and pro eets

En el interior se disefian
todos los elementos. desde
el mobiliario a la iluminacion.
asi como barandillas
y picaportes.

All of the elements of


the interior were specially
designed . from furniture
to lighting. as well
as balustrades and door
handles.

II
il

40
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

41
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Escuela Munkegards, Gentofte


Munkegards School, Gentofte
En 1951 la revista Arkitekten pUQlica el proyecto con el In 1951 the magazine Arkitekten publ ished Arne
que Arne Jacobsen gana el concurso para un conjunto esco- Jacobsen's winning prolect for the competition for a school
lar en Gentofte. complex In Gentofte.
En la propuesta se recogen las inquietudes planteadas a prin- The proposal drew on the relectlon, prevalent In the early
cipios de los anos cuarenta en contra de los edificios escola- forties, of the monumental school bUildings constructed In
res monumentales que se desarrollaron en las dos decadas the two prevIous decades The new approach to teaching called
anteriores. La nueva pedagogia escolar invita a la construc- for facilities designed with children In mind, and on a more
cion de equipamientos pensados para los ninos y con una appropriate scale. The Munkeg~rds school was one of those
escala mas apropiada. La escuela Munkeg~rds es una de las that were developed In thiS new direction.
que se desarrollan en esta nueva direccion. The project divided up the Site, characterIZed by a slight
EI proyecto divide el terreno, que tenia una ligera pendiente westward slope, to form two hOrIZontal levels, with the bUild-
hacia el oeste, en dos niveles horizontales. En el superior se Ing occupying the higher level and the sports grounds laid
desarrolla la edificacion, mientras que el inferior se destina a out on the lower.
Emplazamlento Site zona deportiva. The school building IS developed on the higher level as a
Gentofte
EI edificio se desarrolla, fundamentalmente, en una planta en great grid of solids and vOids, predominantly single-storey.
Proyectoy ConstrUCCl6n la parte alta, como una gran trama de lIenos y vacios. Tras el Beyond the main access, five entrances to the distribution
Design and ConstructIOn
1951-1958 acceso, cinco entradas a los pasillos-distribuidores nos con- corndors lead to the classrooms and the school hall. The
ducen a las aulas y a la sala de actos. EI conjunto queda entire complex concludes With a linear two-storey bUilding which
Fotos en color Colour photos
JordiBemad6 rematado por un edificio lineal de dos plantas que contienen contains the mU~lilurpose rooms, workshops, library, etc.
las aulas polivalentes, los talleres, la biblioteca, etc. The main Idea In the design of the school IS the grouping of
Fotosen blanco y negro
Black & white photos La idea principal de la escuela es la agrupacion de dos aulas pairs of classrooms around a courtyard. Each courtyard IS
striiwing reklamefoto alrededor de un patio. Cad a patio es diferente y se persona- different, given an individual character by ItS paving and
liza con el pavimento y la vegetacion. EI aula se abre a sur. vegetation. The classrooms are south·faclng. The section IS
La sec cion se quiebra dando al interior una escala apropiada broken to give a more appropnate scale towards the InteriOr,
a la vez que consigue una iluminacion equilibrada en su inte- while at the same time achieVing a balanced Illumination In
rior, gene ran do un diseno caracteristico. the InteriOr, thus generating a characteristic design.
Emplazamiento , vista aerea La sencillez, la proporcion, la luz y los materiales son las The simplicity, the proportion, the light and the matenals are
del conjunto escolar y vista
exterior de una de las fachadas . maximas que Jacobsen aplica en toda su carrera profesio- the maximS which Jacobsen applied throughout his professional
nal, y que quedan resumidas en este perfil cuya repeticion career, and these are summarized here In this silhouette whose
Site plan, aeria l view of
the school complex and exterior sistematica genera un conjunto ejemplar y vibrante de ladri- systematic repelltlon generates an exemplary and Vibrant
view of one of the facades. 110 amarillo y cubierta de aluminio. complex, with ItS yellow brickwork and aluminium roof.
Junto a la zona de deportes se ubica el gimnasio. En la entra- The gymnasium IS situated beside the sports grounds. The
da, las viviendas de los responsables del mantenimiento . caretakers' houses are by the main entrance.

42
ras y proyec OS or sand proJet:ts

..
- ~~ _.- l~ ): -L' I{ _ rJ"-- J
i~
~ i"<; P.
I
,
L _

:J
~, <j.,
~

- f- -r- I
I
<I
f;r; - f-
~:
I v
I I

(
-'
I
~

r- ~
<j., ~
~ If'o '
I~
[

f ~, v_

~=
/ V
I I
t7l rd
-

-~
I I
'!., t I\.-

r
~
I~ fJ I
"" ,-- ...... ~.
I
-
u- 'IT1
'"'- -'iii'
--
:--
.-
--
- --
- .
I
. - ..
'--
=-- r . J I
,

I t4C J ~ rll -i l:
l~ 11--H-1 I',V

~[r UJ~j ':1- I I f"'J - - ~-

44
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

Una gran trama de patios ,


lIenos y vactos configuran
la estructura leneral de
la escuela . Plantas. alzados
y secciones complementan
esta lectora.

A creat sequence of courtyards,


with solids and voids
confilurinl the basK: structure
of the school . Plans, elevations
and sections complement
this re.dine
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

las cubiertas de aluminio con


sus lucemarios mirando a sur
para conseeuiruna iluminaci6n
mas equilibrada en el interior.

The aluminium roofl with


the roof liehtl . facine louth
to eive a more balanced liehtine
of the interior.
2G Obras 'I pro'lectos Works and projects

48
La seccion se quiebra dando
al interior una escala apropiada .
EI gimnasio completa los
equipamientos acordes con
la nueva pedagogia escolar.

The section breaks to live the


interior an appropiate scale .
The gymnasium is one of
the facilities which reflect
the new approach to educatinl
children.

49
2G Obras y proyectos Works and proJects

~.,

'
lli
1 .... • .. ,

;:

''' 1 : ..
, ; " I

- ~ ... -~ . :: ..

.. .. .. .. .. ..
,~"" ' ._ , - . . . . . j ....

illllllilli

50
La sencillez. la proporcion.
los materiales y la luz generan
un conjunto ejemp/ar y vibrante
de ladrillo amarillo .

The simplicity. the proportion .


the materials and the light
&enerate an axis-plan layout
made vibrant by the use of
yellow brick .

5:
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Oficinas Jespersen &Son, Copenhague


Offices for Jespersen & Son, Copenhagen
La firma Jespersen & Son colaboraba con Arne Jacobsen The Jespersen & Son construction company had been
ya desde antes de la II Guerra Mundial. working with Arne Jacobsen since before World War II.
EI proyecto para la nueva sede de la ingenieria se inici6 en The project for the firm's new head office was commenced In
1953 en un solar centrico de Copenhague. Su construcci6n 1953, and work on the site In the centre of Copenhagen was
se complet6 en 1955. completed In 1955.
Una de las premisas que exigieron las autoridades municipa- One of the stipulations made by the mUnicipal authorities was
les era que el edilicio luera permeable en planta baja para that the bUilding should be permeable at ground level In order
as; permitir el acceso rodado al interior de la manzana. to allow vehicle access to the Intenor of the City block
Se utilizan recursos similares a los del ayuntamiento de The resources employed are similar to those used for the
R0dovre. town hall In R0dovre.
La estructura del edilicio se compone de pantalias de hormi- The structure of the bUilding IS composed of screens of
g6n arm ado en el nucleo de comunicaci6n ve rtical, y de dos reinforced concrete In the vertical communications core, and
grandes pilares -tambien de hormig6n armado in situ- que of two great pillars -also of In SItU reinforced concrete-
Emplazamlento Site se desdoblan en los pisos superiores en otros mas peque- which divide on the upper floors to produce smalier pillars
Copenhague Copenhagen
fios que se situan a ambos lados del pasilio de distribuci6n situated on either Side of the distribution cOrridor serving the
ProyectoyConstruccI6n de las plantas de oficinas. office floors.
Design and ConstruCtion
1953-1955 EI otro elemento que aparece en la planta baja es una elegan- The other element that appears on the ground floor IS an
te escalera de caracol, embebida en un cilindro de vidrio, elegant spiral stair, contained inside a glass cylinder, which
Fotos en color Colour photos
jordi Bernad6 que remata uno de los extremos del pasillo de las plantas concludes one end of the distribution COrridor and serves as
asumiendo la funci6n de escalera de incendios. the emergency stairway.
Fotos en blancoy negro
Black &whtte photos Dos jacenas longitudinales son los unicos soportes de los Two longitudinal beams are the only supports for the floor
striiwing reklamefoto forjados que continuan en voladizo. Estos se adelgazan en slabs which project out on either Side of them. These floor
sus extremos hasta vincularse can las fachadas acristaladas. slabs reduce In depth at either extreme to connect With the
Estas fachadas son sendos muros cortina realizados mediante glazed facades. The facades are In the form of a pair of curtain
una carpinteria de madera forrada de aluminio. Los antepe- walls, With a framework of wood With an aluminium cladding.
chos son de vidrio tintado en color verde. En la fachada prin- The parapets are of green-tinted glass. The Windows on the
cipal el muro cortina es fijo, mientras que las ventanas de la main facade With the curtain wall do not open, while those on
posterior son pivotantes. the rear facade are pivoted.

Emplazamiento y vista de
lafachadaprincipal.

Site plan and view of the main


facade .

52
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

-
- I
j

~~
54 ~
~
La permeabilidad de la planta
baja permite el acceso
al interior de la manzana.
EI muro cortina de la fachada
principal es fijo.

The permeability of the ,round


floor allows access to
the interior of the block
The curtain wall of the main
facade is fixed .
2G Obras y proyectos Works and proJects

. . .; -- -.........1 . . . . . . .- . , .

l!t '.'

56
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

La elegante escalera de caracol .


embebida en un cilindro
de vidrio . junto con las plantas .
la seccion y los detalles
constructivos de las
dos fachadas completan
la informacion de este edificio.

The elegant spiral stair inside


its ,lass cylinder. together with
the plans. section and
construction details of the
two facades which allow
a complete reading of
the building.

en
e li d
.- '-' - -
I
I II

-
~

I
1
I I

-
1

I I
-
o I t 11

57
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Ayuntamiento de R0dovre
R0dovre City Hall
EI proyecto consiste en un edificio de oficinas de tres The project consists of a three-storey office bUilding with
pisos de altura can corredor central y un pabellon de una a central cOrridor and a Single-storey pavilion to the west
planta, situado en la zona oeste, cuyo contenido es el de las which contains the more symbolic spaces such as the council
estancias mas simbolicas como la sala de plenos y la sala de chamber and the meeting room.
reuniones. The design and the service Installations In the administrative
EI disefio y las instalaciones del ala administrativa permiten wing allow for the construction of an additional floor without
la construccion de una planta adicional sin entorpecer la ruti- interference to the working routine of the offices.
na municipal. The basement contains the staff rooms, archives, storerooms,
EI sotano contiene las habitaciones para el personal, los ar- tOilets and technical services.
chivos, los almacenes, los aseos y las instalaciones. On the ground floor are the main vestibule, the administrative
En la planta baja se encuentra el vestibulo principal, las ofici- offices, the social work department, treasury and state
nas de administracion, asistencia social, tesoreria y departa- departments.
mentos estatales. The mayor's office is situated on the south Side of the first
Emplazamlento Site EI despacho del alcalde esta situado en el primer piso, en el floor. The rest of the floor IS occupied by the auditor, the
Rodovre
extremo sur de la planta. EI resto de la planta esta ocupado accounting department and other offices.
ProyectoyConstrucci6n por el auditor, la contabilidad y otras oficinas. The second floor accommodates the technical departments,
Design and Construction
1954-1956 La planta segunda se destina a los departamentos tecnicos con with the offices of the mUnicipal architect and engineer, the
los despachos del arquitecto e ingeniero municipales, la escuela school of public administration, the cafeteria and the reception
Fotos en color Colour photos
Jordi8emad6 de administracion publica, la cafeteria y la sala de recepciones. sUite.
En el vestibulo, junto a los dos ascensores, se encuentra la In the vestibule, the main staircase of glass and metal IS
Folos en blanco y negro
Black & whtte photos escalera principal de vidrio y metal. Dos escaleras circulares situated next to the two lifts. Two Circular stairways, one at
strUwing reklamefoto en los extremos de la planta sirven para la comunicacion either end of the floor, provide Internal communication between
interna de las oficinas. the offices.
La estructura se resuelve mediante un sistema de dobles The structure IS resolved on the basis of a system of double
pilares situados en el corredor; el forjado es prefabricado y pillars situated In the COrridor; these provide the only support

Emplazamiento y vista lateral


del edificio de tres pisos
de attura .
\
\ r Site plan and side view
of the three-storey buildln,.
\.
J- r'

58
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

no dispone de otro apoyo. Con esta apuesta estructural se for the prefabricated floor slab. This structural treatment
consigue una mayor libertad a la hora de distribuir la planta, permitted greater freedom In the distribution of the floor, which
que se realizani segun modulos prefabricados de un metro IS based on prefabricated modules measuring 1 metre square
de anchura y de 7,8 cm de grosor. La separacion se dobla with a depth of 7.8 cm. The partitions are doubled to give
para obtener un mejor aislamiento acustico en los de spa- Improved acoustic Insulation In the offices of the senior
chos de mejor responsabilidad. Este esfuerzo por una planta personnel. This commitment to a fleXible floor plan was also
flexible tambien se aplicara a las instalaciones tecnicas (ra- applied to the technical services (radiators, electrical wiring,
diadores, electricidad, ventilacion , etc.) siguiendo el mismo ventilation, etc.) on the basis of the same criterion.
criterio. The facades are glazed; the framing elements are of metal,
Las fachadas son acristaladas; la carpinteria es metalica y finished In places With stainless steel. All of the Windows are
esta parcialmente recubierta por acero inoxidable. Todas las double, With one of each pair able to be opened. The parapets
ventanas son dobles y la segunda se puede abrir. Los ante- are of tinted glass. The gable walls and the longitudinal walls

pechos son de vidrio tintado . Los testeros y los muros of the council chamber are clad With black S~lvag stone. The
longitudinales de la sala de plenos estan aplacados con pie- acoustic ceiling and the Vinyl floor were Installed before the
dra negra de S~lvag. partitions.
EI cielo raso acustico y el suelo de vinilo se colocaron antes The vestibule, the COrridor giVing access to the council
que la tabiqueria. chamber and the chamber Itself are clad With Norwegian
EI vestibulo, el pasillo de acceso a la sala de pie nos y la GJellebaek marole.
propia sala de plenos se realizan con marmol noruego de
Gjellebaek.

59
2G Obras 'i proyectos Work' and projects

~ III~ Imlll~t[t~~jlillllllllllllllll: Illalrill] I ! ilil11 [, Jilin' I


III

Illtllllll~IIIII:lil:I!litU::llrltlljjl:jl'III!I'1

Ii·....'l~ ,..,....... ~!
u. _
~. ' [
r---E 1 . ,;:1:1
111 -- I I - Ilf + +t
mJ!c-fI
d. i . I

60
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

PJantasyalzadosmuestran
la senclllez estructural
del edificio.

Plans and elevations show


the structural and compositional
simplicity of the buildina:.
2G Obras 'I pro'lectos Work' and projects

62
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 20

En el vestibulo , junto a los dos


ascensores , se encuentra
la escalera principal de vidrio
y metal. La fachada de uno
de los testeros esta aplacada
con piedra negra de Solvag.

In the vestibule, the glass and


metal staircase is situated nert
to the two lifts . The facade
of one of the end walls is clad
with black Solvag stone.
2G Obras y proyectos WorkS and projects

64
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

Un pabellon aislado contiene


las estancias mas simb6licas:
la sala de plenos y la sala
de reuniones.

A free -standing pavilion contains


the most symbolic spaces '
the council chamber and
meetin,room.

65
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Edificio SAS/Royal Hotel, Copen hague


SAS Building/Royal Hotel, Copenhagen
EI proyecto para el edificio de oficinas de la compania Work on the project for the offices for the SAS airline and
SAS y el hotel Royal se inici6 en 1956_ Por aquella epoca el the Royal Hotel commenced In 1956. By that time the site
emplazamiento ya habia sido escogido. EI motivo de su si- had already been selected. The chOice of a location in the
tuaci6n central en la ciudad era debido a la necesidad de City centre was determined by the need to concentrate within
concentrar en un mismo complejo una terminal aerea, un a single complex an air terminal, a hotel and a travel agents',
hotel y una agencia de viajes, ya que sus necesidades se given that their requirements were complementary.
complementan. A proposal was put to the City Council to cover over part of
Se propuso al ayuntamiento la cubrici6n de parte de la via the railway line to provide a car park and good vehicle access
del tren para poder conseguir un area de aparcamiento y una to the airport; at the same time, the hotel benefited from its
buena accesibilidad de vehiculos desde el aeropuerto; ade- central location, In spite of the Inconvenience of city traffic.
mas, el hotel pod ria establecer una buena oferta al estar en The bUilding has a height of 22 storeys. In his project report.
el centro de la ciudad, a pesar de los inconvenientes del Jacobsen IS fundamentally concerned with two Issues. The
tralico rodado. first of these IS the City CounCil's stipulation that maximum
Emplazamlento Site EI edificio tiene 22 plantas. En la memoria descriptiva, advantage be taken of the potential of the site, although the
Copenhague Copenhagen
Jacobsen se refiere fundamentalmente ados motivos. EI pri- only option was to build to the full height of 70 metres
ProyectoyConstruccion mero de ellos es que el ayuntamiento exigi6 que se aprove- permitted by planning regulations. The second Issue relates
Design and Constructton
1956-1961 chara al maximo el potencial que ofrecia el emplazamiento, to the fact that a high-rise building was the only viable solubon
pero no hubo otra posibilidad mas que completar en su tota- for a hotel In such a nOIsy location.
Fotos en color Colour photos
JordiBemado
lidad los 70 metros de altura que permitian las ordenanzas. In line with the wish to dispose of the greatest possible surface
EI segundo, que la soluci6n de un edificio en altura era el area on the ground and first floors for the air terminal and the
Fotosen blanco ynegro
Black & white photos
unico recurso po sible para un hotel situado en un lugar tan travel agents', It was decided to combine a low bUilding, With
striiwing reklamefoto ruidoso. these two floors, and a high-rise bUilding to accommodate
Respecto al deseo de tener la mayor superficie posible para the guests rooms.
ubicar en las plantas bajas y primera la terminal aerea y la The treatment finally arrived at was necessarily light, In order
agencia de viajes, se decide combinar un edificio bajo, con to balance the new built mass, which was potentially at odds
estas dos plantas, y un edificio en altura para ubicar las habi- with ItS Immediate surroundings.
taciones. On the exterior a grey-green panel was used, divided vertically
La soluci6n final deberia ser ligera para asi equilibrar la nue- by anodized aluminium mullions
va masa construida que pod ria resultar extraiia en el entorno
inmediato.

66
La soluei6n de un edifieio
en altura de 22 plantas era
el unieo re eurso posible para
situar un hotel en un lu,ar
tan ruidoso.

A 22·storey tower offered


the only possible solution
for plaein, a hotel on sueh
a noisy site.

Se recurri6 a un panel gris-verdoso dividido verticalmente The colour of the glazing makes reference to the sky and the
par montantes de aluminio anodizado. reflection of the clouds. From Jacobsen's pomt of View,
EI color del vidrio hace referencia al cielo y al reflejo de las although brighter colours might have given more life to the
nubes. Para Jacobsen unos col ores mas vivos quizas hubie- bUilding, the effect would have been too strident, something
ran dado mas vida al edificio pero hubieran producido un the architect wa~always concerned to avoid .• The reflection
efecto lIamativo que el arquitecto queria eludir en tad a mo- of the sky gives the bUilding a changing character which I
menta: "EI reflejo del delo da al edificio un caracter cambian- believe IS more Important than the chOice of more
te que creo tiene mas importancia que el haber escogido un ;pectacular effect.·
efecto mas espectacular". ~he tall, light block reqUired a heavy base, which was achieved
EI alto y ligero bloque necesitaba una base pesada, par 10 by Jsmg panels In a darker tone of grey-green.
cual se recurri6 a unos paneles de un color gris-verdoso mas
oscuro.

67
68
Obras y proyectos Works and prOjects 2G

Plantas, alzados y secciones,


y vista del edificio en relaci6n
a su entorno urbano.

Plans, elevations and sections,


and the buildina: in relation to
its urban context.

69
2G Obras y proyectos

70
Obras y prayectas Works and prO! -t, 2G

Diversos botetos y vistas


del vestibulo del hotel muestran
la importancia de este espaclo.

Various sketches and views


of the hotel hall reveal
the Importance of this space
72
Obras y proyectos W('lr~ and prOJect 2G

Arne Jacobsen diseiio diversas


piezas de decoracion
expresamente para este
conjunto de hotel, terminal
aerea y agencia de viajes.

Arne Jacobsen designed various


pieces of furniture specially
for this hotel, air terminal
and travel aeency complex

73
2G Obras y proyectos Works and proJects

St. Catherine's & Merton College, Oxford


St. Catherine's & Merton College, Oxford
La referencia al espititu y al ritual de los tradicionales Reference to the spirit and the ritual of the traditional
"colleges" britanicos fue una premisa Que se exigi6 desde el British college was one of the premisses In the brief presented
momenta en Que Jacobsen recibi6 el encargo. to Jacobsen.
EI proyecto esta formado par un conjunto de edificios. Dos The project IS composed of a complex of bUildings . Two
bloQues alargados y paralelos de tres plantas de altura desti- parallel elongated three-storey blocks, occupied by student
nados a residencia de estudiantes formalizan las fachadas residences, establish the east and west facades. Between
este y oeste. Entre elias, en la zona media del conjunto, otros these, In the area In the centre of the complex, a further four
cuatro bloQues contienen el resto del programa: las salas blocks accommodate the rest of the programme: communal
comunes, cocina y oficinas, el come dar, la biblioteca y la rooms, kitchen and offices; the dining hall; the library and the
sala de actos. functions hall.
Junto al rio, en la zona de entrada, se situa la vivienda del Beside the river, In the entrance zone, IS the rector's residence,
rector can un jardin privado. Tambien aparecen como ele- with ItS own garden. Other free-standing elements Include the
mentos aislados la sala de musica y dos pistas de squash. musIc room and two squash courts.
Emplazamlento Site Send as porches cubiertos (situ ados bajo los bloQues resi- A sequence of roofed porticoes (situated beneath the student
Oxford
denciales, la biblioteca y la sala de actos) discurren de norte residences, the library and the functions hall) IS laid out from
Proyecto yConstrucclon a sur. north to south.
04 ndC nslfl :tl n
1960-1963 La cocina esta entre las estancias de ocio de los estudian- The kitchen IS situated In the midst of the recreational faclII·
tes, y tiene un acceso rod ado directo par la fachada norte. ties, with ItS own direct vehicle access on the north facade.
Folos en color CI Jurptof'Jl('>c
Xavier Guell En el mismo edificio, en el lado oeste, se encuentran las The offices are contained on the west Side of the same
oficinas. bUilding.
Fotos en blanco ynegro
Black & white photo~ Las areas de ocio de los estudiantes junior y senior estan The recreational areas for Junior and senior students are
Archivo Jacobsen separadas. Cada una dispone de su jardin privado, sus salas separate. Each has ItS own garden, ItS meeting rooms and
Jacobsen Archive
de reuniones y su area de debate Que, en el caso de los debating space, which In the case of the JUnior students, IS
junior, esta hundida respecto al nivel del suelo y esta presidi- set down below ground level, and presided over by a fireplace.
da par una chimenea. These areas communicate directly with the dining room.
De estas estancias se accede directamente al comedor. Between the volumes of the dining room and the library IS the
Entre el volumen del comedor y el de la biblioteca se encuen- open square that IS the centre of the project. A second square,
tra la plaza central descubierta del proyecto. Otra plaza situated between the library and the functions hall, IS
se encuentra entre la biblioteca y la sala de actos. En ella se overlooked by the bell tower.
erige la torre del campanario. In 1964 Jacobsen was asked to design a series of sports
En 1964 Jacobsen recibe el encargo de unos eQuipamientos facIlities for the north zone of St Catherine's. The project,
deportivos en la zona norte de St. Catherine. EI proyecto, which was never bUilt, comprised a sports area, a car park,
Que no se construy6, constaba de un area de deportes, un an Indoor sports pavIlion and a bUilding to store tools and
aparcamiento, un pabell6n de deportes cubierto, un edificio eqUipment for the maintenance of the gardens and grounds,
para maQuinaria de mantenimiento de las zonas ajardinadas, a construction for storing boats, a rubbish area and two
otra construcci6n para almacenaje de embarcaciones, una houses for staff.
zona para basuras y dos viviendas para usa del personal.

74
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

Vista aerea , emplazamiento


y plaza central entre el volumen
del comedor y la biblioteca .

Aerial view, site plan and


the central plaza between
the volume of the dinine hall
and the library.

75
2G Dbr.s y prayectas Works and projects

'·-
·-"·~·'1/.!-.~'''~ ''

, 1-- ~

Jr
I_:~ 1____..
' :J~

~_
r

76
Obras y proyectos Work. and pn t 2G

Diversas vistas y secciones


de los bloques de la biblioteca
y de la residencia de
estudiantes. asi como
de las pergolas.

Various views and sections


of the library block ,
the students' residence and
the pereolas.
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Dos vistas del bloque


de la residencia de estudiantes
y del elemento aisJado
destinado a sala de musica.

Two views of the students'


residence and the free-standine
volume intended for musical
activities.

78
Obras y proyectos Wnrks and prG, ts 2G

79
2G Obras y proyectos Work and proJects
Obras y proyectos Work.:; andprOjects 2 G

':"_t=====-A.

81
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

OJversas vistas y boeeto


deJ bloque destinado a la sala
de aetos .

Various views and sketehe


of the assembly hall volume.
Obras y proyectos Wor~ lnd pr( t 2G

83
Diversas vistas y boceto
del bloque destinado
a biblioteca . con la escalera
de caracol que Arne Jacobsen
diseno para las oficinas
Jespersen & Son.

Various views and a sketch


of the library block with
the spiral stair that Jacobsen
desi&ned for the Jespersen
& Son offices .
2G Obras y proyectos Works and proJect!>

Banco Nacional, Copen hague


National Bank, Copenhagen
EI Banco Nacional de Dinamarca esta situado en el lado The National Bank of Denmark stands on the right Side of
derecho del frente maritimo de Copenhague. Copenhagen's seafront.
En 1961 Arne Jacobsen gano un concurso restringido para In 1961 Arne Jacobsen won the hmlted competition to deSign
el diseiio del edificio. EI proyecto mantiene en su totalidad the new building. The project maintains In their entirety all of
los aspectos que el arquitecto presento en el concurso, a the features of the competition scheme, the only exception
excepcion de que, por motivos de seguridad, la entrada ori- being that, for security reasons, the main entrance, originally
ginal, situada en la fachada norte, se ubico definitivamente on the north facade, was moved to the opposite facade, so
en la fachada opuesta. EI edificio gira, por 10 tanto, 180 gra- that the bUilding was In effect rotated through 180 degrees.
dos. The first phase was concluded In 1971 with construction of
La primera fase concluyo en 1971 con la construccion de la the printing works and some of the offices. After Jacobsen's
imprenta y parte de las oficinas. Tras la muerte del arquitec- death, the rest of the building, the entrance and the low volume
to, el resto del edificio, la entrada y el cuerpo bajo fueron were completed by the architect's partners Hans Dlsslng and
completados por sus colaboradores y socios Hans Dissing y Otto Welthng. ThiS phase was concluded In 1978.
Emplazamlento Site Otto Weitling. Esta fase se concluyo en 1978. The project IS composed of two abstract volumes, one low,
Copenhague Copenhagen
EI proyecto se compone de dos cuerpos abstractos: uno one high. The first, lower volume, With a height of two storeys,
EqUipo Team bajo y uno alto. EI primero, el bajo, de dos plantas de altura, completely occupies the plot. The second, "the office block,
Arne Jacobsen
OttoWeitJing colmata el solar en su totalidad. EI segundo, el de oficinas, IS situated on the east Side of the trapezoidal Site, aligned
Hans Dining se sitOa en ellado este del solar trapezoidal, alineandose a la With Niels Juels Gade and separated from the Holmens church
Proyectoy Construcci6n calle Niels Juels Gade y separandose de la iglesia Holmens (17th-18th c.) on the bank of the canal of the same name, on
DesIgn and ConstructIon (s. X'Il>X'IlII) situada junto al canal del mismo nombre, al otro the other Side of Havnegade.
1965-1971IA.J .jO.W.J
1972-1978 (H.D./O.W.J lad a de la calle Havnegade. The composition of the facades IS based on a modulated
La composicion de las fachadas del proyecto sigue una mcc sequence of large panels which estabhsh a vertical rhythm,
Fotograffas Photograohy
Jordi Bernad6. pp. 92-93
dulac ion de grandes paneles que marcan un ritmo vertical, Inspired by the 18th-century harbour warehouses, that breaks
Archivo Jacobsen y D+W inspirado en los almacenes portuarios del s. X'IlIl y que rompe away from the monotony of a continuous plane. The slender
Jacobsen Archive and D+W apertures give a speCial hght In the Interior spaces.
la monotonia del plano continuo. Por las esbeltas rendijas se
consigue una especial iluminacion de los espacios interiores. The skin of the bUilding is of two materials. The base and the
La piel del edificio esta realizada con dos materiales; la base north and south facades of the office block are of Norwegian
y las fachadas norte y sur del cuerpo de oficinas se realizan Porsgrunn marble, while the east and west facades are curtain
can marmol noruego de Porsgrunn, mientras que las facha- walls, With tinted glaZing.
das este y oeste son sendos muros cortina con cristales
tintados.

86
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G
EI edificio de oficinas esta formado por dos alas paralelas The office bUilding IS composed of two parallel wings which
conectadas perpendicularmente, generando dos patios rec- connect perpendicularly, generating two rectangular
tangulares de iluminacion bajo cuya cubierta se encuentran courtyards providing Illumination, beneath which are the print
la imprenta y la seccion de servicios de atencion al publico. shop and the office which deals with the publrc.
La vegetacion es importante en el proyecto. Asi, la cubierta Vegetation plays an Important part In the project, with the
de los patios y del cuerpo bajo aparecen como la quinta fa- floor of the courtyards and the roof of the low volume acting
chada, estando permanentemente presentes en el edificio: as a fifth facade, and constituting a permanent presence In
jardines romanticos diseiiados con fustes de hormigon que the building: Romantic gardens designed with concrete shafts
asoman entre guijarros, piedras, rocas, plantas y arbustos which project up amongst pebbles, stones, rocks, plants and
de hoja perenne. La cubierta del cuerpo bajo se asume como evergreen shrubs. The roof of the low volume is approached
un plano que tiene continuidad en la zona ajardinada de la as a plane that finds continuity In the landscaped space by
pequeiia iglesia vecina. the Irttle neighbourrng church.

Situaci6n, emplazamiento En la resolucion del perimetro tambien se recurre a la vegeta- Vegetation also features In the resolution of the perimeter. A
y vista lateral del cuerpo bajo
de dos plantas de altura. cion. Una lamina de agua, un muro sinusoide y capiteles clase sheet of water, an undulating wall and claSSical capitals
cos acompanan a una hilera de arboles recortados que ro- accompany a row of neatly trrmmed trees which runs round
Location plan, site plan and side
view of the lower two-storey dean parte del conjunto y definen su verdadero limite, convir- part of the complex and defines its true boundary, creating a
volume. tiendose en un zocalo verde que oculta la franja horizontal que green plinth that conceals the horrzontal band separating the
separa el cuerpo alto del opaco basamento gris. Una pequena tall volume from 1!le opaque grey base. A small, discreet openrng
y discreta abertura en la fachada sur del muro perimetral es la In the south facade of the perimeter wall serves as the main
entrada principal. Una vez atravesada la piel gris se accede, entrance. After passing through the grey skin, a curving glazed
por una caja acristalada y curva colgada del techo, al impre- box suspended from the cerling gives access to the Impressive
sionante vestibulo: un espacio nebuloso iluminado por las hen- vestibule: a nebulous space lit by way of the clefts In the facade
diduras de la fachada que acompana, en el ambiente gris, el that accompanies, In the grey ambience, the course of a flight
discurrir de una escalera suspendida del oscuro y lejano techo. of stairs suspended from the dark ceiling high above.

87
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

88
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2(

Una pequelia y discreta


abertura en la fachada sur
del muroperimetralesla
entrada principal. Una hilera
de arboles rodean parte
del edificio y definen
su verdadero limite .

The main entrance is a small.


discreet opening in the south
facade of the perimeter wall.
A line of trees flanks part
of the buildina: and defines
its real boundary.

89
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

90
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

La vegetacion es importante
en el proyecto. La cubierta
de los patios y del cuerpo bajo
aparecen como la quinta
fachada .

The veKetation plays an


important part in the project.
The roof of the courtyards
and the lower volume
constitutes a fifth facade .
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

I~
·H,· If· tei ~ T

92
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

Planta , seccion y diversas vistas


del interior.

Plan, section and various views


of the interior.

93
94
Una vez atravesada la piel gris
seaccedealimpresionante
vestibulo: un espacio nebuloso
con una escalera suspendida
del oscuro y lejano lecho.

After passin, through the cray


skin, the visitor comes to
the impressive vestibule: a misty
space wtth a fliCht of stairs
suspended from the dark ,
distant ceiline.

L J [ J

95
Dos imagenes del sobrio
y elegante diseno del interior.

Two imaees of the soberly


eleeant interior design.

96
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Oficinas Hew, Hamburgo


Hew Offices, Hamburg
En 1963 se convoca un concurso para la realizacion de In 1963 a competition was held to design a new head·
un nuevo edificio para la compania HEW Se seleccionan cua· quarters for the HEW electricity company. Four projects were
tro proyectos. Tras un nuevo analisis la comision selecciono short'lIsted, and after further deliberation the jury selected
el presentado por Arne Jacobsen y Otto Weitling. the scheme submitted by Arne Jacobsen and Otto Weltllng.
EI conjunto se levanta al norte de la ciudad, junto a un parque The complex was constructed In the north of the City, adjacent
municipal, el metro y una autopista urbana. to a mUnicipal park, an underground station and an urban
Un eje longitudinal del bloque se desarrolla segun la direc· expressway.
cion norte·sur; su altura se limita por su proximidad al aero- A longitudinal aXIs of the block IS developed on a north-south
puerto de Hamburgo. orientation, ItS height limited by the proximity of Hamburg
Un pasaje cubierto central conduce a los accesos principales. airport.
EI aparcamiento se ubica en el este y paralelo al edificio alto, A roofed central passageway leads to the main accesses.
mientras que en el oeste, en una zona mas tranquila, se en· The car park IS to the east, parallel to the higher building,
cuentran los servicios sociales que se comunican con un par· while the qUieter zone to the west accommodates the
Emplazamlento SIte que municipal por una terraza que la resguarda del viento. customer services area, which communicates with the public
Hamburgo Hamburg
La circulacion publica y del personallaboral han sido segre- park by way of a terrace, sheltered from the wind.
Equlpo Team gadas: las primeras se situan al nivel de la calle , mientras The CIrculation routes for members of the public and
Arne Jacobsen
Otto Weitling que las segundas estan en el nivel inferior. En este nivel una employees are segregated from one another, with the former
calle de servicio entre el edificio y el aparcamiento permite el at street level and the latter below ground. At this lower level
Proyecto y Construccl6n
DeSIgn and Construcbon acceso a las baterias de ascensores por tres puntos. La zona a service street running between the bUilding and the car
1963·1969 de acceso superior, el de la calle , esta reservada para el park provides access to the groups of lifts at three different
Fotografias Photography publico y dispone de un area proxima de aparcamiento. pOints. The upper access zone, at street level, IS for public
Jordi Bernad6, EI programa de las plantas primera a duodecima se define use, with ItS own car park nearby.
pp. 99. 100, 101
(excepto foto inferior/
para oficinas. Las separaciones interiores se disponen se· Floors one to twelve are laid out as offices. The Internal
except bellow photo), gun una modulacion de 187,5 cm y tienen un espesor divIsions are based on a modular unit of 187.5 cm, with a
102 (foto inferior/bellow photo)
de 8 cm, el despacho mas pequeno tiene una dimension de thickness of 8 cm, so that the smallest offices measure 375
Fotografias Photography 375 x 612 ,5 cm. x 612.5 cm.
p. 101 (inferior/ bellow)
Photo-Tiede
Las tomas electricas , de telefono, la climatizacion , los The electrical power POints, telephone sockets, air condition-
bajantes, la iluminacion, etc., estan perfectamente modula· Ing, down pipes, lighting and so on are perfectly modulated,
das, por 10 que la planta es de una flexibilidad total. ensuring the optimum flexibility of the floor plan.
La fachada del edificio alto es un muro cortina fijo. La perfileria The facade of the tall bUilding IS a fixed curtain wall. The
metalica vertical se dispone cada 62,5 cm; horizontalmente vertical metal angle sections are spaced at Intervals of 62.5
la separacion es de 160 cm. EI antepecho tiene una altura cm, with a hOrIZontal s~paratlon of 160 cm. The parapet has
de 71 cm. a height of 71 cm.
En los nudeos del edificio se centralizan los ascensores, The bUilding's services are concentrated In nucleI: lifts, goods
montacargas, escaleras, lavabos, instalaciones, evacuacion liftS, stairs, tOilets, service trunking, smoke extraction and
de humos y conductos neum<iticos de comunicacion. pneumatic communications ducts.
En los extremos del bloque se encuentran los nucleos de The Internal circulation systems are located at either end of
circulacion internos, asi como ascensores y montacargas para the building, together with the lifts and goods lifts for staff use.
el personal. The structure of the bUilding IS of reinforced concrete, With
La estructura del edificio es de hormigon armado, las jacenas the north·south longitudinal beams cast In SitU, and the east·
longitudinales (norte·sur) estan realizadas in situ, y las trans· west transverse beams precast.
versales (este-oeste) son prefabricadas. Los pilares tambien The service nuclei give the structure greater rigidity to
son prefabricados. Withstand Wind loads.
Los nucleos de servicio rigidizan el conjunto contra la accion
del viento.

98
Un pasaje cubierto central
conduce a los accesos
principales.

A covered central passage


leads to the main accesses .

99
J
C
o 0 0 0 0

:::::I:X.. .,. . ,. . c-.-:m:=:rr~.' "U "lJTI7Jl ryrrrr "r

100
Las plantas y la secci6n definen
las dimensiones y el programa
del edificio . La fachada es
un murocortinafijo: laperfileria
vertical se dispone cada
62,S cm, horizontalmente
cada 160cm.

The plans and section define


the dimensions and programme
of the building: the grid has
a vertical spacing of 62.5 em ,
and a horizontal spacin"
of 160cm.
2G Obras y proyectos Works and proJects

Distintas imagenes que reflejan


lacalidad ambientalde
los interiores de las obras
de Arne Jacobsen.

Various images revealinc


the quality of atmosphere of
the interiors of Arne Jacobsen's
buildincs.

102
103
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Gimnasio Christianeum, Hamburgo


Christianeum Gymnasium, Hamburg
EI proyecto presentado a un concurso restringido par The project submitted by Arne Jacobsen and Otto Weltling
Arne Jacobsen y Otto Weitling resulto seleccionado para su was selected by the ludges of the limited competition for
ejecucion en 1966. construction In 1966.
EI conjunto se divide en tres partes: en el centro el aulario, a The complex IS divided Into three parts: the classroom block
un lado la sala de actos principal y en el otro dos salas de In the centre, with the main hall on one side and two more
actos mas. halls on the other.
EI edificio se levanta sabre un terreno en pendiente. Tres de The bUilding stands on a sloping site. Three of the facades
las fachadas tienen dos plantas de altura mientras que la have a height of two storeys, while the fourth, which looks
cuarta, la que da a los campos de deporte, solo tiene una. onto the sports grounds, IS single-storey.
Los vestuarios se encuentran en la planta inferior y sirven a The changing rooms are located on the lower level, and serve
su vez tanto para el pabellon cubierto como para las zonas both the Indoor sports pavilion and the plaYing fields, which
de de partes al aire libre a las cuales se accede mediante un are reached by way of a flight of steps which ascends to the
tramo de escaleras que salvan el desnivel. higher level.
Emplazamlento Site Uno de los principales factores del proyecto es su reto eco- One of the determining features of the brief was the strict
Hamburgo Hamburg
nomico, par ella se recurre a una estructura de elementos budget, and as a result the prolect utilized a structure of
EqUlpo Teitm prefabricados de hormigon. precast concrete elements.
Arne Jacobsen
OttoWeitiing En el diseno de las aulas se aplica la experiencia que ya In the deSign of the classrooms, Jacobsen made use of the
Hans Dissing utilizo Jacobsen para los complejos escolares que realize experience he had gained In working on other school prolects
Proyecto yCoostrucci6n unos anos antes, aunque en esta escuela se recogen las a few years before, although the premisses which underlie
,.j CUI tTl t 1'\ premisas de un program a diferenciado can respecto a los the Chrlstlaneum were deCidedly unconventional for the time,
1966-1971 IA.J .jO.W.I
1971-1972 IH.O.jO.W·1 convencionales de la epoca, hecho que se acusara en el and this difference IS clearly reflected In the deSign of the
diseno del edificio. EI gran vestibula dispone de un pequeno bUlldlng_
Fotografias P' I 'r ~y
Archivo Jacobsen y O+W bar y el suficiente espacio para la realizacion de exposicio- The spacIous vestibule has a small refreshment bar, and IS
Jacobsen Archive and D+W nes. La sala de actos tiene capacidad suficiente para alber- large enough to accommodate exhibitions. The main hall has
gar a todos los alumnos can motivo de inauguraciones, re- sufficient capacity to seat all of the pupils at once for openings,
parto de premios, obras de teatro a conferencias. La rela- pnze-glvlngs, plays or lectures. The relationship with the open
cion can los espacios abiertos es muy importante, como 10 spaces IS of great Importance, as IS demonstrated by the
demuestran los patios abiertos junto a las aulas de planta open courtyards off the ground-floor classrooms and the main
baja y la sala de actos, a las areas aterrazadas de la plan- assembly hall, or the terraced spaces on the upper floor with
ta superior con zonas de descanso, y donde el diseiio inte- their rest areas, where the deSign Incorporates technical
gra aspectos tecnicos como las claraboyas de iluminacion features such as the roof lights over the changing rooms. On
de los vestuarios. Entre las jacenas y los pilares de este thiS level a series of pergolas and sun screens are situated
piso se ubican pergolas ligeras y protecciones solares des- between the beams and pillars.
montables.

104
Emplazamiento y fragmento
de una de las fachadas con
el elemento prefabricado
dehormigon .

Site plan and partial view


of one of the facades with
the prefabricated concrete
element.

105
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Vistas de conjuntoy pJanta


semis6tano deJedificio
muestraniareJaci6nentrelieno
yvacioasicomoJaimportancia
de la estructura prefabricada.

Views of the complex and


the semi-basement level of
the buHdina show the
relationship between solid
and void , and the importance
of the prefabricated structure.
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

107
2G Obras 'I pro'lectos Works and projects

Secdones y detaJJes
de plantas 'I alzados muestran
laimportanciadela
modulaci6n. Entrejacenas
~ pilares se ubican pergolas
hgeras y protecciones solares
desmontables.

Sections and details of plans


and elevations reveal
the importance of the
modulation. Between the beams
and pillars are light pergolas
and movable sun screens.

108
109
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

Dos visiones de una de las


fachadas y un detalle
del interior.

Two views of one of the facade s


and a detail of the interior.

llO
2G Obras 'I pro'lectos Works and projects

Banco Central de Kuwait


Kuwait Central Bank
EI proyecto del Banco Central de Kuwait se ubica en la The project for the Central Bank of Kuwait was drawn up
capital del Emirato, cerca de palacio del Emir. for a site In the capital of the Emirate, near the Emir's palace.
Despues de varios cam bios de programa, su construcci6n After a number of changes to the programme, construclion
se empez6 en 1973 y se termin6 en 1976. commenced In 1973 and was completed In 1976.
EI exterior refleja la consideraci6n a la premisa principal, The exterior reflects the consideration given to the primary
la seguridad, y su planteamiento compositivo se basa en la premiSS, that of security, With a composllional approach based
experiencia del Banco Nacional de Dinamarca de Copenhague, on the experience of designing the National Bank of Denmark
reflejando caracteristicas similares. Fundamentalmente se In Copenhagen, conditIOned by Similar characteristics .
divide en dos elementos. Essenlially, the composition IS diVided Into two elements. The
EI primero, un cuerpo bajo de dos alturas Que, a modo de first of these, a low, double-height volume which serves as the
basamento, se ajusta al perimetro del solar trapezoidal. base, follows the perimeter of the trapeZOIdal plot.
EI proyecto tiene tres accesos: la entrada principal al banco, The prolect has three accesses: the main entrance to the bank,
la de vehiculos de servicio y el aparcamiento general. the access for service vehicles, and the general car park.
Emplazamlento Site Sobre la base emerge el edificio de oficinas. Su planta es rec- The office bUilding is set on top of the base volume. Rectan-
Kuwait
tangular y tiene cuatro niveles de altura y con uno adicional de gular in plan, thiS has a height of four storeys, with an addllional
EqUlPQ Team servicios sobre el vestibulo central. Bajo el nivel del suelo, el level for services above the central vestibule. The car park,
Arne Jacobsen
Otto Weitling aparcamiento, los archivos y una zona de instalaciones. the archives and a technical services area are situated below
Hans Oissing Contrastando con el pesado basamento opaco del conjunto, ground. In contrast to the heavy, opaque base of the complex,
Proyecto y Coostruccl6n la fachada del edificio de oficinas tiene un caracter ligero. the facade of the office bUilding has a lightweight character;
DeSign and Coostrucbon Este Queda enfatizado por subdivisiones vertic ales blancas thiS lighter Quality IS emphaSized by the white vertical
1966 IA.J ';0 .W·1
1971-1976IH.D./O.W.1 Que enmarcan la celosia de lamas horizontales de aluminio. subdiVISions which frame the aluminium slats of the hOrizon-
EI acceso de la planta baja esta iluminada por una cupula tal blinds. The ground floor access is Illuminated by the gilded
fotografias Photography
Archivo O+W dorada junto al control de entrada. Tras el nucleo de servi- dome by the entrance security control. Behind the nucleus of
O. W Archive cios y comunicaci6n vertical se lIega a un gran espacio cen- services and vertical communlcalions IS the great Quadruple-
tral de cuatro plantas de altura iluminado, principalmente, height central space, lit prinCipally by twenty-five metal roof
por veinticinco claraboyas metalicas de luz artificial y Que lights proViding artifiCial light. which occupy the centre of the
estan situadas en la parte central. Este espectacular techo ceiling. This spectacular ceiling IS framed by a perimeter light
esta enmarcado por un pozo de luz natural peri metra I. well which lets In natural light.
La decoraci6n del gran espacio se limita a una escalera Que The decoralion of the great space IS limited to the stairway
comunica las distintas plantas, y su centralidad se reafirma which connects the different floors, its central position
mediante una galeria Que rodea el vacio. emphaSized by the gallery which runs around the great VOid.

11 2
Obras 'I pro'lectos Works and projects 2G

EJ edificio del banco con sus


dos cuerpos, una composicion
ya utilizada en el Banco
Nacional de Copenhague.

The bank building with rts


two volumes , a composition
previously used for the National
Bank in Copenhagen.
2G Obras 'I pro'lec tos Works and projects

I . ~
r

I ~

I
I : I ~ ,Tlt .,; ,'1iif':I. 1'_ .--
~ I
1
I ~
r,~ I
. -
- 14~ --
.- :i \
I
I
I
I I~ IL ~ -
.,
· i\
I I

h , , ....

n.
or .

1
I

llr--ll
I ~

I
I-----"
I ~ TT 1
~

_L ~
-

10:'"
1=='
/

-
I

f-
_FlrI
r-tf
,-

L
--
I
I
I
- I
I'
I I I I 1 I I I I

, .
,.
I

114
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

La plantay la secci6n muestran


la importancia del espacio
central de cuatro plantas
de altura , iluminado por 25
claraboyasmetillicas de luz
artificial y un pozo
de luz natural perimetrat.

The plan and the section show


the importance of the central
four-storey space , lit by 25
metal roof lights , givingartfficial
light, and a well providing
natural light by the perimeter.

115
2G Obras y proyectos Work~ and projects

Embajada Danesa, Londres


Danish Embassy, London
En 1969 Arne Jacobsen recibi6 el encargo del Ministerio In 1969 Arne Jacobsen was commissioned by the Danish
de Asuntos Exteriores de Dinamarca para la construe cion de Foreign MInistry to construct the new embassy In London,
la nueva sede en Londres. Las obras se iniciaron en agosto and work started on site In August 1970.
de 1970. FollOWing Jacobsen's death In March 1971, work continued
A pesar de la muerte de Jacobsen en marzo de 1971 , el under the supervision of Hans Dlsslng and Otto Weltllng until
trabajo continuo bajo la direccion de Hans Dissing y Otto November of that year, when construction was Interrupted
Weitling hasta noviembre del mismo ano, fecha en Que, por for economiC reasons and not resumed until April 1975. The
motivos economicos, las obras se interrumpieron para structure was completed In July 1976, and the building finally
reanudarse en abril de 1975. La estructura se completo en completed In September 1977.
julio de 1976, y el edificio Quedo finalizado en septiembre de The embassy stands at the lunctlon of Sloane Street, Hans
1977. Street and PavIlion Road. The finished form IS based on a U-
La embajada se situa en el cruce de las calles Sloane Street, shaped plan which opens onto Hans Street to the south.
Hans Street y Pavilion Road. EI resultado final se forma liza The main block, SIX storeys high, IS on Sloane Street. The
EmpJazamlento SIte mediante una planta en "U" abierta hacia el sur, hacia la calle ground floor contains the main entrance, an exhibition room,
l ondres l ondon
Hans Street. a lecture room, offices for gIVIng out Information and iSSUing
EQUlpo Team En la calle Sloane Street se ubica el bloQue principal de seis visas and other auxiliary offices.
Arne Jacobsen
Otto Weitling plantas de altura. En la planta baja se situa la entrada princi· The offices of the embassy proper occupy the next three floors.
Hans Dissing pal, una sala de exposiciones, una sala de conferencias, ofi· The fifth floor IS laid out as the offiCial residence, With a kitchen
Pmyecto yCoostrucci6n cinas de informacion y visa do, y otros despachos auxiliares. area and reception rooms, while the top floor accommodates
Oe!lgn andConslructlon Las oficinas propias de la embajada ocupan las siguientes the ambassador's private residence.
1969IA.J / O.W.1
1971· 1977 IH.D/ O.W.I tres plantas. On Pavilion Road there is a two-storey bUilding which contains
EI Quinto piso se destin a a la residencia oficial can un area de four apartments for service staff.
fotogralias Photography
Archivo Jacobsen,
cae ina y estancias de recepcion, mientras Que la ultima plan· In the space between the two buildings there IS a courtyard,
D+W Y Xavier GOeli. ta contendra la residencia privada del embajador. and on the north Side of thiS, at flrst·floor level, against the
Jacobsen Archive,
D+W and Xavier Guell.
En la calle Pavilion Road se situa un edificio de dos plantas party wall of the neighbOUring property, a small canteen
de altura Que contiene cuatro viviendas para el personal de connects the two volumes.
servicio. ThiS courtyard, which IS terraced to the south, IS laid out on
En el espacio entre los dos edificios se ubica un patio en top of the car park, storerooms and other services which are
cuya parte norte, en la primera planta y junto a la medianera contained In the basement that occupies the entire area of
de las edificaciones vecinas, se encuentra una peQuena can· the floor plan.
tina Que conecta los dos edificios. EI patio esta aterrazado The structure, With its screens and slabs of reinforced con-
hacia el sur y cubre el aparcamiento, los almacenes y otros crete, IS based on a modular Unit of 8.80 m between axes,
servicios Que se alojan en un sotano Que ocupa la totalidad serving In effect to Invoke the structural splnt of the
de la planta . neighbOUring bUildings. The services and 11ft shafts are situated
La estructura de pantallas y losas de hormigon armado se at either end of the floor plan, gIVIng the whole a longitudinal
realizo con una modulacion de 8,80 m entre ejes Que, de stability.
algun modo, recogen el espiritu estructural de las edificacio- The stepped form of the courtyard facade IS a reference to
nes vecinas. Los servicios y las cajas de ascensores se colo- the existing houses, while the Sloane Street facade also seeks

EI edificio y su contexto
inmediato.

The building and its immediate


context.

116
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

can en los extremos de la planta dando estabilidad longitudinal to establish a harmonious relationship with Its surroundings.
al conjunto. The facade IS divided Into three bands. For the lowest of these,
La forma escalon ada de la fachada del patio hace referencia containing the main entrance, concrete IS the main matenal,
a las casas preexistentes, mientras que en la de Sloane Street while the other matenals used for the doors and the strip of
tambien se pretende establecer una relaci6n arm6nica con tinted glass above are set back on a separate, darker plane.
el entorno. Set above this glazed stnp IS the three-storey volume housing
La fachada se divide en tres franjas. En la inferior, la del the embassy offices.
acceso principal, se recurre al hormig6n como material prin- The structure of the bUilding IS manifested In the modular
cipal, mientras que materiales como los usados en las puer- elements, which are of a greeny-brown extruded aluminium
tas 0 en la parte alta son de vidrio tintado y se presentan en and tinted glass and rest on the metal supports posItioned In
un plano retrasado mas oscuro. Sobre esta franja acristalada the structural VOid.

sob resale el cuerpo de tres plantas destinadas a las oficinas A curtain wall of tinted glass gives the desired neutrality to
de la embajada. the facade of the top two floors, which are occupied by the
La estructura del edificio se acusa en los elementos modula- ambassador's residence.
dos, que estan realizados en aluminio extrusion ado de color
marr6n verdoso y cristal tintado, y que descansan sobre unos
soportes metalicos dispuestos en el hue co estructural.
En la fachada de las dos ultimas plantas, las que contienen
las estancias del embajador, se recurre a un muro cortina de
vidrio tintado que enfatiza su papel neutro.

117
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

us
Obras y proyectos Works and proJect! 2G
La forma escalonada de
la fachada principal pretende
establecer una relacion
armonica con el entorno.
Plantas.

The stepped form of the main


facade seeks to establish
a harmonious relationship with
the surroundines. Plans.

119
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects

120
La fachada posterior con
las viviendas para el personal
de servicio .

The rear facade with the houses


for the service staff.

121
2G Obras y proyectos WI KS and proects

Secciones y diversas vistas


del espacio entre los
dosedtficios.

Sections and various views


of the space between the
two buildings

122
Obras y proyectos Works and projects 2G

I 1

II
II
I

123
2G Obras y proyectos Works and projects
Diversas vistas del interior
de la embajada .

Various views of the Interior


of the embassy.

125
2G Blografia Biography

Arne Jacobsen

Fotografia Ph)\( r"phy


Dansk Design Center

126
Biogro!io B,owophy 2G

[ Biografia 1902 11 de febrero 1902 11th of February


Biography Nace en Copenhague. Born In Copenhagen.
1924 1924
Titulo en una Escuela de Construcci6n en Copenhague. Graduates from a School of Construction In Copenhagen.
1925 1925
Viaje de estudios a Francia e Italia. Study triP to France and Italy.
Medalla de plata en la Exposici6n Mundial de Paris. Silver Medal at the World's Fair In Paris.
1927 1927
Titulo por la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de Degree from the Royal Academy of Fine Art In Copenhagen.
Copenhague. 1928
1928 Gold Medal for his graduation prolect for the National
Medalla de oro por su proyecto de graduaci6n para el Museum In Klampenborg.
Museo Nacional en Klampenborg . 1936
1936 Eckersburg Medal.
Medalla Eckersberg. 1943
1943 EXile In Sweden.
Exilio en Suecia. 1945
1945 Return to Denmark.
Regreso a Dinamarca. 1954
1954 Honorary Prize, Blenal de Sao Paulo.
Premio de Honor, Bienal de Sao Paulo. 1955
1955 C. F Hansen Medal.
Medalla C.F. Hansen. 1956-1965
1956-1965 Professor at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts In
Profesor de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de Copenhagen.
Copenhague. 1960
1960 International Grand PrIZe for Architecture.
Gran Premio Internacional de Arquitectura. 1962
1962 Medal of Honour of the Danish Architects' Association.
Medalla de Honor de la Asociaci6n Danesa de Arquitectos. 1963
1963 Honorary member of the Royal Institute of British Architects
Miembro Honorario del Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBAI, London.
(RIBAI, Londres. 1964
1964 Member of the Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin.
Miembro de la Academia de Bellas Artes. Berlin. 1965
1965 Member of the San Lucca National Academy, Rome.
Miembro de la Academia Nacional de San Lucca, Roma. Member of the Serbian Academy of SCiences and Arts,
Miembro de la Academia Serbia de las Ciencias y de las Belgrade
Artes, Belgrado. 1969
1969 Medal of the Academy of Fine Arts, Hamburg.
Medalla de la Academia de Bellas Artes. Hamburgo. 1971
1971 Gold Medal of the Academy of Architecture of France.
Medalla de oro de la Academia de Arquitectura de Francia. 1971 3rd of March
1971 3 de marzo. Dies In Copenhagen.
Fallece en Copenhague.

127
2G Nexus

Conferencia del profesor Arne Jacobsen con motivo de la concesion


del premio Fritz Schumacher 1963, de la Fundacion F.Y.S.
de Hamburgo, en la Escuela Tecnica Superior de Hannover el dia
6 de diciembre de 1963.

Sobre forma y diseno en la actualidad

Como joven estudiante de arquitectura aprovechaba cualquier oportunidad para viajar a Alemania,
siempre que el poco dinero del que disponfa me 10 permitfa , entusiasmado por la cultura alemana y
con profunda admiraci6n por la Bauhaus de Dessau. En aquel entonces nunca habrfa sofia do que
aquf se prestarfa atenci6n a mi obra. Esto ocurri6 por primera vez durante el tercer Reich, cuando
por desgracia tuve que abandonar mi patria y, por segunda vez en esta ocasi6n, 10 cual me emocio-
na profundamente. iSH, los tiempos cambian con rapidez. Tal como se ha dicho a menudo (aunque
nunca demasiado a menudo) ha de aumentar la confianza entre las personas, pero no a traves del
aislamiento y a posteriori, sino a traves de la colaboraci6n y el intercambio de ideas.
Las posibilidades de colaboraci6n entre naciones nunca han side tan grandes como hoy en dfa. La
tecnica moderna nos ayuda a alcanzar una visi6n mas amplia de los problemas mutuos y con ello
una mejor comprensi6n de los demas. Aspiramos a una sociedad universal y esperamos que el
egofsmo de las personas disminuya de generaci6n a generaci6n. Los intercambios mundiales ayu-
dan a superar los obstaculos nacionales. Esto no quiere decir que se vayan a eliminar las particula-
ridades culturales nacionales y regionales, bien al contrario, deberfamos colaborar para proteger-
las. No sera tan diffcil, ya que precisamente apreciamos 10 ajeno, las cerezas del jardfn del vecino ...
Esta visi6n es optimista pues en la actualidad hay muchos indicios que apuntan en sentido contra-
rio, aunque, en nuestra profesi6n, tenemos que creer en un desarrollo positiv~ del futuro, ya que
s610 sobre esta base podemos seguir construyendo.
Muchos piensan que para ser un buen arquitecto hay que tener tambien una filosoffa propia. Creo
que no es necesario, pero se la facilidad con la que un periodista "ayuda" a un arquitecto empujandole
a tomar un posicionamiento filos6fico. Esto 10 he podido observar reiteradamente y, si hoy me
preguntaran, seguramente les responderfa que no tengo una visi6n filos6fica completa. Creo que
es algo peligroso, un obstaculo para una comprensi6n natural y arquitect6nica, un distanciamiento
de la realidad, un edificio intelectual que envejece demasiado rapido y que podrfa hacernos perder
el contacto con el mundo en el que ahora vivimos. La filosoffa arquitect6nica se puede convertir,
con demasiada facilidad, en algo a 10 que uno se apega para asegurar su propia visi6n , una almoha-
dilla sobre la que se puede dormir estupendamente. ,
Las ideas defendidas por la Bauhaus hace 35 afios aun son validas en la actualidad. EI funcionalismo,
gracias aDios, aun sigue vivo, y si 10 abandonamos es facil que acabemos en el peligroso camino
que conduce a la arquitectura sin finalidades (zwecklos). Peligroso, porque la arquitectura es un
tipo de arte condicionado (gebunden) y ha de seguir siendolo. Muy pocos grandes talentos han ....

130
Nexus 2G
Lecture delivered by Arne Jacobsen on the occasion of his receiving
the Fritz Schumacher prize, 1963, from the F.V.S. Foundation
in Hamburg, at the Higher Technical School of Hannover on the
6th of December 1963.

On form and design at the present time

As a young architecture student I used to take every opportunity to travel to Germany, whenever the
little money at my disposal would allow me to, filled with enthusiasm for German culture and a
profound admiration for the Bauhaus in Dessau. At that time I would never have dreamed that
attention would be paid to my work here. That happened for the first time during the Third Reich ,
when unfortunately I was obliged to abandon my native land, and for the second time, on this
present occasion which is for me so profoundly moving. Yes, times do change rapidly! There is a
need for greater trust between people, as has so often been said, although it can never be said too
often; not through isolation and a posteriori, but through collaboration and the exchange of ideas.
The possibilities for collaboration between nations have never been so great as they are today.
Modern technology is helping us to arrive at a clearer vision of our mutual problems, and through
this a better understanding of others. We aspire to a universal society and hope that people's
egotism will diminish, generation by generation. World-wide exchanges help us to overcome national
obstacles. This does not mean that national and regional cultural particularities are going to be
eliminated; quite the contrary, it will be up to us to collaborate to protect them. This will not be too
difficult, given that what we most appreciate is precisely the remote, the cherries in our neighbour's
garden.
This is an optimistic view, since at the present time there are numerous indices pointing in the
opposite direction, although in our profession we have to believe in a positive development of the
future, since it is only on this basis that we can continue to construct.
Many people think that to be a good architect you also need to have a philosophy of your own. I do
not believe this is necessary, but I am conscious of the facility with which a journalist 'helps' an
architect, pushing him into adopting a philosophical position. I have had the opportunity to observe
this on repeated occasions, and if they were to ask me today, I would answer that I have no com-
plete philosophical vision. I think such a thing is a little dangerous, an obstacle to a natural architectonic
understanding, a distancing from reality, an intellectual building that ages too quickly and that might
cause us to lose our contact with the world we live in now. Architectural philosophy can all too easily
become something one clings to in order to guarantee one's own visio,n, a pillow on which one can
sleep marvellously.
The ideas upheld by the Bauhaus 35 years ago are still valid at the present time. Functionalism, thank
God, is still alive, and if we abandoned it we might very well find ourselves on the dangerous path that
leads to an architecture without ends, a zwecklos architecture. Dangerous, because architecture -+

131
2G Nexus

.. conseguido crear verdadero arte haciendo abstraccion de la funcion, .. IS a conditioned or gebunden art, and must carry on being so. Only a
pero en este caso, ino se supera la frontera entre arquitectura y escultu- very few great talents have managed to create true art by making an
ra? Cuando al comienzo he manifestado que en realidad no tengo una abstraction of function, but In such cases, do we not cross the frontier
filosofia especial, quiza no sea del todo cierto. Las ideas de la Bauhaus between architecture and sculpture? When at the beginning I declared
sobre la relacion entre funcion, tecnica y estetica estan tan arraigadas that In fact I do not have a specialized philosophy, perhaps that was not
en nuestro pensamiento, en nuestro trabajo y en nuestras convicciones entirely accurate. The Ideas of the Bauhaus with regard to the relationship
internas que, en la actualidad, son la base sobre la que trabaja cualquier between function, technique and aesthetics are so deeply rooted In our
arquitecto honrado. thinking, In our work and In our Innermost convictions that, at the present
Vivimos en una epoca en que el sobrio funcionalismo aun se manifiesta time, they are the baSIS on which any honourable architect works.
con mayor fuerza que en los anos 20. Pienso en la construccion We live In an age In which sober functionalism manifests itself With even
industrializada. Aunque se plantea la dud a de si este campo, que aun se more force than In the twenlles. I am thinking of Industrialized construction.
encuentra en su estadio inicial, en el futuro 10 cultivaran los arquitectos 0 Although there is some doubt as to whether this field, which IS still In ItS
solo los ingenieros. Creo que los arquitectos nos tenemos que involucrar Initial phase, will be cultivated In the future by architects or only by
en el. Nos tenemos que enfrentar a este problema y profundizar en este engineers. I believe that we architects have to be Involved in it. We have
trabajo. Abandonarlo seria renunciar a un campo de importancia vital y to confront this problem and explore this work In depth. To abandon It
tend ria graves consecuencias. Solo nos quedarian aquellos proyectos would be to give up a field of vital Importance and would have seriOus
monumentales en los que la prefabricacion no fuese rentable. La cons- consequences. We would be left with only those monumental projects for
trucci6n de edificios de viviendas, oficinas y fabric as se aleja del diseno which prefabrication was not profitable. The construction of apartment
artistico. En Dinamarca ya se construyen industrialmente hospitales, es- bUildings, offices and factOries IS moving away from artistic deSign. In
cuelas y universidades que, si bien han sido proyectados por arquitec- Denmark, industrial construction is already being used for hospitals,
tos, estan sometidos a los condicionantes economicos de la construc- schools and Universities which, although they were designed by architects,
cion. Nuestros fabricantes exportan una buena cantidad de casas prefa- are subject to the economic factors that condition construction. Our
bricadas, sin fantasia ni espiritu, aunque tecnicamente satisfactorias. En manufacturers export a conSiderable quantity of prefabricated houses,
Dinamarca estas casas aun no pueden competir en cuanto a precio con technically satisfactory but devOid of fantasy and spirit. In Denmark they
la construccion convencional, pero aparentemente si pueden en el ex- stili can not compete With traditional construction in terms of cost, but
tranjero, 10 cual seguramente se debe a la cotizacion de nuestra divisa. apparently they can in other countries, which IS surely due to the rate of
Si hablo de este tema es para advertir a mis colegas alemanes de los exchange of our currency.
peligros que implica retrasar el momento de involucrarnos en este cam- Jf I am speaking about thiS Issue It IS to alert my colleagues to the dangers
po, y recomiendo encarecidamente afrontar estos problemas en la ense- ImpliCit In putting off the moment of getting Involved In thiS field, and I
nanza para que nuestros jovenes, bien preparados, resuelvan estos im- earnestly recommend confronting these problems In the architecture
portantes problemas junto con los ingenieros, e incluso puedan recon- schools, so that our young people, well trained and prepared, may resolve
quistar una parte del terreno perdido hasta ahora. these Important questions together With the engineers, and even re-
Hace unos anos se criticaba, con razon, la falta de planificacion urbana. conquer some of the ground that has already been lost.
En general, esto ahora ya no es necesario, aunque tambien hay que Afew years ago there was Justifiable CritiCism of the lack of urban planning.
decir que se em pie zan a encontrar algunos planes que han sido victimas In general, such criticism IS no longer necessary, although It also needs
de la prefabricacion: 10 mas barato es hacer que las gruas de montaje to be said that we are beginning to find plans that have been victims of
avancen en linea recta y, por 10 tanto, ise hacen avanzar en linea recta' prefabrication: the most economical approach is to have the assembly
iPor que en una epoca en la que circula tanto dinero se sobrevaloran tanto cranes move forward In a straight line, and so they do move forward in a
las medidas de ahorro economico lIegando a sacr~icar la calidad, sobre straight line! Why IS It that In an age In which so much money IS CIrculating,
todo de aquellos aspectos que no son cuantificables materialmente? measures for cutting costs are so overvalued, to the pOint of sacrifiCing
En la construcci6n prefabricada tiene una importancia decisiva reducir al quality, above all In those aspects that can not be materially quantified?
maximo el numero de elementos distintos. Es "ideal' que solo haya dos Decisive Importance IS given In prefabricated construction to redUCing to
o tres elementos diferentes y entonces el trabajo del arquitecto solo the minimum the number of different elements_It IS 'ideal' for there to be
consiste en "combinarlos' adecuadamente. Pero, por ejemplo, si a un only two or three different elements, and the Job of the architect then
nino Ie quitamos las piezas de su juego de construccion y solo Ie deja- consists Simply of 'combining' these In an appropriate way. But, for
mos dos 0 tres, enseguida perdera interes en el juego. A pesar de estas example, If we take away pieces from a child's construction set, leaving
tristes perspectivas de futuro no podemos volvernos de espaldas y con- only two or three, that child Will lose all interest in playing. In spite of

132
2G Nexus

denar la nueva manera de construir tal como han hecho, por desgracia, these depressing prospects for the future, we can not turn our backs and
algunos arquitectos; seriamos reaccionarios. Nuestro trabajo ha de con- condemn the new way of building as, unfortunately, certain architects
sistir en concentrar nuestros conocimientos y nuestros esfuerzos en uno have done; that would be reactionary. Our work must consist In
de los campos mas importantes de la arquitectura, el de las proporcio- concentrating our knowledge and our efforts In one of the most important
nes. Cuando se trata de combinar muchos elementos iguales crece la fields of architecture, that of proportion. When It is a matter of comblmng
importancia de las proporciones. La creciente implantacion de las nue· a large number of identical elements, the Importance of the proportions
vas tecnicas de prefabricacion es insatisfactoria esteticamente y creo Increases. The growing incorpora~on of new techniques of prefabrication
que, en parte, se debe a que no se ha ofrecido la oportunidad de colabo- IS aesthetically unsatisfactory, and I believe that thiS is due In part to the
racion a los buenos arquitectos. fact that good architects have not been offered the opportumty to become
Antes criticaba la monotonia de determinados planes urbanisticos y aho- Involved.
ra quiero ensalzar el trabajo positivo de determinados organismos en la A moment ago I Criticized the monotony of certain urbamstlc plans, and I
mejora de la accesibilidad al paisaje con fines de ocio y descanso. Se want now to praise the positive work of certain bodies In improving the
abre el paisaje mediante nacionalizaciones 0 gracias a la generosidad de accessibility of the countryside for leisure and recreational purposes.
los propietarios, y con ello se ofrece a la poblacion la posibilidad de dis· The countryside IS being opened up by means of nationalizations or thanks
frutar de la naturaleza. Pero, ,se toman suficientes medidas para des· to the generosity of landowners, and in this way the population is offered
pertar una conciencia social que impida que esta poblacion se convierta the pOSSibility of enJoYing nature. But IS enough being done to awaken a
en una "plaga de la naturaleza"? Las prisas en nuestras ciudades aumen- social conscience that will ensure that thiS population does not become a
tan dia a dia, se huye de elias para relajarse, pero una vez en el campo 'plague of nature'? The hustle and bustle of our Cities increases from day
encontramos radios portatiles en vez de ruisenores. En los lugares de ma- to day, people flee from them to relax, but once in the country we find
yor belleza se organizan lugares de acampada. Las tiendas son de color more transistor radios than nightingales. Campsites are set up In the
rojo, naranja 0 azul y de tonalidad chillona, 10 cual no responde al entor· places of greatest beauty. The tents are red, orange or blue, In strident
no. En la eleccion de colores cada vez mas lIama~vos se busca manifes· tones, which is not appropriate to their surroundings. In the chOice of
tar el propio gusto personal. Esta imagen, ya de por si fea, aun empeora ever more striking colours, people seek to declare their personal taste.
mas debido al color plastico de los demas elementos del camping. Es ThiS Image, ugly enough In Itself, is made worse yet by the plastiC colours
incomprensible que se hayan relegado los bonitos y tranquil os colores of the other Items of camping equipment. It is beyond comprehension
grises y marrones, establecidos con metodos cientifico-militares para that the pleasing, tranquil shades of brown and grey, which scienliflc and
subordinarse a la naturaleza. EI exceso de contraste entre colores pri· military methods have established as blending in well With the natural
marios, tal como encontramos en la actualidad, amenaza con embotar environment, should have been dismissed. The excess of contrast between
nuestra sensibilidad natural de los colo res. primary colours, such as we have now, threatens to dull our natural
Piensen en las diapositivas a color. Los cuatro colores los vemos tal sensitivity to colours.
como nos los ofrecen los fabricantes de peliculas. Por ejemplo, un cielo Think of colour slides. We see the four colours In the way they are offered
Agfa, Ferrania 0 Kodak, es uno mas bonito que el otro y todos ellos son to us by the film manufacturers. For example, an Agfa, a Ferrania or a
completamente diferentes. Uno de los colo re s mas inquietantes y ordina· Kodak sky are not all equally pretty, and they are all completely different.
rios es el color de los "cerditos de mazapan" que se necesita para repro- One of the most disturbing and vulgar colours is that of the 'marzipan
ducir caras, brazos y piernas. Aqui se ha encontrado exactamente el pigs' that is needed to reproduce the colour of faces, arms and legs.
sano color de la carne, que espera el publico. iHan tornado alguna vez Here they have found exactly the healthy flesh-colour the public is looking
una foto en color de uno de los barrios miser abies de una gran ciudad for. Have you ever taken a colour photo of one of the slum neighbourhoods
para transmitir a los familia res 10 inhumana que puede ser la vida alii? Yo of a big city to show your family how Inhuman life there can be? I have
10 he intentado en el Pakistan. Los ninos sucios y mal vestidos, las calle· tried It, in Pakistan. The dirty, ragged children and the most miserable
juelas mas miseras, producen un efecto romantico. Los falsos colores alleys produce a Romantic effect. The false synthetic colours present the
sinteticos muestran 10 contra rio a la realidad. opposite of reality.
De todas maneras esto no es 10 mas peligroso de la fotografia en color. At all events, this is not the most dangerous thing about colour
Creo que, poco a poco, estamos adoptando una concepcion equivoca· photography. I think that, little by little, we are adopting a mistaken,
da, sintetica, de los colores que dificulta la experiencia de la naturaleza synthetiC conception of colours that IS an Impediment to our experience
pura y pronto ya no estaremos en condiciones de percibir sus valiosos of pure nature, and qUite soon we will no longer be capable of perceiving
valores. La naturaleza se desvanece ya que inconscientemente la conn- its priceless colours. Nature is vamshlng, as we unconSCiously compare
paramos con las imagenes que tenemos en casa con unos colo res mu· it With the Images we have in our homes where the colours are much

134
Nexus 2 G

cho mas "bonitos" y radiantes. En otras palabras: nos estamos convir- 'prettier' and more radiant. In other words, we are becoming colour addicts.
tiendo en adictos al color. When I spoke of the conservalion of our countryside and our cities, I
Cuando hablaba de la conservacion de nuestro paisaje y de nuestras referred to the Important field of work of urbanism. In the future, this field
ciudades me he referido al significativo campo de trabajo del urbanismo. should be entrusted to a large extent to the architects, although,
En el futuro, este campo debe ria encomendarse, en gran medida, a los regrettably, the politicians have tended of late to prefer engineers. I think
arquitectos, pues de forma lamentable ultimamente los politicos prefie- this IS a mistake. Aesthetics, which for us as architects is fundamental,
ren a los ingenieros. Creo que es un error. La estetica, que para nosotros must not be neglected in the planning of cities and the landscape. The
los arquitectos es un aspecto fundamental, no puede descuidarse en la perceplion of an environment is of decIsive Importance, it is a discipline
planificacion de las ciudades y el paisaje. La percepcion de un medio es which the urban designer values highly. For example, the urbanists need
de importancia decisiva, es una disciplina que el urbanista valora. Por to concern themselves With the great problem of traffiC, and here I find
ejemplo, los urbanistas han de ocuparse del gran problema del trafico y that, as a result of the enthUSiasm for creating car parks, the urban
aqui encuentro que, debido al afan por crear plazas de aparcamiento, a image is frequently overlooked. Where there were once squares between
menudo se olvida la imagen urbana. Donde antes habia plazas entre las the houses, now there are empty, unstructured spaces, alongside which
casas, ahora hay espacios vados, sin estructurar, junto a los que se buildings are constructed. It would appear that the pedestrian streets
levantan edifidos. Las calles peatonales que ultimamente estan en boga which have been so much In vogue recently are to subslitute for the
aparentemente han de sustituir el ambiente de las antiguas calles, pero atmosphere of the old streets, but I feel that these concepts are not
creo que estos conceptos no se complementan. complementary.
La pregunta de quien ha de ser el coordinador del trabajo en equipo, Lamentably, the question of who should co-ordinate the work of the team
necesario para desarrollar los trabajos de urbanismo, se disc ute lamen- required to carry out urban design projects is debated With passion. We
tablemente con pasion. Vivimos en una epoca caracterizada por la tecni· live In an age characterized by technology, in WhiCh, unfortunately,
ca en la que, por desgracia, no se considera que la estetica sea una aesthetics IS not regarded as a function. It is only in the context of relalions
funcion. Solo al amparo de relaciones bien resueltas esteticamente, y no that are aesthetically well resolved, and not merely perfect from the
exclusivamente perfectas desde un punto de vista tecnico, pueden cre- technical POint of view, that people can grow into balanced, hopeful and
cer personas equilibradas, i1usionadas y alegres. Sin embargo, los politi- happy individuals. Nevertheless, the polilicians continue to believe that
cos aun siguen creyendo que la estetica es un lujo que no nos podemos aesthetics IS a lUXUry we can not afford. When they realize the grave
permitir. Cuando se descubra el grave error que se comete con ello creo error that IS being committed here, I think the politicians will admit that
que los politicos admitiran que el arquitecto ha de ser el coordinador de the architect has to be the one to co-ordlnate the planning task.
este trabajo de planificacion. In draWing up plans on the large scale, the house and ItS details must not
En el planeamiento a gran escala no se puede olvidar la vivienda y sus be overlooked . If we consider the buildings with which we have filled our
detalles. Si contemplamos los edificios con los que hemos lien ado nues- cities since the war we have to admit that we have not progressed beyond
tras ciudades despues de la guerra hemos de admitir que no hemos ido the POint we had already reached dUring the Bauhaus period. In spite of
mas alia del punto donde ya nos encontrabamos en la epoca de la Bau- this, I think that as a result of the extraordinary evolution of technology
haus. A pesar de ello, creo que debido a la extra ordinaria evolucion de la we now possess construction materials that can offer, thanks to their
tecnica disponemos de materiales de construccion que gracias a su ca- great quality, the possibility of significantly improving the execution and
lidad ofrecen la posibilidad de mejorar significativamente la ejecucion y clearly revealing the construction. This is what has led to an architecture
revelar con cia rid ad la construccion. Esto es 10 que ha Ilevado a una In which the construction IS the aesthetically dominant aspect. We
arquitectura en la que la construccion es el aspecto que domina estetica- sometimes complain when we are unable to show the pillars and beams
mente. A veces nos quejamos cuando no podemos mostrar con cia rid ad clearly, and have to cover the building With a curtain, a curtain-wail. The
pilares y jacenas y tenemos que revestir el edificio con una cortina, un office building, more or less well proportioned, IS the type that appears
muro cortina. Los edificios de oficinas, mejor 0 peor proporcionados, most frequently In our cities, perhaps too frequently. The public has grown
son el tipo que con mayor frecuencia aparece en nuestras ciudades, a little tired of it, and no doubt our architects have, too. While I think that
quiza demasiado a menudo. EI publico se ha cansado un poco y no so- the bUilding With a curtaln-;all, well proportioned and well detailed, has
tros arquitectos seguramente tambien. Creo que el edificio con muro established Itself as a type that does good service, I believe nevertheless
cortina, bien proporcionado y bien detallado, se ha convertido en una that the road we have been following up to now can not take us very
tipologia que presta buenos servicios, sin embargo, creo que por el ca- much further. Certainly we have learned from such bUildings, and in the
mino que hemos recorrido hasta ahora no se puede lIegar mucho mas future they will continue to be needed In many places. By breaking up the
lejos. Seguro que se ha aprendido de estas edificaciones y en el futuro large curtain-wall and utilizing the new forms of construction it will be

135
Nexus 2G

tambien se necesitaran en muchos lugares. Fraccionando los largos muros possible to give a more Interesting appearance to this hard and somewhat
cortina y utilizando las nuevas formas constructivas se podra dar un rigid architecture.
aspecto mas interesante a esta arquitectura dura y algo rigida. We have seen how brutalism, for example, developed to a great extent in
Hemos visto c6mo el brutalismo, por ejemplo, desarrollado en gran parte Britain and by Le Corbusler, has signalled new ways forward. I am by no
en Inglaterra y por Le Corbusier, ha mostrado nuevos caminos. No soy means a great admirer of this style, although there are places where we
ningun gran admirador de este estilo aunque en algunos lugares podemos can find some good examples of It. It produces In me an effect that is at
encontrar ejemplos hermosos. Me produce un efecto al mismo tiempo once brutal, paradoxical and romantic. I have always defended pure
brutal, parad6jico y romantico. Defiendo siempre el funcionalismo puro y functionalism, and I have to say that I consider Mles van der Rohe to be
tengo que decir que considero a Mies van der Rohe como el arquitecto vivo the most important living architect, and for us architects who work In the
mas importante, y a nosotros, arqu~ectos que trabajamos normalmente, ordinary way he provides an excellent example of how to achieve an
nos proporciona un ejemplo excelente de c6mo se consigue una arquitec- architecture that IS clear, sane and readily comprehensible, without modish
tura clara, sana y claramente comprensible sin aiiadidos a la moda. additions.
Esta arquitectura de la que he hablado no abarca la construcci6n de This architecture I have been speaking about does not Include the
viviendas que es la tarea mas significativa a la que hemos de enfrentar- construction of hOUSing, which is the most significant task we have to
nos. La construcci6n de viviendas es un concepto completamente supe- confront. The construction of hOUSing IS a concept that IS entirely at the
ditado a las exigencias econ6micas y, 10 que aun es peor, a los politicos. mercy of economic demands, and what IS worse stili, of the politicians.
Por 10 menos asi es en Dinamarca. Los politicos imponen un paro a la At least that is how It IS In Denmark. The politicians bring construction to
construcci6n, 10 vuelven a levantar y 10 vuelven a implantar. Con ello a halt, they set it In motion again and they implant it once more. In doing
destruyen el ritmo de construcci6n necesario para crear un gran numero so they destroy the rhythm of construction that is necessary to create a
de buenas viviendas en el menor tiempo posible. large number of decent houses In the shortest possible time.
La mayor parte de mis consideraciones son pequeiios suspiros que ex- The majority of these considerations are little Sighs that express my fears
presan mi miedo frente a una desvalorizaci6n de la pr6xima generaci6n of a devalUing of the next generation of architects. A devalUing which, In
de arquitectos. Una desvalorizaci6n que, en mi opini6n, podemos evitar my OpIniOn, we could aVOid If we were able to make a humanist contribution
si sabemos dar a la imprescindible industrializaci6n una aportaci6n hu- to the indispensable industrialization, In order to elevate construction
manista para elevar la construcci6n a arquitectura . Como arquitecto nor- Into architecture . As an ordinary architect I want to say that now It IS
mal quiero decir que ahara es mas necesario que nunca ser arquitecto; si more necessary than ever to be an architect; if you feel called to the
uno se siente llama do a ello y se tiene un 10 % de talento y un 90 % de profession and you have 10% of talent and 90% of dedication -we have
dedicaci6n -hoy en dia hay que hablar en porcentajes- creo que se pueden to speak In percentages nowadays- I believe that good results can be
obtener buenos resu~ados, yen realidad no creo que se pueda pedir mas. obtained, and In reality I do not think we can ask for any more than that.

137
2G Nexus

Knud Aerbo

Discurso para la inauguracion de la exposicion de Arne Jacobsen en Aarhus

Cuando acepte decir unas palabras para esta ocasion -pense que no iba a ser demasiado diffcil- una
noche me sente y deje que mis pensamientos volaran hacia el pasado. Hacia Hans Dissing, Niels
Blinkenberg, Ole Park y todos los demas que entonces trabajabamos juntos -y por supuesto tambien
hacia Arne Jacobsen- y tome unas pocas notas sobre las anecdotas que me vinieron a la cabeza.
Cuando revise las notas me di cuenta de que habfa algun error porque 10 que habfa escrito eran los
intentos de enganar a Arne Jacobsen -de tomarle el pelo-, los momentos de risas y bromas
cuando se daba la vuelta, etc., tonterfas irresponsables que no podfan explicarse ese dfa.
Me di cuenta de que tenfa que tratar el tema de otra manera, no precisamente explicando anecdo-
tas. Y entonces me dije: iPor que todavfa pienso tan a menudo en los tiempos de Arne Jacobsen? Y he
lIegado a la conclusion de que quizas es porque entonces todo era muy diferente de 10 que vivimos hoy.
Hoy, antes de venir aquf, he estado trabajando en el despacho. En mi pequena parte de oficina -aunque
sea algo estrictamente simbolico-, los objetos, en comparacion con todo 10 expuesto aquf, repre-
sentan una cuarta parte. Trabajamos cuatro 0 cinco personas, una secretaria en el ordenador y una
persona 0 una y media dedicada a las contabilidad. Todo el mundo tiene los mejores programas de
dibujo y acceso a una estacion CAD con impresora, tenemos ordenadores que permiten insertar
textos en los dibujos, calculadoras de bolsillo para dar respuesta a todas las preguntas.
EI telefono ha sonado veinte veces: dos 0 tres ingenieros, autoridades, clientes, contratistas nos
han dado sus buenos consejos. EI fax ha impreso un monton de mensajes referentes a compromi-
sos, y hemos utilizado la fotocopiadora para ampliar y reducir los dibujos que hemos hecho hoy.
Lo que tenfamos cuando trabajabamos con Arne era 10 siguiente:
Una mesa de dibujo, es decir un tablero de 90 x 160 cm con la superficie rugosa; una silla sin
brazos con el asiento de paja . Una escuadra, un cartabon y un lapiz para cad a uno, al que tenfamos
que sacar punta con un cuchillo.
Un telefono que se podfa conectar a su despacho privado . Un par de veces a la semana venfa una
senora media jornada y escribfa a maquina las pocas cartas que habfamos escrito (con seis copias
en papel carbon) y Ilevaba la contabilidad de las pagas.
Una caja de carton negra era nuestro archivo para los proyectos y en un ~ ajon guardabamos los
originales. Para sujetar el papel utilizabamos chinchetas , todavfa no se habfa inventado la cinta
adhesiva.
EI membrete para el papel de carta 10 hacfamos con un tampon que apretabamos contra el papel
en el margen superior izquierdo. ~

138
Speech at the opening of the Arne Jacobsen exhibition in Aarhus

When I agreed to say a few words on this occasion -I thought this would not be too difficult- I sat
one evening and let my thoughts travel back to the past. To Hans Dissing, Niels Blinkenberg, Ole
Park and all the others that worked together then -and of course Arne Jacobsen- and put down a
few notes about incidents I came to think of.
When I had a look at the notes I realized that there was something wrong, because what I has written
was about attempts to tease AJ -make fun of him- having fun and games, when he turned his back
etc. -all irresponsible fiddle-faddle, which cannot be mentioned on this day.
I realized that I had to deal with the matter in another way -not just tell little stories.
And then I asked myself why I still think so often of the time at AJ? And so far I have come to the
result that it might be because everything was so different from what we experience today.
Before I came here today, I was at work. In my small part of the office -if that strictly symbolically-
should be compared with the material shown here, my commissions fill probably one fourth. We are
4-5 people, a secretary at the word processor and one or one and a half bookkeeper. Everybody
has the best drawing machines, access to a CAD-station with printer, we have computers to write
text on the drawings, pocket calculators to answer all questions.
The phone has rung 20 times -2-3 engineers, authorities, clients, contractors have given us good
advice. The fax has printed a pile of messages to commit oneself to -and we have used the
photocopying machine to scale op and down the sketches we have produced today.
What we had when we worked with Arne Jacobsen:
A drawing table -a 90 x 160 cm uneven tabletop- a side chair with a straw bottom . Our own T-
square and square and a pencil which had to be sharpened with a knife .
One telephone with the possiblity to switch to his private quarters. A lady came two half days a week
and typed the few letters we had written (with 6 carbon copies) and to keep the wages accounts.
A black cardboard box was our archive for each project and a drawer for the originals. Drawing pins
to hold the paper; tape was not invented yet.
The head of the writing paper was an embossed stamp we pressed on the paper at the top on the
left side. ,
If you look at it today, you will have to say: it could not be done. But luckily we did not know then.
I wish I could say that it was AJ who had the qualities of leadership -or mainly I wish I could say: we
were just a bunch of genies who could do it! Neither is right. And I don 't know the answer how things
could develop, become so complicated. But I will (when I am left in peace from the phone, meeti ngs,~

139
2G NeXl

... Si 10 vieran hoy, se sentirian obligados a decir: no es po sible. Por ... faxes and computer tranSCrIpts) Sit down and try to find the answer -
suerte entonces nosotros no 10 sabiamos. Without great expectations though.
Me gustaria poder decir que Arne Jacobsen era quien tenia las cualida· Also the way people were hired was different. Once a year AJ asked a
des de lider, 0 por 10 menos me gustaria poder decir: ieramos un grupo teacher he knew at the Academy to pick a few promising, prospective
de genios que ibamos a conseguir 10 que nos propusieramos! Ni una architects from H2
cosa ni la otra son ciertas. Y no se encontrar la respuesta a como se In 1932 It was Hans Dlsslng and I who got the chance -and went to talk to
desarrollaron las cosas, como se lIegaron a complicar tanto . Pero la the Master. We got engaged and could start at once and received a salary
buscare (Ia buscare cuando el telefono, el fax y los ordenadores me of DKK 4.25 an hour
dejen en paz), me sentare y tratare de buscar la respuesta, aunque no We were 6-7 employees -no hlerarchy- nobody checking up on us -the
tengo grandes esperanzas. flattest staff pyramid I have met ever since . Only one layer -also With "the
Tambien era distinta la manera de contratar a la gente. Una vez al ano, fat man" as we used to call him. It was a solitary approach With AJ hand In
Arne Jacobsen Ie pedia a un profesor conocido suyo de la Academia que hand or on one's neck, whatever you prefer.
escogiera de H2 a unos cuantos alumnos prometedores y futuros arqui· We had no help from him regarding technical or construction matters.
tectos. He suggested seriously to have a stamp made for the drawings With the
En 1932 nos escogieron a Hans Dissing y ami, y fuimos a hablar con el text: "No guarantee for constructions and Implementation".
maestro. Nos pusimos de acuerdo y empezamos inmediatamente con "What IS left then," we asked him contemptuously. "The aesthetiC
un sueldo de 4,25 coronas la hora. responsibility" and he ment rt.
Eramos seis 0 siete empleados -sin jerarquias-, nadie nos controlaba: The help I received, when I came and learned that I should draw an
era la estructura piramidal mas plana que he visto jamas. Un unico nivel, administration building for the muniCipality of Redovre, was: There have to
incluido el 'gordo' , como soliamos lIamarle. Era una especie de mano a be approx. 150-200 employees, It has to be approx. 90-100 m long and
mano con Arne 0, si 10 prefieren , un 'por encima del hombro' . EI no nos with a double corridor, 3 storeys high. But he wanted to try -and that was
ayudaba en nada referente a cuestiones tecnicas 0 constructivas. crucial- a curtain wall construction, I.e. With a only a glass facade hanging
Sugirio seriamente que hicieramos un tampon para los pianos con el on the bearing structure.
texto siguiente: 'Sin garantias para la construccion ni la ejecucion'. 'En· And then he gave me a cutting from an American magazine of General
tonces, ,que es 10 que queda", Ie preguntamos con desdeno. 'La res· Motors In DetrOit and said: But the pillars must not be broader than ... 7 cm.
ponsabilidad estetica'. Y 10 decia en serio. And that was it.
La ayuda que obtuve cuando lIegue y supe que tenia que dibujar un edif~ But when we were so close In everyday life -he was present 6 of the 8
cio administrativo para el ayuntamiento de Redovre fue esta: tendra aprox~ hours of the day- we learnt a few things from him. No -I don't want to say
madamente 1500200 trabajadores, tiene que tener unos 90·100 me· "Iearnf': It was the personal qualities of AJ. Qualities which made him the
tros de largo y un doble pasillo y tres pisos. Pero queria construir -y eso "Master".
era crucial- un muro cortina, es decir, una sola fachada de vidrio que Amongst these qualities could be mentioned:
colgara sobre la estructura. 1. Artistic talent -alone thiS could be hard to learn.
Y entonces me dio un recorte de una revista americana del edificio de la 2. Persistence -the Will to reach the goals he had set- Without regard for
general Motors en Detroit y me dijo: 'Pero las columnas no deben ser the costs.
mas anchas de ... 7 centimetros'. Y eso fue todo. 3. HIS self-confidence and pOise. A confidence In what was delivered was
Pero en el dia a dia, que nos lIevaba a estar muy cerca de Arne -de las right from an artistic POint of view. Never look at a case from two Sides.
ocho horas de trabajo se pasaba seis con nosotros-, pudimos aprender No alternatives.
unas cuantas cosas gracias a el. No, no quiero decir 'aprendimos' , eran 4. HIS overall view of a commiSSion: BeSides the project he also deSigned
las cualidades personales de Arne . Cualidades que Ie convertian en el chairs, tables, carpets, curtains, office furniture, sofas/armchairs, furn"
'maestro'. ture coverings, ashtrays, clocks, fittmgs, lamps, coats of arms, signboards,
Entre esas cualidades podemos destacar: gardens, etc.
1. EI talento artistico: algo muy dificil de aprender. 5. To be open to the tendencies of the time . ThiS can also be expressed as
2. La tenacidad -Ia voluntad de Ilegar a las metas que nos habiamos stealing from others without it being revealed.
propuesto sin tener en cuenta los costes. 6. Be Visible, which means today: PRo This is what we benefit from today-
3. La seguridad en si mismo y el aplomo. La confianza en 10 que entrega· a project was first finished when It was completely photographed, the
ba desde un punto de vista artistico. Nunca miraba un caso desde dos pictures cut and mounted. To participate In compelilions.
puntos de vista. No daba alternativas. 7. And a few practical things: Shut up, when he kicked us on the shin.
4. La vision general de un encargo: ademas del proyecto siempre dise· Small white lies! For him the goal Justified the means, from an artistiC pOint
iiaba sillas, mesas, alfombras, cortinas, el mobilia rio de oficina, sofas y of view.
sillones, fundas para los muebles, ceniceros, relojes, accesorios, lampa· How was he to work for'
ras, insignias de ciudades, letreros, jardines, etc. We were not driven hard -we got all the time we needed. Contrary to now
5. La abertura a las tendencias del momento. Estas tambien se expresa· -the client could not force the projects. AJ told them that the houses could
ban robando de los demas a escondidas. not be built before the draWings were flrushed.
6. Ser visible, 10 que hoy en dia Ilamariamos relaciones publicas. Hoy nos He never followed the line of least resistance. Which I was Inclined to -my
podemos beneficiar de ello: un proyecto estaba terminado cuando esta· Impalience-I once thought I could make him embarrassed, perhaps educate
ba completamente fotografiado, los dibujos recortados y montados. La him a bit. I was draWing 5Q.U0 different proposals for a house end of a one-
participacion en concursos. family house. The draWing was approx. 12 m long -reached through the
7. Y unas cuantas cosas practicas: callarse cuando nos golpeaba en la whole length of the office. He just went up and down a few limes and then
espinilla sin que nadie Ie viera. iPequeiias mentiras sin mala intencion ' put hiS foot on one of the proposals and said: "I think you should carry on

140
J~
2G Nexus
Para el, el fin justificaba los medios, desde un punto de vista artistico. working on this". Wage talks always took a substantial part of our energy.
,Como trabajaba? When we were working In one big room, the negotiations always took
No trabajabamos con demasiada presion, teniamos todo el tiempo Que part In his car, on the way to a meeting. He knew it -and it must have
necesitabamos. AI contra rio Que ahora, el cliente no podia forzar los been a part of the game. listen to a lot of misery Just for the sake of 25 0re
proyectos. Arne les decia Que las casas no se podian construir antes de more an hour.
Que los pianos estuvieran terminados . I discovered QUickly that he was no fool. As he -after I had spoken about
Nunca seguia el camino mas facil, cosa Que yo, por impaciente, me my Wife, our child, the terraced house etc.- asked me: How much was I
inclinaba a hacer. Un dia pense Que podia ponerle en una situacion getting at present -I said 8 Kroners- no matter that It was only 7 Kroners
embarazosa, tal vez enseiiarle algo. Yo estaba realizando entre 50 y -I was convinced I deserved 9 Kroners- he said -No way: You can only
60 propuestas para terminar una vivienda unifamiliar. EI plano media get 8.50 Kroners an hour. Okay, that was 1 Krone more In the pocket and
aproximadamente unos 12 metros de largo, ocupaba todo el largo de la I did not have a bad conscience about that.
oficina. EI no hacia mas Que andar arriba y abajo recorriendolo hasta Que The most difficult In being With him was -strange as it may seem- to
al final puso el pie encima de una de las propuestas y dijo: "Creo Que debe- leave him -without him regarding it as a personal insult. But we all knew
rias continuar trabajando en esta". that we could live a protected life in the shadow of hiS power, and If we
Las conversaciones acerca de los sueldos siempre se lIevaban una par- wanted to make a career in real life we had to take the Jump, and for my
te sustancial de nuestras energias . Cuando teniamos Que trabajar en un part I never regretted It.
gran espacio, las negociaciones siempre se lIevaban a cabo en su co- Finally a small, professional sigh in connection with thiS enormous dis-
che, de camino a alguna reunion . Ello sabia -<lebia ser parte del juego: play of architecture:
escuchar un monton de Quejas por un cuarto de corona mas la hora. Never read an analYSIS written after the construction of a building.
Pronto descubri Que no era ningun tonto. Cuando me pregunto, despues Analysis of the thoughts the "Master" had and the feelings and the
de haberle hablado de mi mujer, nuestros hijos, nuestra casa adosada, expression be wanted to achieve.
etc. cuanto ganaba en aQuel momento, yo Ie dije Que ocho coronas (en The other day I found an article -a glOrification In 2 pages (with English
realidad estaba ganado siete, pero estaba convencido de Que me mere- and German translation) in an acknowleged modern magazine. About a
cia nueve). Entonces me dijo: ni hablar, como maximo puedes cobrar wretched steel staircase In a glass cage -a staircase I InCidentally had
8.50 coronas la hora. Bien, representaba una corona mas en el bolsillo y deSigned for an administration bUilding in Nyropsgade.
no tuve ningun tipo de mala conciencia. Don't believe that Jazz you read. Okay, I had given the staircase some
Lo mas dificil de trabajar con el -por extraiio Que pueda parecer- era thoughts, but they could never be spread over 2 pages and never With
dejarlo, sin Que el se 10 tomara como un insulto personal. Pero todos the elaborate words which occurred In the article.
sabiamos Que podiamos lIevar una vida protegida bajo la sombra de su The closest I could come to the conSiderations I made then, was: We do
poder y Que si Queriamos hacernos una carrera en la vida real teniamos it like thiS and take the others for a ride -sometimes It comes off.
Que dar el saito, de 10 Que por mi parte nunca me arrepenti. Have a look at the draWings and rejoice -that you cannot (I think) find
Para terminar, un peQueiio parente sis relacionado con esa enorme mues- compromises .
tra de arQurtectura:
Nunca lei ningun analisis escrito sobre la construccion de un edificio, Knud Aerbo
analisis de los pensamientos Que tenia el "maestro" y de la expresion Que 7.1.1992
Queria alcanzar.
EI otro dia encontre un articulo -una exaltacion en dos paginas (con la
traduccion al ingles y al aleman) en una famosa revista actual. EI articulo
hablaba de unas escaleras espantosas en una jaula de cristal, unas esca-
leras Que casual mente habia diseiiado yo mismo para un edificio adm~
nistrativo en Nyropsgade.
No podia creer 10 Que leia. Bien, es cierto Que habia dedicado algo de
tiempo a pensar en aQuelias escaleras, pero no para merecerse dos
paginas enteras y menos con las elaboradas palabras Que se utilizaban
en el articulo.
Lo maximo Que fui capaz de recordar sobre las consideraciones Que
hice entonces fue: 10 hacemos asi y les tomamos el pelo .. . a veces
funciona.
Den un vistazo a los dibujos y disfruten ... espero Que no encuentren
demasiados fallos.

Knud Aerbo
7.1.1992

142
Acuarela de Watercolor by
..
Arne Jacobsen

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