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POSIBILIDAD.

May / Might , must y can´t


Usamos may / might, must y can´t para hablar sobre la posibilidad o probabildad de que
algo sea verdad.

Your picture must be a copy Tu cuadro debe ser una copia.


It can´t be the original Picture. No puede ser el cuadro original.

Podemos usar may o might para hablar sobre algo que sea posible pero no seguro.

I may be late tomorrow Quizas llegue tarde mañana.


Ana might not undertand the question Quizas Ana no entienda la pregunta

May y Might tienen un significado similar.

I may be late I might be late = Quizas llegue tarde.

Pero cuando queremos pedir algo solo podemos utilizar May y no might.

May I drink water. Puedo beber agua


May I use your book Puedo usar tu libro.

Podemos usar must y can´t para hablar sobre cosas que cremos que son verdaderas.

Your picture must be a copy Tu cuadro debe de ser una copia.


It can´t be the original Picture. No puede ser el cuadro original.

Cuando estamos hablando sobre una probabilidad, usamos must en frases afirmativas
y can´t en frases negativas.

The light are on. They must be at home. Las luces estan encedidas, Deben estar en casa

The light are off. They can´t be at home. Las luces estan apagadas, No deben estar en
casa.

May / might, must y can´t son verbos modulares. Los verbos modulares siempre van
seguidos por un infinitive sin to.

SI = she must like you NO = she must to like you.

Usamos can y could para hablar sobre abilidades en el presente y el pasado. El could es
el pasado simple de can.

I can swim = Yo puedo nadar. I could swim when I was 3. Yo podia nadir cuando
tenia 3 años.

La forma negativa es can´t y couldn´t.


Report Speach: Usamos el reported speach para decirle a la gente lo que otros han
dicho.

ESTILO DIRECTO ESTILO INDIRECTO

Presente simple Pasado simple


La casa es fantastica Fiona dijo que la casa era fantastica

Pasado simple Pasado perfecto


Yo compre la casa Bruno dijo que el habia comprado la casa

Presente perfecto Pasado perfecto


Yo nunca he sido tan feliz Sue dijo que ella nunca habia sido tan feliz

Will would
El equipo ganara la liga- Bruno dijo que el equipo ganaria la liga

Can could
Yo puedo actuar mejor ahora Sue dijo que ella podia actuar mejor ahora.

DIRECTO SPEACH REPORTED SPEACH

Present simple Past simple


The house is fantastic Fiona said that the house was fantastic

Past simple Past perfect


I bought the house Bruno said that he had bought the house

Present perfect Past perfect


I´ve never been happier Sue said that she had never been happier.

Will would
The team will win the league Bruno said that the team would win the league.

Can could
I can act better now. Sue said that she could act better now.
COMPUTERS AND INTERNET

First I am going to talk about computers. They are very useful and in about

every officer there are computers. They are very necessary and they make

you save a lot of time. It is very easy to use them. You can find information

very easy. Computers in the past were very big, about the size of a table, but

now they are very small. There are very nice portable computers and personal

computers. Some are very expensive, but each day they are cheaper.

Now I am going to talk about internet. Internet is a new way of

communication. In internet you can find about anything. In internet you can

find information to help you study. There are very good graphics and it is a

lot easier to find information in internet than in books. You can also buy

things in supermarkets and you do not have to move from home. It is also

easier. Nowadays computers and internet are very necessary and useful. But

sometimes connecting to internet can be very dangerous because there are a

lot of viruses. In general, internet is very useful, but sometimes people don’t

know how to control the time they spend in internet. I think one hour a day is

good, but a lot of people connect for hours. I like chatting with my friends

and bring down music and films from internet. I think it is a great invention

and that everyone will have a computer and be connected to internet very

soon. Almost everybody has a computer and at school they teach you how to

use it when you are six years old. It is fantastic.

La Voz Pasiva
* Usamos la voz pasiva cuando nos importa la accion por si sola. La persona
quien lo esta haciendo no nos importa, o no sabemos quien lo esta realizando.

Subject + to be + past participle (verbo 3 columna)

Para formar la voz pasiva, usamos el verbo TO BE en su forma necesaria y


el pasado participio del verbo principal . Ver la lista de abajo.

Presente simple am / are / is Past participle


Presente continuo am / is / are being Past participle
Pasado simple was / were Past participle
Pasado contiuo was / were being Past participle
Presente perfecto have / has been Past participle
Pasado perfecto had been Past participle
Futuro con will will be Past participle
Going to am / are / is going to Past participle
Can can be Past participle

Activa Pasiva

Presente simple They drive the car The car is driven by them
Ellos conducen el coche El coche es conducido por ellos
Presente continuo They are driving the car The car is being driven by them
Ellos estan conduciondo El coche esta siendo
el coche conducido por ellos.
Pasado simple They drove the car The car was driven by them.
Ellos condujeron el coche El coche fue conducido por ellos
Pasado continuo They were driving the car The car was being driven by them
Ellos estaban conduciendo el coche. El coche estaba siendo conducido por
ellos
Presente perfecto They have driven the car The car has been driven by them.
Ellos han conducido el coche El coche ha sido conducido por ellos.
Pasado perfecto They had driven the car The car had been driven by them.
Ellos habian conducido el coche. El coche habia sido conducido por ellos
Will They will drive the car The car will be driven by them.
Ellos conduciran el coche El coche sera conducido por ellos.
Going to They are going to drive the car. The car is going to be driven
by them.
Ellos van a conducer el coche. El coche va a ser conducido por ellos
Can They car drive the car The car can be driven by them
Ellos pueden conducer el coche. El coche puede ser conducido por ellos

Para formar la negative, añadimos not despues de verbo to be.

Those computers are made in Japan.


Those computers are not made in Japan.

Para hacer preguntas, invertimos la posicion del sujeto y el verbo to be

The tests were corrected.


Were the tests corrected?
When were the tests corrected?
* cuando se especifica quien ha sido se pone by ^por^
Poner estas frases en voz pasiva.

1. Stanley wrote this article. _____________________________________


2. The referee cancelled the match.__________________________________
3. Firemen are wearing special uniforms. ____________________________
4. A famous director made this film. _______________________________
5. A famous pop star will sing this song._____________________________
6. A detective found the missing child. _____________________________
7. Architects design houses. ______________________________________
8. Chrisopher Colombus discovered America in 1492
____________________________________________________________.

9. A thief has stole my purse. _____________________________________


10. The police will arrest the robbers. ______________________________.
11. They were making my house. __________________________________
12. My teacher has corrected the mistakes.
___________________________________________________

13. He is going to write a book. ____________________________________

Put these sentences in negative


1. Paper is made from wood. ___________________________________
2. The telephone was invented by Mr. Bell ___________________________
3. This picture was painted by Kikki. ________________________________
4. The thieves will be arrested by the police.__________________________
5. Champagne is made in France.____________________________

Put these sentences in questions.


1. The letters will be sent next week________________________________
2. The animals are fed three times a day._____________________________
3. This article was written by Stanley. ______________________________
4. CDs are made of plastic ______________________________________
5. The party was organised by Paul__________________________________
The Passive present and past simple

Put in passive

1. Journalists write articules. ___________________________________

2. They served dinner at seven o´clock. _____________________________

3. In most countries football is played. _______________________________

4. They make bread from water and flour_____________________________

5. They offered Harry a good job. __________________________________

6. They sell oysters in that shop. ___________________________________

7. Shakespeare wrote King Lear. ___________________________________

8. Ana cleans her room everyday. ___________________________________

9. They cancelled all the flight because of fog. _________________________

10.People don’t use this road very often. ______________________________

11.How do people learn languages? _________________________________

12.People advised us not to go out alone. _____________________________

13.A detective found the missing child. _______________________________

14.A famous director made this film. _________________________________

15.A thief sole my purse. __________________________________________

16.They make coffee in Brazil ______________________________________

17.One of the student found my wallet. _______________________________

18.Firemen wear special uniforms. ___________________________________


Adding and contrasting: both / and, / in addition, / also, / but, /
however, / on the other hand
Ambos/ y / ademas / tambien / pero /
Sin embargo, / por otro lado.
REVISION UNITS STARTER 1, 2, 3

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the box. Use the present
simple or present continuous.
cry stare point bite kiss

1 Why ……................. you ……................. your nails? Are you nervous?


2 When we want someone to look at an object, we ……................. at it.
3 My baby sister ……................. when she is hungry.
4 In Spain, friends ……................. each other on both cheeks when they meet.
5 A: Why ……................. you ……................. at that building?
B: Because I think it’s very unusual.

Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the past simple or the
past continuous.
My friends and I (1) ……................. (enjoy) my birthday party when suddenly the lights
(2) ……................. (go) out. I (3) ……................. (think) that my brother (4)
……................. (try) to scare everyone. I (5) ……................. (shout), ‘Switch the lights on!’
but nothing
(6) ……................. (happen). While we
(7) ……................. (wait) in the darkness, somebody (8) ……................. (scream).
Suddenly, I felt scared!

Complete the dialogue between Tom and the Careers Adviser. Use the present
perfect of the verbs in brackets, or short forms.
CA: (1) ……................. you ……................. (think) much about your future, Tom?
Tom: Yes, I (2) ……................. . I
(3) ……................. (decide) to be an actor.
CA: That’s exciting! The world of acting is very competitive, though.
Tom: Yes, I know, but my uncle works in films and he (4) ……................. (give) me lots
of advice. I (5) ……................. (already / choose) an acting school.
CA: That’s great! And (6) ……................. (you / ever / act) in a film?
Tom: No, never, but I (7) ……................. (be) in lots of plays at school
Write sentences and questions in the
present perfect. Use the word in brackets
in the correct place.
1 I / not write / about the job (yet)
……...........................................................… .
2 you / work with children? (ever)
……..........................................................…. ?
3 she / have an interview (already)
……...........................................................… .
4 he / study a foreign language? (ever)
……..........................................................…. ?
5 they / not decide / on a profession (yet)
……...........................................................… .
6 they / work abroad? (ever)
……..........................................................….. ?

Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect of the verbs in brackets and for or since.
1 We ……............... (be) married ……................ about ten years.
2 I ……................. (not see) my boyfriend ……................. last weekend.
3 They ……................. (have) lots of arguments ……................. Monday.
4 She ……................. (not speak) to her
ex-boyfriend ……................. months.
5 John ……................. (know) Anna ……................. a year.
6 You ……................. (not phone) me ……................. my birthday.
Complete the text with the correct form of
the verbs in brackets. Use the present
perfect or the past simple.

Dear Helen

I (1) ……................. (not hear) from you for a


long time. Is there a problem between us? You
(2) ……................. (be) angry with me at
Joe’s party last month, but I don’t understand
why. We (3) ……................. (be) boyfriend
and girlfriend for more than a year and I
(4) ……................. never ……................. (feel)
happier. I think I (5) ……................. (fall) in
love with you as soon as I (6) …….................
(meet) you last summer. You
(7) ……................. (make) me very happy
since then. What (8) ……................. I
……................. (do) wrong at Joe’s party?
Please explain.
Phone me soon.

All my love
Andy

Complete the sentences with may / might,


can’t or must.
1 No-one answered the door, so they ……................. be at home.
2 He was born in Australia so he ……................. speak English.
3 You slept for twelve hours last night. You ……................. be tired now.
4 He always gets top marks in his tests – he ……................. study very hard.
5 Take your umbrella because it ……................. rain later.
6 They’ve got thousands of books. They ……................. love reading.
7 Helen came to school today so she ……................. be ill.
8 I ……................. go to my friend’s party but I’m not sure.
9 You ……................. be hungry because you didn’t have any lunch.
10 Don’t wait for me because I ……................. be late.
Complete the text with the model verbs in the bos
could didn’t have to (x 3) can
had to (x 2) couldn’t (x 2) have to

A few years ago I saw an advert for an art course. It said that beginners were welcome
and that you (1) ……................. have any experience in art. I (2) ……................. draw or
paint, so I thought I would do the course. The first ten classes were free, so I
(3) ……................. pay for the first term. I was quite nervous before the first class, but the
teacher, Anna, was very nice. In the first three classes, we looked at different styles of art,
so we (4) ……................. produce a picture ourselves. In our first project, we
(5) ……................. draw simple shapes and study colour. Then we (6) ……................. work
with abstract images. At the end of the course, which lasted a year, I (7) …….................
draw landscapes and still lifes quite well.I was pleased with my progress, but I still (8)
……................. draw portraits very well. Anna said, ‘You have learnt a lot but now you (9)
……................. practise doing portraits.’ I took her advice and now I (10) …….................
draw and paint people very well – in fact I’m a professional portrait painter.
MIXED CONDITIONALS TRANSLATE

1. Si tomo mucho zumo de naranja en invierno, no cojo catarros.

2. Si no hace frio, comeremos en el jardin.

3. Si no damos prisa, cogeremos el tren.

4. Si no me hubiera olvidado, les hubiera llamado.

5. Si el me hubiera dicho la verdad, yo le hubiera creido.

6. Si pulsas el boton, la maquina se pondra en funcionamiento.

7. Yo no hubiera ido al cine, si tu hubieras venido a mi casa.

8. Si ella no se va a la cama, ella vera la película.

9. Si tu limpias tu cuarto, no iras al parque.

10. Si yo tuviera un diccionario, yo buscaria la palabra.

11. Si a el no le gusta el pollo, yo le hace carne.

12. Si yo encontrara un monedero, yo se lo daria a la policia.


TRANSLATE THE CONDITIONALS MIXED

1 El calentamiento global causara serios problemas si no lo controlamos.

…............................................................…… . ……………………………………
2 Si hubieramos parado las guerras, los paises pobres se hubieran desarollado.

............................................................…… …………………………………………….

3. El gobierno no escucha si no mandamos una peticion.

…............................................................…… …………………………………………
4. Si no boicoteamos la empresa, la situacion se empeorara.

….............................................……………. ………………………………………………

5. La campania hubiera sido mas eficiente si la gente hubiera repartido folletos.

…............................................................…… ……………………………………………
.
6. Si no demostramos los progresos, las cosas no cambiaran.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

7. Los refugios sufin si no les ayudamos.

………………………………………………………………………………….

8. Si los cientificos clonaran a la personas, habia protestas.

………………………………………………………………………………..

9. Haremos mas dinero si organizamos una campaña.

……………………………………………………………………………………….

10. Si no hubieramos protegido a los tigres, ellos hubieran estado en


extinction.

………………………………………………………………………………….
EXAM UNIT 9

Hacer una frase en pasado con: Quien, Cuando, Por que, Donde, Que , Cuanto, Cuantas

1. ________________________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________________

3. ________________________________________________________________

4. ________________________________________________________________

5. ________________________________________________________________

6. ________________________________________________________________

7. ________________________________________________________________

Complete with past perfect.

Shawn didn´t fly home to Ireland because he (lose/air ticket)


___________________________________

Sophie felt unhappy because her fils (lose / money ) ____________________________

Shawn knew who she was because he (see/her films) ____________________________

She liked him because he (show/her the island) ________________________________

She bought a hotel because she (decide/to stay) ________________________________

He stayed because she (offer/him a job) ______________________________________

Complete the sentences with past simple or present perfect for of the following verbs

Be / buy / be / not act / work / lose / be / get / meet

Sophie and Shawn _______________ good frieds since the moment the ___________

She ___________ an actress then, but she ____________ in a film for over five years.

Her last film was not successful – it __________ millions of dollars.

She ______________ the hotel five years ago, and since then the ______________
really hard.

They ______________ really happy together for the last five years and last week the
______ engaged.
Change from direct speech to Report speech.
Direct speech Report speech

She lives in a big house ___________________________________

We have been to the beach ___________________________________

They saw the film together ___________________________________

I will answer the phone. __________________________________

You can be my friend ___________________________________

He will write a letter to his friend ___________________________________

I lived in London two years ago ___________________________________

They won´t come to Spain ___________________________________

My father isn´t very ill ___________________________________

They will get married next year ___________________________________

I didn´t see Helen at the party ___________________________________

He can´t go to the beach this year ___________________________________

They will always be my friends ___________________________________

I don´t always go to church. ___________________________________

She won´t go away for a holiday ___________________________________

I have never been to New York ___________________________________

Explicar como cambian de estilo directo a estilo indirecto.

Afirmativa Negativa

Presente simple is _____________ ___________

Presente simple play _____________ ___________

Pasado simple go _____________ _____________

Presente perfecto have been _____________ _____________

Futuro Will ______________ ______________

Poder Can _______________ _______________


PASAR FRASES DE ESTILO DIRECTO A ESTILO INDIRECTO
Primero saber que:

- Podemos usar verbos como: explain (explicar), promise (prometer), suggest


(sugerir) … Aunque los mas utilizados son say (decir) , tell (contar) y ask (pedir).

- No es necesario cambiar el tiempo del verbo si el verbo de la oracion principal


esta en presente.

- cuando la frase lleva ¨that¨ ¨que¨ se puede omitir.

La pasar una oracion de Directo a Indirecto, el verbo principal retrocede un tiempo


verbal.

- En las preguntas no es necesario poner como auxiliar ¨do¨o ¨did¨

DIRECT SPEACH REPORT SPEACH

Present simple past simple

She speaks English __________________________

We are tired ____________________________

Present continuos past continuous

I am studing English ____________________________

They weren´t reading ____________________________

Past simple Past perfecto

We were feeling happy ___________________________

He sent the letter ___________________________

Present perfect Past perfect.

I have been ill ____________________________

She has gone to Sevilla ____________________________

Present perfecto continuos past perfect continuos

They have been talking with their friends _______________________

She has been studing all day ___________________________


future simple condicional
He will sing this afternoon. _________________________

future perfect simple condicional perfect.

I will have been happy ___________________________

CON VERBOS MODULARES.

Can Could
She can speak English very well. _______________________

May Might
She may sleep this afternoon _____________________________

Will Would

They will be here all day _________________________

Must Had to

We must study hard tonight ____________________________

Hay algunos cambios que se producen en algunas particular de lugar y tiempo

Now _________________________

Tonight ________________________

Today _______________________

Last night _______________________

This morning _______________________

This week _________________________

Next week _________________________

Next year ________________________

Here ________________________
EXERCISES.

DIRECTO INDIRECT

He said he works from 9 to 5 ______________________________________

We are tired _______________________________________

They don´t go to bed late. ________________________________________

I´m watching TV ________________________________________

We have just come back ________________________________________

I spoke to them at the door ________________________________________

I can sing very well ________________________________________

I´ll open the window ________________________________________

You must be more responsible ________________________________________

It may rain ________________________________________

He said to Gill, ¨leave the door open. __________________________________

I said to her, ¨John has been cleaning the house all day

The minister said, ¨I´m preparing my speech for tomorrow morning.

The teacjer saod. ¨the test will be shorter and easier than the last one.

The doctor said to me, ¨you must stop eating sweets¨

He said to her, ¨I love you¨ ____________________________________________

I first met my wife in Sevella, he told us.

¨Mark´s going to install solar panals¨said Miranda

Jenny can´t speak French said Pierre.

I´ll bring a past salda, said Francesca.


Where do Mary and Tom live?

My name is Yvonne.

I´m going to Madrid tomorrow.

I´m playing football next week.

They went to school this morning.

She will go to Paris next year.

I like it here.

We can speak English

I will see you in the party.


Formar the conditionals

0 = __________________ / ____________________

1= __________________ / ______________________

2= __________________/ _______________________

3= ___________________________ / __________________________

Translate these conditionals

Si yo tuviera mucho dinero, me combraria ropa nueva

Julia no hubiera estado tan enferma si no se hubiera comido toda la pizza.

Si el video esta roto el lo llevara a la tienda.

Si ellos suspenden su examenes, no iran a la universidad

Paul no se hubiera ido al circo si Kate no hubiera comprado las entradas.

Ganariamos mas partidos si nuestro equipo tuviera mejores juguadores.

¿Qué harias si encontraras un ladron en tu casa?

Necesitare mas dinero si vamos al cine.

Si el se hubiera comido el queso ayer, no se hubiera puesto malo.

Si el no tiene tiempo mañana, no ira a la piscina.

Si el ahorra dinero este año, ira a Jamaica Poner esta frase en 1, 2 y 3 condicional
PUT THESE SENTENCES IN PASSIVE

Somebody stole her coat last night

They don´t allow parking here.

They cancelled the football match because of the snow

She has committed a terrible crime.

People should throw rubbish in the bins

The police is going to accuse him of vandalism.

The judge had imprisoned the murderer for twenty-five years.

Professional criminals were going to commit most crimes.

The police will catch some criminals because they are stupid.

They are installing a new alarm system.

He arrested Schmidt.

Julie was being followed by a man.

She might solve the problem

Six people have been taken to hospital by ambulances.

Someone will catch the bank robbers.


I can clean my car.

Someone accused me of stealing the money.

The court will fine him for dangerous driving.

They make these cameras in Japan.

A mechanic is repairing my car

Someone has stolen my purse.

A car knocked them down.

Her mother should take her to the doctor

______________________________________________________________________

You must turn off the lights at night