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PART 6.

Retaining
Walls
This section has been prepared to provide professional engineering advice must be sought
designers, local authorities and builders with in order that the wall design can be amended.
some standard design details for reinforced
concrete masonry retaining walls. Soil Conditions
It is emphasized that where loading conditions or By reference to the soil conditions on the site, a
soil types are likely to be outside the criteria particular soil type can be selected from Table 1.
given then professional engineering advice Often the local,tenitorial authority will have the
must be sought. soil types designated within its area and hence
may require a specific soil type to be used in the
The principal advantages of reinforced concrete design. The design charts provided have classed
masonry walls over their reinforced concrete
different soils into three types for design
counterparts are the elimination of shuttering and simplicity. These are shown in Table 1.
the uniformity of the concrete surface texture.
Two types of wall more commonly encountered Reference should be made to the local territorial
on the building site have been considered, as authority as to its requirements for soil types.
follows (refer Figure 1):
If soil types outside the classes listed exist, then
‘Qpe I is used when excavation is below the professional engineering advice must be sought.
level of a neighbouring property and isto be
built as close as popsible to the boundary. Loading Conditions

Type II is used when filling against a Design charts have been produced for:
neighbouring boundary. a) Level ground and no water pressure*.
Type II walls are generally more structurally b) Level ground, no water pressure*, and a
efficient than Type I walls, but foundation domestic driveway (2.5 kPa surcharge).
detailing is more complicated and additional
attention is required to waterproofing detailing at c) Maximum backslope angle of soil retained,
the base, when the wall forms part of a habitable no water pressure* or other surcharge
space. present.

The Type I walls only allow for the optional Loading conditions (a), (b), or (c) must be
additional gravity effects of loading from two selected.
storey light timber framing or one storey timber
Only Type I walls allow for the optional
framing with 90mm brick veneer finish, in
additional gravity effects of loading from two
accordance with NZS3604.
storey light timber framing or one storey timber
framing with 90mm brick veneer finish, in
Selection of Retaining Wall accordance with NZS3604. Where greater
vertical loads are encountered from a structure
Boundary and Site Conditions over the retaining wall (up to lOOkN/m run of
By reference to the particular site conditions the wall) alternative designs are available in
type of wall to be used can be selected, refer to NZS4229 Appendix C.
Figure 1, Type I or II.
It is vital to ensure that adequate drainage is
Note the minimum level distance requirement provided behind the retaining wall. Where
(except where a specified backslope angle exists loading conditions are beyond the above
behind the wall). If this cannot be met then
Page 1
I I
Possible light weigM residential 4 I Must be level for a min. distance
construction over

Soil loading wall -


refer Table 1

Key depth is a minimum of


IOOmm for all soil conditions

TYPE I WALL

No additional axial loads due to residential


constru&n are permitted.
Specific design is required in this case.

Must be Ieve for a min. distanca

minimum
of IOOmm for all soil
conditions

TYPE II WALL

Figure 1 Key To Wall Types/Loads permitted

Page 2
limitations then professional engineering advice Concrete for infilling
should be sought. Concrete infill grout shall comply with NZS4210
* An allowance for pore water pressure in clay “Masonry Construction: Materials and
soils only is included in the design. Workmanship”, having minimum crushing
strength of 17.5 MPa at 28 days and a spread
Construction Methods between 450-530mm when tested in accordance
with the appropriate test requirements of
Two standards of criteria on construction NZS3 112: 1986 “Specification for Methods of
methods have been set down in the design tables: Test for Concrete”.

1. Construction with Supervision. When the minimum dimension of the grout core is
Grade B less than 60mm, then ajine grout consisting of
concreting sand and cement should be used,
Inspection by the designer or a competent
otherwise a coarse grout is required with
nominated representative is required during
maximum aggregate size of 12.5mm or 19.Omm.
construction.

Mortar for Laying blocks


2. Construction without supervision.
Grade C. Mortar shall comply with NZS4210 “Masonry
Construction: Materials and Workmanship”,
This category is intended where supervision is
having a minimum compressive strength of 12.5
not provided. This grade shall be used for
MPa when tested in accordance with Appendix
retaining walls having a maximum retained soil
2.A of NZS4210.
height up to 1Sm. I

The use of the terms Grade B and Grade C arises Reinforcing Steel
from NZS4230: 1990 “Code of practice for the
Reinforcing steel should be deformed high yield
Design of Masonry Structures” and
steel bars conforming to the new combined
NZS4229: 1998 “Concrete buildings not requiring
Australian/New Zealand Standard “Steel
specific design”.
Reinforcing Materials” (refer Use of Design
A registered mason is qualified in structural Charts notes with reference to existing and future
concrete masonry and is acceptable to most local steel grades).
authorities as able to provide a producer
Note: The design charts have been created using
statement for workmanship in accordance with
the soon to be introduced Grade 500 MPa
NZS42 10.
Seismic reinforcing steel and joint Australian/
New Zealand reinforcing steel standard. Until
Specifications of Materials this steel becomes available the charts currently
existing in the Masonry Manual shall continue to
Concrete for footings be used for design purposes.
Concrete shall comply with NZS3 109: 1995 for
concrete having a minimum crushing strength of Masonry Construction
20.0 MPa at 28 days. Wall construction shall follow the provisions of
Ready mixed concrete should be ordered having NZS4210. Construction will predominantly use
20mm maximum size aggregate, 20 MPa strength open ended, depressed web units; ie 15 16,2016,
and with a IOOmm slump. 25 16; or where available H block configuration,
eg H2016. All cells are to be filled with grout.

Page 3
Design Notes Blockwork and concrete are designed to
“ultimate limit state” concepts as outlined in
The design charts were produced from computer
NZS4203: 1992 “General Structural Design
print out data supplied by the consultants Spencer
Holmes Ltd. in response to a commission by the and Design Loadings for Buildings”. Soil
New Zealand Concrete Masonry Association to loading concepts used are recommended by
investigate masonry retaining walls for domestic the New Zealand Geomechanics Society and
construction. the New Zealand Structural Engineering
Society in a seminar entitled “Limit State
The criteria used by the consultants were as Design of Retaining Walls and Foundations
follows: for Geotechnical and Structural Engineers”.
The load and resistance are factored
The retained soil at the top of the wall from
separately reflecting the uncertainty
the back of the footing heel is level for a
associated with each.
distance equal to the height of wall (except for
tables where a specified backslope angle The following load factors were used:
exists). All soil contained from the back of
the wall to a 45” line from the base of the Loads generated by static earth pressure 1.6
footing must be of the type assumed in the Restoring Gravity Loads 0.9
design from Table 1, or where backfilling has
taken place, must be granular with a minimum The following capacity reduction factors were
@ = 35” and maximum y,= 19.6 kN/m3 used:

The walls are not designed for the forces due Soil bearing capacity 0 = 0.5
to compacting machinery working on the
Sliding Resistance (I = 0.8
retained soil. Adequate precautions, eg.
shoring, strutting, etc. must be taken to ensure Seismic load combinations are not considered
no damage occurs to the wall during this to be critical for the height and nature of the
operation. walls encountered in this design. It is probable
that some additional wall rotations will take
The design considers stability of the wall for
place in some conditions where ultimate limit
sliding, overturning and bearing on the soil
state earthquake loadings are imposed.
immediately adjacent to the wall. Overall However it is considered that collapse
stability of the soil mass has not been
conditions will not occur. This is consistent
considered
with the requirements of NZS4203, the
A drainage layer of suitable granular material Loadings Code.
is provided at the back of the wall, with a
Calculations assume a minimum 1OOmm
perforated pipe at the base discharging to the cover of earth or paving materials on top of
open. Surface water must also be prevented projecting footings. Where footings are
from accumulating at the top of the wall and constructed integrally with a floor slab and
overloading the drainage system. there is no such cover it is assumed that the
The assumed weight of materials is: slab will provide the additional resistance to
Concrete and Blockwork 23.5 kNlm3 overturning required.
Soil
Assumed soil parameters
Uncompacted gravelly
sands or clay 16.7 kN/m3 The following soil types have been grouped
Dense gravelly sands together to provide three soil types for ease of
or gravels 19.6 kN/m3 use.
Pumice 12.7 kN/m3
Table 1 Soil types used in design

Soil Type Classes of soil included Design Parameters

y W/m31 0 0 C NW

A dense gravel 19.6 30 0

B* loose gravel gravelly sand sandy gravel pumice 16.7 30 0

C clay 16.7 25 12

* The design parameters for each of the soil classes varies in practice. The most unfavourable conditions for the
group have been given.

Soil forces are calculated using the Coulomb When calculating the passive soil pressure at the
active earth pressure theory assuming wall toe of the footing, cohesive soils are assumed to
movements, lateral and rotational, are sufficient be fully drained (ie. no pore water pressures are
to allow active pressure to develop and that wall/ present). The passive pressure on the toe is taken
soil friction can develop. as acting over the entire depth from the soil level
to the base of the key; the full value is used.
For both cohesive and granular soil types, the soil
and surcharge are assumed to act at an angle of For cohesive type soils the effects of pore water
either two thirds $ or Q. The first value applies to pressure are assessed as shown in Figure 2, to
Wall Type I and approximates the effect of wall allow for slow drainage within the retained soil.
friction. The second val!e applies to Type II
Note: The pore water pressure assessed for the
Walls where the “virtual back” of the wall is a
drained cohesive soil is half that for an undrained
plane through the soil itself, and wall friction is
cohesive soil. Note that the soil pressure is
replaced by internal friction of the soil.
computed using the submerged density yb, and

u
Fs = ‘h KA Ys (Ii’)*
Soil Pore

Where Ye = Ys - Yw
and Fw = ‘h(‘h Yw (H’)q

Figure 2 Analysis of Pore Water Pressures in Cohesive Soils

Page 5
that the pore water pressure is taken as acting at Enter selected chart, using maximum height
half the height. of soil retained, to read off reinforcing and
minimum footing dimensions required.
The soil stress is assumed to be a uniform
rectangular stress block over a portion of the Where the footing is part of a substantial
footing. The minimum ultimate bearing pressure concrete slab (eg. house or garage floor slab in
of the soil is assumed to be 300 kPa. good ground) any key required can be
omitted.
In cohesive soils, base adhesion contributes to the
sliding resistance. The value of base adhesion Only Type I walls allow for the optional
used is C multiplied by the width of the footing additional gravity effects of loading from two
over which ultimate soil bearing pressure storey light timber framing or one storey
develops (ie. the rectangular stress block). timber framing with 90mm brick veneer
finish, in accordance with NZS3604. Where
The base friction coefficient is taken as tan fin
greater vertical loads are encountered from a
granular soils, and two thirds tan fin cohesive
structure over the retaining wall (up to
soils where a key exists.
lOOkN/m run of wall) alternative designs are
Buoyancy effects have not been considered. available in NZS4229 Appendix C.

l Masonry Design Note: The following charts have been created


using the soon to be introduced Grade 500 MPa
The design has been based upon NZS4230: 1990 Seismic reinforcing steel and joint Australian/
“Code of Practice for the Design of Masonry New Zealand reinforcing steel standard. Until
Structures”. 60mm cover to reinforcing steel this steel becomes available the charts currently
from soil side of the wali has been used for all existing in the Masonry Manual shall continue to
.
walls. Refer to Figure 3 for construction details be used for design purposes.
showing block layout, reinforcing location, bar
bend radii, etc.

Use of Design Charts

l By reference to boundary and site conditions,


the appropriate wall type can be selected,
Type I or II (see Figure 1).

l Select the appropriate soil type (see Table 1).

l Determine if a surcharge for light private


vehicle parking is required, or if the retained
soil will have a backslope angle.

l Reinforcement tables indicating the maximum


height to be retained for the appropriate wall,
soil types, and loading conditions, will
determine whether a 140mm, 190mm, or a
240mm wall should be used. The top row for
the 190mm series walls has been provided to
give minimised footing dimensions for lower
height wall options.

Page 6
HD12 al 600 horizontal

vapwr barliar for walls vvmlicalreinforuvnerlt


in habitable buildings (refw design charts)

PIAN VIEW-:R-EINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT

BAR BEND RADII


Bend bar around “d” diameter pin

I HDlO “d” = 60 mm
HD12 “d” = 60 mm
. HD16 “d” = 60 mm
HD20 “d” = 100 mm

V wtical8 footing reinformment


Vapour barrier for walls -
m habitabls buildings MBhaSSpCihdfOfSlab

Concrete floor slab

Figure 3 Retaining Wall details

Page 7
Examples The 400mm deep key may be omitted from the
footing because of the presence of substantial
The following examples intend to illustrate the area of attached slab and foundations.
use of the design charts:
Example 2
Example 1
AType II wall, 1750mm high, is to be
A wall within a basement garage which has a constructed in Soil B materials with a backslope
substantial area of concrete slab and footings of 10”. A 190mm wall is chosen and the “Type II
constructed on good ground is to retain sandy soil 190mm Retaining Wall - With Backslope” chart is
from the neighbouring property. It is directly referenced.
adjacent to the site boundary. The ground to be
retained is flat for a distance of 3m from the wall l By entering the Soil B column it is found
face, is used as a domestic driveway, and is from the second and third rows down that
determined to be 2200mm above the top of the either HDlO-400 or HD12-600 can be used,
footing. and that the footing dimensions are the same
for both cases. As the reinforcing weight, and
As excavation cannot be under neighbours hence cost, is approximately the same for both
property use Type I wall. cases it is preferable to choose the option with
the wider reinforcing spacing.
As domestic driveway use surcharge based
charts. l The following design is therefore used:
The soil is identified as being sandy therefore Reinforcing HD 12-600
use soil B column. 1
. Footing Length “L” 750mm
With 140mm Type I wall with surcharge and
soil type B, the maximum permitted height is Key Depth “K” 1OOmm
1650mm. Therefore use 190mm Type I wall If, for this example, the backslope required was
with surcharge.
determined to be 20”, ie exceeds the 12”
The design dimension table is then referenced maximum slope provided on the design chart for
and by scanning the Soil B column it is found this wall, specific design would be required by a
that the closest greater “Maximum Height” qualified Engineer.
retained is 2400mm, giving:

Reinforcing HD16-400

Footing Length “L” 1350mm

Page 8
Type I. 740mm Retaining Wall - Without Surcharge

Level surface distance


eoual fbl”

HD12 at 600 horizontally


/ (Lap 750)
v E 4
Damp-proof membrane 140 concrete block wall - vertical .-
8 protective cover control joints at 6000 max crs 2 2
required for wails in $j I
habitable buildings .E i
v 2 i
(refer E 2 of N.Z.
P i
Building code)
V r
3 ;:
/ I’

‘V vertical 8 footing reinforcement

Scabble surface of Backtill or paving


concrete IOOmm min
thickness

1 i
. . l J I,/=== I
eFE
1000 perforated UIL-3””
I L ILap 400)
Key 8 backfill may be
omitted where suitable
restraint is provided by
Footin w i d t h “L” integral floor slab
-. -refer figure 3 in
commentary notes
BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1 VEmlUIL
SOilA ! Soil B ! Soil C 1

2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill RE,f,~~~Ew Maximum height 7-t” Maximum height “H” Maximum height H’
strengths 20MPa at 26 days.
v "C "K "L"

3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade. loo0 fmo loo0


HDlO _ 800
500 100 450 1W 850 I 200
4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as
1302 1400 ifm
3OOkPa. HDlO _ 604
650 I 200 650 I 200 950 I 250
5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable 1500 1600 I lzo0
granular material with perforated pipe HDlO _ 400
600 250 600 200 1 1050 300
to an open end.
1500 1560 1200
HD12 - 600
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not 600 250 750 250 1050 i 300
included in the design. Is60 1750 14w
HD12 - 4W
YkNlm’ r$ 9w 300 900 3w 1300 350
7. Soil A includes 0 Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes 0 Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 9
Type I. 740n-m Retaining Wall - With Surcharge

Level surface distance


eoual to “H”
A L 60 cover

I 25KPa surcharge
I I III

HD12 at 600 horizontally


/(Lap 750)

Damp-proof membrane 140 concrete block wall - vertical


8 protective cover ntrol joints at 6000 max crs
required for walls in
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of N.Z.
Building code)

‘V’ vertical 8 footing reinforcement

P-

9
300min

Filter fabric - 1I

commentary notes

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1

2. Concrete foundation & grout infill REINFORCEMENT


strengths 20MPa at 26 days.

3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade.

4 . Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


BOOkPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.
H012-ml 1360 I 14.50 I 1150
6 . Compaction forces from machinery are not 800 I 250 I SW I 250 I 1100 I 300
included in the design. 1560 1650 1X0
I
HDlZ-400
kkN/m’ $ 900 300 900 300 1250 350
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely S a n d 16.7 35

l P u m i c e Soil 12.7 35 DESIGN DIMENSIONS


Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25
Type I. 140mm Retaining Wall - With Backslope

HD12 at 600 horizontally

Damp-proof membrane
8 protective mver 140 concrete block wall - vertical
required for walls in control joints at 6000 max crs
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of
N.Z.Building code)

‘II” vertical 8 footing reinforcement

Scabble surface of

f Filter

. . *I I,d

,l8 1000
drain
perforated1
nlJ1z -YOU
(Lap 400) 4
II L Key &backfill may be
omitted where suitable
200 restraint is provided by
- -
integral floor slab
Footin w i d t h “L” -refer figure 3 in
mmmentarv notes

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
I. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1. Soil A I Soil B I Soil C
VERTICM I
6 FOOTING Maximum height *H*
2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H”
REINFORCEMENT
strengths 20MPa at 26 days. 1 “K” 1 “L” / “K
“L”
3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade. l#r) I loo0
550 I 150 I 950 I 250
t. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as
1200 1250 loo0
3OOkPa. HDIO - 800
7’00 I 2w 700 200 950 250
5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable 14W 1460 1150
granular material with perforated pipe HD10-400
SW 250 SW 250 1100 300
to an open end.
1350 1450 1150
HD12-600
6 . Compaction forces from machinery ara not SW 250 SW I 250 1100 I 300
included in the design. 1560 1650 lja,
Y kN/m’ $ HD12-400
9w I 3w I 900 I 300 I 1250 I 350
7. Soil A includes l DenseGravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25
Type II. 740mm Retaining Wall -Without Surcharge

a I, 60 cover

Drainage
V metal V
- HDl2 at 600 horizontally
V I (Lap 750)
I

1
Damp-proof membrane
140 concrete block wall -
V & protective cover
required for walls in vertical control joints at
habitable buildings (refer 6000 max crs
E 2 of NZBuilding code) V

“V vertical reinforcement

ey d e p t h

/
‘V footing u HD12 -
reinforcement with I I
75mm cover all around

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1 VEurKx.
Soil A Soil B Soil C

!. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill RE,iL-yw Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H’ Maximum height “H”
strengths 20MPa at 28 days.
I ‘II” “L” 1 “K” 1 “C “K’ “L” 1 “K”

3. Reinforcement is deformad 500 grade I a-


a- l lam IODO
HO10 - 600
400 100 1M I
, loo 7M) 100
1. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as
300kPa.
1350 1450 iim
HDIO-800
550 1W wn
"-I I 1r-m
."" 7cn
."" I 1M
.--
5. Drainage shatl be a layer of suitable 1660 lb00 1260
granular material with perforated pipe HD10.400 I
wo I loo 600 I loo I 850 I loo
to an open end.
1600 1600 1260
HDl2-600
5. Compaction forces from machinery are not 600 150 600 150 650 150
included in the design. 1700 ISO0 1450
m kNlm’ $ HD12.4W
700 150 700 150 950 150
r. Soil A includes l DenseGravel 1 9 . 6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 12
Type II. 140mm Retaining Wall - With Surcharge

Level surface distance

v
Drainage
metal v

HD12 at 600 horizontally


(Lap 750)
v
Damp-proof membrane 8 K
protective cover required 140 concrete block wall -
for walls in habitable vertical control joints at
buildings (refer E 2 of 6000 max crs
NZBuilding code) v
V V

V V IIII II ----- “\$’ vertical reinforcement


Scabble surface of
concrete

‘V footing
reinforcement wil,,
75mm cover all around
I I

BAR BENDI
DIMENSIOf’ CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
I, Masonry designed to NZ.94230 PART 1

2 . Concrete foundation 8 grout infill REINFORCEMEM


strengths 20MPa at 28 days.

3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade.

4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


300kPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.
1500 1150
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not 1 650 1 150 1 600 / 150
included in the design,
ISW 17aJ 1300
HDlZ-400
II kNlm’ r$ 700 150 700 150 900 150
7. Soil A includes l DenseGravel 1 9 . 6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35

l P u m i c e Soil 12.7 35 DESIGN DIMENSIONS


Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 13
Type II. 740n-m Retaining Wall -With Backslope

15”maxforsoilsA8B

I
r

metal v

v HD12 at 600 horizontally


/-(Lap 750,
I

Damp-proof membrane -
v
8 protective cover
required for walls in /- ::I z?iz E%
habitable buildings joints at 6000 max crs
(refer E 2 of v
N.Z.Building code) p

V V I ‘V’ vertical reinforcement


Scabble surface of

ey depth

I- HD12 - 300
(Lap 400)

I- Footin w i d t h “C

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1, Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1. Soil A Soil 0 Soil C
vEt?ncu
2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill pEl$-yEPEM Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H” Maximum height H”
strengths 20MPa at 28 days. ‘,Iw 1 , 3, “K “L’ I “K”
I “K” “L” I
3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade.
HDIO-800 1-1
4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as
BOOkPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material wkh perforated pipe
to an open end.
HD12-600 I+1
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not
included in the design. 1600 1700 1300
HD12-4W I
Y kNlm” $ 700 150 700 150 920 150
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.8 30

Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30


l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
l Pumice Soil 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 14
Type I. 790mm Retaining Wall - Without Surcharge

Level surface distance


,

HD12 at 600 horizontally

Damp-proof membrane
8 protective cover 190 concrete block wall - vertical
required for walls in control joints at 6000 max crs
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of N.Z.
Building code)

‘V vertical 8 footing reinforcement

Scabble surface of

100 0 t&orated
drain ’ L Key 8 +’backfill may be
omitted where suitable
restraint is provided bv
Footin w i d t h “L” integral floor slab
-refer figure 3 in
commentary notes
BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
BellA Boil B Boil C
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART I. VEW ,
RE,iEzw Maximum height “Ii” Maximum height “H” Maximum height ‘H”
2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill
strengths 20MPa at 26 days. v “L” 1 “Ic’ “L” 1 “K” “L” , “K”

3. Reinforcement is dafonnad 500 grade.


SW 150
4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as 18a)
300kPa. HDlO-400
900 300

5 . Drainage shall be a layer of suitable 1800


HDlZ-6M)
granular material with perforated pipa 900 300
to an open end. 2050
HDlZ-400
11w 4w
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not
2150
included in the design.
ukN/m3 r$
I HDl8 _ 600
1150 400 1100 400 1600 450
24a I 2550 I 2mo
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30 HD16 - 400
1300 450 1300 450 1950 500
Soil B includes l LooseGravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
Soil C includes
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 15
.

Type I. 790mm Retaining Wall - With Surcharge

c
Level surface distance
equal to “H”
-I
A L 60 cover
2.5KPa surcharge

HD12 at 600 horizontally

Damp-proof membrane 190 concrete block wall - vertical


8 protective cover control joints at 6000 max crs
required for walls in
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of N.Z.
Building code)

‘V vertical 8 footing reinforcement

Scabble surface of

restraint is provided by
integral floor slab
-refer figure 3 in
commentary notes

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES

IREFUL
1 . Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1

2. Concrete foundation & grout infill Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H” Maximum height H’
strengths 20MPa at 28 days.

3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade.

4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


HDlO-400 1700 I 1Bw I 1460
3OOkPa.
950 I 300 I 950 I 3w I 1300 I 350
5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable 1700 17.50 1400
granular material with perforated pipe HDlZ-600
950 300 950 3ca 1300 350
to an open end.
f9a 2ocu 1600
HD12.400
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not 1100 I 350 IIW I 350 1500 I 400
included in the design. 2oa z7m 1700
HD16-600 I I
YkNlm’ $ 1150 1 400 1 1150 1 400 1 1650 / 450
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30 uoo I 2ua lw0
HDl6 - 400
1350 450 1350 450 1900 500
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
. Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil
l 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 16
Type I. 190mm Retaining Wall - With Backslope

lO”maxforsoilsA&B

HD12
HD12 atat600
600horizontally
horizontally
(Lap 750)

Damp-proof membrane
8 protective cover .190
190 concrete
concrete block
block wall
wall -- vertical
vertical
required for walls in control joints at 6000 max crs
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of
NZBuilding code)
i
:

‘V vertical 8 footing reinforcement

Scabble surface of Backfill or paving


concrete IOOmm min
thickness
/
I
/

, \\\\\\\\\\wsm
. . .J,f= i

21
HD12 - 300
(Lap 400) Key & backfill may be
omitted where suitable
restraint is provided by
integral floor slab
Footin w i d t h ‘I” -refer figure 3 in
I
commentary notes
BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
BOilA Boil B BetIC
VERTltxl
I. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART I.
6 FOUllNO Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H” Maximum height H’
REINFORCEMENT
2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill
1 “K” “L” j “Ic’ “L” , “K*
strengths 20MPa at 26 days. ‘V “L”
c?m 1200 1200
3. Reinforcement is deformed 506 grade. H010.400
650 150 650 150 1100 300
4 . Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as rrm feDD 1400
HDlO -u)o
3OOkPa. 950 I 300 950 I 3w ,300 I 3.50
1700 II 1r50 I f4m 1
5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable HDIZ _ 600 I
granular material with perforated pips 954 300 I ___
95” I _ml7
__ 1300 350
19W 1 -
to an open end. - 1600
HD12 - 400 I I
1100 1 350 I .“I
rrnn I -“”
9m I .““”
*CM I -
&-.I
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not
included in the design. 2mJ 2100 1700
HD16.800
1150 400 1150 400 1650 450
kkN/m3 Q
2300 24m 1900
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30 HDl6 _ 400
1350 450 1350 450 1900 500
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
. Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil
l 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 17
.

Type II. 790mm Retaining Wall - Without Surcharge

iD12 at 600 horizontaliy


Lap 750)

Damp-proof membrane
8 protective cover 90 concrete block wall -
required for walls in ertical control joints at
habitable buildings (refer 1000 max crs
E 2 of N.Z.Building code) p

Y’ vertical reinforcement
Scabble surface of

85 reinforcemant with
75mm cover all around

4I I I

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
I, Masonry desrgned to NZS4230 PART 1

2. Concrete foundation 8 grout in611


strengths 20MPa at 28 days.

3 . Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade


~1 Maximum height “H” Maximum height H’ Maximum height “H”

4. Ultimate beating pressure for footing taken as


BOOkPa.

5 . Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.

8. Compaction forces from machinery are not


included in the design.
L( kNlm’ $
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil
l 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 18.7 25

Page 18
Type II. 190mm Retaining Wall - With Surcharge

Level surface distance


equal to “H”

I I I I I
25KPa Surcharge
I I I I I / Ill

Drainage
metal v

HD12 at 600 horizontalty


r (Lap 750)

Damp-proof membrane 8
protective cover required
for walls in habitable
buildings (refer E 2 of 6000 max crs
NZSuilding code)

T “V vertical reinforcement
Scabble surface of

50

. /
WY
HD;2
1

‘Y’ footing .
1 b’ HD12 - 300 “K
reinforcement with
L-l 50 8
2 75mm cover all around
?I I- -1 Ill I I
HD12 - 300
(Lap400)

“” Footing width “L”

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
Soil A Soil B SOilC
VERTICAL
1 . Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1
RE,~[~E~Em Maximum height “H” Maximum height “I-/” Maximum height “H’
2 . Concrete foundation 8 grout infill
, “K” “L” / “K” “L” 1 “K”
strengths 20MPa at 26 days. ‘Y “L”

3. Reinforcement is defoned 500 grade.

4 . Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


300kPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end. 1 2050 I lb00
900 I 100 I ,100 I 150
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not
included in the design. 22w 1700
950 150 12W 150
Y kNlm’ r$
2450 lw0
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
1050 I 150 1300 I 2w
Soil 6 includes l Lcose Gravel 16.7 30
. Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil
l 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 19
Type II. 790mm Retaining Wall -With Backslope

-TJ- 12’maxforsorlsA&B

Damp-proof membrane
8 protective cover 190 concrete block
required for wails in wall - vertical control
habitable buildings joints at 6000 max crs

‘V vertrcal reinforcement
Scabble surface of

Footin w i d t h “C

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
VERTICAL
Soil A Soil 0 I Soil C
1. Masonry designed to NE.4230 PART 1 I

2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill


strengths 20MPa at 28 days.
I d%zENT IL
.
Maximum height “W Maximum height “H” Maximum height H’

b ,
1200
..
12W
..
r7m
I
.-__
3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade HDlO _ 400
550 100 550 100 a5
4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as IT60 1860
HDlO-4C4
BOOkPa. 1 750 I loo I 750 I loo
1750 I 1Bw
5. Drarnage shall be a layer of suitable HDt2-6M)
granular material with perforated pipe 750 IW
to an open end. m
HD12-400
cm” I 1m-l
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not
included in the design. 2100
HD16 - @?I
900 150 , Yxl , l?AJ 1 ILUU , 13”
II kNlm’ (I
2350 2450 lw0
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30 HD16 _ 400 I I
1050 I 150 I 1050 I 150 I 1300 I 200
Soil B includes . Loose Gravel 16.7 30
. Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil
l 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
So11 C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 20
Type I. 240mm Retaining Wall -Without Surcharge

Level surface distance


equal to “H”
-I

f
-

-
1
-

r HDI 2 at 600 horizontally h


- ?
(Lap 750) r -2
/
Damp-proof membrane -
8 protective cover 240 concrete block wall - vertical
required for walls in control joints at 6000 max crs
habitable buildings -
(refer E 2 of N.Z.
Building code) -

-
V ‘Y’ vertical 8 footing reinforcement
!I
/
-
~~~~~~~,~Zaving 1
-
t Filter fabric

100 0 perforated -I HD12 - 300


Key & backtill may be
- 7 dra’n (Lap 400)
omitted where suitable
restraint is provided by
integral floor slab
-refer figure 3 in
commentary notes

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES

IRE~~~~
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1.

2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H” Maximum height 7-l’
strengths 20MPa at 26 days.

3. Reinforcament is deformed 500 grade.

4 . Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


3OOkPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.

6. Compaction forces from machinery are not


included in the design. I 3300 I 2560 I
u kNlm’ $
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35

l Pumice Soil 12.7 35 DESIGN DIMENSIONS


Soil C includes . Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 2 1
Type I. 240mm Retaining Wall-With Surcharge

Level surface distance


equal to “l-f’

t L 60cover
25KPa surcharge

v
V
Drainage HO12 at 600 horizontally
metal /- (Lap 750)
V
Dampproof membrane ,y- 240 concrete block wall - vertical
8 protective cover control joints at 6000 max crs
required for walls in
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of N.Z.
Building code)

F ‘Y’ vertical 8 footing reinforcement

commentary notes
BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1, Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1.

2. Concrete foundation & grout infill


strengths 20MPa at 26 days.

3. Reinforcement is defoned 500 grade

4 . Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


3OOkPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.

6 . Compaction forces from machinery are not


included in the design.
LlkN/m’ $J
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 22
Type I. 240mm Retaining Wall - With Backslope

v
V
Drainage HDIZ at 600 horizontally
metal (Lap 750)
V
Damwrcof membrane - 3 $1
8 pr&tive cover IHt-tl - 240 concrete block wall - vertical
required for walls in control joints at 6000 max crs
habitable buildings
(refer E 2 of V
N.Z.Building code)
v I

z/
>lrh
‘II” vertical 8 footing reinforcement
+
:

Scabble surface of Backfill or paving


concrete IOOmm min
II thickness
-7 Filter fabric 7 I’ /-
I - -

HD12 - 300
(Lap 400) Key & backfill may be
omitted where suitable
restraint is provided by
integral floor slab
I- Footin w i d t h ‘I”
-I -refer figure 3 in
BAR BENDING commentary notes

DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1 VEmlcAL
Boil A Soil 0 Soil C

2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill RE,~~~E$Ew Maximum height “H” Maximum height “H” Maximum height H’
strengths 20MPa at 26 days,

3. Reinforcement is defonad 500 grade.

4. Ultimate beating pressure for footing taken as


300kPa. HD16-800 23w 2400 I 1900
1300 I 400 I 1250 I 450 I 16&o I 5M
5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable HDlS-4m 2660 2750 2200
granular material with perforated pipe
1500 500 1500 500 2150 600
to an open end.
HMO-600 2660 2800 22w
6. Compaction forces from machinery are not 1500 5ol 1500 550 2150 600
included in the design. 3160
HD20 - 400 3oDo 2500
VkN/m’ $ I I 1750 I 600 I 1750 t 600 1 2550 / 650 1
7. Soil A includes l DenseGravel lg.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
. Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 23
Type II. 240mm Retaining Wall - Without Surcharge

--I k 60 cover

V
V
Drainage
metal v
V
HD12 at 600 horizontaliy
V (Lap 750)

Damp-proof membmne
& protective cover 240 concrete block wall -
V vertical control joints at
required for walls in
habitable buildings (refar 6000 max crs
E 2 of NZBuilding code) V

V ‘1s’ vertical reinforcement


Scabble surface of
concrete

Filter fabric

1000 perforated

,
1“K”
u’1 1 KHD’2
e - 3oo
y d e p t h
T-I

t
Footin w i d t h “L”
I- 1

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1

2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill


strengths 20MPa at 28 days.

3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade

4. Uttimate bearing pressure for footing taken as


300kPa.

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.

6. Compaction forces from machinery are not


included in the design.
UkNlm’ r$
7. So11 A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
l Pumice Soil 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 24
Type II. 240mm Retaining Wall - With Surcharge

Level surface distance


equal to “H”
L 60cover

I I I I I
25KPa Surcharge
I I I I I

Drainage ” I
metal D
HD12 at 600 horizontally
r (Lap 750)

1
D ’
Damp-proof membrane 8
protective cover required
for wails in habitable
buildings (refer E 2 of
N.Z.Building code)

7 V vertical reinforcement
Scabble surface of

HD12 - 300 “K Key depth


f

HDl2 - 300
(Lw4OQ)

I- Footin w i d t h ‘I”

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL

NOTES
1. Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1 Boil A Soil 0 BoilC
VEIrllcu
2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill RE,~~-~f Maximum height “H” Maximum height ‘H” Maximum height “H’
strengths 20MPa at 26 days.
"L" 1 "K" "C "L"
3. Reinforcement is deformed 500 grade. I 2350 IS50
1050 100 1350 150
4. Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as
300kPa. 2500 IRU)

5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable


granular material with perforated pipa
to an open end.

6. Compaction forces from machinery are not


in&dad in the design.
Y kNlm’ r@
7. Soil A includes l Dense Gravel 19.6 30
Soil 0 includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30
l Gravely Sand 16.7 35
Pumice Soil 12.7 35
l
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes . Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 25
0

Type II. 240mm Retaining Wall -With Backslope

9’ max for soils A 8 B


x ror solI

HDl2 at 600 horizontally

Damp-proof membrane
a protective cover 240 concrete block
wall - vertical control
required for walls in
habitable buildings joints at 6000 max crs

‘Y’ vertical reinforcement

ey depth

L-Id”
$ z HD12 - 300
ii I I -I t_ (Lao4001 I

I Footin w i d t h ‘I”

BAR BENDING
DIMENSIONS CROSS-SECTION OF RETAINING WALL
NOTES
Soil A Soil B Soil C
1, Masonry designed to NZS4230 PART 1 MRTiW
RE,~~~~EKT Maximum height H” Maximum height “H’ Maximum height H’
2. Concrete foundation 8 grout infill
strengths 20MPa at 28 days.
LLU
3. Reinforcement is defoned 500 grade HD12-400
1000 100 1050 100 1350 150
4 . Ultimate bearing pressure for footing taken as 2350 2sm 1950
300kPa. HDIB - 600
1050 I loo 1100 100 1400 150
5. Drainage shall be a layer of suitable 2850 2200
granular material with perforated pipe
to an open end.

6 . Compaction forces from machinery are not


included in the design.
ukN/m’ $
7. Soil A includes l DenseGravel 1 9 . 6 30

Soil B includes l Loose Gravel 16.7 30


. Gravely Sand 16.7 35
l Pumice Soil 12.7 35
DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Soil C includes l Weak Clay 16.7 25

Page 26