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10. Exercises 39 ie } mC] Use d’Alemben's principle to find the acceleration of m, down the (stationary) plane. s | i. m x ‘A block of mass m slides on a frictionless inclined plane, which is driven so that it ‘moves horizontally, the displacement of the plane at time t being some known function x(t). Use d'Alember’s principle to find the equation of motion of the block, taking as generalized coordinate the displacement s of the block down the plane. Note that the acceleration of the block is nor “down the plane." Nw, \' ‘A block of mass m slides on a frictionless inclined plane of mass M which in tum is free to slide on a frictionless horizontal surface. Use d'Alemben's principe to find the equations of motion of the block and the plane, taking as generalized coordinates the displacement s of the block dowa the plane and the horizontal displacement x of the plane. CHAPTER IIL LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS. In the preceding chapter we obtained d'Alemben’s principle and showed how it could be used to find the equations of motion. This approach is convenient in that the usually uninteresting forces of constraint do not need to be considered. In this chapter we extend these ideas and show how, starting from d’Alember's principle, we can write the {equations of motion for @ wide range of mechanical systems, described by arbitrary sets of ‘generalized coordinates, in an elegant and compact way known as Lagrange's equations, Lagrange’s equations DiAlemben’s principle says tht the work done by the applied forces x sweatin peming, plus the work done by the inertial forces: x women SComtyde a ina virwal displacement ar, is zero Let us first consider the work SW" done by the applied forces. IF the 3N panicle coordinates r, are expressed in terms of a set off generalized coordinates 4, Fo FGdae GOs the virtual displacements of the particles can be expressed in the form Note that there is no term in this equation coming from "variation in time." In a virtual displacement we imagine the sysiem “frozen” at the time of interest and then imagine subjecting the system to displacements consistent with the constraints. Time is fixed in a Vinual displacement, ‘The work done by the applied forces can thus be writen ayvteooind soe sy) a,