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Basement -the part of a building that is fabricated elsewhere, then transported to COMPOSITE BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION -

wholly or partly below ground level the building site when they’re ready to be The construction site environment may
installed. varies with different locations and
Four major types of basement
surroundings. Thus, one specific method
construction Stone or Clay Tile Walls - If you’re buying
may not be adequate therefore,
an older or historic home, you may find
• Poured Concrete combination of methods would be more
that the basement foundation has been
economical and technically feasible.
• Concrete Block constructed with stone or clay tile walls.
Such walls were fairly common in past Advantage of basement
• Precast Panels decades and were generally selected when
• This allows you to maximize the
• Stone or Clay Tile Walls other materials were not readily available.
square footage of your main living
Poured concrete basements are probably OPEN-CUT CONSTRUCTION-The open cut area and offers additional space
the most common type construction. trench method involves excavating with that’s especially welcome for large
People prefer this option because it’s extended set-out line and allowed sloping. families. When it comes time to put
sturdy and simple. As the name suggests, Once basement structure is completed, soil your home on the market, a
poured concrete basement construction are going to be backfilled into the basement will make your listing so
begins with the pouring of a footing for the structure. much more attractive.
foundation. CUT AND COVER- refers to a process of Disadvantage of basement
Concrete Block - The least-expensive building an underground wall first before
• First, they’re more vulnerable to
option for basement construction involves we start the excavation. The wall will
accumulating moisture and water
the use of concrete blocks or masonry. The eventually becomes the retaining wall to
damage. These can lead to
walls are made of cinder blocks and can be hold the soil and structure from collapsing.
increased indoor humidity and
constructed in a fraction of the time it takes TOP DOWN CONSTRUCTION- In this mildew growth in some cases.
to create a poured concrete wall. Steel method, basement concrete slabs acts as
rebar is generally used to reinforce the • If a basement goes largely unused,
lateral bracing for the perimeter wall
strength of these walls. that means you’re essentially
system. Ground level and first basement
paying for wasted square footage.
Precast Panels- To save money and time on slabs are poured, with access holes to
This is especially true for people
a construction site, builders of many newer allow excavation beneath. As each
who have challenges having to do
residential structures will turn to precast subsequent subgrade level is completed,
with mobility and can’t get up and
foundation walls. These walls are the floor act as lateral bracing for the
down stairs easily.
perimeter wall system.
The seven common basement • MINING THE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS WITHIN
construction problems THE STORE .
• POWER
1. Unstable Foundation • TWO WHEEL TROLLEY
• MACHINE TOOLS
2. PEST PROBLEMS IT IS A STEEL STRUCTURE AND HAS TWO
• BARGE AND SHIP BUILDING
WHEELS AND IS USED FOR THE MOVEMENT
3. WATER DAMAGE
OF GOODS KEPT IN CONTAINER
4. Out-of-date or Poorly Placed
HANDLING STANDARDS OF MATERIALS • PLATFORM TROLLEY
Plumbing
• TIMBER IT IS SUITABLE TO CARRY LOOSE PARTS.
5. Low Ceilings
THEY ARE WOODEN OR STEEL STRUCTURE.
• CEMENT, LIME AND POZZOLANA
6. Electrical Codes
• LIFT TROLLEY
• SHEET GLASS AND FIBER GLASS
7. Exit Standards
THEY ARE HEAVY TRUCKS ADAPTED FOR
• PIPE RUNNING BENEATH THE PLATFORM ON
• PILING AND POLES WHICH PARTS ARE STACKED.
MATERIAL HANDLING -
• REINFORCING AND STRUCTURAL STEEL • ROLLER CONVEYOR
REFERS TO THE DELIVERY, MOVEMENT,
STORAGE AND CONTROL • SAND, GRAVEL AND CRUSHED STONE THESE ARE MADE OF METAL FRAMEWORK
OF MATERIALS AND OTHER PRODUCTS. WITH HORIZONTAL ROLLERS PLACED AT A
THIS FORMS PART OF THE LOGISTICS • BITUMEN, BITUMINOUS EMULSION AND DISTANCE. THEY USE ROLLER GRAVITY.
MANAGEMENT OF A PROJECT. ROAD TAR THEY USE ROLLER GRAVITY CONCEPT OR
• FLAMMABLE MATERIALS SLIDING CONCEPT.

SCOPE OF MATERIAL HANDLING IN


DIFFERENT FIELD TYPES OF MATERIAL HANDLING • SCREW CONVEYORS

• MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT THESE CONVEYORS SHOWN IN FIG. MAKE


• WHEEL BARROW USE OF A PROPELLER LIKE HELICAL FINS TO
• PROCESSING PUSH MATERIALS IN ONE DIRECTION.
• CONSTRUCTION A WHEEL BARROW IS A TROUGH WITH SCREW CONVEYORS ARE USED TO FEED
HANDLES AND WHEELS AND IS USED FOR POWDERY MATERIALS.
• MONORAIL CONVEYOR • LIFTS a) INPUT FOR DESIGNING MAY NOT
BE AVAILABLE IN TIME AS A RESULT
THIS TYPE OF CONVEYOR USES HOOKS, LIFTS ARE EMPLOYED IN MULTI-STOREY
OF WHICH RECONSTRUCTION MAY
RACKS OR BASKETS TO TRANSPORT A PLANTS TO TRANSPORT MATERIAL FROM
BE NECESSARY TO COMPLY WITH
VARIETY OF MATERIALS. ONE FLOOR TO ANOTHER. THEY ARE USED
THE INPUT WHEN RECEIVED, AND
FOR TRANSPORTING PEOPLE AS WELL AS
• PIPE CONVEYOR
PRODUCTS b) LESS CONTROL OVER COSTS
THEY ARE IN THE FORM OF PIPE LINES
• TRACTORS AND TRAILER IN BOTH CASES, INTENT OF PLANNING
THROUGH WHICH MATERIALS ARE
AND IMPLEMENTATION SHOULD BE:
DELIVERED, VACUUM SUCKED OR WHEN MATERIAL ARE TO BE
PUMPED. THEY ARE USED TO TRANSPORT TRANSPORTED FROM ONE PLANT TO c) • CONSTRUCTION OF COST
DRY, POWDERED OR GRANULAR OTHER EVEN IN ANOTHER CITY, TRACTORS SHOULD NOT EXCEED THE BUDGET
MATERIALS, CHEMICAL POWDER, SAND, AND TRAILERS ARE USED.
d) • QUALITY OF EXECUTED WORK
LIQUID ETC.
MECHANIZATION OR MECHANISATION - IS HAS TO CONFORM TO THE
• HOIST THE PROCESS OF CHANGING FROM SPECIFICATIONS, DRAWINGS,
WORKING LARGELY OR EXCLUSIVELY BY CODES, ETC.
HOISTS ARE AVAILABLE TO LIFT MATERIAL
HAND OR WITH ANIMALS TO DOING THAT
IN VERTICAL DIRECTION AT DIFFERENT e) • TIME OF EXECUTION HAS TO
WORK WITH MACHINERY.
SPEEDS. REMAIN WITHIN THE AGREED
CONSTRUCTION TIME SCHEDULE.
• CRANES
A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MAY BE OF EQUIPMENT SELECTION
THESE ARE OVERHEAD DEVICE CAPABLE OF
TWO TYPES:
MOVING MATERIALS VERTICALLY AND 1. FUNCTION TO BE PERFORMED
LATERALLY IN ANY AREA OF LIMITED • LINEAR PROJECT (INVOLVING CONCEPT,
2. CAPACITY OF THE EQUIPMENT
LENGTH, WIDTH AND HEIGHT. DESIGN, PROCUREMENT, AND
CONSTRUCTION)- TRADITIONAL 3. METHOD OF OPERATION
• SLIDE AND CHUTES
APPROACH
4. LIMITATIONS OF THE METHOD
THESE ARE EMPLOYED TO TRANSFER JOBS
• FAST-TRACKED PROJECT- DESIGN AND
BY TAKING ADVANTAGE OF GRAVITY. 5. COSTS OF THE METHOD
BUILD
FROM SAFETY POINT OF VIEW THESE ARE
USED FOR HANDLING POWDERY DISADVANTAGE OF FAST-TRACKED 6. COST COMPARISON WITH OTHER
MATERIALS AND SOFT PACKAGES. PROJECT ARE: METHODS
7. POSSIBLE MODIFICATION • AGGREGATE AND CONCRETE various diameter from 1.5mm to
PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 8mm.
NEED FOR MECHANIZATION IN
2. Wire Strands or Cables -It is made
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY • PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT
of a bundle of wires spun together.
• THE WORK CAN BE DONE SPEEDILY. • TUNNELLING AND ROCK DRILLING 3. Bars - High tensile bars of diameter
EQUIPMENT 10mm or more.
• THE WORK CAN BE DONE IN TIME.  Concrete - Concrete is made up of
• PUMPING AND DE- WATERING three basic components: water,
• LARGE QUANTITY OF MATERIALS CAN
EQUIPMENT aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel)
BE HANDLED, SO THE SIZE OF THE
PROJECT CAN BE INCREASED and Portland cement. Since high
tensile steel is used in PSC, the
• THE COMPLEX PROJECTS INVOLVING PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS concrete used should also be of
HIGH GRADE MATERIAL. good quality and high strength.
 Prestressed concrete can most
• HIGH QUALITY STANDARDS CAN BE easily be defined as pre- PRESTRESSING PROCESS:
MAINTAINED. compressed concrete. This means
that compressive stress is applied 1. Steel strands were placed in the
• TIME SCHEDULE CAN BE KEPT. lower part of the beam form.
into a concrete element before it
• OPTIMUM USE OF MATERIA, MAN begins its working life and is 2. The Strands were tensioned to a
POWER AND FINANCE. positioned to be in areas where very high stress.
tensile stress will develop under
• DUE TO SHORTAGE OF SKILLED AND working load. 3. The Concrete was placed in the
EFFICIENT MAN POWER. form and allowed to gain sufficient
Material used in Prestressed strength for the prestressed
COMMONLY USED CONSTRUCTION Concrete:
EQUIPMENTS strands to be cut.
 Steel - Ordinary mild steel and 4. The Strands were cut.
• EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT’S deformed bars used in PSC
• HAULING EQUIPMENTS (Prestressed Concrete). High
tensile strength steel is use for pre-
• HOISTING EQUIPMENT stressing.
• CONVEYING EQUIPMENT 1. Tendons - Tendons are high
strength tensile wires available in
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
 Prestressed concrete requires the
ADVANTAGES: use of higher-strength concretes
and steels and the use of more
complicated formwork, with
 It is possible with prestressing to resulting higher labor costs.
utilize the entire cross sections of
 Closer quality control required in
members to resist loads. Thus,
manufacture.
smaller members can be used to
support the same loads, or the  Losses in the initial Prestressing
same-size members can be used forces.
for longer spans.
 Additional stress conditions must
 Prestressed members are crack- be checked in design, such as the
free under working loads and as a stresses occurring when prestress
result, look better and are more forces are first applied.
watertight, providing better
 Cost of end anchorage devices and
corrosion protection for steel.
end-beam plates that maybe
 Crack free prestressed members required.
require less maintenance and last
longer than cracked reinforced
concrete members.