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Good Morning

Everyone
Welcome! to our presentation about

Chemical Properties of Banana Stem Fiber and


Investigate the Prospect of Banana Fiber in Bangladesh.

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Presentation Agenda

Introduction Experimental Analysis


01 04
What we did Procedure of Tensile and chemical tests

Literature Review Results


02 05
Summarization about Banana fruit and fiber Estimated Results and Discussions

Banana Crop Production Conclusion


03 06
Area, Production cost and Fibre amount Overview of Project Work
estimation

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Introduction
Banana

An edible fruit, botanically a berry,


produced by several kinds of large
herbaceous flowering plants in the
genus Musa. In some countries,
bananas used for cooking may be
called plantains

Creamy, rich, and sweet, bananas are a favorite food for everyone from infants to elders.
They could not be more convenient to enjoy, and they are a good source of both vitamins
and minerals, as well as fiber.

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Banana Plant
Once a banana tree flowers and its fruit has been harvested, you
may cut it down to the ground to make room for new, productive
trees to grow up from the creeping underground stem. Each
individual tree will only flower and bear fruit once. Researchers
started experimenting on banana pseudo stem and found a very
effective natural fiber can be extracted from its stem.

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Banana Fiber

A Natural Solvent Raw Material

Their natural state Hand-extracted fibers have


produce a highly sorbent been used to produce
material handbags, wall hangings, table
mats and other fancy articles

Spin Ability & Strength Comfortable

It is better than other Clothing is comfortable


organic fibres in terms of and not likely to trigger
spin ability and tensile allergies. grease-proof,
strength water-, fire- and heat-
resistant
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Why Banana Fiber?

“BENEFITTING THE ENVIRONMENT AND IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY ONE ORGANISM AT A TIME”
Over the last 50 years, Natural fibres have started to become displaced by synthetic, man-made
materials such as polyester, acrylic and nylon. According to the United Nations Industrial Development
Organization, it is estimated that every person in the world is responsible for 19.8 tons of carbon dioxide
emissions in their lifetime, simply because of the clothes on their back that include synthetic fibres.

Unlike synthetic fibres, Natural fibres not only come from the environment, but also benefit it. These fibres
are renewable, carbon neutral, biodegradable and also produce waste that is either organic or can be used to
generate electricity or make ecological housing material.

The use of banana stems as a source of fibre declined after other convenient fibres such as cotton and silk
became popular. But in recent years the commercial value of banana fibre has increased and it is used all over
the world for multiple purposes from making tea bags and sanitary napkins to Japanese yen notes and car
tyres.

Banana stem, considered a complete waste, is now is now being made into banana-fibre cloth which comes in
differing weights and thicknesses based on what part of the banana stem the fibre was taken from. 8
Our Research

Fiber Amount Production Rate Tensile Strength Chemical Resistance

Determination of Determine the Total Tensile Strength Chemical Resistance


Fiber Amount Production of Evaluation Evaluation
Extracted from one Banana Plant in
plant Bangladesh

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4 Simple Steps

Production Rate in BD Tensile Strength &


Collection & and Price/kg in Int. Chemical Resistance Results and
Extraction Market Test Discussions

01 02 03 04
 Collected Banana Plant  Investigate the  Tested Tensile Strength  Recorded Data
and Manually Extracted Production Area of before and after collected from Tests.
fiber from its pseudo Banana Crop. chemical treatment.  Comparing them with
stem.  Calculate Estimated  Chemical Résistance their previous founded
 Calculate the wt. of fiber can be Extracted Tested against diff. Data.
each Stem and and price in Int. Market Chemicals.
Extracted fiber from
them.

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Literature Review
Saba Banana

Musa
acuminata ×
balbisiana

ABB Genome

Saba bananas have very large, robust pseudo stems that can reach heights of 20 to 30 ft.
(6.1 to 9.1 m). The trunk can reach diameters of 3 ft. (0.91 m). The trunk and leaves are
dark blue-green in color. Like all bananas, each pseudo stem flowers and bears fruits only
once before dying.
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Fiber’s Chemical Composition
Element Conc. (mg/g)
Potassium 78.10±6.58
Calcium 19.20±2.00
Sodium 24.30±0.12
Iron 0.61±0.22
Manganese 76.20±2.00
Bromine 0.04±0.00
Rubidium 0.21±0.05
Strontium 0.03±0.01
Zirconium 0.02±0.00
Niobium 0.02±0.00

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Fiber’s Mechanical Composition

Tenacity 29.98 g/denier


Fitness 17.15 denier
Moisture Regain 13 per cent
Elongation 6.54
Alco-ben Extractives 1.70 per cent
Total cellulose 81.8 per cent
Alpha cellulose 61.5 per cent
Residual Gum 41.9 per cent
Lignin 15 per cent

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Banana Fiber Application

In Textile Industry

 - Shirts
 - Bedding
 - Household textiles
 - Socks

Paper Industry

 - Mainly used for artistic purposes.


 - This paper can be either hand or machine made.

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Banana Fiber Application

In Currencies

 - Japan uses Banana fiber to manufacture the paper


required to print its currency Yen.

Small-scale art and handicraft industries

 - Mainly used for artistic purposes.


 - Saves a lots of waste products.

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Banana Crop
Production
Production of Banana
CONSIDERING THE YEAR ROUND AVAILABILITY, POPULARITY AND PRODUCTION, BANANA IS
CONSIDERED TO BE THE NUMBER ONE FRUIT IN BANGLADESH
In Bangladesh, this crop is being cultivated in climate ranging from humid tropical to dry mild
subtropics through selection of appropriate varieties. Chilling injury occurs at temperature below 12ºC.

Four months of monsoon (June to September) with an average 650-750 mm. rainfall are most
important for vigorous vegetative growth of banana. At higher altitudes, banana cultivation is restricted to a
few varieties like „Hill banana”.

Deep, rich loamy soil with pH between 6.5– 7.5 is most preferred for banana cultivation. Soil for
banana must have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture. Saline solid, calcareous soils are not
suitable for banana cultivation.

The Banana grows almost everywhere in the country throughout the year. The principal Banana
growing areas however, are Rangamati, Noakhali, Barisal, Khulna, Kustia, Faridpur Dhaka and Rangpur.
Important varieties of banana cultivated in different areas of Bangladesh are- Shagar, Sabri, Champa, Bangla,
Atia, Anaji, Kanthali, Singapuri, Nepali etc.
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Acreage, Production and Yield Rate of Banana in 2008-2012

63% 61% 60% 61%

2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Acreage: 132400 Acreage: 133300 Acreage: 130600 Acreage: 121700


Production: Production: Production: Production:
836600M.tons 818300M.tons 779400M.tons 745900M.tons
Yield Rate: 63% Yield Rate: 61% Yield Rate: 60% Yield Rate: 61%
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Distribution of Banana Producing Area by Cultivation type &
Farming Year
Mixed Single All Area

14604 Graph Explanation


Third/More Year 35429
50033
The above Graph shows that Total
12560 Cultivation Area in Hector and Year
Second Year 34418 Based their Distribution of Banana
46978
Production.
18497
First Year 57129
75628

45661
Farm Land 126976
172636

0 50000 100000 150000 200000

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Cultivation Area by Varieties

3%
1%
5%
32%
20%
Sabri Shagor
Champa Bangla
15%
24%
Aita Anaji
Others

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Extracted Fiber and Value
Estimated Fiber Amount Extraction
 In this project, we found 7.12 gm fiber (1.017%) from 700 gm
Banana Stem. The annual acreage of banana in Bangladesh is
133305 acres (53,970 ha). Average biomass of banana pseudo-stem
is 70 tons /ha. Total production of biomass of banana pseudo-stem
per year is 3777900 tons. Expected quantity of banana fiber per
year in Bangladesh 38426.64 tons.

Estimated Price from International Market


 Per hectare expected production of banana fiber 712
kg. Expected annual income by selling banana fiber @
US$ 1.5/Kg, US$ 5,76,39,960 (TK 442,09,84,932/ @ Tk
76.70/ US$).

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Experimental
Analysis
Procedure of Collecting Fiber

Collecting banana plant by cutting it with Chopper


01 Knife. Separating the Stem from plant.

Weighted the stem parts and Stored stem


02 parts in shadow for 1 days.
Hammered the stem gently and remove excess
03 waste. Extract fibre with knife & peel out the upper
portion of stem fiber.

04 Separate the fiber by combing and washed.

Collected Fiber & Dried in shadow place and


05 then weighted the fiber.

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Tensile Strength Test
Universal Tensile Strength Testing M/C
 40 cm of Banana fiber (106) were taken. Care is to be
taken to ensure that the Fibers did not have any notching
or cracks from manufacturing or any surface defects that
would adversely affect the tensile tests.

 Before loading the specimens in the Tensile strength


testing machine, all indicators are checked for reading
zero (0) and two jaws are set at 30 cm distance measured

 The specimens were loaded into the machine, and a


tensile test was performed. The data was recorded
manually on hand note.

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Chemical Resistance Test

Ethanol (C2H6O) Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Acetone (C3H6O)

100 ml of Ethanol was 100 ml of Acetic Acid 100 ml of Hydrogen 100 ml of Acetone
taken on a beaker and was taken on a beaker Peroxide was taken on a (C3H6O) was taken on a
40 banana fiber (0.31 and 42 banana fiber beaker and 42 banana beaker and 51 banana
gm) is immersed for 30 (0.32 gm) is immersed fiber (0.32 gm) is fiber (0.39 gm) is
minutes. for 30 minutes. immersed for 30 immersed for 30
minutes. minutes.
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Chemical Resistance Test

Phenol (C6H6O) Nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2) Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

100 ml of Phenol 100 ml of Nitrobenzene 100 ml of 70% Sulfuric 100 ml of 20% Sodium
(C6H6O) was taken on a (C6H5NO2) was taken on Acid (H2SO4) was taken Hydroxide (NaOH)was
beaker and 26 banana a beaker and 38 banana on a beaker and 61 taken on a beaker and
fiber (0.20 gm) is fiber (0.29 gm) is banana fiber (0.47 gm) is 34 banana fiber (0.26
immersed for 30 immersed for 30 immersed for 10 gm) is immersed for 30
minutes. minutes minutes minutes
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Results and
Discussions
Result of Banana fiber
Extraction
Plant height : 152” (12 ft. 8”)

No. of Stem : 29/plant (Avg.)

Total weight of Stem : Upper Part (1) 1.7 kg

Middle Part (10) 1.5 kg

Inner Part (18) 1.2 kg

Avg. Weight(29) 38.3 kg (38,300 gm)

Weight of 3 ft. Middle part stem 700 gm

Weight of fiber (extracted from 3 ft. stem) 7.12 gm

%fiber = (7.12×100)/700 = 1.01%

Initial Strength of 30 cm long banana fiber (106) : 15.2 kg

Weight of that fiber bundle : 0.82 gm

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Tensile Strength Test Results (in “kg”)

10
8.72
9
8 7.29
7
5.72
6.08
5.72 Tensile Strength Dropping
6
4.86
5  The Tensile Strength is always
3.71 3.43
4
4.6 Decreasing against those Chemicals.
3 3.9
3.3  For Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2),
2
2.2
1
1.6 Phenol (C6H6O), Nitrobenzene
1.3 1.1
0
(C6H5NO2), the Tensile strength are
0
slightly decreasing.
 In Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), Fibers
Before Treatment After Treatment
Tensile Strength destroyed and
tends to dissolve in.
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Chemical Resistance Test Results

0.5
0.47 0.46
0.45
0.4 0.39
0.35
0.32 0.32
Weight (gm) slightly decreasing
0.3 0.31
0.28 0.29 0.29
0.27 0.26
0.25  Weight of Fiber is slightly
0.2 0.2 Decreasing against those Chemicals.
0.15
0.1  For Acetone (C3H6O), Phenol
0.05 (C6H6O), Nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2),
0 0 the Weight remains Same.
 In Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), Fibers wt.
destroyed and tends to dissolve in
Before Treatment After Treatment
and in NaOH, wt. of fibre increased.

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Conclusion
In this thesis, the research work was focused on mainly four aspects of banana fiber
 Extraction of banana fiber manually and also investigated the amount of banana fiber could be
extracted.
 Characterization of banana fiber and found out the chemical and mechanical properties of banana
fiber.
 Tensile Strength and Chemical Resistance of banana fiber against different chemicals is
determined and showed the results.
 Marketing Value of banana fiber has been Estimated and suggested the production area for banana
pseudo stem collection.
Our Government has taken necessary steps for further production of banana plant and many
researchers now studying banana fiber to make it more affordable and easily usable to Textile
sectors. Composite materials now using banana fiber for its strong nature and water absorbency
properties.
So, it is very promising natural fiber to use in our future clothing and other products.

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Thank you!