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The J.

Paul Getty Museum

JOURNAL Volume 23/1995

I n c l u d i n g Acquisitions/1994

Senior Research Curator

Curator of Sculpture and Works of Art

Associate Director and Chief Curator

Curator of Paintings

Curator of Manuscripts
Adjunct Curator of Paintings

Curator of Photographs
The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal is published
annually i n December. Manuscripts should
be submitted n o later t h a n O c t o b e r i for
consideration for the next year's issue. Curator of Antiquities

For more i n f o r m a t i o n about the Journal,
contact the editor, The J. Paul Getty Museum Curator of Drawings

Journal, R O. B o x 2112, Santa M o n i c a ,

C a l i f o r n i a 90407-2112. Subscriptions and
back-issue requests should be sent t o the Director

J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m D i s t r i b u t i o n Center
at the same address.
Curator of Decorative Arts

Articles that fall w i t h i n the scope o f the

Bibliography of the History of Art (Western art
f r o m the f o u r t h c e n t u r y to the present) are CHRISTOPHER HUDSON

abstracted and i n d e x e d i n the BHA. Publisher

T h e paper and b i n d i n g i n this b o o k meet JOHN HARRIS

the guidelines for permanence and d u r a b i l ­ Senior Editor

i t y o f the C o m m i t t e e o n P r o d u c t i o n Guide­
lines for B o o k L o n g e v i t y o f the C o u n c i l o n
L i b r a r y Resources.

Abbreviation: GettyMusJ

Unless otherwise specified, all photographs

are courtesy o f the i n s t i t u t i o n o w n i n g the
w o r k illustrated.

© 1995 T h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m
17985 Pacific Coast H i g h w a y
M a l i b u , C a l i f o r n i a 90265-5799
(310) 459-7611

I S B N 0-89236-339-8
ISSN 0362-1979

THE Introduction: T h e C o l l e c t i o n s a n d the Year's A c t i v i t i e s 5


S t y l i s t i c Associations, E v o l u t i o n , a n d C o l l a b o r a t i o n :
C h a r t i n g the B u t e Painter's Career 11

R e n o i r ' s Portrait of Albert Cahen d'Anvers 31

Leo v o n Klenze's View of Mass a di Carrara:

Denkmallandschaft a n d the A r c h i t e c t as Painter 41


N o t e s t o the Reader 60 Manuscripts 85

Antiquities 61 Paintings 91
Decorative Arts 63 Photographs 95
Drawings 65 Sculpture a n d W o r k s o f A r t 117

Trustees a n d Staff L i s t 123


The Collections and the Year s Activities

T h e b u z z w o r d i n 1994 was transition. A t the G e t t y ourselves for the regular p r o g r a m o f l o a n e x h i b i t i o n s

M u s e u m , transition means preparing for the move to a that is to b e g i n i n 1998 at the n e w G e t t y Center.
n e w m u s e u m and, as soon as the move is accomplished, There were other excitements, m a n y satisfactions,
renovating the present b u i l d i n g for the antiquities collec­ and a few disappointments i n o u r collecting and other
t i o n . I n calmer days, f r o m 1983 u n t i l 1991, we felt we activities for the year. Let m e enumerate.
had all the t i m e i n the w o r l d for p l a n n i n g these activi­
ties, w h i c h seemed to belong to a remote future. W h e n
i n 1993 a n d 1994 the foundations were d u g a n d n e w THE COLLECTIONS
walls began to rise, however, and the completion date o f
the G e t t y Center was n o longer a guess b u t began t o Each o f the Museum's departments is g r o w i n g , but at
l o o k certain to be 1997, the c o u n t d o w n began i n earnest. very different rates o f speed. F r o m year to year, g r o w t h
Lists o f tasks became bars o n a chart p l o t t e d against the may spurt or v i r t u a l l y stop. T h i s is p a r t l y b y design:
m o n t h s that r e m a i n u n t i l the o p e n i n g . T h e staff has m o n e y is allocated annually to the departments i n p r o ­
g r o w n i n small steps to provide support for this complex p o r t i o n t o the c o n t r i b u t i o n we t h i n k each is l i k e l y t o
exercise o f p l a n n i n g and execution, and everyone's pulse make t o the Museum's overall strength, bearing i n m i n d
rate has risen. the relative size and scope o f the particular department's
I t was an e x c i t i n g year i n more ways t h a n one. c o l l e c t i o n — i t s m a t u r i t y , so t o speak. A n d the fluctua­
H a r d l y h a d i t b e g u n w h e n a 6.9 earthquake struck tions are partly b y accident: opportunities cannot be pre­
o n January 17, g i v i n g the staff the most realistic f u l l - dicted, nor can lulls i n supply, nor can the vagaries o f
scale emergency d r i l l yet. Years o f precautions by conser­ f o r e i g n export systems. A g a i n i n 1994 we saw several
vators a n d m o u n t m a k e r s paid o f f w h e n we discovered departments acquire relatively little, others a great deal,
that we had sustained negligible damage t o the collec­ all i n a generally discouraging art market i n w h i c h prices
t i o n . Years o f practice a l l o w e d the staff t o m o b i l i z e for the best objects, t h o u g h d o w n f r o m the craziest years
q u i c k l y t o deal w i t h the Museum's needs ( w h i c h were o f the late eighties, r e m a i n h i g h , w h i l e the supply
few) a n d those o f the G e t t y T r u s t s operations i n the remains l o w .
high-rise at 401 W i l s h i r e B o u l e v a r d i n Santa M o n i c a , T h e DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES made one signifi­
w h i c h were t h o r o u g h l y disrupted b y s h a k i n g a n d b y cant purchase, a R o m a n statue o f a muse that has l o n g
sprinkler water. been o n loan and shown i n o u r galleries i n the company
T h e other excitement was caused by a spectacular o f three o f her sister muses. A l l once belonged to a group
e x h i b i t i o n , A Passion for Antiquities: Ancient Art from the made i n a w o r k s h o p i n the v i c i n i t y o f Aphrodisias, i n
Collection of Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman, a n d the present-day T u r k e y , a m a j o r sculpture center for the
events related t o it. A l t h o u g h the G e t t y M u s e u m has no R o m a n w o r l d . O n e o f the m o s t graceful o f the type,
space for large l o a n shows a n d therefore has n o t been i t is i n a beautiful state, even preserving some o f its
d o i n g any for the past dozen years, i t was w o r t h w h i l e for original paint.
the D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t i q u i t i e s t o m a k e r o o m for the T h e DEPARTMENT OF DECORATIVE ARTS made just
remarkable private collection o f M r . and M r s . Fleisch­ t w o purchases, b o t h o f great importance for the collec­
m a n and t o stage a series o f educational events keyed to t i o n . A pair o f armchairs, r i c h l y carved and i n a g o o d
it. W e undertook the entire project partly for the public's state o f repair, exemplify an early phase o f the Rococo
benefit a n d p a r t l y i n the name o f t r a n s i t i o n , t o t r a i n style, thus f i t t i n g i n t o a stylistic sequence o f chairs i n the
6 Walsh

collection. M o r e spectacular is a g r a n d canopied lit a la circle o f the L i m b o u r g brothers. A n example o f the

Polonaise i n the Neoclassical taste that is the o n l y exam­ International style i n France d u r i n g its last flowering, it
ple o f its t y p e i n a p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n i n this c o u n t r y . is the key w o r k o f the so-called Spitz Master. C o m p l e x
W h e n the a r r a n g e m e n t a n d design o f its silk h a n g ­ i n narrative design, the pages are full o f compassion and
ings are re-created f r o m the o r i g i n a l models (made i n playful h u m o r . R i v a l i n g this b o o k i n significance for us
Lyons a r o u n d 1773), the bed w i l l be the focal p o i n t o f was the set o f t e n canon tables o n eight leaves i l l u m i ­
our g r o w i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f Neoclassical f u r n i t u r e a n d nated i n 1256 b y T'oros R o s l i n , the greatest artist o f
decorative arts. medieval A r m e n i a . T h e leaves come f r o m the Z e y t ' u n
T h e DEPARTMENT OF DRAWINGS made a major haul Gospels made for the C a t h o l i c o s C o n s t a n t i n e I . T h e
i n 1994, and i n the process the taste and particular pref­ elaborately detailed, b r i l l i a n t l y colored architecture o f
erences o f a n e w curator began to be felt. A half-dozen the tables reveals a synthesis o f artistic traditions o f the
I t a l i a n drawings were bought, a d d i n g to this area o f par­ eastern Mediterranean.
ticular strength several great rarities: a trecento figure T h e DEPARTMENT OF PAINTINGS, also under a n e w
study and a p o r t r a i t d r a w i n g b y Previtali. T h e rest were curator, acquired a superb small devotional p a i n t i n g by
sheets b y l e a d i n g figures o f the later Renaissance. C o r r e g g i o , the Head of Christ. I t is composed so as t o
T h e d e p a r t m e n t h a d the unusual o p p o r t u n i t y o f evoke the c l o t h o f V e r o n i c a o n w h i c h Christ's i m a g e
b u y i n g an entire group o f t w e n t y - o n e drawings by most was p r i n t e d , and i t is beautifully preserved.
o f the major artists o f the G o l d e n A g e i n Spain and some Despite having a strong m o t i v e , the M u s e u m has
sixteenth-century examples as w e l l . T h e principal artis­ had surprising difficulty f i n d i n g major w o r k s b y French
tic centers o f M a d r i d , Seville, Granada, Cordoba, and eighteenth-century painters that w o u l d complement o u r
Valencia are w e l l covered, and there are drawings made famous c o l l e c t i o n o f French f u r n i t u r e a n d decorative
for m a n y different purposes, i n c l u d i n g a study b y de arts. I n 1994 an extraordinary chance arose t o b u y the
M e n a for his sculpture o f Queen Isabella i n the Cathedral life-size full-length portrait, still i n the huge g i l t frame
o f Granada. A n d there are fine drawings by such great made for i t , o f a wealthy parliamentary official. Executed
painters as M u r i l l o and Cano. i n pastel b y M a u r i c e Q u e n t i n de La Tour, the leading
Despite a f e w dozen excellent examples, the c o l ­ master o f this popular technique, i t is the largest pastel
l e c t i o n has for a l o n g t i m e been relatively weak i n k n o w n , and one o f the most l i v e l y and impressive por­
nineteenth-century drawings. A string o f important traits o f the entire era.
purchases has begun to change this. A pair o f large, spec­ T h e Museum's first p a i n t i n g b y G i a m b a t t i s t a
tacular scenes f r o m R o m a n h i s t o r y b y Carle Vernet are T i e p o l o j o i n e d the collection i n 1994, the large sketch or
masterpieces o f Neoclassical refinement applied to sub­ m o d e l for the now-destroyed c e i l i n g o f the C h u r c h o f
jects that already embody the c o m i n g r o m a n t i c taste for the Scalzi i n Venice. T h e subject is the miraculous trans­
fiery horses and horrific events. Delacroix's tender treat­ p o r t o f the V i r g i n Mary's house t o I t a l y b y a mass o f
m e n t o f a subject f r o m Lara by L o r d B y r o n and Samuel angels, f o i l i n g the i n v a d i n g Saracens ( w h o l o o k on) and
Palmer's scene f r o m The Faerie Queene by Spenser are fine t h w a r t i n g the heretics ( w h o are t h r o w n d o w n ) . T i e p o l o
examples b y t w o o f Europe's greatest painters i n water- pictures the legend w i t h his customary nervous energy
color; to t h e m was added Manet's l u m i n o u s watercolor and pictorial w i t .
o f a b u l l f i g h t at its most dramatic and horrible m o m e n t , T h e year b r o u g h t m a n y purchases t o the DEPART­
"Picador a n d horse flipped over a n d belabored b y the MENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS, and none was more i m p o r t a n t
horns o f the b u l l , " i n Manet's w o r d s . t h a n the acquisition o f w o r k s b y l i v i n g photographers.
T h e DEPARTMENT OF MANUSCRIPTS b o u g h t t w o T h e M u s e u m generally does n o t b u y w o r k by c o n t e m ­
I t a l i a n miniatures, a cycle o f i l l u m i n a t e d canon tables, porary photographers but makes exceptions for certain
and one great manuscript. T h e full-page m i n i a t u r e f r o m major figures w h e n significant groups o f pictures can be
a large l i t u r g i c a l or d e v o t i o n a l b o o k b y G i r o l a m o da had. T h i s was the case w i t h Frederick Sommer, f r o m
Cremona, one o f the major Renaissance i l l u m i n a t o r s o f w h o m we acquired the artist's o w n holdings o f the best
n o r t h e r n Italy, features a solemn Pentecost set i n a m o n u ­ o f his life's w o r k , 107 prints. Sommer has l i v e d i n A r i ­
m e n t a l quattrocento interior. A n i n i t i a l b y a L o m b a r d zona since the 1930s; his t i n y output o f pictures, strongly
painter o f the next generation, the Master B . R, treats m a r k e d b y surrealist ideas, has l o n g been sought by c o l ­
the b u i l d i n g o f Noah's A r k w i t h a fresh and spontaneous lectors a n d was the subject o f a remarkable o n e - m a n
spirit. T h e major purchase o f the year was the exceed­ e x h i b i t i o n that opened here at the end o f the year. Pic­
i n g l y rare, lavishly appointed b o o k o f hours f r o m the tures by several other significant l i v i n g figures o f A m e r i -
Introduction 7

can p h o t o g r a p h y — H a r r y Callahan, H e l e n L e v i t t , and THE YEAR'S ACTIVITIES

E d m u n d Teske—were added to the collection as w e l l .
A group o f portraits was added by the V i c t o r i a n W i t h all the a t t e n t i o n that has been p a i d t o the n e w
photographer Julia Margaret Cameron, whose w o r k we G e t t y Center r i s i n g i n B r e n t w o o d , a n d t o the n e w
h o l d i n great strength, together w i t h pictures by other G e t t y M u s e u m that w i l l be its m a i n public attraction,
B r i t i s h photographers such as Fenton and Emerson. Sev­ the future o f the present site i n M a l i b u has been over­
eral fine w o r k s by Carleton E. Watkins, California's lead­ shadowed. I t has by n o means been f o r g o t t e n . T h e
i n g nineteenth-century photographer, were also acquired. i n t e n t i o n since the early 1980s has been to convert i t to a
A group o f i m p o r t a n t photographs by the Russian m u s e u m o f antiquities; d u r i n g the past four years, that
modernist E l Lissitsky, a masterpiece o f near-abstractions plan has been enriched by discussions a m o n g the direc­
by the H u n g a r i a n - A m e r i c a n Laszlo M o h o l y - N a g y and a tors o f all the G e t t y Trust's programs. N o w we i n t e n d
group o f photographs by the Polish-American Theodore something more ambitious: to create a place that w i l l n o t
Roszak j o i n e d the c o l l e c t i o n . A d d e d t o w o r k b y the o n l y e x h i b i t antiquities o f the classical w o r l d to the p u b ­
A m e r i c a n "straight photographers" o f the 1920s t h r o u g h lic but also interpret t h e m i n the l i g h t o f the cultures o f
1940s, such as S tie g l i t z and Evans, these purchases have other civilizations. T r a i n i n g i n archaeological conserva­
gone a l o n g w a y to f i l l i n the spottiness i n t w e n t i e t h - t i o n w i l l take place here, and the public w i l l learn some­
century photography that the curator set out to remedy t h i n g about w o r k i n conservation and become more
ten years ago. aware o f the threats t o o u r w o r l d w i d e archaeological
Finally, the DEPARTMENT OF SCULPTURE AND WORKS heritage. A p r o g r a m o f interdisciplinary studies dealing
OF ART added ten works, mostly Italian and French, that w i t h antiquity and archaeology i n a broad context w i l l
diversify the Museum's still underdeveloped collection. also be based here. T h e overall theme w i l l be archaeol­
Our considerable strength i n Renaissance and Baroque ogy and comparative culture, and m u c h o f the w o r k w i l l
bronzes was increased w i t h the purchase o f a pair o f fire- be collaborative. T h e G e t t y V i l l a , as i t w i l l be called i n
dogs made for Fontainebleau, the r o y a l residence o f distinction to the G e t t y Center, w i l l be the o n l y i n s t i t u ­
Francois I , w h i c h was a mecca for the l e a d i n g I t a l i a n t i o n o f its k i n d i n A m e r i c a .
artists o f the 1530s and 1540s; surprising as i t seems, these I n 1994 the p r o g r a m for the V i l l a was largely c o m ­
beautiful figures appear t o be the o n l y s u r v i v i n g small pleted. I t was i n i t i a t e d by M a r i o n True and then evolved
bronzes f r o m Fontainebleau. A pair o f a n i m a l groups i n t h r o u g h a collaborative process w i t h the other Trust
bronze by Susini after models b y G i a m b o l o g n a were organizations. T h e search for an architectural f i r m t o
purchased; they l o o k back t o an ancient R o m a n p r o t o ­ undertake the project ended i n M a r c h , w h e n Machado
type and forward to the nineteenth-century taste for the and Silvetti o f B o s t o n were selected; they i m m e d i a t e l y
horrific. A rare bronze Neptune attributed to the N u r e m ­ began to develop a master plan for the site. A t year's end
berg sculptor Benedikt Wurzelbauer is a h y b r i d o f Italian they had made impressive progress. T h e p r o g r a m calls
anatomy and G e r m a n r h y t h m and detail. for modifications to the m u c h - l o v e d M u s e u m b u i l d i n g
Single figures by A n g u i e r and B o u c h a r d o n broad­ better to suit the display o f antiquities o n b o t h floors, and
ened the representation o f major French sculpture o f the also for temporary exhibitions, i m p r o v e d public services,
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A n elaborate alle­ and the creation o f space for n e w activities o f the Getty
gorical family portrait i n marble by C h i n a r d and a p o w ­ Conservation Institute and the Getty Center for the H i s ­
erful figure o f A l e x a n d r e D u m a s pere i n t e n d e d for a t o r y o f A r t and the H u m a n i t i e s . A completed master
m o n u m e n t b o t h e x e m p l i f y the e x p a n d i n g expressive plan is expected i n the a u t u m n o f 1995, w h e n schematic
potential o f portraiture i n France. designs w i l l begin; construction is scheduled to start i n
T h r e e w o r k s were purchased that i n v o l v e d the 1998, after the n e w M u s e u m at the Getty Center opens.
adaptation o f older w o r k s o f art for n e w purposes. T h e reopening o f the G e t t y V i l l a is planned to launch
Bernini's life-size Neptune fountain was the m o d e l for a the n e w m i l l e n n i u m i n the year 2000.
v e r y fine c o n t e m p o r a r y bronze r e d u c t i o n . Cavaceppi's O u r plans for activities at the Getty V i l l a and the
marble bust o f Caracalla is a copy, p r o u d l y signed, o f Getty Center were the backdrop for the beautiful e x h i b i ­
a famous antique p o r t r a i t o f this ruthless emperor. t i o n held i n 1994 o f the Fleischman collection, w h i c h
And t w o m y t h o l o g i c a l groups p r o d u c e d at the great i n v o l v e d every member o f the Museum's support staff
Tuscan porcelain manufactory at Doccia were based o n and was a k i n d o f dress rehearsal for the n e w p r o g r a m o f
sculptures by G. B . F o g g i n i , the l e a d i n g F l o r e n t i n e loan shows that w i l l b e g i n i n 1998 at the G e t t y Center.
sculptor o f the day. I t was also a showcase for the possibilities o f d e l i g h t i n g
8 Walsh

the lay p u b l i c at the future V i l l a w i t h exhibitions and and learn h o w manuscripts were made.
i m a g i n a t i v e activities. I n its o w n gallery, the Manuscripts department put
A t B r e n t w o o d , the walls o f the n e w M u s e u m o n a series o f four shows d u r i n g the year. Harmonies of
b u i l d i n g s rose ever h i g h e r i n 1994. B y year's e n d the Heaven and Earth: Musicians and Instruments in Medieval
main-floor walls were poured. Steel for the upper story and Renaissance Manuscripts explored a period f r o m w h i c h
was i n place after some months o f delay for reengineer- few instruments or documents o f performance survive,
i n g i n the aftermath o f the January earthquake ( w h i c h and where every clue is precious. Fouquet's Century: Trans­
surprised the experts by causing unpredicted damage t o formations in French Painting, 1415-1530 was the occasion for
steel j o i n t s all over the city, resulting i n the adoption o f the r e u n i t i n g o f the three sections o f the great H o u r s o f
even more stringent c o n s t r u c t i o n standards). For miles S i m o n de Varie, one o f w h i c h is i n the R o y a l L i b r a r y i n
around one c o u l d see the profile o f buildings o u t l i n e d by T h e Hague, and for the publication o f a n e w b o o k about
steel skeletons against the sky. O n the site, i t was finally the m a n u s c r i p t , one o f the finest p r o d u c t i o n s o f an
possible t o approach the M u s e u m f r o m the t r a m plaza at i m p o r t a n t period. Ars et Ingenium: The Illuminator's Craft
the top o f the h i l l , t o i m a g i n e the sequence and scale o f and Genius, already mentioned, treated the inventive and
the galleries, and t o experience something o f the alterna­ i l l u s i o n - m a k i n g powers o f the medieval i l l u m i n a t o r ,
t i o n o f i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r spaces that is the a i m o f exactly w h a t most appeals t o today's audiences. Finally,
R i c h a r d Meier's design. T h e design o f the gallery i n t e r i ­ The International Style: Courtly Art Around the Year 1400
ors proceeded t h r o u g h o u t the year, w i t h b o t h M e i e r and examined the f l o w e r i n g o f a style o f c o u r t l y elegance
his team and w i t h T h i e r r y Despont, head o f a N e w York and v i b r a n t color that swept across Europe and d o m i ­
f i r m that is consulting w i t h us o n interiors after having nated the arts i n all media for several generations.
designed the suite o f twelve galleries for French decora­ T h e D r a w i n g s department devised four shows t o
tive arts. T h i s was a year o f intensive, detailed p l a n n i n g explore its g r o w i n g collections by t a k i n g differing angles
for every aspect o f the move i n 1997, i n c l u d i n g the cre­ o f approach. Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Drawings
a t i o n o f a master p l a n for the t r a n s i t i o n , a l o n g a n d was a w i d e - r a n g i n g selection. Sixteenth-Century Ornamen­
i n t i m i d a t i n g to-do list. tal Designs was a surprise t o anyone w h o assumed that
I doubt that our visitors had any clue about all this our relatively small collection is largely made up o f stud­
backstage a c t i v i t y . T h e M u s e u m ' s regular p r o g r a m s ies for paintings, for i t consisted o f t w o dozen drawings
f l o w e d o n u n h i n d e r e d , and the p u b l i c responded w e l l for stained glass, jewelry, frames, and other elaborately
t o t h e m . Attendance, t h o u g h h i t by the earthquake i n designed ornamental objects. Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-
January and heavy rains d u r i n g the w i n t e r , got a boost Century Dutch Drawings was created f r o m o u r impressive
f r o m the Fleischman e x h i b i t i o n and its p r o g r a m s and h o l d i n g o f D u t c h M a n n e r i s t and " G o l d e n A g e " drafts­
ended the year a little d o w n f r o m 1993. Temporary e x h i ­ m e n . A n d Classicism and Neoclassicism in French Drawing,
b i t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o p u l l repeat visitors f r o m the Los 1600—1860 juxtaposed the severe figural style o f Poussin
Angeles r e g i o n . a n d his contemporaries w i t h the revival o f classical
L i m i t a t i o n s o f gallery space have made the curators ideals a c e n t u r y later, a n d the poetic landscapes o f
increasingly ingenious at f i t t i n g temporary installations Claude L o r r a i n and their Neoclassical and early r o m a n ­
i n t o the galleries. For example, the cleaning b y G e t t y tic counterparts.
conservators o f the greatest Flemish p a i n t i n g o n the West I t was a year o f discoveries for visitors t o the shows
Coast, the R o g i e r van der W e y d e n Madonna and Child at organized by the D e p a r t m e n t o f Photographs. Palette of
the H u n t i n g t o n Library, gave us the chance t o show the Light: Handcrafted Photographs, 1898 to 1914 and The Heart
picture i n a small i n s t a l l a t i o n o f comparative m a t e r i a l of the Storm: Northern California Pictorialism exposed t w o
developed around i t and elegantly shoehorned i n t o the aspects o f the international expansion o f the expressive
paintings galleries. p o t e n t i a l o f photographs. I n the first, f o u r artists
A small former office o n the upper floor continues ( E d w a r d Steichen, H e i n r i c h K u e h n , A l v i n L a n g d o n
t o be used for didactic exhibitions i n w h i c h live facilita­ C o b u r n , and George Seeley) w h o e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h
tors answer questions and perform demonstrations. I t is a methods o f p r i n t i n g were seen t o create the p h o t o ­
lab and m o d e l for four such spaces planned for the n e w graphic equivalent o f drawings and water colors. I n the
M u s e u m . A show called The Making of a Medieval Book second, t w e n t y California artists w h o also pushed at the
was devised there to complement AYS et Ingenium (about boundaries o f the m e d i u m and achieved p a i n t e r l y and
w h i c h more i n a moment) by g i v i n g visitors the chance graphic effects were i n t r o d u c e d to audiences that k n o w
t o handle the materials used by scribes and illuminators too little about their achievements.
Introduction 9

André Kertész: A Centennial Tribute was an explo­ different k i n d s o f classroom activities i f they felt more
r a t i o n o f the life w o r k o f this remarkable H u n g a r i a n - familiar w i t h it; they w o u l d also make better use o f their
b o r n photographer. A c c o m p a n y i n g i t was the first i n a class visits to museums. T h e Getty M u s e u m and its sib­
n e w series o f popular soft-cover books devoted to p h o ­ l i n g organization the G e t t y Center for Education i n the
tographers whose w o r k we h o l d i n particular depth, In A r t s make special efforts to f i n d and serve such teachers.
Focus: André Kertész. Several hundred teachers attended various events at the
T h e year ended w i t h Frederick Sommer: Poetry and M u s e u m organized for teacher institutes, all focused o n
Logic, d r a w n largely f r o m the material we had purchased the techniques o f d e a l i n g w i t h w o r k s o f art a n d o n
earlier f r o m the artist. H i s surrealist i m a g e r y a n d his e n r i c h i n g teachers' background and knowledge.
unforgettable, stark images o f the A r i z o n a desert where A n after-school t u t o r i n g p r o g r a m i n critical t h i n k ­
he lives made a strong impression o n visitors. i n g was developed for six- t o twelve-year-olds at St.
T h e a u t u m n was dominated by A Passion for Antiq­ Joseph's Center i n Venice. T h e p r o g r a m uses w o r k s o f
uities: Ancient Art from the Collection of Barbara and art as a focus for problem-solving, another area i n w h i c h
Lawrence Fleischman, organized by the Antiquities depart­ museums m a y have a distinctive c o n t r i b u t i o n to make
m e n t i n collaboration w i t h the Cleveland M u s e u m o f to public education.
A r t . Installed i n o u r beautiful but o d d l y laid-out g r o u n d - We continued our collaboration i n 1994 w i t h the
floor galleries, the Fleischmans' impressive c o l l e c t i o n , Santa M o n i c a College o f Design, A r t , and Architecture
perhaps the finest group o f privately o w n e d Greek and a i m e d at g i v i n g talented students f r o m n o n t r a d i t i o n a l
R o m a n antiquities i n existence, l o o k e d especially h a n d ­ backgrounds an o p p o r t u n i t y to get practical exposure to
some. L u c i d l y organized a r o u n d themes h a v i n g t o do careers i n arts institutions. T h e same goal motivates our
w i t h function and content, the show had a l o g i c that h i g h l y successful T r u s t w i d e s u m m e r i n t e r n s h i p p r o ­
helped m a n y lay visitors take away a great deal o f g r a m , w h i c h operated i n its second year i n 1994. W e
knowledge. T h e show was a real logistical challenge for also w o r k w i t h USC's N e i g h b o r h o o d A c a d e m i c I n i ­
the R e g i s t r a r s office, preparators, conservators and tiative p r o g r a m , an i n n e r - c i t y academy that provides
mountmakers, photographers, and m a n y others besides. six years o f intensive extra a c t i v i t y for students w h o
We were d e l i g h t e d w i t h the w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d result. are g r a n t e d f u l l college scholarships i f t h e y graduate.
Since the Fleischman collection is r i c h i n material related We give the students and t h e i r parents i n this g r o w ­
to the theater, the M u s e u m and U C L A , w i t h help f r o m i n g p r o g r a m — n o w 260 people i n all—a day o f exposure
the Center Theater G r o u p / M a r k Taper F o r u m , p r o ­ to museums and the entire range o f careers possible
duced performances o f comedies by Menander and Plau- i n arts organizations.
tus o n a stage specially constructed i n the Inner Peristyle We were all impressed again i n 1994 by the w a y i n
Garden, g i v i n g audiences a rare chance t o experience w h i c h each o f the conservation departments manages a
firsthand the earthy w i t o f ancient theater. heavy regular workload and yet makes so many
" R o m a n Family Days," organized by the D e p a r t ­ extracurricular contributions. T h e paintings conservators
m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n and A c a d e m i c Affairs, attracted not o n l y treated a series o f n e w acquisitions—the T i t i a n
about 1,700 parents and children o n t w o Sundays d u r i n g Venus and Adonis was the year's b i g u n v e i l i n g , but the
the Fleischman exhibition. These were joyous events that Rubens Entombment and the T i e p o l o Miracle of the Holy
i n v o l v e d m a k i n g costumes and theatrical masks, story­ House of Loreto are w o r t h special m e n t i o n — b u t they also
t e l l i n g f r o m m y t h o l o g y , game boxes, and, most happily treated w o r k s f r o m other collections, n o t a b l y the Gard­
o f a l l , gallery talks for guests b y the f o u r t h a n d fifth ner Museum's Self Portrait by Rembrandt.
graders o f Stoner Avenue Elementary School, w h o had Members o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f Antiquities C o n ­
made themselves experts o n objects i n the show. (The servation w o r k e d o n sculpture and vases i n the collection
Getty Trust has adopted this school and n o w has a special and made certain that the transport and installation o f
supportive relationship w i t h its teachers and students.) the Fleischman collection were done safely. T h e y also
T h e G e t t y M u s e u m is used steadily b y schools w e n t o n p r o v i d i n g t h e i r unique expertise t o museums
t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n , most r e g u l a r l y for class visits. that need protection against earthquakes, knowledge that
The Department o f Education and Academic Affairs was m u c h i n demand after the January quake. T h e deco­
offers a three-day basic m u s e u m course t o teachers, and rative arts a n d sculpture conservators, w h o are deeply
i n 1994 this was followed by an advanced course called involved i n preparing the Museum's boiseries for the n e w
" L o o k i n g i n D e p t h . " There are large numbers o f teach­ i n s t a l l a t i o n i n B r e n t w o o d , treated a series o f n e w l y
ers w h o w o u l d i n t r o d u c e art more readily i n t o m a n y acquired sculptures and unveiled the spectacular life-size
10 Walsh

Spanish statue o f Saint G i n é s de la Jara, whose p o l y - Technical Terms. A n e w edition o f the popular Pioneers of
c h r o m y has been beautifully restored. T h e y were also Landscape Photography appeared, as d i d a handsome b o o k
active as lecturers and consultants o n specialized topics that a c c o m p a n i e d related e x h i b i t i o n s here a n d at the
r a n g i n g f r o m computer graphics to pest management. H u n t i n g t o n Library, Pictorialism in California: Photographs
T h i r t e e n publications appeared i n 1994, several o f 1900—1940. W e also published the a n t h o l o g y A Literary
t h e m m a r k i n g n e w departures for the M u s e u m . T h e Companion to Travel in Greece a n d v o l u m e 22 o f o u r
n e w In Focus monographs began w i t h a b o o k o n A n d r é annual Journal. N o m u s e u m our size produces books i n
Kertész, as I m e n t i o n e d earlier; for the next f e w years, a n y t h i n g l i k e this number and quality.
further books i n this popular series w i l l be devoted t o For the second year the staff assembled o n the
Làszló Moholy-Nagy, Alfred Stieglitz, and Doris R a n c h House l a w n to celebrate anniversaries o f service
U l m a n n . Make Your Own Museum is n o t a b o o k at all but t o the M u s e u m . W e are accustomed t o t h i n k i n g o f o u r ­
a k i t for c h i l d r e n that lets t h e m assemble m u s e u m gal­ selves as a y o u n g m u s e u m w i t h a youthful staff, but we
leries and t h e n install t h e m using the parts supplied; i n were surprised to discover h o w m a n y o f these youthful
the process, they learn something about w h a t museums people had been here for t w e n t y and twenty-five years.
do. I t has sold very w e l l . I n N o v e m b e r we lost Wade Richards, one o f o u r
T h e catalogue for A Passion for Antiquities is a m o d e l m o s t a d m i r e d staff members, to AIDS. Wade had
o f well-presented texts i n a beautiful b o o k . A n o t h e r i n become a nationally k n o w n m u s e u m educator and then,
o u r contributions to the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum series d u r i n g his l o n g illness, a leader i n the struggle for aware­
appeared, this one devoted to the vases i n the Bareiss c o l ­ ness o f A I D S a n d for fair, h u m a n e p u b l i c policies for
lection. W e also undertook copublication o f several spe­ those w i t h the disease. H e was t h i r t y - o n e .
cialized titles i n the field o f classical studies, Scripta Latina T h e M u s e u m s staff has been m e e t i n g increasing
and v o l u m e 1 o f the Lexicon Topographicum, and published demands under conditions o f u n r e m i t t i n g pressure and
a n e w edition o f Pat Getz-Preziozi's Early Cydadic Sculp­ v e r y h i g h expectations. There were unprecedented tests
ture. I have already m e n t i o n e d the beautiful publication i n 1994 that the staff passed b r i l l i a n t l y — a g o o d sign for
o f The Hours of Simon de Varie, w h i c h has reproductions the next few difficult years.
o f remarkable f i d e l i t y ; w e also copublished w i t h the
B r i t i s h L i b r a r y another i n a series o f handbooks for lay- JOHN WALSH
people, Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts: A Guide to DIRECTOR

Stylistic Associations, Evolution, and Collaboration:

Charting the Bute Painter s Career


T h e B u t e Psalter, so-called for the m o d e r n o w n e r at T h e B u t e Painter's l i v e l y and accomplished style is

whose sale the b o o k emerged f r o m obscurity, is a l i t t l e - especially notable for his sense o f dramatic expression,
k n o w n manuscript, w h i c h is densely i l l u m i n a t e d w i t h
movement, and gesture (especially i n figs. 5-7, 9, 10, 13,
190 historiated initials and borders, and commands enor­ 16, 17), aimed at c o m m a n d i n g and d i r e c t i n g the atten­
mous interest for its distinctive iconography, style, and 2
t i o n o f the viewer t o the activities o f the figures repre­
o w n e r s h i p h i s t o r y . Its artist played a p i v o t a l role i n a sented; his use o f frontal faces w i t h flattened-out ears
group o f some sixty sacred and secular books made for (figs. 18 , 19), profiles s u r r o u n d e d w i t h c u r l i n g locks
monastic, clerical, and lay patrons l i v i n g i n the French- (figs. 1, 5, 6, 12, 13, 15-20), and dramatic backturned
speaking provinces o f eastern A r t o i s , Flanders, and H a i - poses (figs. 5, 6, 15, 19), makes his figures instantly rec­
naut i n the decades o f the 1260s, 1270s, and 1280s. I n these ognizable. M o s t o f his i l l u m i n a t i o n takes the f o r m o f the
books at least seven or eight distinctive painters, almost historiated i n i t i a l , often accompanied b y a border
all a n o n y m o u s , w o r k e d i n sequential c o l l a b o r a t i o n t o stretching d o w n the length o f the page o n the left o f the
produce several thousand i l l u m i n a t i o n s . T h i s huge net­
text c o l u m n (figs. 1, 2, 4—7, 9, 17) and often e x t e n d i n g
w o r k o f p r o d u c t i o n can be reconstructed b y s t u d y i n g i n t o the b o t t o m m a r g i n , e n d i n g i n leaf buds and g o l d
the distribution o f the w o r k o f these different artists; the balls and often an i n k - d r a w n squiggle (figs. 2, 4, 5, 9, 15,
w o r k o f the Bute Psalter's artist can be detected i n some 18). Frequently these borders support additional h u m a n
eleven o f these manuscripts. 4
T h e y provide the basis for figures and animals that complement i n fascinating ways
the analysis a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the B u t e Painter's the subjects represented i n the historiated initials (figs.
artistic activity, w h i c h are the focus o f this article. I n this 5—7, 9, 17). 6
M o s t o f his vernacular books abandon this
essay I shall show that sometimes he w o r k e d alone, as he schema i n favor o f s i n g l e - c o l u m n miniatures w i t h g o l d
d i d i n the Bute Psalter; other times, he w o r k e d i n collabo­ fillet frames (figs. 12, 16, 19, 20). Yet he appears to have

rative situations (at least three), i n w h i c h his role seems been a painter w h o was capable o f altering n o t o n l y the
to have evolved f r o m assistant t o master. I n the B u t e
format o f his i l l u m i n a t i o n but also the artistic mode or
Psalter i t s e l f the p a i n t e r s w o r k is displayed i n m a n y the qualitative level o f his w o r k according to the type o f
more illustrations t h a n i n any other book, and i t achieves text being illustrated—and n o doubt the size o f the purse
a level o f artistic competence that justifies n a m i n g h i m offered i n payment. His liturgical books and the best o f

after this manuscript, the only one o f his liturgical or devo­ his devotional manuscripts show h i m as a h i g h l y sophis­
tional products o n w h i c h he w o r k e d w i t h o u t a collabora­ ticated painter (figs. 1, 2, 4 - 7 , 9, 10, 17), whereas i n some
tor. Sometimes his patrons are k n o w n ; other times, as is o f his vernacular books he appears to paint i n a style that
the case o f the B u t e Psalter, the o r i g i n a l o w n e r is n o t is almost a caricature o f his more elegant manner
k n o w n w i t h certainty, but there is a clear i n d i c a t i o n o f (figs. 12, 16, 18-20). O n e could, o f course, argue that the
the level o f wealth that w o u l d have been at his or her vernacular books are by someone else, as the j u d g m e n t is
disposal. I n the early f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a later o w n e r a stylistic one and therefore, to some degree, subjective.
had supplementary prayers a n d i l l u m i n a t i o n s added at T h e o e u v r e as a w h o l e , however, offers a degree o f
the e n d o f the m a n u s c r i p t , the latter b y a high-class coherence that justifies an interpretation that allows for a
painter o f the second quarter o f the t h i r t e e n t h century deliberate choice i n artistic level. His w o r k i n g c i r c u m ­
whose style derives f r o m that o f the Parisian painter Jean stances appear to have allowed h i m to collaborate w i t h
Pucelle; the patron o f this section m a y also shed l i g h t o n o t h e r painters w h o also display a s u r p r i s i n g range o f
the origins o f the Bute Psalter. artistic skill i n an unusually w i d e range o f types o f book.
12 Stones

FIGURE i The Bute Psalter. Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum Ms. 46, FIGURE 2 Pontifical o f Cambrai. Toledo, Archivo de la Catedral
fol. 138v, Psalm 97. A priest at an altar accompanied by three clerics Ms. 56. 19, fol. I6IV. Accompanied by four clerics, the bishop reads
who sing from a manuscript bifolium. from a pontifical held by a deacon, the Ordo o f Reconciliation; on
the altar burn the fires o f reconsecration. Photo by the author.
The Bute Painter's Career 13

FIGURE 3 Pontifical o f Cambrai. Toledo, Archivo de la Catedral Ms. 56. 19, fol. 73. A t the Mass o f
Ordination, the bishop says the prayer o f consecration at an altar w i t h a veiled chalice, above w h i c h
hangs a fringed canopy. A deacon holds a flabellum (fan) and a priest raises a consecrated host i n his
veiled hands. Photo by the author.
14 Stones

F I G U R E 4 Pontifical o f Cambrai. Toledo, Archivo de la Catedral FIGURE 5 The Bute Psalter. Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum Ms. 46,
Ms. 56. 19, fol. 25. The Benedictions for Mass for Easter and for the fol. 6iv, Psalm 44. David plays the harp before a castle; musician
Monday after Easter: an angel seated on the sepulchre tells the three saints standing on the wings and antlers o f a dragon/stag terminal
Maries o f the resurrection o f Christ; sleeping soldiers i n the fore­ play rebec, trumpet, and timbrels; on the b o t t o m border Saint Eliza­
ground. Christ w a l k i n g w i t h the pilgrims o f Emmaus; biting dragon beth, Saint Anne, and the V i r g i n M a r y teach the Christ Child to sing
border. Photo by the author. from books.

T h e B u t e Painter first emerges i n the service o f pontifical. 13

A h i g h l y competent First Assistant d i d
the anonymous masters w h o were the major painters i n e i g h t y - t h r e e h i s t o r i a t e d i n i t i a l s a n d the t w o border
a pontifical i n Toledo Cathedral Archives (Ms. 56. 19), 9
scenes o n folios 136 and 176; the r e m a i n i n g eighty his­
i d e n t i f i e d for use at C a m b r a i b y the i n c l u s i o n o f the toriated initials and t w o border scenes o n folio 32 (fig. 6)
O r d o o f the Synod o f Cambrai, complete w i t h illustra­ and folio 47 are the w o r k o f the Bute Painter. H e was
tion; 10
the b o o k was probably made i n conjunction w i t h cast i n the role o f Second Master i n this book, for the
the S y n o d o f 1277 for Bishop E n g u e r r a n d de C r e q u y w o r k is distributed i n such a w a y that he never w o r k e d
(1273—85). 11
I n this b o o k the B u t e Painter plays o n l y i n the same quire as the First Master, w h o d i d the parts
a secondary role. T h e c h i e f artist, w h o m I here identify o f the b o o k that are liturgically the most i m p o r t a n t and
as the First Master, p a i n t e d the (sadly damaged) f u l l - carry the one full-page miniature and the largest o f the
page consecration m i n i a t u r e o n f o l i o ioov, where the historiated i n i t i a l s . 14
T h e Bute Painter d i d participate i n
bishop inscribes the alphabet i n L a t i n and Greek as part some o f the same quires as the First Assistant, although
o f the Consecration o f the C h u r c h , 12
and the historiated the t w o never w o r k e d o n the same b i f o l i u m . T h e First
initials o n folios 71 and 73 (fig. 3), w h i c h illustrate the Assistant and the Bute Painter each t o o k sole responsi­
Per omnia a n d Te igitur o f the C a n o n o f the Mass o f b i l i t y for other quires, w h i l e the Bute Painter d i d o n l y
O r d i n a t i o n , l i t u r g i c a l l y the most i m p o r t a n t part o f the two quires by himself. Exactly w h o directed the opera-
The Bute Painter's Career 15

F I G U R E 6 Pontifical o f Cambrai. Toledo, A r c h i v o de la Catedral Ms. 56. 19, f o l . 32 (top). Benediction for the Second Sunday after the
Octave o f Pentecost: the Parable o f the Great Supper, to which the Lord directs his steward to summon a plowman w o r k i n g i n the fields. Photo by
the author.

tions is n o t quite clear; the director clearly felt the need for an u n k n o w n patron o f the D o m i n i c a n house at Lille
to use w r i t t e n notes and m a r g i n a l sketches i n lead p o i n t w i t h o r i g i n a l calendar entries d a t i n g before 1277, 18

as guides for his i l l u m i n a t o r s . T h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f the t w o additional painters again participated along w i t h the
pontifical is unusually elaborate for the period and i t is B u t e Painter; n o t the same ones as i n the p o n t i f i c a l . 19

l i k e l y that the i l l u m i n a t o r s h a d n o t met m a n y o f the O n e , o f v e r y i n f e r i o r talent, was responsible o n l y for

subjects before; directives were clearly n e e d e d . 15
All folios 1 t h r o u g h 4 . 2 0
T h e second painter w o r k e d so
three artists derive their illustrative format and decora­ closely w i t h the Bute Painter that b o t h participated i n
tive v o c a b u l a r y — b r o a d - w i n g e d b i t i n g dragons, circular several q u i r e s , 21
a l t h o u g h t h e y never w o r k e d o n the
motifs w i t h leaf-cusps and buds (fig. 4), the occasional same b i f o l i u m , a w o r k i n g arrangement similar t o the
m a r g i n a l scene (fig. 6 ) — f r o m the Epistle a n d Gospel one between the B u t e Painter and the Pontifical First
books ( C a m b r a i , M . M . Mss. 1 8 9 - 1 9 0 ) , 16
written in Assistant. This t i m e the Bute Painter d i d t h i r t y - t w o his­
1266 b y Johannes Phylomena for E n g u e r r a n d de t o r i a t e d initials, borders, and m a r g i n a l scenes (fig. 7),
C r e q u y s predecessor o n the episcopal t h r o n e o f C a m ­ i n c l u d i n g the calendar (fig. 9), w h i l e the second painter
brai, Nicolas de Fontaines (1249—72), suggesting that the d i d s i x t y - t h r e e h i s t o r i a t e d i n i t i a l s a n d borders. The
team was based i n C a m b r a i . 17
greater quantity o f w o r k assigned to the latter suggests
I n T h e Hague, K . B. M s . 76 J 18, a breviary made that he m i g h t have been i n charge, a l t h o u g h he is a
16 Stones

FIGURE 7 Dominican breviary. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 76 J 18, fol. 36V. First lesson
for Matins on the feast o f the Epiphany, the Adoration o f the Magi, attended by a censing angel. O n the
lower border, which terminates w i t h a biting dragon, a servant guards the horses o f the M a g i .
The Bute Painter's Career 17

FIGURE 8 Rent book o f Enguerrand de Créquy, bishop o f Cambrai, F I G U R E 9 Dominican breviary. The Hague, Koninklijke B i b -
i n French. Lille, Archives Départementales du N o r d , Ms. 3 G 1208, liotheek, Ms. 76 J 18, fol. 214 (bottom). Calendar, zodiac sign,
fol. 41. Records and drawings o f the tithes i n plows, rakes, bathtubs, and labors for the month o f September; t w o men plowing; Libra;
lengths o f hemp, coils o f rope, bentwood, and wheels owned by the and a man and a w o m a n sowing seed and raking.
craftsmen o f Cambrai. Photo by the author.
18 Stones

considerably less interesting painter t h a n the Bute artist;

his w o r k has n o t surfaced i n o t h e r books a n d i t is
unclear just h o w he fits i n t o the artistic scene.
I f the B u t e Painter a n d his associates o n the
pontifical used a set o f decorative formats derived f r o m
the Epistle and Gospel books made a decade before, a
similar k i n d o f interaction w i t h other models m a y have
determined aspects o f the Bute Painter s approach i n his
part o f the D o m i n i c a n breviary. T w o parallels come to
m i n d : his choice o f iconography for the Nativity, show­
i n g Joseph h o l d i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d (fig. 13), can be
paralleled i n ivories that were, most likely, made i n the
same r e g i o n , n o t a b l y those i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n M u ­
seum o f A r t i n N e w 'York and also i n Saint Petersburg
and B o l o g n a . 22
H e was n o t b o u n d by this m o d e l , h o w ­
ever, a n d treated the subject differently elsewhere
(fig. 14). H i s treatment o f the labors o f the months i n
the calendar—breaking up the labors i n t o several dis­
creet activities i n w h i c h different people, male and
female, participate u s i n g a variety o f tools and i m p l e ­
ments that are p r o m i n e n t l y displayed—is an approach he
also takes t o objects i n the Bute Psalter (figs. 9, 10, 1 7 ) . 23

A n o t h e r b o o k made for Bishop Enguerrand de Crequy

was the Terrier de Veveque (Lille, A . D . N . M s . 3 G 1208
[Musee 342]), a record o f the lands a n d r i g h t s o f the
bishop o f Cambrai, produced i n 1275—76 and illustrated
w i t h d r a w i n g s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l products, i m p l e m e n t s , F I G U R E 11 Rent book o f Enguerrand de Créquy, bishop o f
structures, and natural boundaries (trees, rivers), w h i c h Cambrai, i n French. Lille, Archives Départementales du N o r d , Ms. 3
are arranged around the i n d i v i d u a l entries i n the spaces G 1208, f o l . 42. Records and drawings o f the tithes owed by the
makers o f spades, forks, flails, dug-out boats, carts, baskets, and con­
between and i n the margins, apparently i n literal evoca­
tainers. Photo by the author.
t i o n o f the reality o f the f a r m labor alluded t o i n the
entries (figs. 8, 1 1 ) . 24
L i k e the related Rentier d'Audenarde

(Brussels, B. R . M s . 1175), 25
these books must once have
been c o m m o n possessions o f landowners; their illustra­
tions serve as a reminder that b e h i n d the spiritual inter­
pretation o f the " w o r k " pictures that are so c o m m o n i n
devotional contexts l i k e that o f a breviary and its calen­
dar (fig. 9), or even a pontifical (fig. 6), there may w e l l
have l a i n a level o f Sachlichkeit (objective realism) that is
often overlooked by m o d e r n c r i t i c s . 26

T h e pontifical, the D o m i n i c a n breviary, and the

B u t e Psalter i t s e l f are the three books i n w h i c h the
Bute Painters artistic talents are displayed i n their most
sophisticated f o r m . H i s patrons i n t w o cases were
equally distinguished: the p a t r o n o f the pontifical was
the most i m p o r t a n t prelate i n the diocese o f C a m b r a i
and county o f Hainaut, noted for commissioning other
interesting manuscripts. 27
A l t h o u g h less can be said
F I G U R E 10 The Bute Psalter. M a l i b u , J. Paul Getty M u s e u m
Ms. 46, fol. 42V, Psalm 32. Christ holding a crown and a flail. about exactly w h o c o m m i s s i o n e d the breviary, the
The Bute Painter's Career 19

FIGURE 12 Bible i n French. Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms. A 211 (185), fol. 131. Jonah emerging from the back
of the whale, holding a scroll that symbolizes his prophecy. Photo by the author.
20 Stones

N o t h i n g is k n o w n about the patron o f the Bible;

it is t e m p t i n g to speculate that i t was made for a lay per-
son b y analogy w i t h the other L a t i n psalter o n w h i c h
the B u t e Painter w o r k e d , a t i n y v o l u m e n o w i n the
Walters A r t Gallery, Baltimore (W. A . G. M s . 112). I t is 31

a manuscript n o t o n l y small i n size but m u c h less elabo-

rate i n decorative p r o g r a m than the Bute Psalter. O n l y
the major Psalms are illustrated, but the models for the
Psalms that occur i n b o t h books are clearly close. T h e
n o n l i t u r g i c a l calendar indicates that the Walters psal-
ter was made for a lay p a t r o n w h o p r o b a b l y l i v e d i n
the t o w n o f Saint-Omer, i n the ecclesiastical diocese o f
Therouanne and politically o n the A r t e s i a n borders o f
Flanders, e n l a r g i n g the geographical n e t w o r k o f the
F I G U R E 13 Dominican breviary. The Hague, Koninklijke B i b l i o -
theek, Ms. 76 J 18, fol. 25, First lesson for Matins on Christmas Day, B u t e Painters clientele s t i l l further. Here, the B u t e
the Nativity o f Christ. Joseph hands the Child to the V i r g i n Mary, Painter s illustrations once again take the f o r m o f the
watched by the ox and ass.

D o m i n i c a n s o f L i l l e were significant patrons as w e l l , 2 8

and t h e i r b o o k shows the B u t e Painter w o r k i n g for a

client l i v i n g i n another city and a different diocese f r o m
the pontificals patron. T h e artistic level o f the p a i n t i n g
i n the Bute Psalter m i g h t suggest that i t too was made
for an eminent cleric; but i t m a y be that m o n e y was the
crucial determinant o f quality level rather than whether
the client was clerical or lay. M o r e can be said about its
later ownership, w h e n i t had come i n t o secular hands,
and the question o f its original patron is addressed below.
I n R o u e n , B. M . M s . A 211 (185), the second v o l -
u m e and the o n l y one to survive o f a t w o - v o l u m e Bible
i n French, the B u t e Painter is s t i l l the second h a n d
(fig. 12), and his w o r k is clustered together i n the m i d d l e
quires, preceded and followed by that o f the first painter
and o f another assistant b o t h before and after. 29
T h e for-
m a t o f his p a i n t i n g i n this b o o k marks a change f r o m
his usual historiated initials and borders; to c o n f o r m to
the n o r m o f i l l u s t r a t e d Bibles i n French, his w o r k is
contained i n s i n g l e - c o l u m n miniatures w i t h architec-
t u r a l frames o f t r i p l e arches i n diaper a n d g o l d fillet
borders, 30
w i t h o u t p a i n t e d borders or initials. T h e ac-
companying Bible text opens w i t h pen-flourished initials,
a l t h o u g h his colleagues use champie initials (letters i n
g o l d o n a blue and red pied ground). T h e general stylis-
tic characteristics o f l i v e l y energetic figures, m a n y i n
profile, w i t h expressive gestures, are still present; but the
black outline, especially w h e n used to define the g r o u n d , FIGURE 14 Latin chronicle o f Martinus Polonus. Paris, Bibliothèque
Nationale de France, Ms. Lat. 18262, fol. 9. The B i r t h o f Christ i n the
has become t h i c k and coarse, t e n d i n g t o dominate the
forty-second year o f the reign o f Emperor Octavian Augustus. The
composition. T h e colors, too, tend t o be applied w i t h less V i r g i n M a r y holds the swaddled Christ Child; the ox and ass eat hay
m o d e l i n g i n a simpler wash technique. i n the manger.
The Bute Painter's Career 21

FIGURE 15 Life o f Christ i n French. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arse- F I G U R E 16 Roman de Judas Machabé i n French. Paris, Bibliothèque
nal, Ms. 3527, fol. 190V. The Crucifixion o f Christ; Longinus, flanked Nationale de France, Ms. Fr. 15104, f o l . 18v. K i n g Antiochus
by other figures, pierces the side o f Christ w i t h his spear; Stephaton(?) addresses Judas who wears a Jewish hat and holds a book.
turns his back.

historiated i n i t i a l , but his figures are simplified versions o f the subtlety he reserves for his w o r k o n the l i t u r -
o f those i n his best w o r k s . This t i m e he w o r k e d w i t h an gical books and takes o n a m u c h more simplified and
assistant w h o d i d the calendar illustrations, a division o f linear quality. Curiously, these are the books that have
labor that suggests that the Bute Painter was i n charge, attracted the most attention i n scholarly literature, w h i l e
as he also seems t o have been i n another collaborative the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the B u t e Painter i n the pontifical
project, Paris, B . A r s . M s . 3527, a miscellany o f fabliaux and the D o m i n i c a n breviary has gone v i r t u a l l y u n n o -
and devotional texts i n French. There, the d i v i s i o n o f ticed. 33
T h e secular books seem to have occupied h i m at
labor is mostly one o f succession, where the w o r k o f the a later stage i n his career than the liturgical books o f the
second artist begins as a c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d ends quite mid-i270s, b e g i n n i n g w i t h a copy o f the Chronicles o f
separately. O n e m i g h t envisage a scenario i n w h i c h the M a r t i n u s Polonus i n L a t i n , Paris, B. N . F. M s . Lat. 18262,
Bute Painter painted the first part o f the b o o k (fig. 15), probably made between 1277 and 1280 (fig. 1 4 ) . 34
hired an assistant, then died or moved o n , and his lesser date o f 1285 for the composition o f the Roman de Judas
assistant completed the j o b . 3 2
Machabe, Paris, B. N . F. M s . Fr. 15104 (fig. 16), provides
T h e B u t e Painter's later w o r k was also l a r g e l y the latest date a m o n g the s u r v i v i n g m a n u s c r i p t s . 35
devoted t o i l l u s t r a t i n g secular texts that were m o s t l y patron was " m o n seur G u i l l a u m e " o f Flanders, probably
w r i t t e n i n French. I n these secular books, as i n the W a l - G u i l l a u m e de T e r m o n d e (d. 1312), son o f G u y de
ters Psalter and the R o u e n Bible, his style loses some D a m p i e r r e , count o f Flanders, and this unique m a n u -
22 Stones

F I G U R E 17 The Bute Psalter. M a l i b u , J. Paul Getty M u s e u m F I G U R E 18 Aldebrandinus o f Siena, Medical Treatise i n a

Ms. 46, fol. 32V, Psalm 26. David anointed by Samuel; on the bot- French translation. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Ms. 2510,
tom border a w o m a n raises one hand to her ear and w i t h the other fol. 24. O n the care o f children. A w o m a n h o l d i n g a round
holds a large pair o f spectacles or a double mirror. object instructs a kneeling child.

script is l i k e l y t o have been his c o p y . 36

Another unicum produced his copy w h i l e he was still closely associated
is Thomas de Cantimpres Liber de monstruosis hominibus w i t h the p o n t i f i c a l painters. A l s o i n c l u d e d i n Paris,
i n the French translation made for "La dame d'Enghien," B. N . F. M s . Fr. 14964 is Gossouin de M e t z , Image du
a n d , again, possibly her copy, Paris, B . N . F. M s . Fr. Monde, whose t e x t is dated 1265; Paris, B . N . F. M s .
15106 (fig. 1 9 ) . 37
T h e i d e n t i t y o f the lady is p r o b l e m a t i - Fr. 14970 p r o b a b l y also o r i g i n a l l y h a d a copy o f the
cal as there are several candidates o f v a r y i n g dates. T h e Image du Monde, as i t ends o n folio 48 w i t h a singleton
most l i k e l y is M a r i e de R e t h e l , t h i r d wife o f Gautier I c o n t a i n i n g a full-page diagram o f the celestial hierarchy
d'Enghien, brother o f Jean d'Enghien, bishop o f Tour- (fig. 20) l i k e the one o n f o l i o 117 o f Paris, B . N . F.
nai (1267-74) a n
d Liege (1274-81). M a r i e m a r r i e d Gau- Ms. Fr. 14964. 41

tier i n 1266, was w i d o w e d before 1290, a n d d i e d i n T h e Bute Painter m a y have remained i n the orbit
1316. 38
For u n k n o w n patrons were m a d e a copy o f o f the Cambrai pontifical painters t h r o u g h o u t his career,
A l d o b r a n d i n u s o f Siena's m e d i c a l treatise i n French, g r a d u a l l y b e c o m i n g more i n d e p e n d e n t as he w o r k e d
Paris, B . A r s . M s . 2510 (fig. 18), and a bestiary and lapi-
alone o n a b o o k or w i t h assistants o f his o w n . T h e close
dary i n French, Paris, B. N . F. M s . Fr. 14970 (fig. 2 0 ) . 40
w o r k i n g relationship between the Bute Painter and his
T h e text version o f the lapidary i n the latter is particu- collaborators o n the pontifical and the D o m i n i c a n bre-
larly close to that o f another copy, Paris, B. N . F. M s . Fr. v i a r y — s h a r i n g the p a i n t i n g i n several quires o f each
14964, w h i c h was illustrated b y one o f the painters w h o b o o k — c e r t a i n l y suggests that the idea o f t w o or more
w o r k e d w i t h the B u t e Painter o n the pontifical o f C a m - painters s i t t i n g together i n the same r o o m , sharing the
brai i n Toledo; this l i n k suggests that the B u t e Painter same expensive pigments and the g o l d leaf, for all prac-
The Bute Painter's Career 23

F I G U R E 19 Thomas de Cantimpré, B o o k o f Monsters i n a French translation. Paris, Bibliothèque

Nationale de France, Ms. Fr. 15106, p. 31. A giant who wears armor and eats human flesh, called the Ciclop-
edes or Chardonaus; a female giant.
24 Stones

scribe i n R o u e n , B . M . M s . A 211 a n d the scribe o f

Paris, B . A r s . M s . 2510. T h e number o f people involved
w o u l d suggest that the b o o k p r o d u c i n g enterprise as a
w h o l e was based i n a fixed place. T h e hagiographical
associations o f the l i t u r g i c a l a n d devotional books are
otherwise the o n l y pointers as to the geographical orbit
o f the B u t e Painter, his colleagues, a n d his p a t r o n s —
C a m b r a i , T o u r n a i , L i l l e (diocese o f T o u r n a i ) , Saint-
O m e r (diocese o f Therouanne). These towns and cities
were a l l i m p o r t a n t i n the c l o t h trade that made the
regions r i c h i n the h i g h M i d d l e Ages, where major works
o f architecture and sculpture had been under w a y i n the
previous generation, and where there were traditions o f
m a k i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g books. 42
A t Lille the b o o k i l l u -
m i n a t i n g activity w o u l d seem to be relatively n e w w i t h
the arrival o f the D o m i n i c a n s , 43
but Cambrai, Tournai,
and S a i n t - O m e r had well-established traditions o f i l l u -
m i n a t i o n extending back i n t o the earlier M i d d l e A g e s . 44

W h a t e v e r the particular circumstances s u r r o u n d -

i n g the Bute Painters w o r k i n g life m a y have been, the
interesting t h i n g about the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f his books is
that they m i g r a t e d across ecclesiastical boundaries, and
across p o l i t i c a l ones as w e l l : C a m b r a i i n the late t h i r -
teenth century was i n Hainaut, a fief o f Empire, although
ecclesiastically its diocese came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f
F I G U R E 20 Gossuin de Metz, Image du Monde, i n French. Paris, B i b -
the Province o f Reims, as d i d Tournai and Therouanne,
liothèque Nationale de France, Ms. Fr. 14970, fol. 48. Diagram o f the
celestial hierarchy w i t h hell, shown as the j a w o f Leviathan devour- not that o f C o l o g n e ; T o u r n a i a n d L i l l e were i n the
ing humans, at the center. c o u n t y o f Flanders and S a i n t - O m e r was j u s t over the
border i n the county o f A r t o i s ; all were i m p o r t a n t civic
and ecclesiastical centers i n their o w n r i g h t , and all were
French speaking, although Saint-Omer, Lille, and T o u r -
nai were close to the linguistic boundary w i t h F l e m i s h . 45

tical purposes a "workshop," is n o t a n o t i o n that should be T h e books themselves were made for a cross-section o f
entirely abandoned. H o w the collaboration w i t h other patrons d r a w n f r o m civic and ecclesiastical circles, and
associates w o r k e d is less clear. T h e number o f different the texts i l l u s t r a t e d for these patrons were w r i t t e n i n
collaborators w i t h w h i c h the Bute Painter can be associ- L a t i n or F r e n c h , 46
r a n g i n g f r o m the s t r i c t l y l i t u r g i c a l
ated m i g h t suggest that for the second part o f his career t h r o u g h private devotions to history and pseudoscience
he was an i t i n e r a n t craftsman, w o r k i n g w i t h whoever to epic and romance. T h e B u t e Painters activity illus-
m i g h t be o n the spot at a g i v e n place; but i t is equally trates a p o i n t I made l o n g ago about a different g r o u p
possible that commissions f r o m elsewhere came to h i m , o f manuscripts: the same painters w o r k e d o n all k i n d s
and that his activities were based i n a t o w n or city that o f books i n the late t h i r t e e n t h century, calling i n ques-
had a distinguished t r a d i t i o n o f m a k i n g fine i l l u m i n a t e d t i o n m o d e r n assumptions regarding w h a t was considered
books and where several artists were active at the same sacred and w h a t was secular for the M i d d l e A g e s . 47
t i m e . There are also scribal l i n k s (not discussed here) Bute Painter s career illustrates some o f the complexities
that cut across several o f the books o n w h i c h the Bute and nuances o f varying w o r k i n g situations.
Painter w o r k e d : o f the f o u r scribes w h o copied Paris, T h e Bute Psalters f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o w n e r fur-
B. N . F. M s . Fr. 14970, the t h i r d is the second scribe o f nished his b o o k w i t h a n o t h e r 108 folios, c o m p r i s i n g
Paris, B. N . F. M s . Fr. 15104 and Paris, B. N . F. M s . Fr. prayers t o the V i r g i n and t o various saints, the C o m -
15106; the f o u r t h is the rubricator o f Paris, B. N . F. M s . mendation o f Souls, the Fifteen Joys o f the V i r g i n and
Fr. 14970 and the first scribe i n Paris, B. N . F. M s . Fr. the Seven Requests o f O u r L o r d , the H o u r s o f the Pas-
15104 a n d Paris, B . N . F. M s . Fr. 15106, the second sion, a n d the H o u r s o f the Cross a t t r i b u t e d t o Pope
The Bute Painter's Career 25

J o h n X X I I (r. 1316-34). 48
A later addition comprises the T h e political activities o f the cadet branch o f the Juliers
Office o f the H o l y Spirit. A m o n g the fourteenth- b r o u g h t t h e m i n t o close contact w i t h other clients o f
c e n t u r y additions are prayers t o Saint U r s u l a a n d the the B u t e Painter. Waleran I o f Juliers was marshall o f
Three M a g i , venerated at Cologne, suggesting that the the K i n g d o m o f G e r m a n y under R i c h a r d o f C o r n w a l l ,
later owner may have had interests i n or near Cologne. and a close associate o f Nicolas de Fontaines, bishop o f
A n o t h e r clue as t o w h o he may have been is provided by Cambrai and Richard's chancellor. 59
I t was for Nicolas s
the h i s t o - r i a t e d i n i t i a l o n folio 266 that shows a dead successor o n the episcopal t h r o n e , E n g u e r r a n d de
k n i g h t , dressed i n heraldic costume, o n a bier. H e wears Crequy, that the B u t e Painter i l l u m i n a t e d part o f the
a surcoat and ailette or a lion sable, a bend gules overall. pontifical o f C a m b r a i n o w i n Toledo. T h e psalter itself
I t is possible that this may be one o f the counts o f contains v e r y f e w clues as t o w h o its o r i g i n a l p a t r o n
N a m u r , a cadet branch o f the counts o f Flanders, as sug­ m i g h t have been. I t was clearly a person o f wealth, and
gested by Christopher de H a m e l o n the basis o f R i e t - p r o b a b l y someone whose chaplain or confessor was a
stap, Armorial général, I I , p . 2 9 5 . 49
Support for such an Franciscan. 60
T h a t the patron was l i k e l y to have been a
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the p a t r o n also is p r o v i d e d b y the w o m a n is h i n t e d at b y the presence o f Clare i n the
appearance o f the same arms i n the e n t r y for the count l i t a n y and by the prominence o f w o m e n i n the borders;
o f N a m u r i n the B i g o t R o l l , no. 4 2 ; 50
and i n the W i j n - the lady w i t h the mirror/spectacles o n folio 32V (fig. 17);
berghen A r m o r i a l , no. 1236, these arms are specifically the lady w i t h flowers i n her hair, whose prayer is about
assigned to Jean de Flandre, count o f N a m u r (d. 1305). 51 to be subverted by a m o n k e y l i k e creature w i t h a t w o -
B u t Jean de Flandre is n o t the k n i g h t shown here, as the p r o n g e d f o r k (folio 9 2 ) ; 61
and, m o s t i m p o r t a n t , the
p a i n t i n g cannot be as early as 1305 or before, and further g r o u p o f three H o l y W o m e n and a H o l y C h i l d read­
heraldic evidence f r o m s u r v i v i n g seals suggests that i n g (or, as they are s t a n d i n g rather t h a n s i t t i n g , more
the l i o n o n the N a m u r arms was more usually s h o w n probably s i n g i n g from) books o n folio 61 v (fig. 5). O n e
crowned. 5 2
Jean's b r o t h e r , G u i l l a u m e de Termonde o f those w o m e n is certainly the V i r g i n Mary, as she is
(d. 1312), also bore the arms or a lion sable, a bend gules over­ crowned; so the group o u g h t t o be an early instance o f
all,^ and w o u l d be a more l i k e l y possibility, although a Saint A n n e , Saint E l i z a b e t h , a n d the V i r g i n Mary

date o f about 1312 is still a little too early for this style. teaching the Christ C h i l d t o read, except that the C h i l d

I t is s t i l l more l i k e l y that the arms i n the B u t e has n o cross i n his halo (a careless omission?). 62

Psalter illustration are those o f a member o f the family Waleran I I had the b o o k made for his wife, Imagina v o n

o f the counts or dukes o f Juliers (Jülich), i m p e r i a l feuda­ Westerburg. 63

O r i t m i g h t have been made for a lady

tories, whose seat was o n the R u h r between Aachen and i n the family o f the counts o f Hainaut, and have come
to the Juliers family t h r o u g h a later marriage l i k e that
Cologne, and whose interests w o u l d accord w e l l w i t h
o f Jeanne, w i f e o f G u i l l a u m e V de Juliers, daughter
the C o l o g n e emphasis o f the added p r a y e r s . 54
I n the
o f G u i l l a u m e I (count o f Hainaut), and sister o f Philippa
W i j n b e r g h e n A r m o r i a l no. 752 or a lion sable are also the
who married Edward I I I o f England. 6 4
W h a t e v e r the
arms a t t r i b u t e d b y the editors t o C o u n t G e r a r d V o f
precise circumstances, the Bute Psalter adds an i m p o r t a n t
Juliers (1297—1328), 55
and his sons G u i l l a u m e (d. 1361)
dimension to the diverse activities o f its memorable artist.
and Godefroi (d. 1335) are g i v e n the same arms, w i t h a
bend gu for G u i l l a u m e (no. 753). 56
Under Guillaume V
the family fortunes were o n the rise: the county o f Juliers
was accorded the status o f a margravate b y E m p e r o r
L u d w i g o f Bavaria i n 1336 and that o f a duchy i n 1356 Alison Stones is Professor of the History of Art at the
under Charles I V ; a n d Guillaume's b r o t h e r W a l e r a n University of Pittsburgh.
became archbishop o f C o l o g n e (r. 1332—49). B u t the
dead k n i g h t is u n l i k e l y t o be G u i l l a u m e himself, as he
w o u l d have abandoned the bend gules at the death o f his
father; his seal shows n o b e n d . 57
M o r e likely, the dead
k n i g h t is one o f Guillaume's sons or, as Paul A d a m - E v e n
and Léon Jéquier suggest, a member o f the cadet branch o f
the Juliers family, perhaps a son o f Waleran I I (1271-1312),
whose seal shows the Juliers arms w i t h a b e n d . 58

I t is possible that a member o f the Juliers f a m i l y

m i g h t have been the original patron o f the Bute Psalter.
26 Stones

NOTES the French translation o f Aldobrandinus o f Siena, Paris, B. Ars.

Ms. 2510; the Roman de Judas Machabé, Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr.
This article is part o f a larger study o f thirteenth-century manuscripts 15104; the French translation o f Thomas de Cantimpré, Paris,
made i n Flanders and Hainaut, funded i n part by the National B. N . R Ms. Fr. 15106; the bestiary, lapidary, and partial Image du
Endowment for the Humanities, whose grant I acknowledge w i t h Monde, Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 14970.
gratitude. 5. Limitations on photographic reproductions preclude illustrating
the w o r k o f all but one collaborator. Each o f the Bute Painter's
1. The Marquess o f Bute Sale, Sotheby's, June 13 1983, l o t 4, collaborators also worked w i t h other painters, decorators, and
pp. 16-25, pi-; formerly Ms. 150 (G 27) i n the Marquess o f Bute scribes as part o f an impressive large-scale network o f produc-
Collection; since October 1992 Ms. 46 i n the J. Paul Getty tion i n w h i c h at least seven or eight individuals took part. For a
Museum, Malibu; T. Kren, "Acquisitions/1992: Manuscripts," brief analysis o f some aspects o f this collaboration, treated from
The J . Paul Getty Museum Journal 21 (1993), pp. 111-14, no. 19. the standpoint o f the artist o f the Perceval o f Chretien de Troyes
2. See E. A . Peterson, "Iconography o f the Historiated Psalm i n Mons, B. U . M . - H . Ms. 331/206 (4568), see A . Stones, "The
Initials i n the T h i r t e e n t h - C e n t u r y French Fully-Illustrated Illustrated Chretien Manuscripts and Their Artistic Context,"
Psalter G r o u p " (Ph.D. diss., University o f Pittsburgh, 1991); i n Les Manuscrits de Chretien de Troyes, ed. K . Busby, T. N i x o n ,
idem, "Accidents o f Transmission A m o n g Fully-Illustrated A . Stones, L . Walters, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1993), v o l . 1,
Thirteenth-Century French Psalters," Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte pp. 227-322 at pp. 243-50.
50 (1987), pp. 375-84; idem, "Visual Errors i n French Gothic 6. See Peterson 1991 (note 2).
Psalter Illustration," i n The Early Medieval Bible, Its Production, 7. This miniature format for vernacular illustration is common i n
Decoration and Use, ed. R . Gameson (Cambridge, 1994), the period but by no means ubiquitous, and we do not k n o w
pp. 177-204. A study o f the Bute Psalter's iconography by exactly w h y the distinction was made w i t h i n this group o f
E. Peterson is i n preparation. books. For the range o f format possibilities i n the illustrations o f
3. Several studies have been devoted to aspects o f these books, Chretien de Troyes's manuscripts, see Busby et al. (note 5).
b e g i n n i n g w i t h E. J. Beer, "Das Scriptorium des Johannes Again, we do not k n o w what the reasons for the choices were.
Phylomena und seine I l l u m i n a t o r e n , " Scriptorium 23 (1969), 8. N o payment records relating to any o f the eleven books on
pp. 24-38; H . Stahl, "Le Bestiaire de Douai," Revue de VArt 8 w h i c h the Bute Painter w o r k e d have survived, nor are there
(1970), pp. 6-16; the Tournai missal and related manuscripts adequate records for any o f the places associated w i t h his clients,
listed by A . Stones i n Trésors de la Cathédrale de Tournai, ed. so an examination o f the crucial dimension o f finance i n rela-
J. D u m o u l i n and J. Pycke (Tournai, 1971), pp. 51-53; and under tion to quality must be left aside.
Paris, Maz. Ms. 753 i n L . Pressouyre and T. Kinder, eds., Saint 9. J. Domínguez Bordona, Manuscritos con pinturas, 2 vols. (Madrid,
Bernard et le monde cistercien (Paris, 1990), no. 86; the Marquette 933) ° - 1823, fig. 589; J. Janini and R . Gonzálvez, Catálogo de

Bible, included by E. J. Beer i n "Liller Bibelcodices, Tournai und los manuscritos litúrgicos de la Catedral de Toledo, Publicaciones del
die Scriptorien der Stadt Arras," Aachener Kunstblätter 43 (1972), Instituto provincial de investigaciones y estudios Toledanos,
pp. 190-226; and by W. B. Clark, " A R e - U n i t e d Bible and Serie Tercera, Estudios, Catálogos, Repertorios, vol. 11 (Toledo,
Thirteenth-Century Illumination i n Northern France," Specu- 1977), no. 216; A . Stones and J. Steyaert, Medieval Illumination,
lum 50 (1975), pp. 33-47, n o w Malibu, Getty Ms. Ludwig I 8, Glass and Sculpture in Minnesota Collections (Minneapolis, 1978),
A . von E u w and J. Plotzek, Die Handschriften der Sammlung Lud- p. 12, fig. 14; Stones (note 5), fig. 58.
wig, 4 vols. (Cologne, 1979-85), vol. 1, pp. 85-92; the Cistercian 10. Stones and Steyaert (note 9), fig. 14.
antiphonary Malibu, Getty Ms. Ludwig V I 5, ibid., pp. 280—84, 11. I t came to Toledo w i t h the books o f Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña,
n o w supplemented by Malibu, Getty Ms. 44, w i t h parts at the bishop o f Siguenza (1434-46), who became archbishop o f Toledo
H i l l Monastic Manuscript Library, St. John's University, C o l - (1446—82); he inherited the episcopal see o f Siguenza, and pre-
legeville, Minnesota (Christie's, December 9, 1981, l o t 229). sumably w i t h i t the pontifical, from his uncle, cardinal and
Many other books complete the list; a full study is i n preparation. bishop o f Osma (1411—24) and Siguenza (1424—34), w h o had
4. Archives, libraries, and museums w i l l hereafter be referred to as purchased the volume while a student at Avignon. I t could have
follows: Baltimore, Walters A r t Gallery—Baltimore, W. A. G.; come on the market at the death o f Robert de Geneve, bishop
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert 1er—Brussels, B. R.; Cam- o f Cambrai (1368-72), who left Cambrai on becoming a cardi-
brai, Mediothèque Municipale—Cambrai, M . M . ; Douai, B i b - nal i n 1372; he was elected antipope as Clement V I I and died i n
liothèque Municipale—Douai, B. M . ; The Hague, Koninklijke Avignon i n 1394, whereupon the book w o u l d have been seized
Bibliotheek—The Hague, K . B.; Lille, Archives Départemen- as papal spolia. A note indicates it was up for pawn i n 1404; see
tales du N o r d — L i l l e , A . D. N . ; L o n d o n , British L i b r a r y — D. W i l l i m a n , Records of the Papal Right of Spoil (Paris, 1974). Two
L o n d o n , B. L.; Möns, Bibliothèque de l'Université de other books made for Enguerrand de Créquy are extant: the
Mons-Hainut—Möns, B. U . M . - H . ; Paris, Bibliothèque de extraordinary Rentier o f the bishop o f Cambrai i n the Archives
l'Arsenal—Paris, B. Ars.; Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine—Paris, du N o r d , Lille (Ms. 3 G 1208), and the decretals i n French
B. Maz.; Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France—Paris, B. N . F.; (Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 491), mentioned below.
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale—Rouen, B. M . ; Toledo, 12. Janini and Gonzálvez (note 9), pi.; Stones (note 5), fig. 58.
Archivo de la Catedral—Toledo, A. C. 13. I see h i m as the artist o f the Decretals i n French, Paris, B. N . F.
In addition to the Bute Psalter the manuscripts referred to Ms. Fr. 491, probably also made for Enguerrand de Créquy
here are, i n approximate chronological order, the pontifical o f shortly after the Council o f Lyons o f 1274; the poorly preserved
Cambrai, Toledo, A. C. Ms. 56. 19; the Dominican breviary, The Bestiary, Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 14964; the psalter made for
Hague, K . B. Ms. 76 J 18; the Bible i n French, Rouen, B. M . Marchiennes or Hamage-lés-Marchiennes, Brussels, B. R . Ms.
Ms. A 211 (185); the psalter o f Saint-Omer, Baltimore, W. A . G. 14682; perhaps also o f the Bestiary Douai, B. M . Ms. 711. Early
Ms. W. 112; the Latin Chronicles o f Martinus Polonus, Paris, works are the Bernardine compilation, Paris, B. Maz. Ms. 753,
B. N . F. Ms. Lat. 18262; the miscellany, Paris, B. Ars. Ms. 3527; and the Vincent o f Beauvais, Brussels, B. R. Ms. I I 1396. This
The Bute Painter's Career 27

painter exerted a formative influence on H e n r i , painter o f the cambrésienne du Polyptyque dit "Terrier de l'Évêque" de Cambrai,
Vies de saints, Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 412, i n 1285, and o f Madame pt. 1, Le Manuscrit et la langue, Romanica Gothoburgensia 12
Marie's picture book, Paris, B. N . F. Ms. n . a. Fr. 16251; see (Stockholm, 1971); pt. 2, Le texte, Romanica Gothoburgensia 16
Stones (note 5), pp. 248-50; and idem, forthcoming. (Kungäfv, 1978).
14. I reserve a more detailed demonstration for another occasion, 25. L . Verriest, Le polyptyque illustré dit "Viel Rentier" de Messire Jehan
summarizing m y findings briefly here: the First Master and de Pamele-Audenarde (vers 1273), (Brussels, 1950); Rev. L. M . J.
First Assistant divided between them the illustration i n quires F, Délaissé, Scriptorium 6 (1952), pp. 303—8, preferring Verriest's
G, and I ; the First Assistant alone did quires E, J, K , M , O, Q; dating to that o f Gaspar and Lyna.
the First Assistant and the Bute Painter worked on quires A, B, 26. Thus m y position is rather different from that o f Michael
H , L, P; the Bute Painter alone did quires C and D . Camille i n "Labouring for the Lord: The Ploughman and the
15. Some examples from this book i n A . Stones, "Indications écrites Social Order i n the Luttrell Psalter," Art History 19 (1987),
et modèles picturaux, guides aux peintres de manuscrits enlu- pp. 423-54, noting that Camille dates the Rentier d'Audenarde too
minés aux environs de 1300," i n Artistes, artisans et production artis- late at 1291 (n. 60, no reference to Délaissé).
tique au Moyen Age, Colloque international, Université de Rennes 27. Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 491 and Lille, A. D. N . Ms. 3 G 1208,
I I , 2-6 mai, 1983, ed. X . Barrai I . Altet, 3 vols. (Paris, 1988-90), see above.
vol. 3, pp. 321-49, figs. 10, 11. For the general picture, see J.J. G. 28. For their contribution to the dissemination o f the Bible, see Beer
Alexander, Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work (New 1969 (note 3).
Haven and London, 1992). 29. G. von Vitzthum, Die Pariser Miniaturmalerei zur Zeit des heiligen
16. Two major artists and an incompetent assistant worked on these Ludwigs (Leipzig, 1907), p. 109; M . A. Stones, "The Illustrations
books; numerous other manuscripts can be attributed to them. o f the French Prose Lancelot, 1250-1340" (Ph.D. diss., Univer-
17. The scribal characteristics o f Johannes Phylomena also occur i n sity o f London, 1970-71), pp. 154-55, 4 45 F- A v r i l , ed., Le livre

the pontifical, indicating that it may be a second, hitherto saint en Normandie. Bibles manuscrites et enluminées, Ville-XHIe
unrecognized, product o f his hand: similar spacing and scale, siècles (Avranches, 1995), no. 18, pl. (unnumbered). The closest
biting, backturned d w i t h a hairline serif, Tironian et, punctua- parallels for the major collaborator are w i t h Branner's Grusch
tion mark o f dot or comma and almost closed circle, closed bow atelier, although his Wenceslas atelier is also relevant, notably i n
on g, and so forth. the Rouen missal, Rouen, B. M . Ms. Y 50 (277); see R . Branner,
18. The inclusion o f Piat after R é m i i n the calendar (October 1), Manuscript Painting in Paris During the Reign of St. Louis (Berkeley,
suggests the diocese o f Tournai; Lille was the most important Los Angeles, London, 1977), pp. 222—23; the second collaborator
center o f D o m i n i c a n activity i n the diocese and the owner has not reappeared elsewhere.
o f this book was probably a member o f the Dominican house 30. A n important formal l i n k w i t h the w o r k o f H e n r i i n Paris,
at Lille. B. N . F. Ms. n. a. Fr. 16251; compare figs. 57 and 61 i n Stones
19. A. S. Korteweg and C. A. Chavannes-Mazel, eds., Schatten van de (note 5).
Koninklijke Bibliotheek, exh. cat. (The Hague, 1980), no. 27; P. C. 31. L. M . C. Randall, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the
Boeren, ed., Catalogus van de liturgische handschnften von de Konin- Walters Art Gallery, I , France, 873-1420 (Baltimore, 1989), cat. 38;
klijke Bibliotheek (The Hague, 1987), no. 48; Stones (note 5), the l i n k w i t h the Bute Psalter is noted on p. 89.
figs. 63, 64. 32. This assistant also enjoyed a flourishing independent career, dis-
20. Could he be the Mons Perceval Painter? I could not be sure, but cussed i n Stones (note 5), pp. 243-46. He was solely responsible
it is likely, given that the Perceval Painter did the calendar i n for the illustrations i n the Mons copy o f the Perceval o f Chrétien
Baltimore, W. A. G. Ms. 39; see further discussion below. de Troyes, a text commissioned i n the late twelfth century by
21. They both participated i n quires C, U, V, W, X , Z, and AA. Thierry d'Alsace, count o f Flanders; the Mons copy is a special
22. C. R . Morey Gli ogetti di avorio e di osso del Museo Sacro Vaticano. version that also includes illustrated prologues and continua-
Catalogo del Museo Sacro (Vatican City, Rome, 1993), v o l . 1, tions: Mons, B. U . M . - H . Ms. 331/206. The Mons Perceval
figs. 28, 29, 31 respectively; R . K o e c h l i n , Les ivoires gothiques Painter was also the only artist o f the Roman d'Alexandre, Paris,
françaises (Paris, 1924), p. 137, n. 142. The treatment gives promi- B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 786, together w i t h its prefatory calendar i n
nence to the role o f Joseph i n the H o l y Family, an emphasis that French—unusual i n a romance manuscript—made for lay use
w o u l d be more appropriate i n a book made for a patron w h o i n Tournai; the translation o f Eleutherius on August 25 suggests
was part o f a family than for a Dominican. Tournai use; Louis is absent, most likely indicating a date before
23. The object held by the marginal lady on fol. 32V seems to relate 1297 (Stones [note 5], fig. 40). He also illustrated a small book
to the w o r d illuminatio i n the opening line o f the Psalm and to o f hours made for use at the collegiate church o f Saint-Pierre,
represent either an open m i r r o r and its cover, or, more inter- Lille, i n the diocese o f Tournai, Baltimore, W. A . G. Ms. 39
estingly, a huge pair o f spectacles. The inventory o f Guy de (Randall [note 31], cat. 39; Stones [note 5], fig. 48, w r o n g l y
Dampierre, count o f Flanders, made at his death i n 1305, lists a identified as Baltimore, W. A. G. 112). He even had an assistant
pair o f spectacles w i t h brass rims; see C. Dehaisnes, Documents et o f his o w n , w i t h w h o m he collaborated on the Guillaume d'Or-
extraits divers concernant Vhistoire de Vart dans la Flandre, l'Artois et le ange, Bern, Burgerbibliothek Ms. 296 (Stones [note 5],
Hainaut avant le XVe siècle, 2 vols. (Lille, 1886), vol. 1, pp. 170 ff., figs. 42-44)-
Rijksarchief, Ghent, inv. Gaillard 746: " i espectacle pour lire 33. Stones (note 5), pp. 246-49.
bordé de laiton." B o t h this and the Bute Psalter are considerably 34. L . Delisle, Inventaire des manuscrits latins conservés sous les numéros
earlier than the examples discussed i n J. Dreyfus, "The Invention 8823-18614 (Paris, 1863-71), p. 88. M y attention was drawn to
o f Spectacles and the Advent o f P r i n t i n g , " The Library, sixth this book by François A v r i l , to w h o m I express m y thanks. The
ser., 19 (1988), pp. 93-106, to w h i c h Elizabeth Peterson kindly last entry i n the section on the popes is the beginning o f the
drew m y attention. reign o f Nicholas I I (r. 1277-80); i n the section on kings and
24. P. Piétresson de Saint-Aubin, Répertoire numérique. Série G emperors, the last date mentioned is the death o f H e n r i de
(Clergé séculier), pt. 2 (Lille, 1968), p. 194; A . Hjorth, La partie Navarre who died during the crusade o f 1270; perhaps a clerical
28 Stones

patron is suggested by the fact that the papal section was more 40. Porcher (note 35), no. 23; Stones (note 29), p. 424. The bestiary
up to date than that o f the emperors; but the manuscript was is Guillaume le Clercs version, Das Tierbuch des normannischen
no. 43 i n the ancien fonds de Navarre, suggesting a patron w i t h dichters Guillaume le Clerc, ed. R . Reinsch (Leipzig, 1890; repr.
strong Navarrese connections. Wiesbaden, 1967), Ms. G, together w i t h his Lapidaire de M a r -
35. J. Porcher, Les Manuscrits à peintures du XHIe au XVIe siècle bode, L . Pannier, Les lapidaires français du Moyen Age des Xlle,
(Paris, 1955), no. 22, pl. m ; R. L. McGrath, "The Romance o f XUIe et XJVe siècles (Paris, 1882), Ms. C.
the Maccabees i n Medieval A r t and Literature" (Ph.D. diss., 41. For the text, see A . Lângfors, Les incipit des poèmes français
Princeton University, 1963), pp. 26-34, 203-26; J. R. Smeets, antérieurs au XVIe siècle. Répertoire bibliographique établie à l'aide de
La Chevalerie de Judas Macabé (Assen, 1965) (edition); Stones notes de M. Paul Meyer (Paris, 1917), p. 315; E.-D. Grand, Image
(note 29), pp. 422—43; P. M . de W i n t e r , La Bibliothèque de du monde, poème didactique du XHIe siècle. Recherches sur les rédac-
Philippe le Hardi, duc de Bourgogne (1364-1404) (Paris, 1985), pp. tions non interpolées, interpolées et en prose, Positions des thèses de
76-78, 244, 292, n. 38; Stones (note 5), figs. 52, 53. l'Ecole des Chartes (1885 and 1886); idem, "L'Image du monde,
36. Smeets (note 35), pp. l x i v - l x v i i . There are also échos o f the Bute poème didactique du XlIIe siècle," Revue des langues romanes 37
Master s style i n other notable books made for the family o f the (1893), p. 28. I thank François A v r i l for drawing this manuscript
counts o f Flanders, particularly i n the so-called psalter o f Guy de to m y atttention and Michael Evans for generously making his
Dampierre, Brussels, B. R . Ms. 10607; s e e
C. Gaspar and notes and photographs available to me.
F. Lyna, Les principaux manuscrits à peintures de la Bibliothèque 42. J. Thiebaut, "La cathédrale disparue de Cambrai et sa place dans
Royale de Belgique, 2 vols. (Paris, 1937; repr. 1984), vol. 1, p. 95; l'évolution de l'architecture du nord de la France" (Thèse de
Stones (note 29), pp. 523—27, and i n the w o r k o f the second doctorat troisième cycle, Lille, 1975); idem, "L'iconographie de
painter i n the Yale Lancelot, Beinecke Library Ms. 229 (see ibid., la cathédrale disparue de Cambrai," Revue du Nord 58 (1976),
pp. 430—37; B. A. Shailor, Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance pp. 407-33; idem, "Les chef-dbeuvres méconnus et disparus,"
Manuscripts in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale Monuments historiques, 121 (1982), pp. 23-28 (Saint-Omer, Cam-
University [Binghampton, 1984], vol. 1, p. 322-31), w h i c h might brai); A . Deville, éd., Histoire de Saint-Omer, Histoire des villes
possibly have been commissioned by Guillaume de Termonde. du N o r d , pt. 1 (Lille, 1981); L . Trénard, éd., Histoire de Cambrai,
Further discussion o f this question i n A . Stones, "The Illustra- Histoire des villes du N o r d , pt. 2 (Lille, 1982); P. Héliot, "La
tions o f the Yale Prose Lancelot,'" The Arthurian Yearbook (1995). façade de la cathédrale de Tournai," Bulletin de la Commission
37. A . Hilka, Eine altfranzösische moralisierende Bearbeitung des 'Liber Royale des monuments et sites 14 (1963), pp. 291-308, w i t h previ-
de monstruosis hominibus orientis' aus Thomas de Cantimpré 'De ous literature; L.-F. Genicot, La Cathédrale de Tournai (Gem-
naturis rerum,' nach der einzigen Handschrift (Paris, B. N. Fr. 15106) bloux, 1969); Guy Jourdain, "St.-Pierre, Lille," i n Dictionnaire
herausgegeben, Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften des églises, pt. 5 (Paris, 1978), pp. 73-74; H e n r i Dupont, "Pierres
zu Göttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, 3. Folge, nr. 7 tombales découvertes sous l'emplacement de la Collégiale Saint-
(Berlin, 1933) (edition); L.-F. Flutre, " A propos de l'édition Hilka Pierre de Lille (1963)," Revue du Nord 47 (1965), pp. 623-33.
du poème des Monstres des Hommes," Zeitschrift für romanische These were not the o n l y centers at this time: Arras, D o u a i ,
Philologie 71 (1955), pp. 422-48; Stones (note 29), pp. 44, 59, Thérouanne, Courtrai, Ypres, and Valenciennes also played a
149, 159, 423-25; De Winter (note 35), p. 244. The incoherence role i n artistic production, not to mention the monastic orders,
o f m u c h o f the text i n the manuscript makes i t somewhat particularly the Cistercians, whose houses owned fine books and
unlikely that it is the original. whose order provided vehicles for artistic transmission, but these
38. Dates according to C. Monnier, "Des monuments funèbres de names simply have not surfaced i n relation to the present
la famille d'Enghien existant encore dans les ruines de l'église de enquiry.
l'abbaye de Cambron," Annales du cercle archéologique d'Enghien 4 43. Beer 1969 (note 3). The presence o f a Parisian-looking collabo-
(1891—92), pp. 370—94; according to L . de Mas-Latrie, Trésor de rator i n Rouen, B. M . Ms. A 211, may i n some way be con-
chronologie (Paris, 1889), col. 1669, she was married to Gauthier nected w i t h the D o m i n i c a n network and its Paris links,
I I d'Enghien; no dates given. Marie was a notable benefactress although there are other channels t h r o u g h w h i c h Parisian
o f other local religious institutions besides Cambron; see craftsmen might have been lured to the provinces, such as the
E. M a t t h i e u , "Les libéralités de M a r i e de R é t h e l , dame network o f cathedral canons, many o f w h o m went to study i n
d'Enghien," ibid., pp. 454-61. I see her as a likely candidate to Paris. For the canons o f Tournai, see J. Pycke, Le Chapitre cathe-
be the Madame Marie o f the picture book (Paris, B. N . F. Ms. dral Notre-Dame de Tournai de la fin du Xle à la fin du XHIe siècle,
n . a. Fr. 16251). See Stones (note 5), pp. 248-49, for links son organisation, sa vie, ses membres, Université de L o u v a i n ,
between the Bute Painter and Master Henri, artist o f the picture Recueil de travaux d'histoire et de philologie, 6e série, fasicule
book and o f Paris, B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 412, w h i c h he illustrated i n 30 (Louvain-la-Neuve and Brussels, 1986); idem, Répertoire
1285; further discussion i n m y forthcoming facsimile o f Paris, biographique des chanoines de Notre-Dame de Tournai, 1080-1300,
B. N . F. Ms. Fr. 16251. Université de Louvain, Recueil de travaux d'histoire et de
39. This manuscript makes no claims i n its opening paragraph about philologie, 6e série, fasicule 35 (Louvain-la-Neuve and Brus-
who the text was composed for; i n the somewhat earlier manu- sels, 1988).
script London, B. L . , Sloane Ms. 2435, an elaborate opening 44. For Cambrai, see A . Stones, "Cambrai: Miniatura," i n Enciclope-
paragraph written i n gold says Aldobrandins made it ("fist") for dia Italiana, ed. A . M . R o m a n i n i (Rome, 1993), v o l . 3, pp.
"Benoit de Florenche," about w h o m nothing further is k n o w n . 83-85. For Tournai, see A . de la Grange and L . Cloquet, "Etudes
Other copies claim the text was composed for Beatrice de Savoie, sur l'art à Tournai et sur les anciens artistes de cette ville,"
w i d o w o f R a y m o n d Béranger, last count o f Provence, and Mémoires de la Société historique et littéraire de Tournai 20 (1887),
mother o f the queens o f France, England, and Germany, and the entire volume; Horae Tornacenses, Recueil d'études d'histoire publiées
countess o f Anjou. See L . Landouzy and R . Pépin, eds., à l'occasion du Ville centenaire de la consécration de la Cathédrale de
Le Régime du Corps de Maître Aldebrandin de Sienne (Paris, 1911) Tournai (Tournai, 1971). For Saint-Omer, see Deville (note 42).
(edition); P. M . Jones and M . Pratellesi, " I l regime del corpo," 45. C. Dehaisnes, "Délimitations du français et du flamand dans le
Kos 2 (1985), pp. 41-56 (color illustrations o f Sloane Ms. 2435). nord de la France depuis la formation de la langue romane
The Bute Painter's Career 29

jusqu'à nos jours," Bulletin de la Commission historique du Nord 58. Adam-Even and Jéquier (note 51), p. 53.
(1897), pp. 277-318. 59. T. W. E. Roache, The King of Almayne (London, 1966), p. 143;
46. I t w o u l d be another generation before book production i n these Kraus (note 54), pp. 115-16.
regions and slightly further n o r t h w o u l d encompass texts i n 60. As w i t h the text o f the psalms, the manuscript includes a litany
both Flemish and French; see A . Stones, "Another Short Note o f saints i n w h i c h Saint Francis and Saint Clare are invoked.
onRylands Fr. 1," Romanesque and Gothic, Essays for George Zar- The manuscript w o u l d also have originally had a calendar,
necki, ed. Neil Stratford (Bury Saint Edmunds, 1987), pp. 185—92. which is n o w missing.
47. See A . Stones, "Sacred and Profane A r t : Secular and Liturgical 61. The treatment o f the hair, unveiled, makes the gender slightly
Book-Illumination i n the Thirteenth Century," i n The Epic in ambiguous, but I think the pose and the presence o f a veil over
Medieval Society, Aesthetic and Moral Values, ed. H . Scholler (Tü- the shoulders make this a young woman.
bingen, 1977), pp. 100-12. There are significant implications for 62. The procession o f H o l y Ladies and Child also resonates to the
how the illustrations o f particular texts were interpreted—in m y words o f Psalm 44, verses 14-16, beginning on the facing page,
view production patterns must be taken i n t o account w h e n " A l l the glory o f the king's daughter is w i t h i n i n golden bor-
analyzing particular textual and illustrative choices. ders, 15 clothed round about w i t h varieties. After her shall vir-
48. The style o f the illustrations i n this section o f the manuscript gins be brought to the king: her neighbors shall be brought to
were attributed by Christopher de Hamel i n the Sotheby Cata- thee. They shall be brought w i t h gladness and rejoicing." I t is
logue to "that associated w i t h the great Parisian illuminator Jean not quite a question o f literal representation, however, as there
Pucelle"; Sotheby's, sale catalogue, June 13, 1983. are only three women, one o f w h o m wears a wimple, indicating
49. Ibid., p. 16. she is a married woman and not one o f the virgins referred to;
50. P. Adam-Even, " U n armorial français du milieu du XHIe siècle: the text makes no mention o f the child, whose short hair i n d i -
Le rôle d'armes Bigot—1254," Archives héraldiques suisses 63 cates that he must be male, not female. More telling for the
(1949), pp. 15-22, 68-75, 115-21. identification o f the w o m e n here is the liturgical use o f this
51. P. Adam-Even and L . Jéquier, " U n armoriai français du XHIe Psalm as one o f the Gradual Psalms for the feast o f the Assump-
siècle: L'armoriai Wijnberghen," Archives héraldiques suisses 65 tion o f the V i r g i n M a r y (August 15), to w h i c h the words from
(1951) , pp. 49—62, 101—10; idem, Archives héraldiques suisses 66 verse 9 are particularly appropriate: "The queen stood on thy
(1952) , pp. 28-36, 64-68, 103—11; idem, Archives héraldiques suisses right hand, i n gilded clothing; surrounded w i t h variety" (cita-
68 (1954), PP- 55-80. tions from the Douai translation o f the Bible).
52. L . Douet d'Arcq, Collection des sceaux des archives de l'Empire, 3 The cult o f Saint Anne is just coming into prominence i n
vols. (Paris, 1863-68), no. 10317, cited i n Adam-Even and Jéquier this period and region and there are few local parallels; she is not
(note 51), no. 1236; Adam-Even and Jéquier (note 51), p. 54. i n the Bute Psalter's litany, nor does she figure i n litanies o f the
53. Adam-Even and Jéquier (note 51), no. 1235. region before 1300. For the cult i n general, see K . Ashley and
54. Lexikon des Mittelalters, pt. 5 (Munich and Z u r i c h , 1991), cols. P. Sheingorn, eds., Interpreting Cultural Symbols, Saint Anne in Late
803—5; T. R . Kraus, Jülich, Aachen und das Reich: Studien zur Medieval Society (Athens and London, 1990), esp. Introduction,
Entstehung der Landesherrschaft der Grafen von Jülich bis zum Jahre pp. 1—68. A n important instance o f the cult o f Saint Anne i n
1328 (Aachen, 1987). this region is the inclusion o f portraits o f Joachim and Anne and
55. Gerhard III according to Kraus, ibid., genealogical table. the B i r t h o f the V i r g i n as the opening diptych i n Madame
56. G. Demay Inventaire des sceaux de la Flandre, 2 vols. (Paris, 1873), Marie's picture book, Paris, B. N . F. Ms. n . a. Fr. 16251, fols.
no. 223, gives a lion w i t h forked tail for Guillaume IV, count o f 18V-19. See Stones, forthcoming.
Juliers, i n 1263. 63. Kraus (note 54), genealogical table.
57. Kraus (note 54), abb. 14, citing W. Ewald, Siegel der Grafen 64. Mas Latrie, col. 1612; P. du Guibours, Anselme-de-Sainte-
und Herzöge von Jülich, Berg, Cleve, Herren von Heinsberg, Tafel, Marie, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de
Rheinische Siegel, pt. 6 (Bonn, 1941); idem, w i t h E. Meyer- France, 3e éd., 9 vols. (Paris, 1726-33; repr. Paris and N e w York,
Wurmbach, Textband (Bonn, 1963), p. 5, no. 8a. N o forked tail. 1967), vol. 2, p. 784.

Renoirs Portrait of Albert Cohen à Anvers y


In September 1881 Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, as Renoir's patronne. T h r o u g h her efforts R e n o i r was
1841—1919) completed the portrait o f the composer and introduced t o a w i d e circle o f literary figures, musicians,
musician A l b e r t Cahen d'Anvers (French, 1846—1903), at and politicians.
his friend and patron Paul Berard's estate at W a r g e m o n t , R e n o i r was notorious for his social awkwardness,
located t o the east o f Dieppe (fig. 1). T h e p a i n t i n g is but at the Charpentiers, as his biographer Georges
signed and dated Renoir Wargemont g.S^ .8i. re
Cahen, l i k e R i v i e r e recalled, " H e f o u n d h i m s e l f i n an i n t e l l i g e n t
Berard, was part o f the n e w circle o f patrons R e n o i r m i l i e u where, by the tact and grace o f his hostess, haugh-
acquired i n the late 1870s and 1880s, largely as a result o f tiness and boredom were banished. Here he felt h i m s e l f
his i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the circle o f the publisher Georges understood, encouraged, by the welcome o f the friends
Charpentier and his wife, M a r g u e r i t e . I n m a r k e d c o n - he m e t . " 3
I n 1878 the family commissioned R e n o i r t o
trast t o the early years o f Renoir's career, and as the paint the p o r t r a i t Madame Charpentier and Her Children
process o f m e e t i n g Cahen indicates, i n this period ( M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m o f A r t , N e w York). Thanks to
R e n o i r became part o f an elaborate social n e t w o r k , the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f M a d a m e Charpentier, w h o v i g o r -
m a n y o f whose members were eager to obtain his ser- ously l o b b i e d members o f the j u r y such as the painter
vices as a portrait painter. H e probably met Cahen n o t L e o n B o n n a t and influential figures l i k e Ephrussi, n o t
directly t h r o u g h the Charpentiers but t h r o u g h their o n l y was the p a i n t i n g accepted at the Salon o f 1879 but
mutual friend the financier and publisher Charles i t was w e l l displayed and frequently m e n t i o n e d i n
Ephrussi. Théodore D u r e t recalled that he had taken reviews. T h e artist Camille Pissarro reported to the c o l -

R e n o i r t o receptions g i v e n by H e n r i Cernuschi, the lector Eugene M u r e r : " R e n o i r has been a great success at
O r i e n t a l i s t w i t h w h o m D u r e t had traveled t o Japan, the Salon. I t h i n k he has made his m a r k . So m u c h the
and that i t was there that R e n o i r met Ephrussi, w h o better: poverty is so h a r d . " 5

later i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o Cahen's sister-in-law, Louise One goal o f ensuring that the painting was a success
Cahen d'Anvers. 1
at the Salon was to further Renoir's career, and, by i m p l i -
R e n o i r met Georges Charpentier at an auction at cation, to endorse the taste and perspicacity o f his patrons.
the H ô t e l D r o u o t i n 1875. T h e artist persuaded his T h e art collection o f the Charpentiers consisted m a i n l y
French contemporaries Claude M o n e t , Berthe M o r i s o t , o f naturalist p a i n t i n g , and was i n m a n y ways an exten-

and A l f r e d Sisley to j o i n h i m at this auction, w h i c h was sion o f Georges Charpentiers activities as a publisher—he
disastrous i n terms o f the prices b r o u g h t i n for the w o r k s was k n o w n especially for publishing the works o f writers
but had far-reaching repercussions i n terms o f the o f the naturalist school, i n c l u d i n g Emile Z o l a , Gustave
i m p a c t i t had o n his career. Soon after the auction, the
Flaubert, Alphonse Daudet, E d m o n d de Goncourt, and,
Charpentiers made a more public proclamation o f their less regularly, G u y de Maupassant. Intended t o support
patronage o f R e n o i r w h e n they commissioned h i m to their credentials as enlightened and f o r w a r d - l o o k i n g
paint their portraits o n a panel o n the stairwell o f their patrons o f the arts i n general, b o t h the collection itself
hôtel at 35 rue de Grenelle i n Paris. This was b o t h their and the endorsement o f R e n o i r the Charpentiers gave to
home and the offices o f Charpentier s p u b l i s h i n g house, their friends opened up n e w possibilities for the artist. I n
the B i b l i o t h è q u e Charpentier, and Renoir's portraits great part t h r o u g h the efforts o f M a d a m e Charpentier
were seen by all the visitors t o the house. A t that t i m e , R e n o i r suddenly f o u n d h i m s e l f i n demand as a portrait
M a d a m e Charpentier was b e c o m i n g k n o w n as one o f painter, usually b e i n g commissioned t o paint the por-
the leading hostesses i n Paris, and she regarded herself traits o f the wives and children o f his n e w f o u n d patrons.
32 Adler

FIGURE I Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Portrait of Albert Cahen d'Anvers, 1881. O i l on canvas, 79.8 x 63.7 c m (31% x 25H in.).
Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum 88.PA.133.
Renoir's Portrait 33

T h e reception he achieved at the Salon o f 1879 was w h i c h he believed had an order and stability lost i n his
n o t repeated i n the f o l l o w i n g year, w h e n his submissions o w n day. 12
H e was happy t o play the role o f " c o u r t
were n o t displayed so p r o m i n e n t l y , and were largely painter" to M a d a m e Charpentier, sometimes s i g n i n g his
i g n o r e d b y critics. A l t h o u g h R e n o i r decided t o send
letters t o her i n a burlesque o f ancien r é g i m e forms o f
o n l y portraits t o future Salons, he still believed that patronage, and for special occasions, even decorat­
recognition at the Salon was a necessary precondition to i n g menus and place cards for her banquets. 13
As the
wider success. H e explained his reasons i n a letter to his o n l y member o f the Impressionist g r o u p w h o was o f
dealer Paul D u r a n d - R u e l , w r i t t e n f r o m Algiers i n 1881: working-class origins, R e n o i r was far more prepared to
play the somewhat servile part required by his patrons
There are i n Paris perhaps fifteen amateurs capable o f
than any o f his colleagues.
appreciating a painting without the Salon. There are
Despite this, however, his relationship w i t h the
80,000 more who w i l l not buy anything i f it has not
been i n the Salon. . . . I don't want to waste my time Cahen d'Anvers f a m i l y proved to be an unhappy one.
resenting the Salon. I don't even want to look as i f I T h e portrait o f the t w o girls was n o t a success: R e n o i r
do. I think that one should do the best possible paint­ found i t difficult to reconcile his aims as a painter and his
ing. That's all. . . . Nothing concerns me at the wish to include the portrait at the Salon, w h i c h made i t
moment, as usual, but making some good things . . . necessary to produce a likeness. A r t i s t and critic Jacques-
so just a little patience and I hope to prove to you that Emile Blanche recalled R e n o i r t e l l i n g h i m : " I f I r e w o r k
it is possible to send to the Salon and to do good a head the next day I ' m done for; but it's a portrait, it's
painting. I ask you to plead my case with my friends. 8

necessary for a m o t h e r t o recognise her daughter." 14

W h i l e success at the Salon eluded h i m , Renoir's R e n o i r completed the p a i n t i n g shortly before his j o u r n e y
practice as a portraitist continued to expand. 9
Nonethe­ t o Algiers i n late February 1881. H e t o l d Duret that he
less, he f o u n d the business o f portraiture difficult and c o u l d n o t tell whether the portrait was g o o d or b a d . 15

often frustrating. I n the spring o f 1880 he w r o t e to Berard: His fee for the double portrait was 1,500 francs, but the
" I must still w o r k o n this damned p a i n t i n g because o f a Cahen d'Anvers d i d n o t pay p r o m p t l y . W r i t i n g a year
h i g h class cocotte w h o was i m p r u d e n t enough to come to later to his friend Charles D e u d o n f r o m L'Estaque, where
C h a t o u and w a n t to pose. I t has cost me t w o weeks o f he was recovering f r o m pneumonia, R e n o i r revealed his
delay and i n short today I rubbed i t out. . . . I don't k n o w displeasure n o t o n l y w i t h the business o f portraiture i n
where I a m anymore, except more and more i r r i t a t e d . " 10
general but w i t h his n e w l y acquired circle: "As for the
F o l l o w i n g Ephrussi's i n t r o d u c t i o n o f R e n o i r t o Cahens 1,500 francs, I t h i n k I can tell y o u that I find that
Louise Cahen d'Anvers, he was commissioned to paint pretty stiff. H o w mean can y o u get? I really give up w i t h
Irene, the eldest daughter o f A l b e r t Cahen's brother, the the Jews." 16
Probably part o f the reason for the delayed
banker Louis Cahen d'Anvers (fig. 2). T h e p o r t r a i t o f payment was the fact that the Cahens, too, were dis­
Irene, w h o was then eight years o l d , was completed i n pleased w i t h the portrait. T h e y d i d n o t hang i t i n any o f
t w o sittings i n the summer o f 1880 i n the garden o f the their rooms, but consigned i t t o the servants' floor. 17

family's Paris house o n the rue Bassano, j u s t o f f the Years later A l i c e recalled that the o n l y t h i n g that made
Champs Elysees. Irene is shown i n profile, hands clasped the boredom o f posing for R e n o i r tolerable was the plea­
o n her lap, and the p a i n t i n g is dominated by her profu­ sure o f wearing the lace dress. 18

sion o f l i g h t chestnut hair, w h i c h falls over her arms and T h e difficulties about payment for the double por­
shoulders l i k e a cape. 11
trait had n o t yet surfaced w h e n R e n o i r returned to
Early i n 1881, R e n o i r embarked o n a double por­ France f r o m Algiers i n A p r i l 1881. H e i m m e d i a t e l y
trait o f the t w o younger Cahen d'Anvers sisters—Elisa­ recommenced w o r k o n Luncheon of the Boating Party
beth, b o r n i n December 1874, and Alice, b o r n February (The Phillips C o l l e c t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.), w h i c h he
1876 (fig. 3). T h e portrait is formal and stiff, w i t h its o r i ­ had begun late i n the summer o f 1880. T h e site o f the
gins i n the seventeenth-century c o u r t portraiture o f p a i n t i n g was the Restaurant Fournaise at C h a t o u o n the
Sir A n t h o n y V a n D y c k . L i k e m a n y wealthy society Seine. T h e restaurant was frequented by some o f the lead­
figures i n the T h i r d Republic, the Cahen d'Anvers f a m ­ i n g figures i n the political and financial w o r l d s o f Paris
i l y l o o k e d back t o p r e - R e v o l u t i o n a r y times w i t h nos­ and by numerous writers and artists. Regulars included
talgia, and they modeled t h e i r o w n behavior o n t h e i r the Rothschilds, Gustave Flaubert, and, above all, G u y
perception o f eighteenth-century aristocratic life. I n de Maupassant. 19
O t h e r frequent visitors were B a r o n
R e n o i r they f o u n d an ideal painter i n m a n y respects, Barbier, a former cavalry officer w h o m R e n o i r included
since he, too, wished t o emulate the eighteenth century, i n his multifigure composition, and Charles Ephrussi.
34 Adler

ncuKE 2 Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Mile Irene Cahen d'Anvers, 1880. O i l on canvas, 63 x 53 cm (25 x 2iVi in.). Zurich, Foundation
F. G. Biihrle Collection.
Renoir's Portrait 35

FIGURE 3 Pierre-Auguste Renoir. The Cahen d'Anvers Girls, 1881. O i l on canvas, 119 x 74 cm (47 x 29 in.).
Sâo Paulo, Museu de Arte de Sâo Paulo, Assis Chateaubriand.
36 Adler

A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g Luncheon of the Boating Party, spirit w h i c h passed l i k e an electric current between

R e n o i r w e n t briefly t o W a r g e m o n t t o stay w i t h Berard, themselves and the composer o f The Beatitudes. 23

and t h e n t o Dieppe where he w o r k e d w i t h Jacques- Cahens earliest w o r k , dating f r o m the first period
Emile Blanche. D u r a n d - R u e l had j u s t purchased a group o f his pupilage w i t h Franck, was a group o f songs set t o
o f his paintings, i n c l u d i n g Luncheon of the Boating Party, poetry by A l f r e d de Musset. His first i m p o r t a n t piece was
for a t o t a l o f 16,000 francs, m a k i n g R e n o i r somewhat a " b i b l i c a l d r a m a , " Jean le Précurseur, w h i c h was per-
financially secure for a t i m e . This was the yacht racing f o r m e d at the Concerts Nationals i n 1874. O n e o f his
and regatta season, and Dieppe was filled w i t h the sport- most ambitious works was Endymion, a poème mythologique
i n g and intellectual haute bourgeoisie o f Paris, m a n y o f i n three scenes w i t h a libretto by Louis Gallet. First per-
w h o m were n o w k n o w n t o R e n o i r . 2 0
Renoir's p a t r o n formed at the Concerts Populaires i n M a r c h 1883,
Berard enjoyed i n v i t i n g p r o m i n e n t m e n - a b o u t - t o w n Endymion was praised by the critic L o u i s de R o m a i n ,
w h o were i n Dieppe for the s u m m e r season, such as w h o w r o t e that the pantheism o f the piece had its c h a r m
B a r o n Barbier, to W a r g e m o n t , where they m i n g l e d w i t h and grandeur, and that such myths offered the musician
his friends, among both Protestant and Jewish a vast field i n w h i c h to let the i m a g i n a t i o n r u n free. H e
financiers. 21
Albert Cahen must have been part o f believed that the amorous legend o f E n d y m i o n w o u l d
this g r o u p at W a r g e m o n t w h e n R e n o i r returned there b r i n g happiness to C a h e n . 24
O t h e r critics evidently d i d
i n September. n o t concur, and Cahen was disappointed by the recep-
Cahen managed to combine the dual roles o f m a n - t i o n the w o r k received. 25
Cahens b e s t - k n o w n w o r k was
a b o u t - t o w n and composer. W h i l e he was n o t a financier the opera Le Vénitien, w h i c h was also a collaboration
l i k e his b r o t h e r Louis, he was a m a n o f considerable w i t h Gallet. I t was performed for the first t i m e i n R o u e n
wealth. B o r n i n Paris i n 1841, he was t h i r t y - f i v e years o l d in April 1890, at a performance attended b y César
at the t i m e , and had made his professional debut at the Franck. W i t h characteristic generosity, Franck w r o t e t o
O p é r a - C o m i q u e d u r i n g the previous year w i t h a produc- Cahen: " T h e evening o n M o n d a y was one o f the best o f
t i o n o f Le Bois. H e began his musical career by studying m y musical l i f e . " 2 6
Franck died soon afterward, and
piano w i t h M a d a m e Szarvady, and i n the mid-1860s he Cahen was present at the funeral.
became one o f the first pupils o f César Franck A m o n g Franck's pupils, the fact that Cahen was
(1822—1890). T h e Belgian-born Franck, renowned as an Jewish made h i m an exception. Franck was a devoted
organist, had started t o gather a small g r o u p o f pupils Catholic and a church organist, although he maintained
a r o u n d h i m i n the years prior t o the Franco-Prussian g o o d relations w i t h musicians i n synagogues, and Cahen
war. As the most devoted o f these pupils, V i n c e n t d ' I n d y h i m s e l f put I n d y i n t o u c h w i t h Samuel N a u m b o u r g , the
later recalled, the first to w o r k w i t h Franck were Cahen, r a b b i o f a Paris synagogue. 27
F o l l o w i n g Franck's death,
A r t h u r Coquard, and H e n r i Duparc, followed by a cav- however, Cahen became disillusioned w i t h the lack o f
alry officer, Alexis de Castillon. F r o m 1872 the band o f success o f his w o r k , particularly w h e n his last stage
pupils g r e w i n size t o include Indy, C a m i l l e B e n o î t , w o r k , La Femme de Claude, was coolly received. W i t h
Ernest Chausson, and the female composer A u g u s t a the rise o f anti-Semitism i n France, f o l l o w i n g first the
Holmes. Franck was a gifted teacher w h o listened to his Panama Canal scandal and then the Dreyfus Affair, I n d y
pupils w i t h intense concentration and had the a b i l i t y t o t u r n e d against Cahen, w h o t h e n dropped o u t o f w h a t
b r i n g out the best i n t h e m b y insisting that they produce had been a close circle o f friends and colleagues. 28

o n l y w o r k o f the highest quality. H e inspired devotion Cahen must always have been something o f an
i n the circle o f students. T h e critic Louis de Fourcaud outsider i n the group, n o t o n l y because he was a Jew but
observed: " I n o u r school, we have m a n y great musicians, because Franck's pupils are often described g o i n g about
but we have o n l y one saint: César Franck. H e is a true their vocations as composers w i t h an almost m o n k l i k e
saint o f m u s i c — a French and m o d e r n B a c h . " 2 2
Indy, devotion, seeking "escape f r o m the shallow values o f the
after his master's death, w r o t e o f the pupils: metropolis, being anxious to repair to a place o f artistic
sanctuary where they c o u l d mature their gifts i n peace
These, and these only, k n e w the master i n t i m a t e l y and
and silence." 29
Cahens circle o f socialite friends and rela-
were able to assimilate his innermost thoughts and his
tives were far f r o m m o n k l i k e : his b r o t h e r Louis and
i n v i g o r a t i n g counsels; they alone k n e w w h a t César
Franck's lessons i n composition actually were: a c o m - Louis's wife, Louise, were w e l l - k n o w n figures o n the
m u n i t y o f effort o n the part o f the master and pupils Parisian social scene, and w h e n A l b e r t Cahen m a r r i e d
directed to one identical a i m — A r t . T h e y alone could L u l i a Warchawska, a h i g h b o r n Polish émigré, i n the
bear witness to that almost supernatural c o m m u n i o n o f 18 80s, he j o i n e d one o f Paris s most fashionable circles.
Renoir's Portrait 37

L u l i a and her sister, M a r i e , had been neighbors o f three people i n a d d i t i o n to his butler, Francois, w h o m he
the Charpentiers o n the rue de Grenelle, the part o f Paris w o u l d agree t o see. 37

that was then the focus o f the m e r g i n g w o r l d s o f finance L i k e Maupassant and Bourget, Cahen was evidently
and art. T h e y were part o f a v i b r a n t social scene, the a great dandy, and i t is as such that R e n o i r portrayed
salons juives o f the 1880s, w h i c h was regarded by writers h i m . I n the p a i n t i n g he is seated o n a w h i t e chair covered
l i k e E d m o n d de G o n c o u r t as simultaneously c o m p e l l i n g w i t h blue and w h i t e fabric and positioned against an
and repulsive. These salons were places o f particular elaborately patterned flowered wallpaper. The dominance
significance for writers, for i t was here that the influential o f the background patterning appears to thrust h i m for­
and wealthy tastemakers o f the day m i n g l e d w i t h the w a r d , almost i n t o the spectator's space, and the sense o f
remains o f the aristocracy. Lulia was a w e l l - k n o w n salon- immediacy and direct physical presence that this conveys
niere, w h o m G o n c o u r t described as "la petite per­ is enhanced by the pose, w i t h the left leg crossed over the
fection," 30
and M a r i e , w h o m a r r i e d the banker K a n n , r i g h t and the r i g h t hand partially masked by the j u t t i n g
was oftentimes the object o f G o n c o u r t s fascination. left knee. T h e pose indicates a sense o f i n f o r m a l i t y and
M a r i e was said t o be " o f a quasi-oriental n o b i l i t y , " a relaxation, but also one o f assurance. A l t h o u g h R e n o i r
characteristic description o f la Juive at this period, w h i c h had used a variant o f this pose a year previously i n his por­
evokes b o t h their allure and their otherness. 31
trait o f Berard (1880, private collection), i n that portrait the
L i k e m a n y other society w o m e n o f the day, i n c l u d ­ sitter is at an angle to the picture plane and looks out o f
i n g the Russian naturalist painter M a r i e Bashkirtseff the picture to his left, whereas the pose i n the portrait o f
(i860—1884), M a r i e K a n n was one o f G u y de Maupas­ Cahen is s t r i k i n g i n its frontality, w i t h the cravat p i n and
sant's mistresses. She was k n o w n for her exceptionally the line o f suit buttons almost bisecting the canvas.
heavy and macabre makeup, for her air o f nervous Cahens moustache dominates his face. Facial hair was
excitement, for her seductive ways, and for the fact that regarded as a powerful indicator o f male sexuality: i n
she used drugs, either m o r p h i n e or ether. 32
Cahens sister- Maupassant's famous novel Bel-Ami, first published i n
in-law, Louise (the former Louise M o r p u r g o ) , was equally 1885, the hero, Georges D u r o y , is distinguished by his
notorious. G o n c o u r t described her as a Medusa figure, moustache, "a luxuriant moustache, crisp and curled and
the curls around her head appearing to h i m l i k e a nest o f elegant, fair w i t h a t i n t o f red i n i t , but shading o f f i n t o
snakes. 33
B o t h Louise Cahen d'Anvers and M a r i e K a n n auburn at the p o i n t s . " 38
Cahens moustache is equally ele­
were at one t i m e the mistresses o f the novelist Paul gant, and i t presents b o t h a s t r i k i n g contrast and a
Bourget. Kann's affair w i t h Bourget ended w h e n her hus­ counterpoint to the luxuriantly c u r l i n g vegetation o n the
b a n d demanded that she choose either h i m (and his wallpaper just behind his head. R e n o i r frequently repre­
money) or Bourget. She preferred her husband's riches, sented his male sitters s m o k i n g cigarettes; here, the elabo­
but this d i d n o t stop her liaison w i t h de Maupassant. rate cigarette holder firmly clenched i n the left hand, like
Maupassant and Bourget were i n t r i g u e d by h o w different the moustache, serves to emphasize the sitter's masculin­
these Jewish society figures were f r o m t h e i r Protestant i t y and authority, and t o contrast w i t h the elaborately
counterparts. L i k e the historian Michelet, they saw Jew­ flowered background, suggestive o f the feminine and the
esses as the inheritors o f the t r a d i t i o n o f sorcery, dark domestic. 39

and m y s t e r i o u s . 34
B u t these w r i t e r s themselves have T h e opulence o f this wallpaper is so assertive that i t
been described as "the i n v e n t i o n o f ' h i g h - l i f e ' Jewesses, m i g h t be said that R e n o i r sets up a tension between the
t h i r s t y for something celestial i n flavour, feudal i n r e m i ­ markers o f m a s c u l i n i t y — t h e moustache, the cigarette
niscence, and slightly a n t i - S e m i t i c . " I n his novel Mont-
holder, the aggressively f o r w a r d - j u t t i n g knee—and the
Oriol Maupassant described France o f the 1880s as "the w o r l d o f artifice and f e m i n i n i t y that surrounds the
n e w Z i o n , " and the Jews as the people w h o , persecuted figure. T h e obtrusiveness o f the background is unusual i n
before the R e v o l u t i o n , n o w oppressed others by the a portrait o f a male sitter. Renoir's portraits o f female sit­
power o f their m o n e y . 36
ters often include references t o a setting that serves t o
Cahen was a close friend o f b o t h Maupassant and position t h e m i n terms o f wealth and status, as, for exam­
Bourget. O n e o f his best remembered compositions is ple, i n Madame Charpentier and Her Children, or make
Marines, a. collection o f seven melodies o n poems by a connection between w o m e n and nature, as i n the por­
Bourget. I n the last months o f Maupassant's life i n 1893, trait o f Irene Cahen d'Anvers. Here the b a c k g r o u n d
w h e n he was confined t o the asylum i n Passy where he complements the a t t e n t i o n t o detail o f every aspect o f
died at the age o f f o r t y - t w o , Cahen was one o f o n l y Cahen's appearance, and perhaps serves as a reminder o f
38 Adler

FIGURE 4 Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Sketches of Heads (The Berard Children), 1881. O i l on canvas, 62 x 83 c m (24V2 x 32V2 in.)
W i l l i a m s t o w n , Massachusetts, Sterling and Francine Clark A r t Institute, 590.

his creativity, a reference to his profession o f composer. different i n b o t h technique and i n t e n t i o n . I n i t R e n o i r

I t should be remembered, however, that the setting strives for the c o m b i n a t i o n o f freedom o f b r u s h w o r k and
is n o t Cahen's o w n h o m e but that o f his host, Paul precision o f detailing o f the features that he deemed nec­
Berard. T h e chateau at W a r g e m o n t was substantial, and essary for his practice as a portraitist, and w h i c h led t o
several o f the rooms were adorned w i t h decorations his reassessment o f his technique and his l i n k s w i t h the
painted b y R e n o i r . 4 0
B o t h Berard and Cahen shared a traditions o f O l d Master paintings, particularly the art o f
taste for l u x u r y that accords w i t h the revival o f the ideals Raphael. 42

o f the ancien régime, often represented by a w i t h d r a w a l I n order t o be accepted b y a sitter l i k e Cahen

f r o m the p u b l i c w o r l d i n t o the private space o f the R e n o i r had t o w o r k w i t h i n a recognizable s t y l e — a n d
Rococo b o u d o i r . 41
I n this p o r t r a i t Cahen is s h o w n for the Cahens, L e o n B o n n a t (1833-1922) was the favored
w i t h i n j u s t such an i n t i m a t e and decorative space. T h e artist. B o t h L u l i a and her sister were painted by Bonnat,
portrait is distinguished f r o m the m a n y portraits R e n o i r w h o was celebrated for his portraits o f leading m e m ­
painted o f the Berard family at W a r g e m o n t at this t i m e bers o f French society. 43
A l t h o u g h most histories o f
b y its assertiveness and the air o f easy c o m m a n d that n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y art w o u l d seem t o locate B o n n a t ,
Cahen assumes. Exactly contemporary w i t h another o f a p r o m i n e n t academic painter, and R e n o i r , usually de­
Renoir's w o r k s , Sketches of Heads (The Berard Children) scribed as a leading member o f an avant-garde group, i n
(fig. 4; S t e r l i n g and Francine C l a r k A r t Institute, W i l ­ t o t a l l y irreconcilable positions, R e n o i r envied B o n n a t s
l i a m s t o w n , Mass.), the portrait o f Cahen is completely influential position and success. I n 1882 he w r o t e w i t h
Renoir's Portrait 39

heavy i r o n y to Berard: " N o w I ' m delighted w i t h w h a t is NOTES

h a p p e n i n g to me. I ' m g o i n g t o get back o n the right
1. T. Duret, Renoir (Paris, 1924), p. 62.
path and I ' m g o i n g t o enlist i n Bonnat's studio. I n a year
2. Details o f the auction are provided i n M . Bodeisen, "Early
or t w o I ' l l be able t o m a k e 30,000,000,000,000 francs a Impressionist Sales 1874—94 m
the Light o f Some Unpub-
year. D o n ' t t a l k to me any more about portraits i n the lished 'Procès-verbaux'," Burlington Magazine n o (June 1968),
sunlight. N i c e black backgrounds, that's the real t h i n g . " 4 4 pp. 331—49. The twenty works by Renoir at this auction brought
i n between 50 and 300 francs.
A change o f d i r e c t i o n i n Renoir's art is evident i n
3. Quoted i n M . Florisoone, "Renoir et la famille Charpentier,"
the C a h e n portrait. I t was executed at a p o i n t i n Renoir's L'Amour de l'art 19 (February 1938), p. 31.
career w h e n he had invested i n the hope that success as a 4. For a more detailed discussion o f Renoir s relationship w i t h his
portraitist w o u l d m e a n success at the Salon. O n l y a year patrons and the Charpentiers i n particular, see K . Adler,
"Renoir, His Patrons and His Dealer," i n Renoir Master Impres-
later his u n c e r t a i n t y about the l i k e l i h o o d o f a c h i e v i n g
sionist, ed. J. House (Sydney, 1994), pp. 29-39.
his aims t h r o u g h portraiture and his increasingly overt
5. C. Pissarro, Correspondance de Camille Pissarro, Vol. 1, 1863-1885,
a n t i - S e m i t i s m m e a n t that p a i n t i n g portraits n o longer ed. J. Bailly-Herzberg (Paris, 1980), p. 133.
appeared to R e n o i r to represent a r o u t e to r e c o g n i t i o n . 6. The sale catalogue at the Hôtel D r o u o t dated A p r i l 11, 1907,
F r o m L'Estaque i n February 1882 he lashed o u t at the after the death o f Madame Charpentier i n 1904 and her husband
i n the following year, includes t w o works by Renoir (one o f
allegedly radical politics o f the Jews i n the draft o f a let-
which was Portrait of Madame Charpentier and Her Children), one
ter to D u r a n d - R u e l , declaring a n g r i l y : "To e x h i b i t w i t h by Paul Cézanne, t w o by Monet, one by Jean-Jacques Henner,
the Jew Pissarro means r e v o l u t i o n . " 45
A t the same t i m e , and one by Alfred Philippe R o l l among the paintings; and
w r i t i n g to Berard to discuss w h a t he should send to the watercolors, pastels, and drawings by Edgar Degas, Marcellin
Desboutin, H e n r i Fantin-Latour, Jean-Louis Forain, Henner,
Salon, he derided the bourgeois v i e w s o f his o l d sup-
Monet, Giuseppe de Nittis, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Cécile Puvis
porter, Ephrussi: " D o n ' t take m y advice and l i s t e n to
de Chavannes, Renoir, John Singer Sargent, and Sisley. I t is evi-
Ephrussey [sic], that Jew. Super-bourgeois, he has the dent that as o f this date at least a portion o f the collection had
r i g h t eye for w h a t is called the (beauty) S a l o n . " 46
These already been dispersed.
views o n Jews, effortlessly able t o a c c o m m o d a t e c o n - 7. Renoir exhibited t w o paintings: The Mussel Fishers at Berneval
(Barnes Collection, Merion, Pa.) and Sleeping Girl with a Cat
tradictory positions in a manner characteristic of
(Sterling and Francine Clark A r t Institute, W i l l i a m s t o w n ,
anti-Semitism, 47
c o m b i n e d w i t h the dissatisfaction he Mass.).
expressed specifically about the C a h e n d'Anvers f a m i l y i n 8. Letter from Renoir to Paul Durand-Ruel, Algiers, 1881, i n
his letter to Deudon of 1882, ensured that Renoir's L . Venturi, Les Archives de l'impressionnisme (Paris, 1939), vol. 1,
pp. 115-16.
i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the fashionable w o r l d o f Jewish h i g h
9. Paul Cézanne wrote to Emile Zola, July 4, 1880: "Renoir is sup-
society was a b r i e f one, w i t h the p o r t r a i t o f A l b e r t C a h e n
posed to have some good portrait commissions"; P. Cézanne,
m a r k i n g a rare m o m e n t o f success. Paul Cézanne Correspondance, ed. J. Rewald (Paris, 1937), p. 173.
10. Letter from Renoir to Paul Berard, 1880, i n M . Berard, "Lettres
de Renoir à Paul Berard," La Revue de Paris (1968), pp. 4—5.
11. The portrait was included i n Renoir's first one-man show at the
Galerie Durand-Ruel i n 1883, one o f twenty-five portraits
included among the seventy paintings on view. I t was later
Kathleen Adler is Head of Education at the
inherited by Irène Cahen d'Anvers, who became the Comtesse
National Gallery, London. de Sampieri.
12. Jean Renoir recalled that his father frequently referred to his
admiration for the eighteenth century. See, for example,
J. Renoir, Renoir, My Father (London, 1962), pp. 12-18, 100-1,
222, 382-83.
13. See, for example, his letter to Madame Charpentier o f Novem-
ber 30, 1879, and the subsequent letter, dated only "Mercredi"
and signed Le plus dévoué des peintres ordinaires, Renoir (Florisoone
[note 3], p. 35). The menus and place cards are illus-
trated i n M . Robida, Le Salon Charpentier et les impressionnistes
(Paris, 1958), figs. 10, n .
14. J.-E. Blanche, "Renoir portraitiste," L'Art vivant (July 1933),
p. 292.
15. Letter from Renoir to Duret, Algiers, March 4, 1881, i n Galerie
d'Art Braun, L'Impressionnisme et quelques précurseurs, exh. cat.
(Galerie d'Art Braun, Paris, 1932), p. n .
16. Letter to from Renoir to Charles Deudon, L'Estaque, February
19, 1882, i n M . Schneider, "Lettres de Renoir sur l'Italie," L'Age
d'Or—Etudes 1 (Paris, 1945), p. 99. B. Ehrlich White, i n Renoir,
40 Adler

His Life, Art, and Letters (New York, 1984), associates this letter 35. P. Ignotus, The Paradox of Maupassant (London, 1966), p. 201.
w i t h the portrait o f Albert Cahen, but given the plural reference 36. Quoted i n P. Morand, Vie de Guy de Maupassant (Paris, 1924),
to "the Cahens," it seems more likely that it refers to Louis and p. 121.
Louise Cahen d'Anvers. 37. The others were his publisher Gustave Ollendorff and the writer
17. I t was found on the servants' floor by the dealers Bernheim H e n r y Fouquier.
around 1899, after Renoir told them where to find commis­ 38. G. de Maupassant, Bel-Ami, trans. E. Sutton (London, 1948),
sioned portraits by h i m , and it was lent by Madame Cahen p. 30.
d'Anvers to the exhibition o f works by Renoir at the Galerie 39. For example, the male figure i n After Lunch (1879, Stàdelsches
Bernheim-Jeune et Fils i n Paris i n January 1900. Shortly after­ Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt); the figure i n the right-hand fore­
ward, the Bernheims bought it for their private collection. See ground o f Luncheon of the Boating Party (for w h o m the model was
H . Dauberville, La Bataille de l'impressionnisme (Paris, 1967), p. 552. Gustave Caillebotte); and the portrait o f Berard (1880, p r i ­
18. P. Jullian, "'Rose' de Renoir retrouvée par Philippe Jullian," vate collection, France). A year after the portrait o f Cahen, the
Figaro Littéraire (December 22, 1962), quoted i n J. House, A . Dis- double portrait o f Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel (1882,
tel, and L . Go w i n g , Renoir, exh. cat. (Arts Council o f Great Collection Durand-Ruel, Paris) uses the device o f the cigarette
Britain, London, 1985), p. 224. holder i n a very similar way to that o f the present portrait, that
19. M . Catinat, Les Bords de la Seine avec Renoir et Maupassant (Cha­ is, to convey a sense o f masculinity and authority.
tou, 1952), p. 15. 40. For a discussion o f Berard's chateau at Wargemont, see
20. O n Dieppe, see J. Willett, A . Gruetzner Robins, and S. Bowness, M . Berard, Renoir à Wargemont (Paris, 1939); F. Daulte, Renoir
The Dieppe Connection: The Town and Its Artists from Turner to (London, 1972). Renoir completed some o f his decorations for
Braque, exh. cat. (Brighton Museum and A r t Gallery, 1992). the house during the summer o f 1881, including the still lifes i n
21. J.-E. Blanche, Portraits of a Lifetime (London, 1937), p. 39. the dining room.
22. L . Gallet, Notes d'un librettiste (Paris, 1891), p. 311. 41. Anthea Callen discusses this i n relation to Renoir i n "Renoir:
23. V. d'Indy, César Franck (London, 1910), p. 254. The Matter o f Gender," i n House (note 4), pp. 41-51. See also
24. L . de Romain, Essais de Critique Musicale (Paris, 1890), p. 105. D. L. Silverman, Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siede France: Politics, Psy­
25. According to the entry i n Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians chology and Style (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1989).
(ed. S. Sadie [London, 1980], vol. 3, pp. 604-5), Endymion was 42. Renoir summed up his position at this time when he told the
first performed i n 1875. This does not appear to be correct, how­ dealer Ambroise Vollard many years later: " I had reached the
ever, according to the date o f performance on the manuscript. end o f Impressionism, and I had reached the conclusion that I
26. L . Lallas, La Véritable histoire de César Franck (Paris, 1955), p. 281. did not k n o w either how to paint or draw. In a w o r d , Impres­
27. Ibid., p. 311. sionism was a blind alley as far as I was concerned." A . Vollard,
28. L . Davies, César Franck and His Circle (London, 1970), p. 138. En écoutant Cézanne, Degas, Renoir (Paris, 1938), p. 213.
29. Ibid., p. 114. 43. The portraits are i n the Musée Bonnat, Bayonne.
30. J. and E. de Goncourt, Le Journal des Goncourt, ed. R . Ricatte 44. Unpublished letter from Renoir to Berard i n the Collection
(Paris, 1956), vol. 3, p. 140. Durand-Ruel, quoted i n Ehrlich W h i t e (note 16), p. 127.
31. André Vial described Marie as "D'une noblesse quasi-orientale," 45. Draft letter from Renoir to Durand-Ruel, L'Estaque, February
quoted i n A . Lanoux, Maupassant le bel-ami (Paris, 1967), p. 262. 26, 1882, quoted i n Venturi (note 8), p. 122.
O n the "oriental princess" as a prevailing stereotype, see C. O c k - 46. Unpublished letter from Renoir to Berard, Algiers, March 1882,
man, ' " T w o large eyebrows à l'orientale': Ethnic stereotyping i n i n the Collection Christian Renaudau d'Arc, Wargemont, quoted
Ingress Baronne de Rothschild," Art History 14, no. 4 (December i n Ehrlich W h i t e (note 16), p. 124.
1991), pp. 521-39- 47. Sander Gilman has observed that inherent i n stereotypical t h i n k ­
32. The entry i n Edmond de Goncourt s Journal (note 30), vol. 3, i n g is "the ability to hold simultaneously t w o (or more) images
p. 505, January 17, 1894, reads: "This evening, I dined at the o f the Other." These images may be totally at odds w i t h each
Princess at the side o f Madame Kann, the Jewess w i t h the face o f other, and they shift and change freely, because they all reflect
porcelain, o f the feverish conversation, perhaps heightened by projections o f anxiety; S. Gilman, Difference and Pathology: Stereo­
either morphine or ether." types of Sexuality, Race, and Madness (Ithaca and London, 1985), p. 22.
33. De Goncourt (note 30), vol. 3, p. 66.
34. The Jewish heroine o f Maupassant's L'Inconnue is described as
"black as the night." O n Maupassant's and Bourget s involve­
ment w i t h Jewish circles, see Lanoux (note 31), pp. 259-69.

Leo von Klenze's View of Mass a di Carrara:

Denkmallandschaft and the Architect as Painter


Leo v o n Klenze (1784—1864) is best k n o w n for his w o r k extant. T h e m a j o r i t y o f these w o r k s r e m a i n i n private

as the c h i e f architect a n d head o f p u b l i c w o r k s i n collections i n Germany, w i t h a number i n major Ger­
M u n i c h i n the mid-nineteenth century. H a v i n g studied m a n public collections. 4
I n 1986 the J. Paul Getty
architecture i n B e r l i n , he began his career i n 1808 w o r k ­ M u s e u m acquired Klenze's Italian Landscape—View of
i n g i n Kassel for Napoleon's b r o t h e r , K i n g Jerome o f Massa di Carrara (fig. 1), one o f his finest paintings, and
Westphalia (r. 1807-13). After the fall o f the Napoleonic perhaps the o n l y one that exists i n the U n i t e d States. 5

E m p i r e , Klenze was b r o u g h t t o M u n i c h b y L u d w i g I This w o r k had been i n the Klenze family u n t i l the t i m e

(r. 1825-48), then prince and later k i n g o f Bavaria, w h o o f its purchase b y the G e t t y M u s e u m . M u c h o f the
admired Klenze's abilities and enthusiasm for classical art artists painterly p r o d u c t i o n seems to have remained i n
a n d architecture. W h i l e generally w o r k i n g i n a s t r i n ­ his possession and later passed t h r o u g h various branches o f
gently classicizing mode, he was able to vary his style the family. W h e t h e r w o r k s that entered other collections,
f r o m Renaissance t o Romanesque revival as deemed often those o f major political, social, and artistic figures,
appropriate to the structure or according to the w h i m o f were s i m p l y gifts or w h e t h e r t h e y were commissions
L u d w i g I . M a j o r w o r k s b y K l e n z e located outside o f remains u n k n o w n . Painting for Klenze was n o t entirely

Bavaria include the Hermitage, an a d d i t i o n to the W i n ­ a hobby or private enterprise; his paintings were i n the
ter Palace i n Saint Petersburg, and the Dionysosbasilika royal collection as w e l l as those o f ministers o f state, and
i n Athens. I n a d d i t i o n to his architectural responsibilities he sent his w o r k s t o p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s i n M u n i c h ,
Klenze traveled i n a d i p l o m a t i c capacity t o Germany, B e r l i n , Leipzig, Hannover, and Dresden. 7
He often
Greece, Russia, and France. H e also acted as an art agent p a i n t e d o n an a m b i t i o u s scale w i t h equally a m b i t i o u s
for L u d w i g I , collecting antiquities for the r o y a l collec­ subjects aimed at the stature o f history p a i n t i n g . Athen im
tion. 1
H i s extensive circle o f friends and acquaintances Altertum, for example, re-creates the c i t y o f A t h e n s i n
included p r o m i n e n t artists o f the day, such as K a r l Fried- ancient times, complete w i t h some o f its noble citizens. 8

r i c h Schinkel (1781—1841), Carl R o t t m a n n (1797—1850), A l t h o u g h he referred t o p a i n t i n g as his " b a d h a b i t , " 9

and B e r t e l Thorvaldsen (1768—1884), as w e l l as p o l i t i ­ Klenze seems to have taken this part o f his artistic a c t i v i ­
cal and l i t e r a r y figures, such as Czar Nicholas I (r. 1825— ties v e r y seriously, n o t j u s t i n the claims he made for i t
55) and Goethe (1749—1832). I n addition to these interests t h r o u g h scale, subject, and e x h i b i t i o n but also i n exten­
and responsibilities he was also a painter w h o generally sive preparation.
focused his abilities o n landscapes. I n 1827 Klenze embarked o n one o f the twenty-six
W i t h t w o major exceptions, Klenze's w o r k as a trips t o Italy he w o u l d make d u r i n g his lifetime, travel­
painter has been largely overlooked, especially outside o f i n g this t i m e f r o m Paris to southern France and along
Germany. A b r i e f chapter and list o f paintings appear i n Italy's northwestern coast. T h r o u g h o u t this t r i p he made
O s w a l d Hederer's fundamental biography o f the a r c h i ­ a number o f sketches and notes o f buildings, landscapes,
tect, 2
a n d an e x h i b i t i o n devoted t o his d r a w i n g a n d and, o n occasion, people. T o w a r d late M a y or early June
p a i n t i n g oeuvre t o o k place i n M u n i c h i n 1977—78, he stopped i n Massa d i Carrara.
r e s u l t i n g i n a m o n o g r a p h i n 1979. F r o m documents,

Massa lies o n the n o r t h w e s t coast o f Italy, south

notes, and sketches, Florian Hufnagel and N o r b e r t Lieb o f Genova and La Spezia. A l t h o u g h i t is a rather small
number Klenze's oeuvre at seventy-nine paintings, t o w n , Massa has had m a n y i m p o r t a n t visitors, such as
w h i c h span the years f r o m 1825 t o 1863, w i t h some­ Prince M e t t e r n i c h , M a r i e Louise o f A u s t r i a , and A r c h ­
where between t h i r t y - e i g h t and forty-one w o r k s believed duke R a n i e r i . 1 0
A number o f artists were also attracted
42 Helvey

FIGURE I Leo von Klenze (German, 1784—1864). Italian Landscape—View of Massa di Carrara, 1834. O i l on canvas, 76.9 x 101 c m (30K x
39% in.). Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 86.PA.540.

t o the area. Klenze k n e w a few o f these artists personally, years. Thorvaldsen, w i t h w h o m Klenze collaborated o n
and his visit m a y have been the result o f a recommenda­ projects i n M u n i c h , was associated w i t h the Academia o f
t i o n . Ernst Fries (1801—1833) sketched Massa i n M a y and the nearby t o w n o f Carrara f r o m as early as 1818, w h e n
June o f 1825. W h i l e l i v i n g i n M u n i c h f r o m 1829 u n t i l he was made an honorary professor. I n a d d i t i o n m u c h o f
1831, Fries produced o i l paintings after his Italian stud­ the marble used for the buildings Klenze designed came
ies, such as this one o f Massa i n the Reinhart collection f r o m the famous quarries o f Carrara, w h i c h p r o b a b l y
(fig. 2). Klenze was acquainted w i t h the younger artist spurred his interest i n the area.
Fries and even o w n e d one o f his p a i n t i n g s . 11
Carl R o t t - S k e t c h i n g trips o f Italy, however, were h a r d l y
m a n n visited Massa i n 1826 and w r o t e letters home extoll­ u n c o m m o n . M a k i n g d r a w i n g s as m e m e n t o s o f one's
i n g the beauty and perfection o f the r e g i o n . 12
Unfortu­ g r a n d t o u r had become a natural part o f dilettante travel
nately, none o f his w o r k f r o m Massa appears t o have by the m i d - t o late eighteenth century, w i t h I t a l y as a
survived. I t seems likely, however, that i t was R o t t m a n n p r i m a r y destination. 13
Considered vital for the educated
w h o suggested this spot to Klenze, as they were i n close traveler as the r e p o s i t o r y o f remains o f Greek a n d
c o m m u n i c a t i o n at the t i m e ; Klenze commissioned f r o m R o m a n antiquity, as w e l l as that o f the Renaissance, the
R o t t m a n n some w a l l murals for p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and I t a l i a n countryside also began t o be appreciated for its
also privately purchased a f e w o f his paintings i n these natural beauty. Goethe's travels i n a n d w r i t i n g s about
Leo von Klenze 43

I t a l y at the e n d o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o t o n l y
helped t o spread the p o p u l a r i t y o f t o u r i s m i n I t a l y but
were themselves symptomatic o f the standing t r a d i t i o n .
For G e r m a n artists o f the first h a l f o f the nineteenth cen­
tury, particularly those artists i n the circle o f L u d w i g I o f
Bavaria, R o m e was a focal p o i n t o f artistic activity; m a n y
o f t h e m moved there p e r m a n e n t l y . 14
Sketching the I t a l ­
ian countryside en plein air was increasingly i m p o r t a n t
to an artists development and w o r k i n g process. Jacob
Philipp Hackert (1737—1807), a G e r m a n and the leading
landscape painter i n Italy d u r i n g the late eighteenth cen­
tury, was w e l l k n o w n for his remarkably large, h i g h l y
finished, b o t a n i c a l l y accurate outdoor sketches from
FIGURE 3 Leo von Klenze. Massa di Carrara, 1827. From Sketchbook
w h i c h he created his p a i n t i n g s . 15
Klenze's numerous
3, p. 43r. Pencil on paper, 20.5 x 13.5 c m (8Mb x $% in.). M u n i c h ,
sketches and detailed drawings, including those o f Massa, Stadtmuseum Xh:i70.
made p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g his extensive travels and n o w pre­
served i n M u n i c h i n the Staatliche Graphische S a m m -
lung, the Staatsbibliothek, and the Stadtmuseum, par­
ticipate i n this fascination w i t h Italy and the i m m e d i a t e possibilities. T h e representation o f the I t a l i a n campagna
recording o f its campagna, or countryside. and its architecture c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n o b i l i t y o f the
I n a d d i t i o n to such practical attention to landscape paintings o f artists such as Joseph A n t o n K o c h (1768—1839)
p a i n t i n g the t u r n o f the century saw a general rise i n the and Valenciennes (1750—1819), w h i c h attempted to vie,
genres prestige and p o p u l a r i t y . Theoretical texts, such
often w i t h o u t the benefit o f narrative, w i t h h i s t o r y
as P i e r r e - H e n r i de Valenciennes's Elemens de Perspective painting. Klenze's View of Massa belongs t o this realm o f
pratique a Vusage des Artistes o f 1800 i n France and Salomon Neoclassical landscape p a i n t i n g , w h i c h is intended to be
GeBner's Brief fiber die Landschaftsmalerey an Herrn Fufilin o f something more than a pale reflection o f nature.
1770 i n G e r m a n y and Switzerland, i n w h i c h the greater T h e w a y i n w h i c h material gathered f r o m the field
heroic and spiritual possibilities o f landscape p a i n t i n g was used i n the creation o f the final p a i n t i n g varied f r o m
were put forth, appeared w i t h g r o w i n g frequency. 17
The artist t o artist. W h e n the Getty p a i n t i n g was published
examples o f Nicolas Poussin (1593/94—1665) and Claude i n the m o n o g r a p h o f 1979, t w o sketches were associated
Lorraine (1600—1682) were raised as a measure o f these w i t h i t (figs. 3 and 5 ) . T h e authors' suggestion was, and

this is followed i n the notes i n the museum's files, that

the sketchier d r a w i n g (fig. 3) was made o n site and that
Klenze then tried rearranging the landscape i n the more
finished d r a w i n g (fig. 5). T h e sketch (fig. 3) is described
as a Vorlage, or study, for the larger d r a w i n g (fig. 5 ) . I t is

further suggested that i n developing the image f r o m the

sketch t o the d r a w i n g , Klenze played freely w i t h the
landscape, m o v i n g the castello, or castle, f r o m the left to
the right-center. W h e n i t came t i m e t o paint the final
w o r k years later, according to this theory, he went back
to his o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t but i n v e r t e d the castello w h e n
m o v i n g the i m a g e f r o m paper t o canvas. 20
A visit t o
Massa and a perusal o f b o t h a sketchbook a n d other
drawings dating f r o m his t r i p o f 1827 revealed a clearer
p i c t u r e o f Klenze's w o r k i n g m e t h o d . T h e sketch was
probably completed o n site (compare t o fig. 4)—but as
for the more finished d r a w i n g , Klenze d i d n o t move the
castello and h i l l ; he moved himself.
FIGURE 2 Ernst Fries (German, 1801—1833). View of Massa di Carrara,
Massa has an amphitheater-shaped r i m o f m o u n ­
1830. O i l on canvas, 46.5 x 61.5 c m (18V3 x 24V5 in.). W i n t e r t h u r ,
Stiftung Oskar Reinhart. tainous hills s u r r o u n d i n g about t w o - t h i r d s o f the city.
44 Helvey

FIGURE 4 Massa d i Carrara from west mountains, February 1994. Photo by the author.

FIGURE 5 Leo von Klenze. Massa di Carrara. Pencil on paper, . 6 x 51.8 c m (13% x 20% in.). Munich, StaatHche Graphische Sammlung 27713 •
3 4
Leo von Klenze 45

I n the m i d d l e o f this b o w l , closer to the hills than the

ocean, rises the r o c k y o u t c r o p p i n g o n w h i c h the
s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Castello Malaspina stands. K l e n z e
moved h i m s e l f around these hillsides and valley, m a k i n g
multiple sketches o f sections o f the landscape and their
various relationships. T h e drawings that result f r o m this
campaign come f r o m t w o sources: a small, pocket-sized
sketchbook and large-format paper. 21

T w o drawings o f the large format can be identified

as depictions o f Massa. T h e first, as previously n o t e d ,
was published as a study for the Getty p a i n t i n g i n 1979
(fig. 5). A comparison w i t h a recent p h o t o g r a p h o f the
castello f r o m the southern hills (figs. 6a—b) demonstrates
that this meticulous, accurate d r a w i n g must have been
done o n site, but f r o m a different v i e w p o i n t t h a n the
looser sketch. T h e position o f the castello, its relationship
to the h i l l o n w h i c h i t stands, t o the small, r o u n d tower
at the left, and to the rest o f the landscape, all correspond
to a v i e w p o i n t located o n the hills just to the south o f
the castello. T h e aqueduct has been described as a c o m p o ­
sitional invention; a cadastral document f r o m 1804, h o w ­
ever, records its presence i n the area described i n this
drawing. 22
A second large d r a w i n g can also be identified
as part o f this Massa d r a w i n g campaign, although i t was
made f r o m a very different v i e w p o i n t , an area w i t h i n the
valley just n o r t h o f the castello, and depicts the mountains
to the northeast o f la Rocca and the castelloP This d r a w ­
i n g does n o t appear t o have been used for the G e t t y
Museums painting. 24

FIGURE 6B Massa di Carrara and the Castello Malaspina from the south, February 1994. Photos by the author.
46 Helvey

FIGURE 7 Leo von Klenze. Olive Tree, Riva, M a y 24, 1827. From F I G U R E 8 Leo von Klenze. Figure Studies. From Sketchbook 3,
Sketchbook 3, pp. 27V and 28r. Pencil on paper, 20.5 x 27 c m p. 30r. Pencil on paper, 20.5 x 13.5 c m (8M0 x 5 ^ in.). M u n i c h ,
(8Mo x 10% in.). Munich, Stadtmuseum Xh:i70. Stadtmuseum Xh:i70.

I n a d d i t i o n t o the previously published sketch 24 May 182j. R i v a is a small t o w n n o r t h o f Genova o n

(fig. 3) five other sketches f r o m the same s m a l l b o o k the coast o f Italy, near I m p e r i a , t o w a r d the border o f
were used by Klenze i n the creation o f the G e t t y paint­ France. I n u s i n g this i m a g e for the p a i n t i n g Klenze
ing. O f these drawings, some were made i n Massa and " t r i m m e d " the tree a b i t and elongated the m a i n t r u n k ,
some were not. Those few dates that appear o n pages o f a l l o w i n g the structure o f the aqueduct to be more clearly
the sketchbook generally do so chronologically, and shown. A n o t h e r page contains figure studies o f female
inscribed locations correspond to a southerly progression, Italian peasant dress (fig. 8). T h e headdress o n the r i g h t
encouraging the viewer to assume that he used the pages i n the t h i r d r o w f r o m the top o f this g r o u p o f l i t t l e
i n order. As there are b l a n k pages between some o f the sketches may be the source for that o f the w o m a n stand­
drawings, however, the choice o f page also may have been i n g t o the left i n the center group, w h i l e the headdress o f
r a n d o m at times. the seated m o t h e r appears t o be based o n the head o n the
For some details i n the p a i n t i n g , Klenze used far left i n the same r o w . 2 5
A second tree study, inscribed
drawings executed o n the same t r i p , but at sites some­ again i n G e r m a n Olive Tree and dated 26 May, m a y be
w h a t distant f r o m Massa. A double-page study o f an related t o the paintings left tree (fig. 9). I f this sketch was
olive tree, i n c l u d i n g the faint d r a w i n g o f a m o n k , was used i n creating this tree, the left side was shifted to the
used for the tree appearing o n the right-hand side o f the r i g h t , b e h i n d the other t r u n k , and some changes were
p a i n t i n g (fig. 7). Squared and n u m b e r e d , this d r a w i n g made i n the upper branches. T h e locations for these last
is i n s c r i b e d , i n G e r m a n , Olive Tree, Riva, and is dated t w o drawings are n o t indicated; but as i t seems u n l i k e l y
Leo von Klenze 47

FIGURE 9 Leo von Klenze. Olive Tree, M a y 26, 1827. From Sketchbook 3, p. ov. Pencil on paper, 20.5 x 13.5 cm

(8M0 x 5% in.). Munich, Stadtmuseum Xh:i70.

48 Helvey

FIGURE i o Leo von Klenze. Mountain Range. From Sketchbook 3, p. 33v. Pencil on paper, 20.5 x 13.5 c m (8Mb x H in.). Munich,

Stadtmuseum Xh:i70.

FIGURE 11 Mountains north o f Massa di Carrara from east mountains, February 1994. Photo by the author.
Leo von Klenze 49

FIGURE 12 Leo von Klenze. Trees with Mountains. From Sketchbook 3, p. 34*. Pencil on paper, 20.5 x 13.5 c m (8M0 x 5 /} in.). Munich,1

Stadtmuseum Xh:i70.

that Klenze made the t r i p f r o m R i v a t o Massa i n t w o drawings, and i t m a y be that he simply opened the b o o k
days f r o m the 24th t o the 26th, we cannot securely asso­ w i t h o u t his more usual regard t o chronology. W h e t h e r
ciate t h e m w i t h Massa. they and the larger drawings were all completed i n the
The page that bears a careful, squared and numbered same day o f r o a m i n g this area must r e m a i n uncertain.
d r a w i n g o f a section o f the distant m o u n t a i n range m a y T h e drawings that can be associated w i t h Massa
be the first d r a w i n g i n his sketchbook t o depict Massa correspond to at least four positions around the city: t w o
(fig. 10; compare to fig. 11). As suggested by the squar­ i n the western area, a t h i r d close to the southern base o f
i n g , this d r a w i n g corresponds closely t o the r e n d e r i n g the castello, and a f o u r t h i n the valley itself. W h e n i t came
o f the m o u n t a i n s i n the p a i n t i n g . T h e v i e w p o i n t i n t i m e t o p a i n t the canvas, Klenze conflated his v i e w ­
this case is similar t o that o f the loose sketch (fig. 3), a points. U s i n g the overall l a n d layout o f the loose sketch,
position i n the hills to the west o f the castello. A n o t h e r he t o o k the structural details f r o m the large d r a w i n g o f
small d r a w i n g is a study o f the rise o f g r o u n d w i t h the castello, reversing the b u i l d i n g — b u t n o t the g r o u n d
t i n y umbrella pine trees and the mountains beyond, an and structures b e l o w — i n transferring the image f r o m
area c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the p a i n t i n g s m i d d l e g r o u n d paper t o canvas, and t a k i n g advantage o f the u p w a r d ,
(fig. 12). T h e shift i n relationships between the trees and m o n u m e n t a l i z i n g thrust o f the h i l l . T h e aqueduct, lifted
the m o u n t a i n s b e y o n d i n figure 12, as compared w i t h f r o m the large d r a w i n g and its actual location, is used
figure 3, suggests a more southerly v i e w p o i n t along the compositionally to offset the castello and provide a screen
range o f hills. A definite sense o f Klenze s movements, between the f o r e g r o u n d a n d the distant valley and
however, cannot be determined, as figure 3 appears o n mountains. 26
T h e variety o f the d r a w i n g s and t h e i r
page 43, nearly t e n pages later than these other sketches viewpoints suggest that Klenze d i d n o t have a particular
o f Massa, and somewhat by itself. T h e h a n d l i n g o f this p a i n t i n g composition i n m i n d ; he simply collected r a w
sketch is m u c h more r a p i d a n d loose t h a n the other material that could be used o n his return to M u n i c h .
50 Helvey

FIGURE 13 Detail o f figure 1 under infrared reflectography. Photo: J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, Department o f Paintings Conservation.

Once he was back i n his studio, Klenze c o u l d c o m ­ T h e more one looks at View of Massa, the more one
pose his paintings almost by assembly, b r o w s i n g t h r o u g h becomes aware that this is an a r c h i t e c t u r a l landscape
his drawings and notebooks and u s i n g those elements i n the most l i t e r a l sense o f the phrase; the p a i n t i n g s
that appealed t o h i m . T h e drawings d i d n o t necessarily c o m p o s i t i o n a n d space, a n d even the l a n d itself, is
correspond t o the site depicted. Therefore, as m a n y as constructed t h r o u g h architecture. T r a d i t i o n a l f r a m i n g
seven years later i n 1834, Klenze could exhibit one o f the devices o f trees appear o n either side, and yet, l i k e deco­
products o f this expedition, the G e t t y Museum's View rative pilasters, they do n o t bear the w e i g h t o f the struc­
of Massa, at the A c a d e m y i n B e r l i n . 2 7
I n fact t w o ture. T h e house o n the left and the aqueduct c o m i n g i n
other paintings depicting Massa, b o t h n o w lost and their f r o m the r i g h t are the elements that t r u l y g r o u n d and tie
compositions u n f o r t u n a t e l y u n k n o w n , preceded the together the composition. As already seen, the tree at the
Getty painting. 28
r i g h t is adjusted i n order t o better display the aqueduct,
Infrared reflectography (figs. 13, 14) reveals the g r i d a l l o w i n g i t t o frame and to b i n d the composition. T h e
lines Klenze used t o enlarge and transfer his drawings to v i e w e r s m o v e m e n t b a c k w a r d t h r o u g h space a n d the
the canvas and also shows that some development o f the landscape is negotiated t h r o u g h architecture—from the
i m a g e was done o n the canvas. T h e o n l y significant angled projection o f the hut that abuts the aqueduct, t o
changes, however, were made to the figures, c h a n g i n g the a r c h w a y i n a w a l l i n the distance, up a p a t h t o
details o f costume and reducing their size by a head t o another archway i n the walls o f the fortifications, and
more reasonable proportions w i t h the buildings, thereby beyond up to the castle itself. Even the space o f the dis­
a l l o w i n g the landscape greater dominance. Yet despite tant m i d d l e g r o u n d is i n d i c a t e d more c o n v i n c i n g l y
the rather a d d i t i v e m e t h o d o f c o m p o s i t i o n , this final t h r o u g h the presence o f small buildings. T h e architecture,
product does n o t have the effect o f a pastiche. C o m p o s i ­ particularly the castello, grows organically out o f the land.
t i o n a n d space are carefully constructed; transitions I n fact the r o c k y outcropping o n w h i c h the castello stands,
between sections are smooth and believable. T h e result is once the viewer looks carefully, seems more architecture
a cohesion that is, I believe, made possible by architecture. than earth i n its multiple terraces and fortifications.
Leo von Klenze 51

F I G U R E 14 Detailed view of center section of figure i under infrared reflectography. Photo: J. Paul Getty Museum
Malibu, Department o f Paintings Conservation.
52 Helvey

O f course, Klenze was p r i m a r i l y an architect, there­ Klenze's contemporaries, Goethe and H e g e l , attempted
fore i t seems natural that his p a i n t i n g should be d o m i ­ to answer i n their w o r k : W h y paint? W h y design archi­
nated by architecture. O n e w a y t o regard the emphasis tecture? W h y art?
o n architecture m i g h t be i n an emblematic manner. A Let us first approach the c o n n e c t i o n between
tradition i n landscape p a i n t i n g juxtaposes the impressive Klenze's creation o f paintings and architecture and the
m o n u m e n t s o f man's glorious past w i t h humble, rather study o f nature f r o m a more practical standpoint. I n 1804
oblivious, contemporary m a n , w h o often props his shack K a r l Friedrich Schinkel, Klenze's g o o d friend and f e l l o w
up against these remnants, m a k i n g evident the passage o f architectural student, w r o t e to their mentor, the archi­
t i m e and glorifying ancient cultures t h r o u g h the contrast tect D a v i d G i l l y (1748-1808), f r o m Italy: "For the most
o f past and present structures a n d fortunes. C e r t a i n l y part, the monuments o f a n t i q u i t y do n o t offer a n y t h i n g
Klenze's p a i n t i n g o f the simple Italian peasants and their n e w for an architect, because one has been acquainted
l o w l y domestic architecture overshadowed by a palatial w i t h t h e m since one's y o u t h . B u t the sight o f these
s t r o n g h o l d f r o m the I t a l i a n Renaissance is connected w o r k s i n t h e i r natural setting holds a surprise w h i c h
w i t h this thematic t r a d i t i o n . B u t architecture is n o t comes n o t o n l y f r o m t h e i r size, b u t f r o m t h e i r p i c ­
merely represented here, i t determines; that is, architecture turesque g r o u p i n g . " 3 1
S t u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n o f man's
provides the pictorial f r a m e w o r k , suggests the shape o f constructions to their physical, natural surroundings was
the l a n d itself, a n d controls one's m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h a rather n e w approach. Friedrich G i l l y (1772—1800), son
space. T h a t Klenze should see architecture as a visual and o f D a v i d G i l l y , has been credited w i t h i n s p i r i n g b o t h
spatial organizing force in and of nature is t e l l i n g o f b o t h S c h i n k e l and Klenze t o pursue architecture. A v i t a l l y
the artist a n d his t i m e . T h i s p a i n t i n g , I w o u l d assert, i m p o r t a n t architect despite his early death, G i l l y c o n t i n ­
reveals a h i g h l y cognitive and reflective approach to l a n d ­ ued t o influence y o u n g architects t h r o u g h the drawings
scape p a i n t i n g a n d c o m p o s i t i o n that is different f r o m that he left t o Schinkel, w h o i n t u r n shared t h e m w i t h
other, more coloristic "impressions" or sunlit memories Klenze. G i l l y i n t r o d u c e d n e w innovations i n R o m a n t i c
o f I t a l y (compare t o f i g . 2), and f r o m more t r a d i t i o n a l architectural drawings essentially b y b e i n g the first t o
measured architectural or archaeological renderings o f depict major buildings w i t h i n a natural setting. " T h o u g h
visual and s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l . 29
A l t h o u g h View of Massa garden buildings and monuments were occasionally rep­
derives f r o m the Poussinist, seventeenth-century tradi­ resented i n perspective a n d i n n a t u r a l settings, i t was
t i o n o f Italianate landscape p a i n t i n g that w i t h d r a w s f r o m e x t r e m e l y unusual, i f n o t unique, for a major p u b l i c
direct representation o f nature to subject i t to idyllic p r i n ­ b u i l d i n g t o be represented i n this p i c t o r i a l f a s h i o n . " 32

ciples o f order and l u c i d i t y , 30

the p a i n t i n g differs, i n a d d i ­ Previously, these plans were presented i n abstract eleva­
t i o n to a greater attention to natural detail c o m m o n t o tions w i t h o u t reference t o context.
G e r m a n landscape p a i n t i n g , i n its integration o f architec­ Klenze h i m s e l f made a connection between p i c t o ­
ture and l a n d . Poussin uses architecture as spatial and r i a l architectural designs and his interest i n landscape
compositional markers, but his buildings are rendered as p a i n t i n g . I n a letter to Prince L u d w i g dated August 20,
geometrical volumes w i t h o u t a sense o f t h e i r physical 1818, the architect discussed s u b m i t t i n g a p l a n for the
relationship t o the l a n d o n w h i c h they sit. Klenze's b u i l d ­ Heeresdenkmals to Field Marshall Wrede. H e stated w i t h
ings, i n contrast, are constructions w i t h foundations i n
some irony, " I n accordance w i t h m y bad habit, I p r o ­
the earth; they g r o w up out o f and are physically b o u n d
duced the w h o l e i n a d i g n i f i e d , perspective p i c t u r e ,
t o the g r o u n d . A t times i t is difficult t o determine at
w h i c h delivered the best t r u t h i n proportion, f o r m , color
w h i c h p o i n t architecture begins and l a n d ends. B y paint­
and effect." 33
T h i s statement suggests that his engage­
i n g rocks as architecture and architecture as rocks, Klenze
m e n t w i t h landscape p a i n t i n g affected his concep­
imposes a system o f order and coherence based o n a par­
tualization and presentation o f architecture, thereby
ticular conception o f the relationship between nature and
a c k n o w l e d g i n g that i n his a r c h i t e c t u r a l practice the
man's constructions.
physical, natural surroundings t o o k an active part i n the
"effect" o f the structure.
A t times Klenze's architecture has been described as T h e g r o w i n g interest i n the Picturesque and l a n d ­
malerisch, or painterly; I w o u l d l i k e t o t u r n this around scape architecture that began t o spread abroad from
and consider w h a t his w o r k and identity as an architect, E n g l a n d i n the m i d - to late eighteenth century also
his most dominant mode o f artistic production, meant to encouraged a focusing o f attention o n an integrated rela­
his p a i n t i n g . I w o u l d also l i k e to ask o f this p a i n t i n g a tionship between architecture and landscape. T h e t e r m
f e w r e m a r k a b l y basic questions that at least t w o o f picturesque is one that defies s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d definition,
Leo von Klenze 53

a n d d i d so even d u r i n g the h e i g h t o f its i n f l u e n c e . 34

earth, the soil—the face and body o f G e r m a n y — a n d the
Expressing an aesthetic ideal apart f r o m Beauty and Sub­ people w h o naturally i n h a b i t i t , shape i t , and are shaped
l i m e , its appeal or essence was described w i t h such w o r d s by it. This l a n d i n t u r n unifies and glorifies this people,
as "variation" and "roughness." A l t h o u g h i t is applied to and claims for t h e m a c o m m o n a l i t y and history regard­
poetry and even music, the Picturesque was most closely less o f political borders. B y creating a national m e m o r i a l
associated w i t h the development o f a style o f landscape o u t o f nature, G e r m a n h i s t o r y is equated w i t h natural
design that differed sharply f r o m the mannered, symmet­ history, and is thereby made timeless and eternal. T h e
rical, Baroque gardens o f the French t r a d i t i o n . U n d e r the Picturesque style implies that the m o n u m e n t (and, there­
influence o f the n e w aesthetic, gardens were conceived fore, the G e r m a n people and culture) is n o t forced o n the
f r o m a p i c t o r i a l (picture-esque) standpoint, creating l a n d but part o f it, at one w i t h it.
views or prospects o f "natural" landscapes. This version
o f nature has been l i k e n e d (rather schizophrenically) to T h e Walhalla (fig. 15), contemporary w i t h his Massa
b o t h D u t c h landscape p a i n t i n g and t o the A r c a d i a n drawings and paintings, is an architectural project that
scenes o f Poussin and Lorraine. T h e i m p o r t a n t innova­ Klenze considered the most i m p o r t a n t o f his career. 38

t i o n o f the " A h a " or " H a H a " — a Picturesque t e r m for a B u i l t o n a mountainside h a n g i n g over the Danube near
fosse, or ditch, that m i m i c s the sound one made i n c o m ­ Regensburg, the Walhalla is a temple to G e r m a n fame
i n g u p o n a spectacular v i e w — m a d e fences unnecessary modeled after the Parthenon that sits o n top o f a terraced
and opened up views o f countryside, b l u r r i n g distinc­ p l a t f o r m that melds w i t h the hillside. This is Denkmal­
tions between the garden and the w i l d o f nature. W i t h i n landschaft a m o n u m e n t i n c l u d i n g n o t j u s t the b u i l d i n g
the garden, follies appeared i n forms r a n g i n g f r o m b u t the p l a t f o r m and l a n d mass, all o f w h i c h appear
G o t h i c ruins to pagodas to classical temples, distributed organically u n i t e d . I t is n o accident that the Walhalla
w i t h an eye to their "fortuitous" appearance f r o m a dis­ and its environs have been painted by a variety o f artists,
tance and t h e i r " n a t u r a l " p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the overall f r o m those m i n o r and u n k n o w n to luminaries such as
effect o f the design. A t times this t y p e o f landscape Joseph M a l l o r d W i l l i a m Turner (1775—1851) and Klenze
design was felt t o be allied w i t h sociopolitical ideas o f himself; 39
i n accordance w i t h the aesthetic o f the Pic­
i n d i v i d u a l freedom and parliamentary rule, as opposed to turesque, the b u i l d i n g and its surroundings are composed
r i g i d , artificial c o n t r o l and totalitarian government. a d m i r a b l y for landscape p a i n t i n g . E v e r y aspect o f this
G r o w i n g feelings o f nationalism, G e r m a n pride, place is planned and arranged: the choice o f elevated site
a n d independence were felt t o be expressed suitably near a contrasting church, the Salvatorkirche, i n an older
t h r o u g h the n e w landscape architecture, particularly at a indigenous style; 40
a r u i n e d castle f r o m the M i d d l e Ages
t i m e w h e n the principalities were r e c o v e r i n g f r o m o n the next ridge; a planted forest o f oaks; and a c o m ­
Napoleonic subjugation. 35
As attempts were made i n all m a n d i n g v i e w o f an i m p o r t a n t river and valley. Each
the arts t o give f o r m t o R o m a n t i c ideas a n d ideals o f element creates n o t o n l y the perfect setting for this t e m ­
"German-ness," the Picturesque garden was adopted and, ple but contributes to its message. B e y o n d satisfying the
literally, m o n u m e n t a l i z e d . Denkmallandschaft (landscape Picturesque demand for variety or being a m o n u m e n t a l
m o n u m e n t or m o n u m e n t a l landscape) goes b e y o n d a version o f a " h i s t o r y " o f architectural styles often f o u n d
nature constructed by m a n and makes o f it a m o n u m e n t i n earlier English garden architecture, the range o f b u i l d ­
to m a n ; the garden is made h e r o i c . 36
T h e meanings to ings, i n c l u d i n g the medieval castle, Byzantine church, and
be had t h r o u g h this f o r m o f m e m o r i a l , particularly those neo-Greek temple, provide reference t o the strength o f
w i t h nationalistic pretensions, are multiple. T h e lack o f the G e r m a n cultural past and prophecy o f its future.
fences makes i t grenzenlos, or boundless, limitless, a p h y s i ­ T h e experience o f movement t h r o u g h this selected
cal representation o f freedom. B y the end o f the e i g h ­ a n d developed site is carefully orchestrated. W h e t h e r
t e e n t h century, the nature-descriptive p o e t r y o f poets d o w n the river and up the enormous ceremonial stair­
such as Salomon GeBner had created a perception o f the case or f r o m b e h i n d the o l d c h u r c h a n d t h r o u g h the
G e r m a n people as being h i g h l y attuned t o nature. 37
This fairytale forest reminiscent o f the Brothers G r i m m , the
alliance o f "German-ness" and nature was accepted and visitor's approach a n d ascent t h r o u g h the space o f
reasserted by the g r o w i n g proposal and use o f landscape the landscape, and w h a t is seen i n the process, is part o f
gardens as national m o n u m e n t s . N o t i o n s o f Rousseau's the m e a n i n g o f the Walhalla. To the R o m a n t i c i m a g i n a ­
"natural m a n " are suggested t h r o u g h the apparent lack t i o n , a c l i m b up a m o u n t a i n , l i k e Petrarch's ascent o f
o f artifice i n the landscape's f o r m . T h e close association M o u n t V e n t o u x i n 1336, is equivalent t o a j o u r n e y o f
o f m a n w i t h nature makes a c o n n e c t i o n between the self-knowledge. Evocations o f apotheosis arise i n this
54 Helvey

FIGURE 15 Leo von Klenze. The Walhalla, 1839. O i l on canvas, 80 x 125 cm (3^/2 x 49% in.). Regensburg, Museum der Stadt 1965/14.

p r o g r a m m a t i c m o u n t i n g , appropriate t o the approach architectural contrast w i t h older traditional styles o f Ger­

t o w a r d a structure named after the realm o f the afterlife m a n architecture are n o t the o n l y factors that suggest
o f N o r d i c heroes. A physical progression heavenward, G e r m a n history, power, and glory. T h e platform, c o n ­
t o w a r d the realm o f the i m m o r t a l s , n o t o n l y makes a structed to appear as i f i t is a part o f the hillside, is made
p i l g r i m o f the (German) visitor, p a y i n g homage to the o f Pelasgian or C y c l o p e a n s t o n e w o r k , a prehistoric
m e m o r y o f famous Germans whose busts are displayed, method o f w a l l b u i l d i n g using large, many-sided stones
but suggests and encourages the possibility o f participa­ found at such famous Greek sites as A t h e n s , 43
Delphi, 4 4

t i o n i n that rise t o greatness. and M y c e n a e , 45

as w e l l as at ancient Etruscan sites. As an
This is really more t h a n a celebration or m e m o r i a l archaeologist, Klenze was w e l l aware that the classical
o f G e r m a n fame; i t was intended t o take an active role style o f the Walhalla's temple structure d i d n o t corre­
i n the g r o w i n g nationalism, i n the sense o f pride i n a spond with the significantly earlier style of the
G e r m a n people. L u d w i g I , responsible for the i n i t i a l idea platform. 4 6
T h i s f o r m o f base provides a s t i l l more
for a Walhalla, believed that t h r o u g h posterity's memory, ancient context o f Urzeit, or prehistory, by w h i c h a c o n ­
the i m m o r t a l i t y o f great m e n c o u l d be transformed i n t o nection w i t h the pre-Greeks and earliest m a n is asserted.
the r e b i r t h o f the nation i n that posterity's consciousness, I n 1821 Klenze published an elaborate t h e o r y s y m p t o ­
w h i c h w o u l d i n t u r n be a p r e m o n i t i o n o f the f u t u r e . 41
matic o f the period that describes the history o f m a n and
T h e Walhalla w o u l d be the site o f that transformation, a his dispersal i n t o Europe and Greece f r o m the Caucasus,
site o f redemption for the G e r m a n people. T h e Walhalla u s i n g architectural styles as his m e t h o d o f t r a c i n g c u l ­
does more t h a n display statuary busts o f famous Ger­ tural connections and m o v e m e n t . 47
T h e end is a h i g h l y
mans; i t creates an i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r y for the G e r m a n r o m a n t i c c l a i m for Germans as cultural heirs o f the
people. 42
A p o s i t i o n above the famous Danube and an Greeks via M i d d l e Europe. I n addition to Pelasgian con-
Leo von Klenze 55

struction the shape o f the Walhallas stepped base refers o f nature; architecture was enlisted to provide the c o m ­
t o this t h e o r y a n d c l a i m t h r o u g h its f o r m a l refer­ positional and spatial "armature." This w i t h d r a w a l is n o t
ences to such varied structures as Mesopotamian z i g g u - to some m y t h o l o g i c a l , A r c a d i a n i d y l l ; this scene is n o t
rats, E g y p t i a n pyramids, Etruscan tombs, and even the generic but is g r o u n d e d i n reality and constructed i n
Tower o f Babel. terms o f historical m a n . Its idealization is t h r o u g h the
Klenze's fascination w i t h acropolis-like architec­ formal power o f the architecture and its fusion w i t h the
tural forms that manage to be m o u n t a i n and architecture landscape. Massa is n o t a garden or a planned city, and
at once continued t h r o u g h o u t his life, but was p a r t i c u ­ yet, l i k e picturesque landscape and urban order, nature is
larly and understandably strong d u r i n g the design and b e i n g reconstructed and reconceived and the lines
construction period o f the Walhalla. N u m e r o u s draw­ between m a n and nature are blurred.
ings and paintings explore such varied structures as I t a l ­ There is a duality here, because the h u m a n inter­
ian monasteries, a Romanesque gateway, h i l l t o w n s , and, cession between m a n and his v i e w o f nature occurs b o t h
o f course, the A t h e n i a n Acropolis. I n addition to their i n the w o r l d o f art, t h r o u g h the m a k i n g o f the painting,
c o m m o n location o n a rise o f g r o u n d ( w h i c h allows for its structure, and its m y t h i c realm, and i n physical fact,
b o t h a d o m i n a t i n g presence and possibilities o f proces­ i n the "exterior" w o r l d , t h r o u g h the architectural r e m ­
sion) these are structures o f h i s t o r y — o f c u l t u r a l a n d nants o f man's " g l o r i o u s " c u l t u r a l and m i l i t a r y past
often o f m i l i t a r y power. T h e i r close, physical connection r e m a i n i n g a part o f the fabric o f the landscape. T h e
w i t h the landscape conveys something o f their perma­ architecture o f the fortress and its battlements does n o t
nence, o f the lasting quality o f that power. T h e study o f precisely dominate the land but exists as part o f it, equiva­
Massa's Castello Malaspina and its environs can be seen lent to i t , p r o v i d i n g structure and suggesting a connec­
w i t h i n this context o f engagement w i t h "acropoli" and t i o n between h u m a n history and natural history. Klenze
Klenze's search for forms for the Walhalla, as a b u i l d i n g has presented us w i t h a Denkmallandschaft i n paint. L a n d ­
b o t h picturesquely disposed and historically evocative. scape (nature) is defined, determined by M a n (his h i s t o r i ­
T h e Walhallas physical and ideological c l a i m i n g o f cal past and presence) and m a n (his artistic, subjective
the l a n d t h r o u g h restructuring and c o n t r o l o f f o r m and v i e w and act o f creation).
movement reveals a perception or understanding o f land, This conception o f man's relation to the w o r l d and
space, and history, even natural history, t h r o u g h the self t h r o u g h art was n o t singular to Klenze at this t i m e
association and negotiation o f m a n and his creations. As but seems closely allied to ideas that Goethe at the end
an architect, Klenze designed and built structures that o f the eighteenth century and Hegel i n the 1820s were
became part o f the fabric o f the landscape and, at the developing i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s o n art and aesthetics. 48

same t i m e , shaped and defined that landscape. His activi­ Goethe w r o t e : " T h e very quality i n a w o r k o f art w h i c h
ties as u r b a n planner o f M u n i c h s i m i l a r l y i n v o l v e the strikes the uncultivated as natural, is n o t natural (from
creation o f an e n v i r o n m e n t , a landscape, t h r o u g h the w i t h o u t ) but m a n (nature f r o m w i t h i n ) . We k n o w o f no
disposition o f his designs. T h e o r d e r i n g o f the spaces, w o r l d but w i t h relation to man; we desire no art but the
n o t j u s t buildings, t o provide processional routes a n d art w h i c h is the i m p r i n t o f this r e l a t i o n . " 49
A n artwork,
grandiose views c o m b i n e d w i t h specific architectural by the very fact that i t is created by m a n , can never be
styles were intended to make M u n i c h a n e w Athens, a an objective depiction, but is an object or idea subjected
n e w Florence. Landscape is reconfigured i n terms o f the t o man's interpretation, even existence. W e have seen
existence, the culture, the presence, the history o f m a n . h o w Klenze's understanding o f nature is mediated
I t h i n k we can c l a i m a similar, although less p r o ­ t h r o u g h b o t h architecture and painting. Even those parts
g r a m m a t i c , a c t i v i t y or t h o u g h t process for the G e t t y o f the Massa p a i n t i n g that are purely "nature"—the trees,
Museum's View of Massa—an understanding, v i e w i n g , as opposed to a b u i l d i n g , for instance—are marked,
and (re)structuring o f nature i n terms o f m a n . Klenze's defined, by the h a n d o f m a n , Klenze, i n t h e i r h i g h l y
p l a n n i n g and preparation for the p a i n t i n g t h r o u g h m u l ­ d r a w n character.
tiple sketches w i t h d r a w s the artist and the viewer f r o m H e g e l goes further and asserts that this relationship
the o r i g i n a l , natural source, i n t i m e (there was a seven- between m a n and nature, his s t r u c t u r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n
year gap between the o r i g i n a l sketch and the painting), (re-creating i t i n his o w n image), is the d r i v i n g force
distance (between Massan landscape and M u n i c h stu­ b e h i n d man's need to create art: " T h e universal need for
dio), and f o r m (conflation o f viewpoints), displacing the art . . . is man's rational need to lift the inner and outer
landscape and re-creating i t i n the artist's terms. H e used w o r l d i n t o his s p i r i t u a l consciousness as an object i n
his sketches l i k e b u i l d i n g blocks to construct his version w h i c h he recognizes h i m s e l f . " 50
56 Helvey

A n d more: conscious reflection. . . . A n adept architect [artist] w i l l

make use o f existing forms. . . . H e w i l l do so i n c o m ­
The universal and absolute need from which art (on
plete freedom, and combine the forms o f the past i n t o an
its formal side) springs has its origin i n the fact that
o r i g i n a l , beautiful and organic w h o l e . " 5 2
Klenze's p r i ­
man is a thinking consciousness, i.e., that man draws
out o f himself and puts before himself what he is m a r y activity as an architect (in w h i c h he literally recon­
and whatever else is. Things i n nature are only structs the exterior w o r l d ) leads h i m i n his p a i n t i n g t o
immediate and single, while man as spirit duplicates re-create the exterior w o r l d i n terms o f architecture
himself; he intuits himself, represents himself, (himself); an act o f "self-conscious reflection," he uses
thinks and only on the strength of this active placing the e x i s t i n g forms o f landscape, architecture, a n d his
of himself before himself is he spirit. This conscious­ o w n sketches, and fuses t h e m i n t o an " o r i g i n a l , beautiful
ness o f himself man acquires i n a twofold way: first, and organic w h o l e , " w h i c h , i n the end, is representative
theoretically, i n so far as inwardly he must bring o f his o w n sense o f order.
himself into his o w n consciousness, along w i t h
Goethe's and Hegel's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m a n and
whatever moves, stirs and presses i n the human
man's relationship to the w o r l d t h r o u g h art, i n w h i c h art
breast; and i n general he must see himself, represent
is first and foremost an expression o f the h u m a n spirit, is
himself to himself, fix himself before himself what
thinking finds as his essence, and recognize himself essentially a R o m a n t i c n o t i o n that w o u l d reverberate far
alone alike i n what is summoned out o f himself and i n t o the future i n the development o f m o d e r n art. Its
what is accepted from without. Secondly, man influence can be felt i n the dialectic o f Impressionist
brings himself before himself by practical activity, vision between the belief i n recording "scientifically" the
since he has the impulse, i n whatever is directly patterns o f l i g h t o n the retina and the recognition that
given to h i m , i n what is present to h i m externally, to the i n d i v i d u a l retina w i l l always make this practice sub­
produce himself and therein equally to recognize jective. M u c h later the emphasis o n the " i n t e r i o r " l a n d ­
himself. This aim he achieves by altering external scape can be felt i n developments i n greater abstraction.
things whereon he impresses the seal o f his inner
T h e rise o f landscape p a i n t i n g i n the nineteenth century is
being and i n w h i c h he n o w finds again his o w n
far f r o m a t u r n i n g away f r o m the depiction o f the nature
characteristics. M a n does this i n order, as a free sub­
o f m a n or the history o f man; Klenze's p a i n t i n g o f Massa
ject, to strip the world o f its inflexible foreignness
and to enjoy i n the shape o f things only an external reveals that this artist, at least, recorded less a landscape
realization o f himself. 51 and more the c o n t r o l l i n g vision and presence o f m a n .

A c c o r d i n g t o H e g e l , i n creating art m a n performs the

necessary act o f re-creating the exterior w o r l d i n terms
o f his i n n e r self, so that he is able t o understand and Jennifer Helvey is Curatorial Assistant in the Department
recognize himself. of Paintings at the J . Paul Getty Museum.
T h i s is n o t nature, i t is m a n ; n o t landscape but
architecture. Klenze has constructed a w o r l d that is n o t
a simple representation o f nature, nor even the m e m o r y
o f nature ( a l t h o u g h m e m o r y is already a structure o f
man), but rather is a representation (representation and
re-presentation) o f M a n and Self: M a n as timeless, con­
tinuous, and organic as the landscape, indivisible f r o m the
landscape; Self i n that i t is a representation o f his activity
as architect, his sense o f self or i d e n t i t y and role i n rela­
t i o n t o life and nature, t i m e / h i s t o r y , land, and space.
I do n o t c l a i m that this p a i n t i n g is i n any w a y
some k i n d o f manifesto o f H e g e l i a n i s m — I do, however,
argue that Klenze was h i g h l y conscious o f his relation to
landscape t h r o u g h b o t h o f his artistic activities. A quote
f r o m Klenze, although i t discusses architecture and his-
toricism, applies equally w e l l here: " W e no longer live i n
an age o f unquestioningly natural creation. . . . O u r lives
belong t o an epoch o f t h i n k i n g , investigating and self-
Leo von Klenze 57

NOTES nur darum schön, weil das Meer mit seinen Wellen sie
anathmete. . . . Hier i n Massa ist ein Reichtum der
This paper was developed during an internship at the J. Paul Getty Natur, der unerschöpflich ist (Massa, September 1826).
Museum. I w o u l d like to extend grateful thanks to the staff members 13. A n interesting discussion o f Italy as a travel destination can be
o f the Paintings Department for their enthusiastic support, careful found i n A . B r i l l i , 71 Viaggio in Italia: Storia di una grande
readings o f drafts, and a wonderful year. Thanks also to the German Tradizione culturale dal XVI al XIX Secolo (Milan, 1987).
museums and staff who shared their Elenze paintings and drawings 14. See C. Heilmann, " Z u r Tradition Roms als Kunstzentrum und
w i t h me. Finally, thanks to M r . Pierluigi Pucci and Dr. A r m a n i n i o f seine W i r k u n g e n auf die Münchner Landschaftsmalerei um
Massa di Carrara for their fortuitous assistance i n m y exploration o f 1800," i n Münchner Landschaftsmalerei, 1800-50, ed. A r m i n Zweite
their city and its history. (Munich, 1978), pp. 12-19.
15. See B. Lohse, Jakob Philipp Hackert: Leben und Anfänge seiner
1. See A . Berhard-Walcher and F. W i l h e l m Hamdorf, " Z u den Kunst (Emsdetten, 1936); T. Mitchell, Art and Science in German
Anfangen der Münchner Vasensammlung i m frühen 19. Landscape Painting, 1770—1840 (Oxford, 1993).
Jahrhundert," Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst, ser. 3, 41 16. I n 1817 the French Academy introduced a Prix de Rome for
(1990), pp. 7-22. See also O. Hederer, Leo von Klenze: Persön­ landscape painting.
lichkeit und Werk (Munich, 1981), pp. 30-33. 17. P. R. Radisich, "Eighteenth-Century Landscape Theory and the
2. See Hederer (note 1). Work o f Pierre H e n r i Valenciennes" (Ph.D. diss., University o f
3. F. Hufnagel and N . Lieb, Leo von Klenze: Gemälde und Zeichnun­ California, Los Angeles, 1977), discusses the range o f these texts.
gen (Munich, 1979). See also K . Bernhard, Idylle: Theorie, Geschichte, Darstellung in der
4. There are a few exceptions: one i n the Hermitage, Saint Peters­ Malerei, 1750—1850 (Vienna, 1977), for an investigation o f the
burg; one i n the Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen; one i n a development o f the "idyllic" i n heroic/pastoral poetry, landscape
private collection i n Vienna; two i n private collections i n Switzer­ painting and theory i n Germany during the same time period.
land (although the attribution o f one o f these is questionable). 18. Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), p. 101. The catalogue entry states
5. Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), G35, p. 101. A l l G numbers and Z "Vorstudien i n Sk 3 [sketchbook 3] und Z 105." O n l y one
numbers refer to Hufnagel and Lieb s cataloguing o f paintings sketch from this sketchbook, 43 r. fig. (a), however, is shown or
and drawings, respectively. specifically related to the painting.
6. There is one k n o w n instance i n w h i c h Thorvaldsen desired 19. Ibid., p. 170.
(gewünscht) the Pirano painting (G24), w h i c h was promised 20. Ibid., pp. 40-41:
{versprochen) to h i m ; see Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), p. 39.
7. Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), p. 53. So gibt zum Bild von Massa di Carrara eine erste, rasch
8. G73, Bayerische Verwaltung der Staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten getroffene Bleistiftskizze bereits die schließlich gemalte
und Seen, Munich. M y thanks to Dr. Peter Krückmann and the Komposition. Eine folgende Reinszeichnung rückt aber
conservation department at Schloß Nymphenburg, Munich, for die Bergburg nach rechts, u m links einen Fernblick zu
enabling me to see this painting. gewinnen. I m erhaltenen Gemälde w i r d dann wieder
9. His "schlechte Gewohnheit"; see Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), die Komposition der ersten Skizze aufgenommen, der
p. 36. Burgbau jedoch spiegelbildlich umgekehrt, die großen
10. S. Giampoli, "Società e Cultura a Massa Carrara nella Restau­ Bäume stehen an die R ä n d e r des Vordergrunds
razione," i n Massa e Carrara nella Restaurazione: H Governo di Maria auseinandergerückt.
Beatrice Cybo d'Este (Massa, 1980), p. 76. 21. Stadtmuseum, Munich, inv. X h : i 7 0 (Hufnagel and Lieb [note
11. Ernst Fries, Wasserfall bei Isola di Sora, 1833; donated by Klenze 3], sketch 3); Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, mappe 35/I,
to the Neue Pinakothek, Munich, along w i t h the rest o f his col­ inv. 27.713 (Z105) and inv. 27.712 (Z106), bearing the water­
lection i n 1842. See W. Mittlmeier, Die Neue Pinakothek in mark JWHATMAN 1824. Also closely associated w i t h these
München, 1843-1854 (Munich, 1977), p. 187, cat. 144, p. 213. w o u l d be Staatliche Graphische Sammlung inv. 27.711 (Z103),
Klenze's personal collection was particularly remarkable i n that it which depicts the nearby t o w n o f Carrara.
consisted primarily of landscape and genre paintings by his Ger­ 22. Catasto del Communo di Volpigliano, ed Uniti, 1804, entries 1966
man contemporaries. T h i r t y German, three Belgian, t w o and 1967. M y sincere thanks to M r . Pierluigi Pucci o f Massa for
French, and t w o Italian artists are represented i n the collection bringing this document to m y attention.
given to the Neue Pinakothek. O f the landscape paintings, 23. The region immediately west o f the Castello Malaspina.
w h i c h outnumber the genre, the majority o f these are o f Italy. 24. I n addition to these t w o drawings o f Massa, t w o drawings—
12. H . Decker, Carl Rottmann (Berlin, 1957), p. 145: Z103 and Z104—depict the nearby (less than one day's travel i n
Klenze's time) t o w n o f Carrara.
Liebe Friederike! D u wähnst vielleicht, daß ich schon 25. The rather athletic pose o f the naked child i n the lap o f the
lange i n Florenz oder R o m angelangt sei, während ich seated mother i n the painting does not appear to originate i n
noch hier i n Massa b i n und mich kaum von diesen such sketches but seems to be derived from Leonardo da Vinci's
herrlichen Gegenden trennen kann, die vielleicht mit Virgin and Child with a Yarnwinder (two versions: Buccleuch C o l ­
die glücklichsten sind, die hier und dort dem Erdboden lection/National Gallery o f Scotland, Edinburgh; private collec­
ausgetheilt worden. . . . D u hast aus meinen Briefen tion, N e w York), o f w h i c h numerous copies were made by
ersehen, daß m i r noch vieles zu wünschen übrig artists o f many nationalities from the early sixteenth century, a
geblieben war, das ich an jener Küste gegen Nizza lofty, erudite source for Staffage.
nicht gefunden hätte, wenn ich nicht meine Küsten­ 26. I have been unable to determine securely whether the summary
reise fortgesetzt hätte. Fast melancholisch kann ich depiction o f an aqueduct i n the loose sketch (fig. 3) is an early
sagen, g i n g ich von Genua aus von O r t zu O r t der play w i t h composition or i f it indicates a different section o f the
Küste entlang, traf viele hübsche Sachen, immer aber same (or related) aqueduct that appears i n the finished drawing.
58 Helvey

27. Katalog der Akademie-Ausstellung Berlin (Berlin, 1834), p. 32, 37. Radisich (note 17), p. 79.
n. 361. 38. Walhalla was built between 1830 and 1842, although ideas and
28. Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), G l 5 , Massa di Carrara, and G16, Eine planning began much earlier. See J. Traeger, Der Weg nach Wal­
Aussicht von La Rocca bei Massa, both exhibited i n M u n i c h halla (Regensburg, 1987); V. Loers, "Walhalla und Salva-
i n 1828. torkirche," Verhandlungen des Historischen Vereins für Oberpfalz und
29. I t is tempting to speculate on Fries's role i n Klenze's selection o f Regensburg 118 (1978), pp. 132-171; and idem, "Walhalla z w i ­
composition. As noted above, Klenze was acquainted w i t h Fries, schen Historie und Historismus," Verhandlungen des Historischen
and even owned a painting by the younger artist. Fries com­ Vereins für Oberpfalz und Regensburg 119 (1979), pp. 345-71, for
pleted his painting, w h i c h shares a remarkable similarity to the more thorough treatments o f the Walhalla and Denkmallandschaft.
Getty p a i n t i n g i n general composition, although i t does not 39. Joseph Mallord W i l l i a m Turner, The Opening of the Walhalla, 1843
have the structural detail and position gleaned from Z105 (Tate Gallery, London). Klenze made t w o large-scale paintings
(fig. 5), i n Munich, 1830, four years prior to the Getty painting. o f the Walhalla: Die Walhalla bei Regensburg, 1836 (The Her­
A n imaginary Italian landscape by Klenze, n o w i n the Museum mitage, Saint Petersburg, inv. 42/14); and Salvatorkirche und Wal­
fur bildende Kunst, Leipzig, shares the layout o f a castle on a h i l l halla, 1839 (Museum der Stadt, Regensburg, inv. 1965/14;
to the left, and the bay and mountains on the right, but is dated fig. 15). J. Traeger ([note 38], pp. 188-89) has gone so far as to
1829. (Fries's o w n Italian landscape i n the Kurpfälzisches suggest that the Walhalla itself is a giant, frameless picture.
Museum, Heidelberg, again a similar composition, is dated 1830. 40. Klenze made his restoration plan for the Salvatorkirche i n 1839,
There is also a detailed drawing o f Massa, close to the Reinhardt while the w o r k itself was completed i n 1842, prior to the open­
painting, i n the Staatlichen Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe. Fries's drawings i n g o f Walhalla, salvaging its earlier Byzantine style from its
o f Massa are found, for the most part, i n Heidelberg.) I t may be Baroque additions; see Traeger (note 38), pp. 90-92.
possible that both men were aware o f one another's work, but 41. Traeger (note 38), pp. 186 ff.
the way i n w h i c h they handled the material remained unique. 42. "Germans" is a loose t e r m i n this instance; figures such as
30. See M . A. Cheetham, "Revision and Exploration: German Land­ Katherine the Great and Van D y c k were considered "germanic"
scape Depiction and Theory i n the Late Eighteenth Century" enough to have their busts included at the Walhalla.
(Ph.D. diss., University College, University o f London, 1982), 43. For example, the construction o f the oldest enclosing w a l l o f
for a discussion o f the relationship between the seventeenth- the Acropolis.
century Italianate landscape tradition and developments i n late 44. The substructure o f the Temple o f A p o l l o is constructed i n
eighteenth-century German landscape painting and theory. this manner.
31. D . W a t k i n , German Architecture and the Classical Ideal (Cam­ 45. Although Mycenae was not systematically excavated until the
bridge, Mass., 1987), p. 86. 1870s by Heinrich Schliemann, Klenze visited the site i n 1834
32. Ibid., p. 69. and drew the relief o f the lion gate.
33. See Hufnagel and Lieb (note 3), p. 36: "Meiner schlechten 46. For a discussion o f Klenze's activities as an archaeologist, see
Gewohnheit zufolge habe ich das Ganze i n ein würdiges per- R . Wünsche et al., Ein Griechischer Traum: Leo von Klenze der
pektivisches Bild gebracht, welches möglichst wahr i n Verhält­ Archäologe, exh. cat. (Munich, 1985).
nis, Gestalt, Farbe und W i r k u n g gehalten." 47. Leo von Klenze, Versuch einer Wiederherstellung des toskansichen Tem­
34. For literature relative to the debate at the time, see the writings pels nach seinen historischen und technischen Analogien (Munich, 1821).
o f W i l l i a m S. Gilpin (Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, on Pic­ 48. This is not the first instance o f the association o f Hegel's ideas
turesque Travel and on Sketching Landscape [London, 1792] and w i t h Klenze's. V. Loers, 1979 (note 38), pp. 347 ff., associates the
Practical Hints upon Landscape Gardening [London, 1832], among range o f historical styles o f architecture i n the Walhalla program
others); Sir Uvedale Price (particularly An Essay on the Pic­ w i t h Hegel's aesthetic o f symbolisch architecture.
turesque [London, 1794]); and Richard Payne Knight (The Land­ 49. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, "Aphorismus über Kunst und
scape, a Didactic Poem in Three Books [London, 1794]). The Genius Kunstgeschichte," i n German Aesthetic and Literary Criticism: The
of the Place, ed. J. D . Hunt and P. Willis (London, 1975), contains Romantic Ironists and Goethe, ed. K . M . Wheeler (Cambridge,
selected writings on the subject. Modern discussions o f the Pic­ 1984), p. 227. W h i l e these aphorisms are from literary remains
turesque can be found i n C. Hussey, The Picturesque (London, and therefore were w r i t t e n over the span o f his life, the same
1927) and D. Watkin, The English Vision (London, 1982). idea is found, although not as succinctly put, i n his On Realism in
35. Picturesque landscape architecture, like German nationalism, Art (1798) and i n a conversation w i t h Johann Peter Eckermann,
came to German states prior to Napoleon. C. C. L. Hirschfeld A p r i l 10, 1829, regarding the w o r k o f Claude Lorraine (see
published Theorie der Gartenkunst (1779-85) and plans for the J. Gage, ed., Goethe on Art [Berkeley, 1980], pp. 218-19).
Englischer Garten i n Munich, for w h i c h Klenze later designed 50. Georg W i l h e l m Friedrich Hegel, from "Vorlesungen über die
his Monopteros, began as early as 1789. After the fall o f Aesthetik [Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine A r t ] , " given i n Berlin
Napoleon, however, there was a sharp rise i n both the proposals between 1823 and 1829. Reprinted i n translation i n D. Simpson,
and creation o f these projects. ed., German Aesthetic and Literary Criticism: Kant, Fichte, Schelling,
36. Denkmallandschaft continues today, particularly i n the U n i t e d Schopenhauer, Hegel (Cambridge, 1984), p. 207.
States. Physical creation or intervention (landscaping) is unnec­ 51. Ibid., p. 207.
essary; the act o f naming is enough to make a natural landscape 52. Q u o t e d by N . Pevsner i n his review o f P. Böttger, Die Alte
become a monument or memorial. Mans creative role becomes Pinakothek in München, Art Bulletin 55, no. 4 (December 1973).


Notes to the Reader 60 Manuscripts 85

Antiquities 61 Paintings 91

Decorative A r t s 63 Photographs 95

Drawings 65 Sculpture and Works o f A r t 117

Trustees and Staff List 123



When possible i n giving dimensions i n

the Acquisitions Supplement, the formula
height by width by depth has been
observed. I n cases where this was not
appropriate to the work o f art i n ques­
tion, the following abbreviations have
been employed:

H: Height
W: Width
D: Depth
Diam: Diameter
L: Length

In the provenance sections brackets

are used to indicate dealers, and the lack
o f a semicolon before a sale i n parentheses
means that the object was sold from that
person, dealer, or gallery.
Antiquities 61



i. Statuette of a Muse
Roman, ca. A.D. 200
Marble, H : 97 cm (38X6 in.)

This graceful figure o f a young woman

represents a Muse, either Polyhymnia
(Muse o f Mimic Art) or Melpomene
(Muse o f Tragedy). Enveloped i n her
drapery, she leans on a rocky support and
stands on top of a plinth with a concave
profile. The back o f the plinth is flattened,
which indicates that the statue may have
been placed either i n a niche or against a
wall. Numerous traces of pigment survive
on the stone, especially on the left eye, and
in the hair, which was gilded. The Muse's
head was broken off in antiquity and
reattached. Her left hand is missing, as
is the tip of her ponytail; surface losses
occur to the edge o f the plinth, the
folds of drapery, and the toes o f her right
foot. This figure is part o f a group o f
statuettes that includes three other Muses
already within the Museum's collection
(68.AA.21-.22, 71.AA.461). The group
is said to have been found i n Cremna
in Asia Minor.
PROVENANCE: Formerly collection o f
Hans Cohn, Los Angeles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Hornbostel, "Muse," i n By

Judgment of the Eye: The Varya and Hans Cohn
Collection, ed. N . Thomas and C. Oldknow,
exh. cat. (Los Angeles, 1991), pp. 104-5.

62 Acquisitions /1994

2(.I) 2(4)

rior, the r i m and bottom o f the cup wall ornament the shoulder, and they are sepa­
are delineated with a broad band. The rated by two broad stripes. The body is
zone i n between has two vertical bands o f decorated at its widest point by a zone o f
Cypriot zigzag bordered by three lines on each side, two broad stripes w i t h eight thin stripes
inside which is a large X . The handles are between, and the bottom o f the body
2. Four Vases also painted, as is the edge o f the foot. The contains three additional thin stripes and
Cypriot, ca. 550-450 B.C. plate (.2) is decorated on the interior w i t h two broad stripes. The handles are painted,
Terra-cotta, Cup (.1): H : 10.15 cm two concentric circles, and the r i m and and long vertical slashes descend from
(4 in.), Diam (rim): 10.64 c m
handles are also painted. O n the exterior, each root.
(4% in.); Plate (.2): H : 3.4 cm the ring base is encircled by four bands; A l l o f the pots are i n fairly good con­
(iXs in.), Diam (rim): 24.3 cm the interior o f the base is ornamented w i t h dition w i t h some surface abrasion and
(9% in.); Oinochoe (.3): H (to top a decorative cross with one arm consisting encrustation. The foot o f the cup and the
of handle): 22.8 cm (8% in.), Diam of a hatched band bordered by two lines lower body o f the oinochoe were once
(body): 15.8 cm (6%s in.); Amphora and the other arm composed o f a band o f broken and have been repaired.
(.4): H : 42.4 cm (16% in.), Diam cross-hatched lozenges, also bordered by PROVENANCE: Donated i n memory o f Richard
(body): 29.5 cm (11% in.). two lines. The oinochoe (.3) has two Clayton Hunt by Ernest P. Mauk, Jr.
94.AE.114.1-.4 zones o f concentric circles surrounding the
body, which are separated by two thin
This group is comprised o f four vessels:
lines. The bottom o f the neck has a single
a cup and amphora of Bichrome Ware,
line, and at the top, where the r i m begins
a plate of Black on Red Ware, and an
to flare, are two more lines. The edge of
oinochoe of White Painted Ware. The cup
the trefoil r i m and the exterior o f the han­
(.1) has a pedestal foot. I t is decorated with
dle are also painted; the handle has broad
a central dot on the interior, w i t h four
stripes along each edge with horizontal
concentric circles halfway up the wall, and
slashes across. A large curlicue descends
w i t h a broad band w i t h three concentric
from the handle root. The amphora (.4) has
circles below it at the r i m . O n the exte­
a broad zigzag on top o f the r i m . The
neck is decorated w i t h a series o f compass-
drawn concentric circles with thin and
broad bands encircling the neck below.
Two additional zones o f concentric circles

Decorative A r t s


3. Pair of Armchairs (Fauteuils a la Reine)

French, ca. 1730-35
Gilded beech; brass casters,
H: 108.5 c m
(3 ft- 6% in.); W : 72.3 cm
(2 ft. \ A in.); D : 63.4 cm (2 ft. 1 in.).

Chair .1 is marked No. 5 on the inner

side o f the back chair rail and chair .2
is stamped w i t h the Roman numeral
VI i n the same location.

These armchairs, marked w i t h the n u m ­

bers five and six, must have been part
of a large suite o f seat furniture that was
probably made up o f other chairs, a settee,
tabourets, and perhaps a fire screen. The
design o f the pieces dates from the early
years o f the Rococo style, which intro­
duced characteristic elements such as the
scrolling shape o f the armrests where they
j o i n the seat rail, cabochons surrounded by
auricular forms, and well-defined leaf and
plant forms. Unfortunately, the name o f
their maker is not known. Both chairs
retain some areas o f the original gesso,
with its finely carved details, and gilding.
After conservation treatment, the chairs
w i l l be upholstered.
P R O V E N A N C E : [Bernard Baruch Steinitz, Paris].

3 (one o f a pair, before conservation)

64 Acquisitions /1994

4. Bed (Lit a la Polonaise)

French (Paris), ca. 1775-80
Painted and gilded wood; gilded iron,
H : 302 cm (9 ft. 11 in.); W : 179 cm
(5 ft. IOVI in.); L: 226 cm (7 ft. 5 in.)

While the name o f this bed's maker is

unknown, its design may be closely
compared to drawings and prints by
Richard Lalonde (dates unknown, active
last decades o f the eighteenth century),
the prolific designer who worked i n the
Neoclassical style. The frame is richly
carved w i t h a running heart-shaped
motif containing paired acorns, fruit-filled
cornucopiae, and a total o f twenty floral
swags (not shown i n this illustration).
The canopy once bore three floral trophies,
now largely missing (but shown i n an
early photograph), which w i l l be replaced
during conservation.
The bed was originally upholstered
w i t h a silk designed w i t h ducks, pheas­
ants, and peacocks by Philippe Lasalle
(1723-1805), fragments of which still exist.
This fabric was ordered by Catherine I I
in 1773, and was used to clad walls and
chairs i n Tsarskoe Selo, outside Saint
Petersburg. I t is possible, therefore, that the
bed was made for a member o f the Impe­
rial Household, as this particular silk does
not appear to have been used elsewhere.
After the conservation o f the frame,
the bed w i l l be reupholstered w i t h a
suitable silk damask, fitted w i t h curtains,
and set w i t h bunches o f ostrich feathers
on the tops o f the posts.
P R O V E N A N C E : Due de D i n o ; Mile. Gilda Darthy,
Paris (sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, M a y 18,
1923, no. 77); F. Schutz, Paris; Espirito Santo
family, Europe (sale, Sotheby's, London, July 8,
1983, lot 96); Barbara Piasecka Johnson (sale,
Sotheby's, N e w York, M a y 21, 1992, lot 88);
Karl Lagerfeld, Paris.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: La Vie Parisienne au XVIIIe

Siecle, exh. cat. (Musee Carnavalet, Paris,
March 20-April 30, 1928), no. 285, p. 51

4 (before conservation)


Palmer's composition is a free adaptation P R O V E N A N C E : By descent from the artist to Giles

from a passage i n Edmund Spenser's Faerie Pilcher; London art market.
Queene (book 2, canto 6). The monumental BIBLIOGRAPHY: R . Lister, ed., The Letters of Samuel
scale o f the watercolor accommodates a Palmer (Oxford, 1974), p. 554; idem, Catalogue
vast spatial expanse stretching forth from Raisonné of the Works of Samuel Palmer (Cam­
British, 1805-1881 bridge, 1988), p. 164, no. 471.
Sir Guyon with the Palmer Attending, the brilliant sun i n the distance around
Tempted by Phaedria to Land upon the the foreground and onward to the open
Enchanted Island— Faerie Queene" 1849
u waters visible at the left o f the image.
Watercolor and bodycolor w i t h some Radiant w i t h light and color, the landscape
gum arabic over black chalk, on is painted i n a range o f applications, from
London board, 53.7 x 75.2 cm transparent washes to richly textured stip­
(21% x 29% in.) pling and scumbling i n opaque bodycolor.
66 Acquisitions /1994

P R O V E N A N C E : F. W. Klever, Cologne (sale,

Heberle, Cologne, January 18-19, 1892, lot 35);
private collection (sale, Sotheby's, N e w York,
January 13, 1993, lot 75); London art market.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y : E. K . J. Reznicek, "Drawings by (Louis Carrogis)
Hendrick Goltzius, T h i r t y Years Later: Supple­
French, 1717-1806
ment to the 1961 Catalogue Raisonne," Master
The Duchess of Chaulnes as a
Drawings 31, no. 3 (Autumn 1993), no. K345a,
pp. 256-58; idem, Hendrick Goltzius Drawings
Gardener in an Allée, 1771
Rediscovered, igÖ2-igg2: Supplement to Die Zeich­
u Watercolor w i t h black and red chalk
nungen von Hendrick Goltzius"(IQ6I) (New York, and black ink, 31.7 x 19.1 cm (12V2 x
1993), no. K345a, pp. 68-70. qVz in.). Inscribed: Mme la Duchesse de
Chaulnes, en jardiniere, IJJI i n brown
ink on the lower edge o f the mount;
inscribed (verso): 327 i n brown i n k
and B i n graphite on the back
of the mount.



Dutch, 1558-1617
Portrait of a Man, 1607
Pen and brown ink, incised for trans­
fer, 29.6 x 20.2 cm (11% x 8 in.).
Signed and dated: A HG 1607.


In this bust-length portrait o f a lavishly

costumed man holding a glove Goltzius
displays virtuosic pen work evoking a
range o f rich textures. Both i n format
and i n handling Portrait of a Man self­
consciously harks back to pen drawings
by the revered Netherlandish masters o f
the past, Lucas van Ley den (1494-153 3)
and Jan Gossaert (ca. 1478-1533/36).
Goltzius s drawing served as the model
for Christoffel van Sichem's woodcut i n
reverse (Holl. 27, no. 135), which was for­
merly erroneously thought to be a portrait
of O t t o Heinrich o f Schwarzenberg. I n his
supplement to the catalogue raisonne o f
1961 {Hendrick Goltzius Drawings Rediscov­
ered, 1962-1992 [New York, 1993], p. 70),
Reznicek has raised the still-unanswered
question as to whether the drawing is
a fantasy portrait or a disguised portrait
o f a specific, but unknown, man.

Drawings 67

This finished drawing is one o f seven hun- 9. EUGENE DELACROIX

dred and fifty portraits that Carmontelle French, 1798-1863
drew of personages at the court o f the due The Death of Lara (?), ca. 1825
d'Orléans. These portraits, the majority o f Watercolor with bodycolor and
which are i n the Musée Condé at Chan- graphite underdrawing, 17.9 x
tilly, provide an exhaustive record o f court 25.7 cm (j%> x IOVS in.). Signed:
life prior to the Revolution. Here, Marie E. Delacroix i n i n k and graphite twice
Joseph Louis D'Albert de Luynes at the lower left; inscribed (verso): La
(1744-1781), the duchess o f Chaulnes, Morto Lara i2of i n graphite on the
is shown dressed as a gardener. blue paper mount backing.
8 (.2) 94-GC5I
PROVENANCE: Louis Carrogis de Carmontelle
(sale, Paris, A p r i l 17, 1807, part o f lot 22); The inscription on the back o f the old
Chavalier Richard de Lédans; Pierre de mount is presumably an allusion to Lord
La Mésangère (sale, Paris, July 18, 1831, part o f
as indicated by the wreath of victory
hanging from the male figure's belt and Byron's Lara, A Tale (1814). Wounded i n
lot 304); John D u f f and hence by descent (sale,
the chariot's decoration. The subject of its battle, Lara, a Spanish overlord, lies dying
Christies, London, December 15, 1992, lot 177);
London art market. pendant is taken from Euripides' Hippolytus. "beneath a lime, remoter from the scene."
The drawing represents the climactic In extremis he is comforted by Kaled, his
BIBLIOGRAPHY: R . de Lédans, Catalogue des Portraits page o f distant origin, who reveals that
dessinés et peints par Louis Carrogis de Carmontelle moment o f the story when the tragic hero
loses control o f his horses and is dragged she is a woman and confesses her love
(Paris, 1807), ms. p. 78, no. 309, as part
to death i n his own chariot. for h i m . When first published i n 1992,
of album 9.
the drawing was thought to represent
P R O V E N A N C E : M . Constantin, Paris (sale, Paris,
Tancred and Erminia i n a scene from
March 3, 1817, lot 809); N e w York art market.
Tassos Gerusalemme Liberata. The absence
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Paris Salons de 1800, 1801, facsimile of Vafrino and the giant Argante, who
catalogues (New York, 1977), p. 66, nos. 374 invariably are featured i n scenes o f Tancred
and 375; R . Campbell et al., Visions of Antiquity:
and Erminia; the inclusion of a small
Neoclassic Figure Drawings (Los Angeles,
military cap and tartan shawl worn by
1993-94), P- 232, under no. 64.
the female figure; and the aforementioned
inscription all signal the Death o f Lara
as the more likely o f the two subjects.




French, 1758-1836
The Return from the Race a n d
The Death of Hippolytus, 1800
Black chalk, stumped and heightened
w i t h white; framing line i n light
brown ink, black chalk and incised,
69.7 x 101.3 cm (27% x 397 in.);

64.7 x 98.5 cm (25H x 38%, in.)


These large-scale, monochrome drawings

were made expressly for exhibition at the
Paris Salon o f 1800 and were engraved
soon after by Jean Godefroy. The atten-
tion given to horses i n the two scenes
accords with Vernet s passionate study
of the animal throughout his career. The
chariot scene shows an ancient Roman
couple returning i n triumph from a race,

68 Acquisitions/1994

PROVENANCE: Private collection, Brittany (sale, (verso) :f$4 Blanc bis ongl(?) blanc tres P R O V E N A N C E : M . Schoeller, Paris; Mme. Strohn,
Paris, December 23, 1885); Monsieur Cottin; epais inscrip E. Manet dates 28—30 vus(?) Lausanne; Paris art market; London art market.
private collection; N e w York art market. canneaux 6V2 Cadre No 3 i n graphite by BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. D aulte, Le Dessin français, de
BIBLIOGRAPHY: L . Johnson, "Erminia and the different hands on the lining. Manet à Cézanne (Lausanne, 1954), p. 47, p l . 1;
Wounded Tancred: A N e w Tasso Subject by 94.GC.100 K. M a r t i n , Edouard Manet, Aquarelle und Pastelle
Delacroix," Apollo 136, no. 370 (December (Basel, 1958), no. 8; M . Sérullaz, Les plus beaux
Manet made a number of paintings and dessins du XIXe siècle (Paris, 1963), p. 70; idem,
1992), pp. 379-83, pi- 1.
drawings representing bullfights and Drawings of the Masters, II. French Impressionists
bullfighters. Letters written to friends (New York, 1962-64), pp. 21, 70; D. Rouart
IO. EDOUARD MANET record his interest i n the energy and and D. Wildenstein, Edouard Manet, Catalogue
French, 1832-18 83 drama o f these events. This watercolor raisonné, tome II, Pastels, aquarelles et dessins (Paris,
Bullfight, 1865 was made during Manet's trip to Spain i n 1975), no. 530; F. Cachin and C. MofFet, Manet,
1865, probably en place. The pinholes at the 1832-1883, exh. cat. (Galeries nationales du
Watercolor, 19.3 x 21.4 cm
Grand Palais, Paris, 1983), p. 239, under no. 91.
(7% x 8%6 in.). Signed: E . M. i n brown corners o f the paper suggest that the draw-
wash at the lower left; inscribed ing was put up on the wall o f his studio.

Drawings 69

corner i n brown ink; fl 1210 - furior

10 Cimabue. i n brown ink; and (?)
the back i n graphite at right edge;
inscribed (verso): by the same collec­
German, 1500—1550 tor on mount i n brown ink, from a
A Standard-Bearer, 1519 previous note by Padre Resta: A. 59. /
Pen and black ink; 18.1 x 9.5 cm T33/ Giunta Pisano, Nom. incognito al
(7V8 x 3% in.). Dated: 1519 i n black i n k Vasario. Pittore Anteriore / a CimabüJ
at the top; inscribed: Christof amberger furono trovati gli Disegni (there were
in brown i n k at the bottom; inscribed about 6 of them) di Maniera Gre- /canica
(verso): SB i n ligature i n brown i n k de tempi Bassi del Principio del Secolo
and HScheufelein? i n graphite. duodecimo in un resposliglio/ d'una casa
94.GA.53 che fu di Pietro Perugino pervenuta circa
Vanno 1653.netti/ P.P. dell'Orio di S. Fil­
Friedrich Thöne attributed this to Sebald
ippo di Perugia assiem. d'altri Disegni tra
Beham on the basis o f its comparability to
quali/ uno di Pietro della Francesca/
other images o f standard-bearers by h i m ,
P. Resta, K.;J.B. i n brown ink; f/2 x
such as a drawing i n Erlangen, an engrav­
4%; Formerly in the coll. of Padre Resta.
ing o f 1519 (B. 201 [199], vol. 15, 8 [part
Richardson/ Pond & Bernardo. / 1816
2]), and an etching o f 1520 (B. 203 [200],
WE. Roscoe coll. P8LN42X/ Vide Lanzi
vol. 15, 8 [part 2]). The crudely written
1-8/ Lanzi commences his series of the
ascription to Amberger i n the lower left
Florentine schools/ with this master, who
appears to be by the same collector who
was prior to Cimabue.; Pond etc. i n
inscribed several other early sixteenth-
brown ink; GHP i n gray ink.
century German drawings (compare w i t h
H . Mielke, Albrecht Altdorfer: Zeichnungen,
Deckfarbenmalerei, Druckgraphik, exh. cat. This early Italian drawing bears an attri­
[Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbe­ bution to Giunta Pisano by Jonathan
sitz and Museen der Stadt Regensburg, Pdchardson, Sr. A drawing o f an allego­
Berlin, 1988], no. 173, pp. 270-71; rical figure by the same hand is i n the
W. Schade, "Anhaltische Gemäldegalerie Teylers Museum, Haarlem, w i t h a similar
Dessau: Michel Pdbestein, Christus inscription: Giunta Pisano dipins dal 1208 al
am Olberg," Kulturstiftung der Länder— 1236. The comparable style, subject matter,
Patrimonia 51 [Berlin, 1994]). and size o f the t w o sheets confirms the
statement i n the inscription to the effect
P R O V E N A N C E : Fürst von und zu Liechtenstein,
that they were once part o f a cache o f
Vienna (sale, Bern, Klipstein and Kornfeld,
June 16, i960, l o t 15); private collection (sale, drawings said to have been f o u n d i n
Sotheby's, N e w York, January 13, 1993, Perugia. Degenhart and Schmitt suggest
lot 43); London art market. that the Haarlem drawing is by a Bolo­
gnese h a n d o f the last quarter o f the four­
t e e n t h c e n t u r y (as m e n t i o n e d i n Christie's
sale catalogue, January 13, 1993, lot 5).
I T A L I A N PROVENANCE: Padre Sebastiano Resta, Rome;
Jonathan Richardson, Sr., London; A r t h u r
Pond, London; John Thane, London; John
12. UMBRIAN SCHOOL Barnard, London; W i l l i a m Roscoe, Liverpool
Italian, ca. 1380 (sale, Winstanley, Liverpool, September 23,
A Draped Figure Holding a Book 1816, l o t 8); W i l l i a m Esdaile, London (sale,
Christie's, London, June 18, 1840, lot 7);
Silverpoint and point o f the brush,
private collection (sale, Christie's, N e w York,
heightened w i t h white bodycolor, on
January 13, 1993, lot 5); London art market.
green-blue paper, 19.4 x 11.2 c m
(7% x 4% in.). Inscribed: collection
marks of W i l l i a m Esdaile (L. 2617)
and John Barnard (L. 1419) on the
mount at lower right i n brown ink;
i. 6. i n black ink; lower center o f
mount i n gray i n k bears Jonathan
Richardson, Sr.'s attribution, Gionta
Pisano; 42 x 3 - 1816 Roscoe at lower left 12
70 Acquisitions /1994

a matter o f debate. Originally considered

to be a drawing by Lorenzo Lotto
(ca. 1480—1556), the sheet is now given to
Andrea Previtali based on its similarity
w i t h his paintings, such as Madonna Casotti
in the Accademia Carrara, Bergamo, and
Family Group i n the collection o f Count
Moroni, Bergamo.
P R O V E N A N C E : Jonathan Richardson, Sr., London;
John, Duke of A r g y l l (sale, T. Philipe, London,
May 21-23, 1798, lot 164); the second Viscount
Palmerston and by descent to the Honorable
Evelyn Ashley (sale, Christie's, London,
A p r i l 24, 1891, lot 179); Sir J. C. Robinson,
London (sale, Christie's, London, May 12, 1902,
lot 194); J. P. Heseltine, London; Henry
Oppenheimer, London (sale, Christie's, London,
July 13, 1936, lot 154); Baron Hatvany (sale,
Christie's, London, June 24, 1980, lot 10);
duca Roberto Ferretti, Ontario; London
art market.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. P. Heseltine, Original Drawings

by Old Masters of the Schools of North Italy in the
Collection of J. P. Heseltine (London, 1906), no. 15;
D. van Hadlen, Venezianische Zeichnungen des
Quattrocento (Berlin, 1925), p. 65, p i . 85; A . Ven­
turi, "Scelta di rari disegni nei musei d'Eu­
ropa," L'Arte 39 (1926), pp. 10-13, fig. 12;
A. Venturi, Studi dal Vero (Milan, 1927), p. 268,
fig. 168; C. Holmes, "Recent Acquisitions at
Trafalgar Square," Burlington Magazine 51 (1927),
p. 113; A . Venturi, Storia dell'arte italiana 9, no. 4
(1929), p. 87, fig. 78; K . N . Oettinger, Belvedere
9, no. 2 (1930), p. 12, fig. 10; A. E. Popham,
Italian Drawings Exhibited at the Royal Academy,
Burlington House, 1930 (London, 1931), no. 259,.
pi. 226a; H . Tietze and E. Tietze-Conrat, The
Drawings of the Venetian Painters in the 15th and 16th
Centuries (New York, 1944), pp. 241-24, A 1373;
A. Banti and A . Boschetto, Lorenzo Lotto
(Florence, 1953), p. 83, under no. 87; F. Heine-
mann, Giovanni Bellini e i Belliniani (Venice,
1962), vol. 1, p. 146, S. 381; vol. 2, fig. 525;
J. Meyer zur Capellan, Andrea Previtali (Inau­
gural Dissertation, Wiirzburg, 1972), pp. 90—91,
13 193, no. Z3; D . McTavish, Italian Drawings from
the Collection of Duke Roberto Ferretti, exh. cat.
(Art Gallery o f Ontario, Toronto, and Pierpont
13. ANDREA PREVITALI "S del Piombo"/f. Richardson/ 'from the
Morgan Library, N e w York, 1985-86), no. 9.
Italian, ca. 1480-1528 Duke ofArgyle's collec"/Lord Palmerston/
Portrait of a Woman, ca. 1520-25 formed 1770-1801 /Lord of Churton, age 24
Black chalk w i t h white chalk height­ 1891 /JC Robinson; Lorenzo Lotto 23 x 18
ening on blue paper, 34.7 x 25.9 cm in graphite; collection mark of J. P.
(13% x io%6 in.). Inscribed: at lower Heseltine (L. 1507).
left corner o f the mount i n graphite, 94.GB.36
sebas del Piombo; collection marks o f In this beautifully worked portrait o f an
Jonathan Pdchardson, Sr. (L. 2184) at unidentified woman the sitter wears a
right o f the collar and J. C. Robinson schuffa, or headdress made o f hair, which is
(L. 1433) at lower left corner; commonly seen i n N o r t h Italian portrai­
inscribed (verso): i n brown i n k ture o f the early sixteenth century. There
is some agreement that the drawing was
executed around Bergamo i n the 1520s,
although the specific attribution remains
Drawings 71

three shields of arms / may be noticed, one

of which bearing the "palle" of / the Medici
family and another the oak tree of Urbino /
(della Rovere) pen drawing washed with
bistre on brown paper. Coll - Count Gelosi
/ Height 16 Width 10 A / Bought of
Whitehead. Mercers collection April 9/69 £7.

This drawing is a study for the frescoes

located on the left-hand wall of the
Cappella della Passione i n Santa Maria
della Pietà i n Campo Santo, within the
Vatican. The chapel was assigned to the
Swiss Guards i n 1520, and the decoration
was subsequently commissioned by Cap-
tain Kaspar Roist. The Adoration o f the
Magi appears at the lunette at the top,
while the Crucifixion is located at the
lower register and is surrounded by smaller
scenes o f the Passion o f Christ. The pres-
ence o f Pope Adrian Vis coat o f arms i n
the center o f the window indicates that the
drawing was made during his brief pontifi-
cate between 1522 and 23. The drawing is
typical o f Perino's early style o f draftsman-
ship, and is comparable to his design for
the Palazzo Baldassini, now i n the
Uffizi, Florence (inv. 13561F).
P R O V E N A N C E : Count Gelosi, Turin; Sir J. C.
Robinson, London; John Malcolm o f Poltalloch;
the Honorable A . E. Gathorne-Hardy, London;
the Honorable Robert Gathorne-Hardy, L o n -
don; the British Rail Pension Fund, London;
London art market.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. Andrews, Italian 16th Century

Drawings from British Private Collections, exh. cat.
(The Merchants' Hall, Edinburgh, 1969),
p. 26, no. 57; A . Marabottini, Polidoro da Carvag-
gio (Rome, 1969), vol. 1, p. 41, pi. 9; C. White,
Loan Exhibition of Drawings of Old Masters from the
Collection of Mr. Geoffery Gathorne-Hardy, exh. cat.
(P. and D. Colnaghi, London and Ashmolean
Museum, Oxford, 1971), no. 12; L . Ravelli,
"Gli Affreschi della Capella della Passione i n
14 S. Maria della Pietà i n Camposanto a Roma,"
Bergamo Arte (1972), no. 12; E. Parma A r m a n i ,
Perin del Vaga: L'anello mancante (Genoa, 1986),
14. PERINO DEL VAGA Dossi - Ferrara, born about 1479 / died p. 319; J. A. Gere, Drawings by Raphael and His
after 1360 / 844 Ascribed to Dosso Dossi / Circle from the British and North American Collec-
(Piero Buonaccorsi)
Design for the entire ordonance of the end tions, exh. cat. (Pierpont Morgan Library, N e w
Italian, ca. 1500-1547
York, 1987), no. 74; A . Marabottini, Polidoro da
Project for a Wall Decoration, ca. 1522 wall / of a chapel, showing the altar of a
Caravaggio fra Napoli e Messina (Naples, 1988), p. 11.
Pen and brown ink, brown wash large window / above it, and the rest of the
and traces of black chalk, brown surface of the wall, / covered with a compo-
ink framing line, 41.1 x 26.8 cm sition in many compartments / evidently
(i6%6 x 10%; in.). Inscribed: on mount intended to be carried out in fresco. / The
in black i n k Dosso Dossi; upper right picture on the altar represents the Crucifix-
in graphite 22 and lower right 50; ion, and the principal subject in the upper
lower left i n black i n k 50 and lower part / on each side of the window is the
right 877; collection marks o f Count Adoration / of the Magi / 8 other composi-
Gelosi (L. 545) and Sir J. C. Robinson tions on the / usual subjects for the passion
(L. 1433); inscribed (verso): Dosso of our Savior. / In the—of the window
72 Acquisitions 11994


Italian, 1511-1574
Bearded Man Filling a Glass and
Running Youth, ca. 1544—45
Pen and brown i n k and wash w i t h
white gouache heightening, 44.9 x
19.7 cm (17% x 7% in.). Collection
mark o f Paul Sandby (L. 2092).

These drawings are preparatory studies

for the lateral sections o f Giorgio Vasari s
painting o f The Feast in the House of Simon,
made for a lunette i n the refectory of
the monastery of Monteoliveto, Naples,
around 1544-45. The study for the central
section o f the painting is i n the Pdjksmu-
seum, Amsterdam (inv. 1951:1). The
figures i n the left-hand drawing reappear,
w i t h some remodification, i n Vasari's Mar-
riage of Esther andAhasuerus o f 1549, i n
Arezzo, while the running youth at the
right is shown i n reverse i n Vasari's Christ
in the House of Mary and Martha o f 1539,
Saint Michele i n Bosco, Bologna.
P R O V E N A N C E : Paul Sandby, London; (sale,
Sotheby's, London, July 9, 1981, lot 7); duca
Roberto Ferretti, Ontario; London art market.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L.C.J. Frerichs, ItaliaanseTekeningen

II: De 15de en lède Eeuw, exh. cat. (Rijkspreten-
kabinet, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1981),
p. 72; P. L . de Castris, "Napoli 1544: Vasari
e Monteoliveto," Bollettino d'Arte 66, no. 12
(1981) , p. 84, n. 16, fig. 5; C. Monbeig Goguel,
"Chronique vasarienne," Revue de VArt 56
(1982) , p. 70, fig. 8; D. McTavish, Italian Draw-
ings from the Collection of Duke Roberto Ferretti,
exh. cat. (Art Gallery o f Ontario, Toronto,
and Pierpont Morgan Library, N e w Y^rk),
15. G I U L I O ROMANO Giganti i n the Palazzo del Tè, Mantua, for nos. 12 and 13.
(Giulio Pippi) which three other studies exist (private
Italian, ca. 1499-1546 collection, Paris; Musée du Louvre, Paris
Victory, Janus, Chronos, and Gaea, [inv. 3476]; and private collection, London).
ca. 1532-34 PROVENANCE: Sir Peter Lely, London; Dr. Mead,
Pen and brown i n k and wash over London; John Barnard, London; Sir Joshua
black chalk, 37.4 x 31.7 cm Reynolds, London; Grand-Ducal collection,
(14% x 12H in.). Collection marks o f Weimar until 1918; continental collector (sale,
Christies, London, A p r i l 7, 1981, lot 48); duca
Sir Joshua Reynolds (L. 2364) lower
Roberto Ferretti, Ontario; London art market.
left and Sir Peter Lely (L. 2364) lower
right; inscribed (verso): f°. 34. N° 30./di BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Hartt, Giulio Romano (New
Giulio Romano-/buon disegno;J.B. N Haven, 1958), vol. 1, pp. 159, 299, no. 210;
vol. 2, fig. 349; E. Verheyen, The Palazzo del Tè
3jo./i4 A by 12V2; from Dr. Meads coll" i n
3 (

in Mantua: Images of Love and Politics (Baltimore

brown ink; "PLely . . . Crozat . . . " i n
and London, 1977), p. 128; D. McTavish, Italian
faint black chalk. Drawings from the Collection of Duke Roberto
94.GA.32 Ferretti, exh. cat. (Art Gallery o f Ontario,
The subject is taken from Ovid's Metamor- Toronto, and Pierpont Morgan Library, N e w
phoses. Victory, Janus, Chronos, and Gaea York, 1985-86), no. 3; E. H . Gombrich et al.,
Giulio Romano, exh. cat. (Palazzo del T è , M a n -
look on i n fear as the Giants are cast out o f
tua, 1989), p. 377, entry by K . Oberhuber. 16
the heavens by the thunderbolts of Jupiter.
This carefully finished preparatory draw-
ing is for part o f the fresco i n the Sala dei
Drawings 73

PROVENANCE: John Brophy, London; (sale, BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. McTavish, Italian Drawings from
Sotheby's, London, November 25, 1971, the Collection of Duke Roberto Ferretti, exh. cat.
lot 158); (sale, Christie's, London, A p r i l 15, (Art Gallery o f Ontario, Toronto, and Pierpont
1980, lot 2); duca Roberto Ferretti, Ontario; Morgan Library, N e w York, 1985-86), no. 23.
London art market.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y : D. McTavish, Italian Drawings

from the Collection of Duke Roberto Ferretti,
exh. cat. (Art Gallery o f Ontario, Toronto,
and Pierpont Morgan Library, N e w York,
1985-86), no. 15.


Italian, ca. 1535-1612
Head of a Boy, ca. 1586-89
Black, red, white, and flesh-colored
chalk (recto); black chalk (verso),
24.8 x 17.5 cm (9% x 6% in.).
Inscribed: upper left, 11. i n black ink.

W i t h fine handling o f colored chalk,

Barocci drew this head o f a boy from life.
The angle o f the head corresponds w i t h
that of Ascanius i n the artist's painting o f
Aeneas' Flight from Troy, which was commis­
sioned i n 1586 by Emperor R u d o l f II
(r. 1576-1612). Although the painting is
now lost, it is k n o w n from an autograph
replica now i n the Villa Borghese, Rome. 19. GUERCINO
17 Drawings o f his that are comparable i n (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri)
style and subject include that o f a boy's Italian, 1591-1666
head i n Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 1557, Caricature of Two Men Seen in Profile,
17. GIUSEPPE PORTA in the U r b i n o Cathedral (Musée Bonnat, ca. 1635
(Giuseppe Salviati) Bayonne, inv. 662). Pen and brown i n k w i t h light brown
Italian, ca. 1520-ca. 1575 wash, 20.4 x 17.3 cm (8 x 6 % in.).
P R O V E N A N C E : (sale, Christie's, London, A p r i l 15,
Inscribed (verso): Guercino L.4
Christ Above Saints John the Baptist, 1980, lot 20); duca Roberto Ferretti, Ontario;
London art market. and 20 i n graphite.
Jerome, Catherine, and Thomas,
ca. 1550-59
Pen and brown i n k and brown Guercino was an accomplished and prolific
wash w i t h white gouache heighten­ caricaturist, and his satirical representa­
ing on blue paper, 20.8 x 10.9 cm tions rank as some o f the most original i n
( 8 ^ x 4 % in.). seventeenth-century Italian art. W i t h
94.GA.34 extraordinary economy o f means filtered
The drawing, dating to the mid-i550s, by a sharp perception o f the comic, Guer­
is a preparatory study for Giuseppe Portas cino recorded his acute observations o f the
altarpiece i n the Bragadin Chapel o f the people and events o f everyday provincial
church o f San Francesco della Vigna, life. This previously unrecorded drawing is
Venice. The composition o f the drawing most similar to the caricature o f two men
varies somewhat from that o f the painting. looking toward the right i n the Royal
In particular, the elongated figures i n the Collection, Windsor Castle (inv. 2748).
drawing have been made more substantial The men's ungainly physiognomies are
in the painting. The unusual grouping o f further exaggerated by the profile view.
Saints John the Baptist, Jerome, Catherine, P R O V E N A N C E : German art market; London
and Thomas seems to have been chosen as art market.
a reference to the Christian names o f the
donor and his family. The relatively loose
draftsmanship and the lack o f emphatic
modeling are common to Giuseppe Portas
later style, as seen i n his modello o f The
Emperor Frederic Barbarossa Kneeling Before
Pope Alexander III at Chatsworth. 18
74 Acquisitions /1994

Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi. The two

men worked i n collaboration on architec­
tural commissions, including designs for
reliquary caskets such as the ones i n the
British Museum, London (inv. A t - i 0-100,
At—10-101). This drawing is similar to
an engraving by Grimaldi that depicts
an Adoration of Angels i n a landscape
(B. 15 [92], vol. 42, 19 [pt. 2]). The loose
handling o f the pen and i n k is most simi­
lar to Grimaldi s drawing o f a landscape
w i t h V i r g i n and child i n the Royal
Collection, Windsor (inv. 6147).
P R O V E N A N C E : Unidentified collector, "TC";
Paris art market.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: European Master Drawings

(Kunsthandel Bellinger, N e w York; Galerie
de Bayser, Paris; Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox,
London, 1994), no. 21 (dealer catalogue).


Italian, 1851-1929
Self-Portrait, 1877
Pastel and gouache on paper, 45.7 x
28.4 cm (18 x 1 1 % in.). Signed: BP.
Michetti/1877 - Napoli lower right and
Scherzo at left i n black chalk.

In 1877 Francesco Paolo Michetti received

acclaim for his painting o f The Procession
of the Corpus Domini. A t this time he also
drew several self-portraits, including this
one. The intense expression and bravura
handling convey the young artist s self 1

assurance at the age o f twenty-six. This

direct and immediate self-portrait marks
a point o f closure i n the evolution o f tradi­
tional Italian figure drawing, and antici­
pates Michetti's later career as one o f the
outstanding photographers of his time.
P R O V E N A N C E : Giancarlo Baroni, Paris; M . R.
20 Schweitzer, N e w York; James Coats, N e w York;
David Daniels, N e w York; private collection
(sale, Sotheby's, N e w York, October 13, 1993);
20. ALESSANDRO ALGARDI N e w York art market.
Italian, 1595-1654 BIBLIOGRAPHY: M . Bennett and A . Mongan,
and Salute to Italy: woYears of Italian Art, i86i-ig6i,
GIOVANNI FRANCESCO GRIMALDI exh. cat. (Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford,
Italian, 1606-1680 1961), p. 29; Selections from the Drawing Collection
of David Daniels, exh. cat. (Fogg A r t Museum,
Landscape with the Holy Family,
Cambridge; The Minneapolis Institute of Arts;
ca. 1650
A r t Institute o f Chicago; Nelson Gallery-
Pen and brown i n k with brown Atkins Museum, Kansas City, 1968); R.J. M .
wash, 36.5 x 26.4 cm (i4 /s x 10%» in.).

Olsen, Italian Drawings, 1780-1890, exh. cat.

Inscribed: bottom edge, unidentified (National Gallery o f A r t , Washington, D.C.;
collectors mark TC. The Minneapolis Institute o f Arts; The Fine
94.GA.78 Arts Museum o f San Francisco, 1980-81), no. 95.

In this drawing o f a Landscape with the Holy

Family, Alessandro Algardi, the "senior
partner," adds a figurai composition to
the landscape o f his "junior colleague,"
Drawings 75



Spanish, ca. 1510-1579
Christ on the Road to Calvary, ca. 1560
Pen and brown ink, black chalk
w i t h brown wash, 21 x 34.8 cm
(8% x 13% in.)

For most o f the sixteenth century, Valen-

cian painting was dominated by the Macip
family, consisting of Vicente Macip, his
son Juan de Juanes, and his offspring. W i t h
few changes, Juan continued the style
of his father, which combines Flemish
elements w i t h a strong Italian influence
derived from prints after Raphael,
Leonardo, and Michelangelo and a direct
knowledge o f some o f the paintings o f
Sebastiano del Piombo. The drawing
shown here is stylistically close to Juan's
Saint Stephen Being Led to His Execution
(Courtauld Institute of Art, London), 23
which also is drawn i n roughly handled
pen and i n k w i t h abundant hatching and
is arranged i n an isocephalic composition.
Spanish, 1565-1628
PROVENANCE: Private collection, Germany; N e w The Coronation of the Virgin,
York art market. ca. 1600-28
Pen and brown i n k and wash, 28.8 x
18.7 cm (n /8 x 7% in.); dry stamp

of an unidentified collector (L. 728)

in the lower right corner; (verso)
partially traced through i n pen
and brown ink.

Around 1600, Ribalta and his followers

replaced the Macip dynasty as the domi­
nant school of painting i n Valencia. The
style o f this drawing is comparable to two
pen-and-ink and wash studies attributed
to the artist, Christ with the Eucharist and
The Savior (lost i n 1936; both formerly
located i n Instituto Jovellanos, Gijón).
P R O V E N A N C E : N e w York art market.

y6 Acquisitions /1994


Spanish, 1574-1634
Triumph of the Cross, ca. 1613-34
t)rown wash, black and red chalk;
23.4 x 22.2 cm (9% x 8% in.)

The son o f Patrizio Cascesi, the Tuscan

painter who had come to work at the
Escorial i n 1567, Cajés studied i n Rome
and returned to Spain where he eventually
became a royal painter i n 1612. He and his
friend and sometimes collaborator, Vicente
Carducho, were the dominant artists w o r k ­
ing for K i n g Philip III (r. 1598-1621). I n
this drawing the cross is carried aloft by
angels, accompanied by an ecstatic heav­
enly concert. I n style it is consistent w i t h
other wash drawings by Cajés, such as
Religious Scene in a Temple (Musée du Louvre,
Département des arts graphiques, Paris, inv.
RF 42638). Florentine influences also are
apparent i n the drawings reminiscent o f
the work of Jacques Callot (1592-1635)
and Giovanni Bilivert (1585—1644).
P R O V E N A N C E : Hans Calmann, London: private
collection, Germany; N e w York art market.


25. VICENTE CARDUCHO In this drawing Carducho depicts Saint

Spanish, ca. 1576-1638 Jerome holding a pen i n his right hand
Saint Jerome Hearing the Trumpet and raising his left as he hears the sound o f
of the Last Judgment, ca. 1626—32 the trumpet o f the Last Judgment, a pose
Black chalk and brown wash w i t h that recalls one of Jusepe de Riberas t w o
lead white heightening, squared i n etchings o f the same subject made i n 1621.
black chalk; 31.8 x 21.6 cm (12V2 x The sketchy chalk lines, prominent use o f
$y in.). Inscribed: De Bicencio Carcu-
white, and squaring are characteristic o f
cho/20 Rls i n brown i n k i n the upper many o f Carducho s drawings, such as
left corner and 20 Rls i n brown i n k The Birth of the Virgin (Biblioteca Nacional,
in the lower left corner; collection Madrid, inv. B. 13), which, like this and
mark o f Luigi Grassi (L. Suppl. 117b) a number o f other drawings by the artist,
in the lower left corner; (verso) is inscribed w i t h his name i n an old
unidentified collection mark. hand, possibly that o f a seventeenth-
94.GA.86 century collector.
Drawings JJ

P R O V E N A N C E : Luigi Grassi, Florence; A n t o n the Sevillian style o f drawing practiced

Schmid, M u n i c h and Vienna; N e w York art later by Bartolomé M u r i l l o (1617—1682)
market. and Alonso Cano (1601—1667).
B I B L I O G R A P H Y : D. Angulo and A. E. Perez PROVENANCE: A n t o n Schmid, M u n i c h and
Sanchez, A Corpus of Spanish Drawings: Vienna; N e w York art market.
Madrid, 1600-1630 (London, 1977), vol. 2,
no. 190, pi. 52. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Angulo and A. E. Perez
Sanchez, A Corpus of Spanish Drawings, 1400-1600,
vol. 1 (London, 1975), no. n o , p. 35; J. B r o w n ,
26. JUAN DEL CASTILLO Murillo and His Drawings, exh. cat. (The A r t
Museum, Princeton University, 1976), pp.
Spanish, ca. 1590-ca. 1657
24-25; M . Mena Marqués, " M u r i l l o as a Drafts­
Saint Jerome (recto); Kneeling Male Nude
man," i n Bartolomé Murillo, 1617—1682, ed.
(verso), ca. 1630—50
M . Mena Marqués et al., exh. cat. (Museo del
Pen and brown i n k (recto and verso), Prado, M a d r i d and Royal Academy o f Arts,
21 x 14.9 cm (8 / x 5% in.). Inscribed:

London, 1982-83), p. 63, under no. 8.

Castillo i n brown i n k i n the lower
left corner.

A major painter o f Seville during the

163os and 1640s, Juan del Castillo prac­
ticed a retrospective style combining vari­
ous Spanish influences w i t h those o f
Central Italian Mannerists, notably the
Zuccari. Among the few drawings attrib­
uted to h i m , this and number 27 i n this
volume (see page 78) have the most sub­
stantial claim to his authorship. They
have been ascribed by Jonathan B r o w n
on the basis o f the identical, probably
seventeenth-century, inscriptions o f the
artist s name appearing on both, and on
their style, w i t h its erratic, rough pen lines
and pronounced parallel hatching. B r o w n
detects i n these examples a precedent for

26 (verso) 26 (recto)
78 Acquisitions /1994


The female figure on the recto wearing 28. A N T O N I O D E L CASTILLO Y SAAVEDRA

billowing robes and resting her foot on a Spanish, 1616—1668
sphere might be an allegory o f friendship, Saint Jerome Hearing the Trumpet of the
as indicated by the inscriptions. The sketch Last Judgment, ca. 1645—50
on the verso, which shows a man being Reed pen and brown i n k w i t h white
27 (verso)
crucified, is drawn from a l o w vantage gouache heightening on green pre­
point that emphasizes the tortured defor­ pared paper; black chalk and dark
mation o f his body. Like the verso o f brown i n k framing line, 29.3 x
number 26 (see page 77), this study o f a 19.8 cm (ii%> x 7% in.). M o n o -
Standing Allegorical Figure (Amititias)
martyr, w i t h its lack of physical idealiza­ grammed: A.C. at the bottom right;
(recto); Crucifixion (verso),
ca. 1630-50 tion and open, rough pen work, calls to inscribed: 196 rs(?) and No 57 i n
mind the precedent of Jusepe de Pdbera brown i n k at the bottom left and
Pen and brown ink, 21.7 x 14.8 cm
(1588-1652), as i n his drawings such as center, and 92 i n black chalk i n the
(8%> x 5% in.). Inscribed: by the artist
Cerca, Lexos, Muerte, Vida w i t h i n the The Crucifixion of Saint Peter (Metropolitan lower right corner; inscribed (verso):
figure i n brown ink, and Amititias at Museum of Art, New York). perhaps by Antonio del Castillo i n
her feet; Castillo i n brown i n k at the PROVENANCE: A n t o n Schmid, M u n i c h and
graphite on a piece of paper glued to
lower right; inscribed (verso): Mo Rl Vienna; N e w York art market. the mount and several other illegible
in brown ink. inscriptions.
Drawings 79

The depiction o f the truncated end o f the Formerly ascribed to Francisco Zurbarán, The manner o f drawing may, how-
trumpet reflects the influence of Jusepe this drawing can be compared to Cabeza- ever, be compared w i t h that o f Carreho s
de Riberas etching o f Saint Jerome Hearing leros The Raising of the Cross (Museo del Study for the Assumption of the Virgin (Metro-
the Trumpet of the Last Judgment o f 1621. Prado, Madrid), a preparatory study for politan Museum of Art, N e w York, Gift
Otherwise, Antonio's conception differs a painting i n the Chapel o f the T h i r d of Cornelius Vanderbilt, 1880, 80.3.490),
markedly from that of Ribera, most Order, Madrid. Similarities between the which is a study for the painting i n the
notably i n the robust physique o f the saint two drawings include tenebristic modeling Muzeum Wielkopolski, Poznan, made
and his beatific gaze toward heaven as he of the forms i n large passages of wash during the mid-1650s.
hears the trumpet's blast. The artist por- alternating w i t h patches o f the blank PROVENANCE: Duke o f Savoy-Aosta, region o f
trayed Saint Jerome i n a number o f draw- white paper and broken pen lines that Brianza, Italy; private collection, Germany;
ings (for example, Hamburger Kunsthalle, outline the forms. Cabezalero spent a N e w York art market.
Hamburg, inv. 38508, and Herbert F. number of years i n the studio of Juan
Johnson Museum of Art, Ithaca, inv. Carreño (1614-1685) i n Madrid, and
56.517) and i n a painting o f 1655 (Museo was one o f his more talented pupils.
del Prado, Madrid), but this is the only PROVENANCE: Hubert de Marignane, Paris; p r i -
one among these that depicts the saint vate collection (sale, Nicolas Rauch, Geneva,
w i t h the trumpet o f the Last Judgment. June 13-15, i960, lot 448); private collection,
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Germany; Europe; N e w York art market.
N e w York art market.


Spanish, 1614-1685
The Visitation, ca. 1655—60
Pen and brown ink, brown wash, and
white heightening w i t h touches o f
black chalk; fragmentary sketch i n
black chalk (verso). 24.7 x 23.6 cm
(9% x 9%> in.). Collection mark of the
Duke o f Savoy-Aosta (L. Suppl. 47a)
in the lower left corner; inscribed
(verso): A. gherardiani i n graphite.

The handling o f this drawing includes

welters o f nervous and irregular pen lines
combined w i t h patches of white heighten-
ing thinly brushed on, and a searching 31

manner o f sketching the forms, often

experimenting w i t h several poses i n a
single figure. Such a style also recalls that 31. FRANCISCO DE HERRERA THE YOUNGER
of the Florentine Alessandro Gherardini (El Mozo)
(1655—1726), to w h o m the drawing pre- Spanish, 1627-1685
sumably was once attributed. The Assumption of the Virgin, ca. 165 5—80
Pen and brown ink, brown wash over
black chalk, 30.6 x 21.8 cm (12%, x
8%6 in.). Inscribed: Mozo i n brown
29 ink at the bottom (partially trimmed
away) and an illegible, trimmed
inscription i n the lower left corner;
29. ATTRIBUTED TO dry stamp o f Francois Renaud
JUAN MARTÍN CABEZALERO (L. Suppl. 1042) i n the lower
Spanish, ca. 163 3-1673 right corner.
Saint Francis (?) Interceding with the 94.GA.83
Virgin on Behalf of a Female Saint,
One o f the most original and influential
ca. 1665-70
Spanish painters o f the seventeenth cen-
Pen and brown ink, brown wash tury, Herrera the Younger developed a
over black chalk, 22 x 14.7 cm manner notable for formal dynamism,
(8% x 5 / in.). Inscribed: FD ZURB
brilliant color, and lively brushwork.
at the lower left i n brown ink; collec- This drawing may be compared w i t h
tion mark o f Hubert de Marignane
in the lower right corner; inscribed
(verso): Zurbaran i n black chalk.
94.GA.97 30
8o Acquisitions /1994

other sheets attributed to the artist, Collector." Murillos adolescent Baptist (ca. 1590-1654). Very little is k n o w n about
such as Angels with the Cross (Museo del projects tenderness and intimacy, as he his drawn oeuvre. The attribution to h i m
Prado, Madrid). sits casually on a rock, stroking his lamb. of this beautiful and moving drawing is
On the verso of the piece of laid paper to based on a comparison w i t h paintings such
P R O V E N A N C E : F. Renaud, Paris; private collection,
Munich; N e w York art market. which Murillos drawing is mounted is as The Liberation of Saint Peter o f circa 1656
a faint sketch, also perhaps by the artist, (Seville Cathedral) and The Annunciation
showing a history scene, possibly one of circa 1661 (University of Michigan
of Dido and Aeneas. Museum of Art, A n n Arbor).
P R O V E N A N C E : J. A. Ceán Bermúdez; M . de P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Munich; N e w
Beurnonville; A . von Beckerath, Berlin; Kaiser York art market.
Friedrich Museum, Berlin; Bode Museum,
Berlin (deaccessioned); private collection,
Munich; N e w York, art market.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y : P. Lefort, " M u r i l l o et ses eleves,"

Gazette des Beaux-Arts 12 (1875), pp. 259, 261;
idem, Murillo et ses eleves suivi du catalogue raisonne
de ses principaux ouvrages (Paris, 1892), p. 55;
J. B r o w n , Murillo and His Drawings, exh. cat.
(The A r t Museum, Princeton University, 1976),
p. 22 and no. 9, p. 72.


Spanish, 1622—1690
The Agony in the Garden, ca. 1655—60
Pen and brown ink, brown wash and
black chalk, 28.8 x 21.3 cm ( n / x 3

SYs in.). Inscribed: Ambulabis infortitu-

dinis usque ad mortem [Go i n strength
unto death] by the artist i n brown
32 ink i n the bandarole held by angels
at the top. 34
Active i n Córdoba and Seville, Valdés's 34. ALONSO CANO
Spanish, 1617-1682 style was initially influenced by Antonio Spanish, 1601-1667
The Young John the Baptist with the del Castillo y Saavedra (1616—1668) and The Virgin and Child Appearing
Lamb, ca. 1655; A History Scene (Dido later by Francisco Herrera the Elder to Two Bishops, ca. 1652—67
and Aeneas?) (verso o f the mount;
Red chalk, squared w i t h stylus,
not illustrated).
20.1 x 18 cm (7% x 7K6 in.).
Pen and brown i n k over black chalk;
Inscribed (verso): illegible inscription
pen and brown i n k (verso o f the
in black chalk.
mount),27.2 x 19.2 cm (10% x 7% in.).
Inscribed: Bartolome Murillo. fa i n t

brown i n k at the lower center mar­ Canos authorship o f this previously

gin; collection mark o f the Kaiser unpublished example is supported by its
Friedrich Museum (L. 1612; verso similarity to other chalk drawings by h i m ,
of the mount). such as Madonna delta Misericordia, a late
94.GA.79 drawing o f around 1654-57 (Alcubierre
collection, Madrid).
On the basis o f its rough pen work, w i t h
parallel hatching used for interior modeling P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Switzerland;
and cross hatching for shadows, Jonathan N e w York art market.
B r o w n groups this w i t h similarly rendered
drawings by Murillo, probably made i n
the mid-i650s. Like certain other auto­
graph drawings by the artist (including
number 40 [see page 83] and one already i n
the Museums collection [90.GG.137]), it is
inscribed w i t h his name i n what is proba­
bly a seventeenth-century hand, referred
to by B r o w n as that o f the "Contemporary 33
Drawings 81

36. A N T O N I O DEL CASTILLO Y SAAVEDRA This is one of many studies o f heads o f

Spanish, 1616-1668 men and women by Antonio. The clear
Study of Four Male Heads, ca. 1660—68 hatching and carefully disposed mis en page
Reed pen and brown ink; 21 x 15.5 suggest that this, like many other such
cm (8V£ x 6V\6 in.). Monogrammed: sheets by h i m , was made either with the
A.C. i n the center. intention of publication i n an instructional
94.GA.88 book on drawing or to sell on the market
as a finished work.
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Europe; N e w
York art market.



Spanish, 163 8-1689
A Saint in Glory, ca. 1660—89
Pen and brown ink, 16 x 10.9 cm
(6 Ae x 4% in.). Inscribed (verso):

illegible inscription i n pencil

on the mount.

Bocanegra was a student of Alonso Cano

at Granada, where Cano worked from
1660 until his death i n 1667. Later i n his
career, he worked i n Seville and Madrid,
where he became court painter i n 1676.
His drawings are extremely rare. This
example, w i t h its pronounced diagonal
hatching reflecting Cano's influence,
accords well w i t h the signed pen study o f
Saint Jerome by Bocanegra i n the Uffizi,
Florence (inv. 10103 S.).
PROVENANCE: Sauerwein collection, Munich;
private collection, Germany; N e w York
art market.

82 Acquisitions /1994


Spanish, ca. 1632—1690 Spanish, 1628-168 8
Equestrian Portrait of Don Juan of Study for a Statue of Queen Isabella
Austria, ca. 1660—80 the Catholic, 1675
Black chalk, pen and brown ink, Pen and brownish-gray ink, yellow
brown wash, white chalk, squared i n and gray washes, touches of red wash,
black chalk; fragmentary sketch i n with black chalk underdrawing, 34.4 x
black chalk (verso), 23.1 x 21.3 cm 23.4 cm (13V£ x 9% in.). Inscribed: F
(9^8 x 8 /s in.). Inscribed (verso):
and Y i n brown i n k w i t h yellow
Album sur . . . . (?) i n black chalk. wash i n the baldichino over the
94.GA.93 Queens head; and bara i n brown i n k
at the bottom right; signed: Po demena
Don Juan, the illegitimate son o f King
fe i n brown ink at the bottom left;
Philip IV (r. 1621-65), was sent to Naples
unidentified collection marks M and
at the age o f eighteen to quell the anti-
5 i n the bottom left corner; inscribed
Spanish revolt led by Tommaso Aniello da
(verso): w i t h the authorizing signa-
Amalfi, k n o w n as Masaniello. D o n Juan
tures Fr(ay) Franc(is)co Ar(zobis) po de
remained i n Naples from October 1647
Granada, Don Eug(eni)o de Ribadeneyra,
until September 1648. Some time during
Don Franciso Jerrez y Maca . . . (?), Don
this period Pdbera painted an equestrian
Suarex . . . de toledo y bregón, Don Mar-
portrait o f h i m (Palacio Real, Madrid), on
tin de Ascargota (above which i n a later
which he based his etching o f 1648. The
hand), este fue tamb(ie)n arzob(is)po a
mounted figure of Don Juan i n this draw-
38 Granada), D(on) Pedro de Urrea;
ing by Donoso is derived from the second
illegible inscription i n brown
state o f the etching, which shows the sub-
ink i n the lower center.
ject w i t h a mustache rather than as the
beardless youth encountered i n the paint-
Spanish, ca. 1638—1670
ing and i n the first state o f the etching. This highly worked example i n pen
The Apparition of the Virgin and Child to
The drawing contains figures that are not and watercolor served as the modello for
a Male Saint, ca. 1660—70
found i n the etching, notably the de Menas marble statue o f Queen Isa-
Pen and brown ink, brown wash,
tumultuous crowd o f soldiers and the van- bella (r. 1474—1504), which he made i n
and black chalk, 21 x 14.4 cm (8K x
quished enemy surrounding D o n Juan. conjunction w i t h one of King Ferdinand
SYs in.). Inscribed: E. Madrileña i n
These subsidiary figures are comparable to (r. 1479-1516), around 1675-77, for the
brown ink i n the lower right corner
those i n The Virgin of Victory (Biblioteca main chapel o f the cathedral o f Granada.
of the mount.
Nacional, Madrid), a study for Donoso s On the verso are the authorizing signa-
lost high altar for the church o f San Fran- tures o f the archbishop o f Granada, his
cisco de Paular, Madrid. The short-lived Valencian painter Miguel secretary, the acting canon o f the cathe-
March is the proposed author o f this draw- dral, and other chapel representatives.
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Germany; N e w
ing. Its abbreviated, broken pen style and De Menas drawing for the statue of the
York art market.
simplified modeling o f the forms i n wash king, which like the present example
alternating with blank paper recall the was i n the Carderera collection, Madrid,
drawing The Adoration of the Magi (Museo has disappeared. The decoration o f the
del Prado, Madrid, bequest o f F. Duran, Capilla Mayor o f the cathedral o f
inv. 1394), which bears an ascription to the Granada, which took place from the
artist i n a seventeenth-century hand. 1650s through the 1670s, was one o f

P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Germany; N e w

the principal Spanish sculptural projects
York art market. of the seventeenth century.

P R O V E N A N C E : D o n Valentin Carderera y Solano,

Madrid; A n t o n Schmid, M u n i c h and Vienna;
N e w York art market.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: El Conde de la Vinaza, Adiciones

al Diccionario Histórico de los Más Ilustres Profesores
de las Bellas Artes en España de DJuan Augustín
Céan Bermúdez (Madrid, 1894), vol. 3, p. 41;
R . de Orueta y Duarte, La Vida y la Obra de
Pedro de Mena y Medrano (Madrid, 1914), p. 235;
H . Arenhamner, "Zwei Werke des Pedro de
Mena i n W i e n , " Alte und Neue Kunst 3 (1954),
pp. 128-32, n . 7; A . E. Pérez Sánchez, Historia
37 del dibujo en España de la Edad Media a Goya
(Madrid, 1986), pp. 305-8.
Drawings 83



TTie Christ Child as the Good Shepherd,
ca. 1675-80
Pen and brown ink over black chalk,
13.2 x 10.3 cm (5% x 4M6 in.).
Inscribed: Bartolome Murillo fat i n
brown ink at the lower center and
3 i n brown ink i n the lower left
corner; inscribed (verso): fragmentary
text of letter.

This is one o f a number o f images i n

which Murillo portrayed Christ the
Good Shepherd as a small child. Com­
pared to the celebrated painting o f the
same subject o f 1655-60 i n the Museo del
Prado, Madrid, which shows the little boy
seated while his flock grazes amidst classi­
cal ruins, this is a more active rendering i n
which the diminutive child walks uphill
carrying a lamb on his shoulders. It might
evoke Matthew 18:12: " H o w think ye?
I f a man have a hundred sheep, and
39 one o f them be gone astray, doth he not
leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into
mountains, and seeketh that which is gone
astray?" Brown proposes that the ragged,
notational pen work is typical of Murillo s
later manner o f drawing. This example
was inscribed with the artist s name by the
"Contemporary Collector" (see above,
number 32 [see page 80]).
P R O V E N A N C E : Sir W i l l i a m Stirling-Maxwell,
England; Lt.-Col. W i l l i a m Stirling, Keir (sale,
Sotheby's, London, October 21, 1963, lot 24);
private collection, Munich; N e w York
art market.
84 Acquisitions/1994

B I B L I O G R A P H Y : D. Angulo Iniguez, "Miscelanea

Murillesca," Archivo Espanol deArte 34 (1961),
p. 15; idem, "Algunos dibujos de M u r i l l o , "
Archivo Espanol deArte 47 (1974), p. 106;
G. M c K i m Smith, Spanish Baroque Drawings in
North American Collections, exh. cat. (University
of Kansas Museum o f Art, Lawrence, 1974),
p. 51, under no. 27; J. B r o w n , Murillo and His
Drawings, exh. cat. (The A r t Museum, Prince­
ton University, 1976), no. 88, p. 176.


Spanish, 1614-1685
Study for a Ceiling with the Virgin and
Christ in Glory, ca. 1678
Pen and brown i n k and brown wash
w i t h graphite, incised, 27.7 x 28.8 cm
(10% x 11% in.). Inscribed (verso):
Italian school 17th century/Design for a
vault and TMD i n graphite.

Pdzi was one o f the outstanding Spanish

masters o f quadratura (ceiling painting
involving the illusionistic projection o f
architectural space). This drawing might
be a discarded design for the Capilla del
Milagro i n the Convent o f the Descalzas
Reales i n Madrid; i n 1678 P i z i decorated
its dome w i t h a quadratura scene showing
the Coronation o f the V i r g i n . 4i
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Germany; N e w
York art market.

Spanish, 1641—1711
A Monk Carrying a Cross,
ca. 1680-1700
Pen and brown ink, brown wash over
black chalk, 25.6 x 16.1 cm (ioMe x
6 /s in.). Collection mark o f Sir John

W i t t (L. Suppl. 646; verso).


The spare style o f this drawing, with its

scratchy pen work and raking light, com­
plements the subject, which features a
religious ascetic enacting the Passion.
Although formerly ascribed to M u r i l l o
and Carreno, it is closer to drawings by
Conchillos, such as the group o f signed
sheets depicting the life o f Saint Thomas
of Villaneuva (sale, Madrid, Sotheby's, Peel
y Asociados, May 18, 1993, lot 69). A pupil
of Esteban March, Conchillos was a late
representative o f the Valencian tradition,
which was characterized by naturalism
in the service o f extreme spirituality
and asceticism. P R O V E N A N C E : Sir John W i t t , London; private
collection, Germany; N e w York, art market.


43. Pentecost
Cutting from a manuscript
Illuminated by Girolamo da Cremona
(active 1451-1483)
Mantua (?), ca. 1 4 6 0 - 7 0
Vellum, 20.1 x 12.9 c m ( 7 % x 5X6 in.).
One full-page miniature.
Ms. 55; 94.MS.13

PROVENANCE: Guy Ladrière, Paris.

86 Acquisitions/1994

45. . Book o f Hours, Use o f Rome Flight into Egypt (fol. 103v), The Coronation
Illuminated by the Spitz Master, the of the Virgin (fol. 112); Mass o f the V i r g i n
Master o f the Harvard Hannibal, and (fols. 125-129V); Marian antiphons
others (fois. 130-13 3v): initial S w i t h The Virgin
France, probably Paris, and Child in an Enclosed Garden (fol. 130);
ca. 1415-25 Seven Joys o f the V i r g i n (fols. 133V—134V;
Vellum, i i + 247 + i i i leaves. Colla- Prayers (fois. 135—136V); H y m n to the
tion: i , 2 , 3 , 4 - 5 , 6 + (fol. 49),
1 2 10 2 8 8 1
Holy Spirit (fois. 137-137V); Penitential
7-11 , 12 ' (after fol. 93)' 13-16 , 17 ,
8 8 1 8 9
Psalms (fois. 138—151V); David in Prayer
18-19 , 20 (after fol. 160), 21 , 22 , 23
8 8_1 8 5 6
(fol. 138); Litany (fols. 151V-158); Prayers
(irregular), 24 , 2 5 - 3 1 , 323, 332.
7 8
(fols. 158-160V); Hours o f the Cross [lack-
ing incipit] (fois. 161-169); Prayer to Christ
The gatherings are numbered i n pen- (fol. 169); Passion Prayers (fols. 170-173V):
cil at the lower left corner o f the first The Agony in the Garden (fol. 169V), The
leaf (except that gatherings 4 and 33 Betrayal of Christ (fol. 170V), The Flagellation
are not numbered). There are catch- (fol. 172V); Prayer to A l l Saints (fol. 174);
words, mostly fragmentary, on fols. Prayer to the V i r g i n (fols. 174V-175);
I2v, 22v, 24V, 173V, 179V, 243V. Leaf: The Five Joys o f the V i r g i n (fois. 175—176);
44. Historiated Initial D w i t h Noah 20.1 x 15 cm ( 7 % x 5% in.). Text area: Prayer to the V i r g i n (fol. 176); Salutation
Directing the Construction of the Ark 9.2 x 6 cm (3% x 2% in.), one column, to the V i r g i n (fol. 177): Celestial Virgin and
Cutting from an antiphonal illumina- fourteen lines. Latin and French text, Child Surrounded by the Lord, Saints, and
tion attributed to Master B. F. (active in a Gothic book hand. One full-page Seraphim (fol. 176V); Verses o f Saint Bernard
ca. 1495-1510) miniature, three three-quarter-page [incomplete] (fois. 177—177V); Prayer Com-
Lombardy, ca. 1495—1510 miniatures, seventeen half-page memorating the Mass o f Saint Gregory
Vellum, 16.8 x 17 cm (6% x 6 % in.). miniatures, twenty-one historiated (fois. 178-179); Prayer for Souls i n Purga-
Latin text i n a Gothic book hand, borders, numerous decorated borders, tory and other prayers (fols. 179V-181);
music i n square notation on a four- three historiated initials, numerous Stabat mater (fols. i8iv—184): The Deposition
line staff. One historiated initial. decorated initials. Red silk velvet over (fol. i 8 i v ) ; Prayers to the V i r g i n
Ms. 56; 94.MS.18 pasteboard binding. (fois. 184-186); Prayer to Saint Michael
Ms. 57; 94.ML.26 (fol. i86v); Prayer to Christ on the Cross
CONTENTS: The historiated D is the initial (fol. 187); Hours o f the Holy Spirit
letter o f the first responsory at Matins for CONTENTS: Calendar, i n French (fols. 1—I2v); (fols. 187V-193V): Pentecost (fol. 187V);
Quinquagesima (Hesbert 6472). The text The Passion according to Saint John Office o f the Dead, Use of Rome
on the verso isffin}isuniverse. (fols. 13—24V): The Entry into Jerusalem (fois. 194-243v): A Burial (fol. 194);
PROVENANCE: K. E. Hasse (1810-1902) [collectors (fol. 13); Gospel sequences (fols. 25—30V): Prayer (fol. 244); Suffrage o f Saint Susanna
mark (Lugt 860) on recto]; by inheritance to his The Four Evangelists Writing (fol. 25); [added i n fifteenth-century bâtarde]
son-in-law, Ernst Ehlers, and his wife (C. G. The Passion according to Saint John
Boerner sale, Leipzig, May 9-10, 1930, lot 257);
(fols. 244V—245); Psalms [added i n a
(fols. 31—32V): The Way to Calvary fifteenth-century Gothic hand]
Lewis Randall collection, Montreal; by inheri-
(fol. 31); Prayer (fols. 32V-33); Oh seer0 te (fols. 246-247V).
tance to his wife; [Jörn Günther, Hamburg];
[Sam Fogg, London].
(fols. 33v—38): Virgin and Child Enthroned
P R O V E N A N C E : Sir Robert S. Holford, Westonbirt,
(fol. 33V); O intemerata and memorial o f
C O M M E N T A R Y : The initial may belong to the acquired ca. 1845; by descent to Lt. Col. Sir
Saint Christopher (fols. 38-42); Suffrage
same set o f choir books as the initial C w i t h George L . Holford, Dorchester House, London
of Saint Christopher (fols. 42V—44v):
King David i n the Wildenstein Collection (sale, Sotheby's, London, July 29, 1929, lot 7, to
(Musee Marmottan, Paris). Mirella Levi d ' A n -
Saint Christopher Carrying the Christ Child Quaritch); Cortlandt F. Bishop, N e w York (sale,
cona has linked this and a large group o f the (fol. 42v); Prayers i n honor o f many saints Anderson Galleries, N e w York, July 25-27, 1938,
other cuttings by Master B. F. to twenty (fols. 44V-45); Memorial o f Saint Cather- lot 1409, to Ernst Brummer); i n 1947
volumes o f choir books probably made ine (fol. 45); Suffrages of Saints Catherine, to M r . and Mrs. Joel Spitz, Glencoe, Illinois;
for the church o f Saints Angelo and Niccolö Michael, Peter, Paul, James, and Sebastian private collection, U.S.
at Villanova Silaro near M i l a n . (fols. 45V-48): Saint Catherine Tended by C O M M E N T A R Y : The compositions o f some o f the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: M . Levi d'Ancona, The Wildenstein Angels and Visited by the Queen (fol. 45v); miniatures are based on miniatures i n the Très
Collection of Illuminations: The Lombard School Memorial o f Saint Sebas-tian (fol. 48v): Riches Hemes o f the duc de' Berry (Musée
(Florence, 1970), p. 99. initial S w i t h The Martyrdom of Saint Sebas- Condé, Chantilly) and the Belles Heures o f the
tian (fol. 48v); Suffrage of Saint Anthony duc de' Berry (The Cloisters, N e w Y)rk).
and indulgence prayer (fols. 49-49V): initial BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Waagen, Treasures of Art in
K w i t h Saint Anthony Abbot (fol. 49); Great Britain Being an Account of the Chief Collec-
The Hours o f the V i r g i n , Use o f Rome tions of Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures, Illuminated
(fols. 50—125): The Annunciation (fol. 50), Mss., &c. &c, 3 vols. (London, 1854), vol. 2,
The Visitation (fol. 71), The Nativity (fol. 84), pp. 212-14; Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts,
The Annunciation to the Shepherds (fol. 89V), exh. cat. (Burlington Fine Arts Club, London,
The Presentation in the Temple (fol. 98v), The 1908), no. 207; [Robert H . Benson], The Holford
Manuscripts 87

45 (fol. 84)
88 Acquisitions /1994

45 (fol. 103V) 45 (fol. I 8 I V )

Collection Illustrated with One Hundred and One Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United (Pierpont Morgan Library, N e w York, 1982),
Plates Selected from Twelve Illuminated Manuscripts States and Canada (New York, 1962), p. 166, p. 2 (under no. 2); C. Nordenfalk, "En gatfull
at Dorchester House and One Hundred and Seven under "The Joel and Maxine Spitz Collection o f Birgittabild," Kungelige Vitterhets, Historie och
Pictures at Westonbirt in Gloucestershire (London, Illuminated Mss.," no. 2; M . Meiss, French Paint­ Antikvitets Akadamiens Arsbok iggo, pp. 74-76,
1924), pp. 9, 38, no. 6, p i . 13; J. Meurgey, Les ing in the Time ofJean de Berry: The Boucicaut Master fig. 6; L. M . C. Randall, Medieval and
Principaux Manuscrits à Peintures du Musée Condé à (New York, 1968), p. 147, n. 30; idem, The De Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery,
Chantilly, Société Française de Reproductions de Levis Hours and the Bedford Workshop (New Volume II: France, 1420-1540 (Baltimore
Manuscrits à Peintures, 14th year (Paris, 1930), Haven, 1972), p. 21, n. 53; idem, French Painting and London, 1992), p. 82.
p. 72; S. de Ricci and W. J. Wilson, Census of in the Time ofJean de Berry: The Limbourgs and Their
Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United Contemporaries (New York, 1974), pp. 88, 239,
States and Canada, 3 vols. (New York, 1935-40), 362, 391, 456 n. 274, 462 n. 384, 472 n . 689,
vol. 2, p. 2325, under "Collection o f the Late figs. 391, 634-36; J. Plummer w i t h G. Clark,
Cortlandt Field Bishop," no. 63; W. H . Bond The Last Flowering: French Painting in Manuscripts,
and C. U . Faye, Supplement to the Census of 1420-1530, from American Collections, exh. cat.
Manuscripts 89

47. Canon tables from a Gospel book P R O V E N A N C E : Catholicos Constantine I

(Zeyt'un Gospels) (1221—67); bound into a Gospel book i n Kahra-
Illuminated and written by Tbros manmaras, Turkey; Nazareth Atamian; private
collection, U.S.
Roslin (active 1256-68)
Hromklay, 1256 C O M M E N T A R Y : The canon tables come from
Vellum, 4 bifolia. Leaf: 26.5 x 19 cm the Zeyt'un Gospels (Matenadaran Institute o f
(10% x jY2 in.). Text area: 18.6 cm x Ancient Armenian Manuscripts, Erevan, Ms.
10450 [olim Istanbul, Armenian Patriarchate]).
12 cm (7% i n . x 4% in.). Armenian
The ornamentation o f the canon tables was
text i n Bologir script. Eight illumi­
inspired by the canon tables i n a Gospel book
nated canon table pages. o f 1253 that was illuminated by Tbros Roslin's
Ms. 59; 94.MB.71 teacher Hohannes (Freer Gallery o f A r t , Smith­
CONTENTS: The Eusebian canon tables. sonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Ms.


46. Leaf from a book o f hours or

other type of prayer book:
The Repentance of David before
Nathan and David and Bathsheba
Rouen, ca. 1500
Vellum, leaf 17.6 x 12.8 cm ( 6 % x
5 in.). Text area: 11 x 6.5 cm (4X0 x
2%e in.), one column, twenty-four
lines. Latin text i n bâtarde. One full-
page miniature, one bas-de-page
Ms. 58; 94.MS.43

CONTENTS: The text on the verso is the

opening o f Psalm 6, the first o f the Peni­
tential Psalms.
P R O V E N A N C E : Gift o f Gerlinde Kisters.

47 (fol. 3v)
90 Acquisitions /1994

47 (fol. 5v)

B I B L I O G R A P H Y : G. Yovsep'ian, "The Catholicos Armenian Patriarchate i n Hromkla and the

Constantine I " [in Armenian], i n Materials and West" (Ph.D. diss, N e w York University, 1990),
Studies on the History, the Art, and the Culture of the pp. 155, 159 n. 18; S. Der Nersessian, Miniature
Armenians [in Armenian] (New York, 1943), Painting in the Armenian Kingdom of Ciliciafrom the
vol. 2, pp. 26-28, 41-42, figs. 19-26 (reprinted Twelfth to the Fourteenth Century, Dumbarton
in a collection o f the authors articles, 1983); Oaks Studies 31 (Washington, D.C., 1993),
S. Der Nersessian, "Tbros Roslin et l'évangile pp. 51-52; T. F. Mathews and R. S. Wieck,
de Zeytoun," i n Etudes byzantines et arméniennes eds., Treasures in Heaven: Armenian Illuminated
(Louvain, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 559-62 (French Manuscripts, exh. cat. (Pierpont Morgan Library,
translation o f an article originally published i n N e w York, and Walters A r t Gallery, Baltimore,
Armenian i n 1952); H . C. Evans, "Canon 1994), no. 82 (catalogue entry by H . C. Evans).
Tables as an Indication o f Teacher-Pupil Rela­
tionships i n the Career o f Tbros Roslin," i n
Medieval Armenian Culture, ed. T.J. Samuelian
and M . E. Stone (Chico, 1984), pp. 272-90;
H. C. Evans, "Manuscript Illumination at the


(Antonio Allegri)
Italian, ca. 1489-1534
Head of Christ, ca. 1530
Oil on panel, 28 x 22.8 cm ( 1 1 x 9 in.)

The subject o f this devotional painting is

perhaps best understood as a reinterpreta-
tion o f the highest tradition o f Renaissance
portraiture, the depiction o f Christ's face as
it was miraculously imprinted on the veil
of Saint Veronica. The iconic prototype
is recalled by the absolute frontality o f
Christ's face, his even features, hair, and
crown o f thorns. But Correggio departs
from tradition by showing Christ bust-
length, dressed i n the red robe o f the
Passion, and turning toward the viewer.
Veronica's veil is the folded, white, cloth
background that extends to drape across
Christ's shoulder. The veil and its soft
white fringes are trompe lbeil illusions
meant to blur the distinction between real
and fictive space. The painting's profound
impact as a devotional image depends on
Correggio's bold artistic conceit: he does
not show Christ's face imprinted on the
veil but instead depicts Christ wrapped
within the veil; it is the living face o f
Christ, not his image, that looks out
toward the viewer.
The Head of Christ exemplifies Correg-
gio's well-known ability to invent new
types o f devotional imagery that capture
the protagonists i n vibrant realistic
moments. A n example o f his mature style,
the painting most closely resembles the
Ecce Homo (National Gallery, London).
Correggio's invention has been adapted by
followers i n two versions, a near copy i n 48
the Academia dei Concordi di Rovigo and
a variant i n the Turin Gallery. The Bob
(sale, Paris, May 23, 1814, lot 21); Prince de Tal- pp. 13-15 (illustrated); E. Riccomini, "Le Cor-
Jones Collection owns a later copy.
leyrand, sold 1832 to Peter Leopold (1778-1837) rège: un visage du Christ," EOeil (September
PROVENANCE: Leonor Matignon, bishop o f fifth Earl Cowper; sixth Earl Cowper (+1856); 1993), pp. 26-29 (illustrated); E. Riccomini,
Lisieux, 1663; i n the possession of Jacques hence by descent to Gage family, Firle Place, Un volto di Cristo, un dipinto ritrovato di Antonio
Goyon de Matignon, comte de Thorigny, until Firle, Lewes, East Sussex. Allegri detto II Correggio, exh. cat. (Correggio,
his death i n 1725, Paris, Hotel Matignon, rue Palazzo dei Principi, 1994), p. 9 (illustrated);
de Varennes; Jacques Francois Leonor de BIBLIOGRAPHY: Royal Academy Winter Exhibition,
D. Jaffé et al., The Earl and Countess of
Grimaldi, sire de Matignon and comte de exh. cat. (Royal Academy, London, 1881),
Arundel, Renaissance Collectors, exh. cat.
Thorigny, until his death i n 1751, Paris, Hotel no. 140; G. F. Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of
(J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, 1995),
Matignon; M . de Sereville (sale, Paris, January Art in Great Britain: Being an Account of More Than
pp. 5, 9, 15-20 (illustrated).
Forty Collections of Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures
22, 1812, lot 1); Jean Baptiste Pierre Le Brun
(London, 1857), p. 345; C. Gould, The Paintings
of Correggio (Ithaca, N e w York, 1976), pp. 123,
208; F. Russell, "Rondani's Masterpiece and a
Neglected Correggio," Apollo 167 (1976),
92 Acquisitions /1994

49 (-i) 49 (.2)

49. NICHOLAES ELIASZ. PICKENOY The small differences i n the dimen­ I , p. 489; Dutch Art, 1450-iQOo, exh. cat. (Royal
Dutch, ca. 1590-1654/56 sions o f the panels (the Young Woman mea­ Academy, London, 1929), no. 74; The Balch Col­
Portrait of a Man, 1632 sures 118.7 x 90.2 cm [46% x 35V2 in.]) can lection and Old Masters from Los Angeles Collections
be attributed to alterations made before Assembled in Memory of Mr. and Mrs. Allan C. Balch
O i l on wood, 121.9 x 85.1 cm
(Los Angeles, 1944), under no. 30; B. Frederick-
(48 x 33H in.). Inscribed at upper their first publication i n 1904. The present
sen, Catalogue of Paintings in the J. Paul Getty
right: JEtatis Suce 2[y]/Ano.iÖ32. compact format o f the Portrait of a Man
Museum (Malibu, 1972), under no. 98; E.
94.PB.1 demonstrates that it has been cut on the Benezit, Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des
This painting is the companion to sides, including most o f the last digit o f peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs, et graveurs (Paris,
Pickenoy's Portrait of a Young Woman, one the man's age. Likewise, the position o f the 1976), nouv. éd., vol. 4, p. 141.
of the first old master paintings purchased inscription on the Young Woman indicates
by J. Paul Getty. Acquired i n 1938, the that the panel has been cut at the top.
Young Woman later became one o f Getty's PROVENANCE: [Dowdeswell Gallery, London,
first gifts to his newly established museum 1904]; E. M . Denny, London (sale, Christie's,
i n 1954 (54.PB.3). The pendants were sepa­ London, March 31, 1906, lot 57); [Gooden &
rated at the time o f their sale i n 1927. Fox, London]; Mrs. Louis Raphael, London
(sale, Christie's, London, M a y 20, 1927, lot 16);
The paintings were almost certainly
[Knoedler, London]; Sir George Leon, B t , by
created to celebrate a marriage, which was
1929; by descent to Thomas Parrington, Alder-
one o f Pickenoy's specialties. The panels bury Salisbury, by 1964 (sale, Sotheby's, L o n ­
are both dated 1632, the year he painted don, A p r i l 20, 1988, lot 46); (sale, Sotheby's,
the monumental Civic Guard Banquet of N e w York, January 14, 1994, lot 23); [Otto
Captain Jacob Backer (Amsterdams Naumann Ltd., N e w York].
Historisch Museum).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: "Notes on Various Works o f
A r t , " Burlington Magazine 5 (June 1904), p. 319,
i l l . p. 315; A . von Wurzbach, Niederländisches
Künstlerlexicon (Vienna and Leipzig, 1906), vol.
Paintings 93


Italian, 1696-1770
The Miracle of the Holy House of Loreto,
ca. 1744
Oil on canvas, 123 x 77 cm (48% x
30% in.)

This sketch depicts the legend o f the

miraculous flight o f the V i r g i n Mary's
Holy House, or Santa Casa, which was
first recorded i n the late fifteenth century.
According to the tale, which had particu­
lar currency i n eighteenth-century Venice,
the house where Mary had been born and
where the Annunciation had taken place
was transported i n 1291 by angels from
Nazareth i n the Holy Land to Loreto, a
small town on Italy's Adriatic coast, when
it came under threat o f desecration by
invading Saracen armies.
The Getty sketch is probably the sec­
ond and final sketch for Tiepolo's frescoed
ceiling i n the Church o f the Scalzi, or
Discalced Carmelites, i n Venice, k n o w n
as Santa Maria di Nazareth, designed by
Baldassare Longhena i n the mid-seven­
teenth century. Working with Girolamo
Mengozzi-Colonna, who painted the
illusionistic architectural surrounds, Tiepolo
completed the commission between 1743
and 1745. The ceiling, Tiepolo's grandest
in his native city, was destroyed by bomb­
ing i n World War I and is today k n o w n
only by black-and-white photographs.
An oval oil sketch i n the Gallerie
deH'Accademia, Venice, represents an
earlier idea for the composition. Drawings
possibly related to the genesis o f the Holy
House composition are discussed by George
Knox i n an article that appeared i n Burling­
ton Magazine i n July 1968. Particularly close
are two pen-and-ink studies for the V i r g i n
and Child group i n the collection o f
The A r t Museum, Princeton University
(figs. 40 and 41 i n Knox).
P R O V E N A N C E : By tradition considered to have
come from the collection o f Cecilia Guardi,
wife o f Giambattista Tiepolo; Edward
Cheyney, 4 Audley Square, London, and Bad­
ger Hall, Shropshire (sale, London, A p r i l 29,
1885, lot 160); bought by the fifth Earl o f Rose- 50
bery; by descent to Eva, Countess o f Rosebery
(sale, London, December 11, 1974, lot 15);
bought by British R a i l Pension Fund; [Hazlitt, B I B L I O G R A P H Y : G. Knox, "G. B. Tiepolo and the 438-39; M . Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo : His Life
Gooden & Fox]. Ceiling o f the Scalzi," Burlington Magazine n o and Art (New Häven and London, 1986),
(July 1968), p. 397; W. Barcham, "Giambattista pp. 112-14; B. L. B r o w n , Giambattista Tiepolo:
Tiepolo's Ceiling for S. Maria di Nazareth i n Master of the Oil Sketch, exh. cat. (Kimbell A r t
Venice: Legend, Traditions, and Devotions," Museum, Fort Worth, 1994), pp. 33, 228-31,
Art Bulletin 61 (September 1979), pp. 433, no. 29, i l i .
94 Acquisitions /1994


French, 1704-1788
Gabriel Bernard de Rieux, ca. 1739—41
Pastel and gouache on paper mounted
on canvas, 200 x 150 cm (78% x 59 in.)

Gabriel Bernard de Rieux (1687-1745)

was the second son o f Samuel Bernard, the
immensely successful financier and
knowledgeable amateur. Samuel purchased
for Gabriel the title comte de Rieux i n 1702,
along w i t h an estate i n Languedoc.
Gabriel Bernard de Pdeux became conseiller
to the Paris Parlement at the age o f
twenty-five. Ten years later, i n 1727, he
was named président o f the second chambre
des enquêtes o f the Parlement, a post he
would hold until his death.
Samuel Bernards considerable bank-
ing fortune was divided between his two
sons at his death i n 1739. This inheritance
may have provided Gabriel the means and
impetus to commission this portrait from
La Tour. Its scale was unprecedented i n
the pastel medium and was presumably
intended to showcase the ability of pastel
to compete w i t h oil. The only comparable
work o f the period is La Tour's slightly
smaller Portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour
in the Louvre, Paris. A year after exhibit-
ing the Getty portrait, the artist executed
a half-length pastel o f Pdeux's second
wife, Suzanne-Marie-Henriette de
Boulainvilliers (Musée Cognacq-Jay, Paris).
P R O V E N A N C E : I n the sitters possession, i n his
hôtel i n the rue Notre Dames-des-Victoires
until his death i n 1745; his son, Anne-Gabriel-
H e n r i Bernard de Rieux, who removed it to
the château de Glisolles (Eure) where it
remained until his descendant, the duc de Cler-
mont Tonnerre, sold it to Wildenstein and Co.,
Paris, i n 1918; bought i n 1931 from Wildenstein
and Co. by Baron Maurice de Rothschild;
Baron Edmond de Rothschild, château de
Pregny, Geneva, Switzerland.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Wildenstein, Un Pastel de
La Tour: Le President de Rieux (Paris, 1919);
A. Besnard and G. Wildenstein, La Tour:
La vie et Voeuvre de Vartiste (Paris, 1928),
pp. 24-25, 34, 163 (figs. 35, 37, 40).


SELECTED ACQUISITIONS Valley o f N e w York. The picturesque his travels i n the Mediterranean, Egypt,
beauty o f the backdrop adds to the visual and the Holy Land. Bridges's calotype
richness o f the portrait. views i n the Holy Land are the earliest
This portrait is a fine companion piece photographs taken there by a British
to another daguerreotype portrait by Gur­ photographer.
ney o f this sitter i n the Museum's collec­ After being instructed i n the art o f
tion. The second portrait includes the same the calotype by William Henry Fox Tal­
backdrop and contains a prop vase clearly bot (1800-1877), Bridges departed for
marked w i t h Gurney s name. I t is unusual Malta where he joined the Reverend Cal­
to be able to l i n k up objects so closely vert Jones (1804-1877), a photographer
related, since many o f them have been dis­ who further encouraged his explorations
persed over the years to various collections. w i t h the medium. Both photographers
P R O V E N A N C E : W i l l i a m Becker, Huntington
frequently sought Talbot's advice and
Woods, Michigan; [unidentified vendor]; [Den­ adhered to the chemicals and techniques
nis A . Waters, Exeter, N e w Hampshire]. he recommended, and the majority o f
their negatives were printed at Talbot's
Reading Establishment.
53. GEORGE W I L S O N BRIDGES This photograph was made from
British, active 1846-1852 nearly the same viewpoint as a study
The Hebrew Cemetery-Tomb of Absalom, by Félix Teynard (1817-1892) i n the
Jerusalem, ca. 1850 Getty Museum's collection; however, the
52 Salt print, 16.2 x 20.6 cm (6% x negative has been reversed. Together the
SYs in.). Titled: verso print i n i n k at photographs demonstrate the latitude pho­
center The Hebrew Cemetery-Tomb of tographers working with paper negatives
52. JEREMIAH GURNEY Absalom-[illegible]. Jerusalem. had by comparison to their counterparts
American, 1812-1886 94.XM.65 working i n the daguerreotype process.
Portrait of Edward Carrington,Jr, 1842 The Reverend George Wilson Bridges is P R O V E N A N C E : Sotheby's, London, A p r i l 14, 1989,
Sixth-plate daguerreotype, 7.4 x 5.9 a little-known British photographer who lot 130; [Hans P. Kraus, Jr., N e w York, 1994].
cm ( 2 % x 2 /i6 in.). Inscribed: sitters

made nearly seventeen hundred calotype

name i n i n k on green silk case pad. negatives between 1846 and 1852, during

Beginning i n the early 1840s, Jeremiah

Gurney was one of Americans most
prominent daguerreotype artists who pro­
duced finely crafted portraits o f celebrities
as well as ordinary citizens. His work was
considered unexcelled by the photographic
journals o f the time, and his studios were
well-equipped with stylish salons, state-
of-the-art cameras, and highly trained
operators and colorists. He used the best
cameras and successfully experimented
w i t h lighting techniques that resulted i n
sharp, clear images. Furthermore, many o f
the backdrops he used i n making portraits
were of luscious landscapes or elegant
sitting rooms decorated with the
finest furnishings.
The background i n this portrait o f a
young boy is i n the style o f the Hudson
River School, a group o f nineteenth-
century American landscape painters who
painted primarily i n the region o f the
Catskill Mountains and the Hudson River
96 Acquisitions /1994

P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection; Werner Bokel- When Roger Fenton was hired by the
berg, Germany, 1992; [Hans P. Kraus, Jr., 1994]. British Museum to document its collec­
tions i n 1854, he was probably the first
photographer to be employed by any
museum. I n the course o f the next five
British, 1819-1869
years, when he was not engaged i n other
Three Heads of Minerva, 1856
projects such as photographing the
Salt prints, approximately 36.5 x
Crimean War, he made images for the
29 cm (14% x n /8 in.).

Museum o f manuscripts, drawings, and

sculpture. O f these, sculpture posed a con­
siderably greater challenge. Because of the
limitations o f the photographic materials
54 0 f his day, Fenton had to have the classical
busts moved outdoors i n order to expose
54. ERNEST BENECKE his negatives, and on occasion he resorted
German, active 1850s to dusting them w i t h white powder to
Vue de Gebel Mousir & II Cataract du produce better highlights. Three sequential
Nil au nord—Nubie [72.], March 6, studies o f the same head were acquired
1852 by the Museum this year. Each is made
Salt print, 16.3 x 21.7 cm (6Ke x from a different angle, and together they
8% in.). Inscribed: recto print III i n show how Fenton systematically studied
the negative; recto mount titled and to best present this head.
dated i n pencil at lower right; series PROVENANCE: A county library i n Wiltshire;
title printed on mount. 1 Ken Jacobson, Great Bardfield, Essex, England].

Ernest Benecke was an amateur artist who

eagerly exploited the graphic qualities o f
the calotype process. A member o f a fam­
ily of wealthy German merchant bankers,
Benecke had the necessary private income
to devote himself to the costly pursuit
55 (-0
of photography.
Between January and August 1852,
i n a singular variant o f the Grand Tour,
Benecke traveled throughout the Middle
East and concluded his tour i n Athens and
Florence. He worked alone, without offi­
cial support or public attention. I n an
eight-month period Benecke created a
body of work approaching one hundred
and fifty negatives, most of which he
meticulously signed, titled, and dated.
These views o f the Holy Land are among
the finest taken by any photographer i n
the 1850s. I n his compositions Benecke
often selected unusual details, angles o f
view, and framing. His view o f the second 55 (-3)
cataract o f the Nile (94.XM.66.10), how­
ever, is taken from a near identical view­
point as one o f the Felix Teynard prints i n
the Museum's collection. They differ
because on the outcrop o f the rock at the
left o f the composition Benecke has
55 (.2)
included a figure to provide a sense o f scale
for the dramatic view that he has arranged
i n the camera's ground glass.
Although Benecke s photographs are
extremely rare, the Museum was able to
acquire five o f his prints i n 1994.
Photographs 97

P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, London; [Don­ veil and robe she wears. The Western-style
ald Heald, N e w York]; [Russ Anderson, Aptos]. footstool is an anomalous touch i n a
photograph o f a supposedly Near-Eastern
type, but it permits the viewer to see the
shape o f the model's shoe and trouser leg,
Orientalist Study, 1858
which would have been exotic by
Albumen print from a wet collodion
Victorian standards.
on glass negative, 25.8 x 22.8 cm
(IOYS x 8 / in.)
3 PROVENANCE: From the artist to the collection

of his friend, the artist Carl Haag (1820-1915);

(sale, Sotheby's, London, June 1982, to an
During the course o f Fenton's expedition u n k n o w n purchaser); (Christies, London,
to photograph the Crimean War i n 1855, October 1993, to Cinema Consultants,
he acquired a number o f Near-Eastern New York).
articles o f clothing and objects that he
subsequently used i n his London studio
to create a series o f Orientalist studies.
Most o f the figures i n these pictures were
friends, although one woman appears
56 to have been a professional model. This
photograph deals w i t h a subject familiar to
art school teachers and students—how tex­
56. W I L L I A M LAKE PRICE tiles flow, fold, and drape, as evident i n the
British, 1810-1896 wall hanging behind the model and i n the
Augustus Leopold Egg, ca. 1857
Albumen print, 28.6 x 24.4 cm.
(11% x 9% in.). Recto mount printed
facsimile signature o f the sitter,
printed credit line Photographed from
Life by Lake Price, London Published by
Lloyd Brothers & C°. 96, Gracechurch
Street; recto mount i n pencil i n one
unknown hand a 52,000, and i n
another Gustave [sic] Leopold; verso
mount i n pencil i n an unknown hand
Augustus Leopold Egg/ Engl. Histor. Ptr.

Lake Prices photograph o f the English

painter Augustus Leopold Egg (1816-1863)
was made as part o f a series o f twelve por­
traits o f Royal Academicians, two o f
which were acquired by the Museum this
year. That this portrait shows a subject
w i t h a somewhat cadaverous face is not
surprising; the painter's i l l health fre­
quently led h i m to live i n the south o f
France, and he died at the age of forty-
seven. Egg was originally a painter o f
genre scenes, drawn from history or litera­
ture; but under the influence o f the pre-
Raphaelites, whose work he encouraged,
he gradually turned to scenes o f contem­
porary life.
Lake Price himself had originally
been a painter, but he took up photogra­
phy i n the early 1850s. His principal sub­
ject material was also genre scenes, drawn
from literature, such as that o f Cervantes,
and earlier paintings, such as those
of Franz Hals.

98 Acquisitions /1994

58 59

C A R L E T O N E. W A T K I N S Typically, he would make a mammoth This grove o f orange trees was situated
Carleton E. Watkins is considered to be plate negative o f a scene and then a along a sizable avenue on a large San
the most important and accomplished stereographic view from the same Gabriel ranch called Sunny Slope, then
American landscape photographer o f position or angle. owned and operated by Leonard J. Rose.
the second half o f the nineteenth century. This area later became the community
He is renowned for his views of YDsemite, P R O V E N A N C E : Yann Maillet, Islamorada, Florida.
of Rosemead, California. Watkins
which have been described as "the first made many similar images o f orange
body of American photographs to system­ groves during his stay i n Southern
atically present the landscape as a wilder­ 59. CARLETON E. WATKINS California i n the 1880s.
ness before the arrival o f man. They are Avenue of Orange Trees. Sunny Slope. P R O V E N A N C E : Unidentified San Francisco
not the first landscape photographs, but San Gabriel. Los Angeles Co. Cal, vendor; [Barry Singer, Petaluma, California].
they are the first to present nature from a ca. 1880
deliberately assumed artistic posture." Albumen print mounted on card
This year the Museum acquired seven stock, 11.1 x 17.8 cm (4 /s x 7 in.).

stereographs, three boudoir cards, and one Golden Gate from Black Point,
Titled i n i n k on recto mount
mammoth plate to augment the more than San Francisco, ca. 1870
below image.
fourteen hundred images by Watkins i n Albumen print, 20.3 x 29.8 cm
(8 x n / in.)

the existing collection, which is one o f the 4

finest o f his work to be found anywhere.


American, 1829-1916
Lookout Mountain, Cascades, Columbia
River, 1867
Two albumen prints mounted on
imprinted card stock, each 7.5 x 7.8 cm
( 2 % x 3^6 in.). Imprinted: title, date,
makers name and address on recto
and verso of mount.

Watkins often photographed the architec­

ture and topography o f San Francisco,
where he lived and operated a studio and
gallery i n which visitors could see a per­
manent display of views made throughout
the state and the West. He made several
trips to the Columbia River and created
some of his most compelling photographs
there. Watkins worked i n many formats.

Photographs 99

This view was taken from inside San

Francisco Bay looking toward the Golden
Gate (the strait leading from the Pacific
Ocean into the Bay) and Marin County.
In the foreground is a battery o f guns
installed across the water from Fort Point.
The fort itself can be seen i n the distance
at the center, at the southern end of where
the Golden Gate Bridge is now located.
Both the fort and the battery were built
in 1853 to guard the city from sea attack.
Two soldiers stand guard on the battery
seawall, which encloses a stockpile
of cannonballs.
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Boston,
Massachusetts; [Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco,


British, 1815-1879
Julia Duckworth, April 1867
Albumen print from a wet collodion
on glass negative, 34.3 x 26.1 cm
(13^ x 10% in.). Signed and inscribed:
in i n k From Life Registered Photograph,
Copyright on the mount below the
photograph; Colnaghi blindstamp,
now partially cropped, on the mount.

The photograph is a portrait of Julia Jack­

son (then Mrs. Herbert Duckworth, later
to be Mrs. Leslie Stephen), who was a
favorite niece o f Cameron's, and the
mother of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa
Bell. She was the model for the sympa­
thetic character of Mrs. Ramsay i n the
first section of Woolf s To the Lighthouse.
Her appearance, thought to be angelic by
her contemporaries, was i n contrast w i t h
her sometimes caustic tongue. The light­ 61
ing that Cameron applied to her i n this
romanticizing soft-focus portrait is similar
to that used by the photographer later i n 62. J U L I A MARGARET CAMERON
the same year for her heroicizing head Our Twin Stars (Charlotte and
of Thomas Carlyle. This is the strongest Adeline Norman), ca. 1874
of several other profile portraits that Albumen print from a wet collodion
she made o f the same sitter, three on glass negative, 27.5 cm diameter
of which are already represented (10% in.). Signed and inscribed: recto
in the Museums collection. mount i n i n k From Life Registered Pho­
tograph, Copyright; verso mount i n pen­
P R O V E N A N C E : From the artist to her daughter
Julia Cameron Norman, by descent i n the
cil i n an unknown hand / think these
N o r m a n family; [Eric Sommer, London]; [Sean are Daisy (Mrs. Selwyn Pry or)/ & Adeline
Thackrey, San Francisco]; Joseph Monsen, (Mrs. Christy Aitken); Colnaghi blind-
Seattle; [Charles Isaacs, Philadelphia]. stamp recto mount.

Julia Margaret Cameron's portraits o f emi­

nent Victorian artists, scientists, and w r i t ­
62 ers, their feminine models and muses, and
allegorical subjects drawn from Christian
i oo Acquisitions /1994

mythology and the writings o f her friends, AND BRONZE; verso mount
particularly Alfred Lord Tennyson, made inscribed i n pencil i n an unknown
her famous and are well-represented i n hand 1886/ Con. [way] Stereo [scopic]
the Museums existing collection. She also Co. / Am [ateur] Phot, [ographic] Exhib.
made slightly less formal and much less [ition]/ From the original negative/
well-known studies o f her immediate not the manipulated plate/ usedf the
family, seven o f which were acquired by phtgravure [sic] in P . . . [illegible].
the Department o f Photographs this year. 94.XM.57
In this study o f two o f her granddaugh­
In Emerson's championship of what he
ters she has employed a format and pose
called "naturalistic" photography he
similar to those she used earlier to depict
inveighed against photographs that had
Christian cherubs, and indicates a similar
been heavily manipulated or printed from
seriousness of purpose, which is reinforced
several negatives. When he came to pub­
by the fact that she took the trouble to
lish this image as a gravure i n Portraits of
copyright the image (indicating that she
East Anglian Life i n 1888, of which the
thought the photograph would be o f
Museum owns a copy, however, he
interest outside her family circle).
removed the group o f trees on the right
P R O V E N A N C E : From the artist to her daughter horizon and added a stormy sky i n order
Julia Cameron N o r m a n and other members o f to give the central figures more force.
the N o r m a n family, by descent i n the N o r m a n Most of Emerson's photographic work was
family; [Charles Isaacs, Philadelphia]; Cinema
concerned w i t h English rural life i n the
Consultants, N e w York.
marshy areas o f Norfolk and Suffolk, 64
where he found both what he deemed an
appropriate relation o f man to nature and a
firm hierarchy o f social classes. household or those o f his friends (who,
PROVENANCE: From an album o f prints exhibited along w i t h his relatives, served as his mod­
by prize-winning amateurs; [Ken Jacobson, els). I n this image the quality of light, the
Great Bardfield, Essex, England]. pose o f the seated man, and the woman's
engaging glance over her shoulder are all
direct references to elements found i n
64. GUIDO REY Vermeer s paintings, such as A Girl with
Italian, 1861-1935 a Glass of Wine and Two Gentlemen o f
Dutch Interior, ca. 1895 1663 (Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum,
Platinum print, 22 x 15.5 cm (8% x Brunswick).
6Ys in.). Inscribed: recto i n pencil
P R O V E N A N C E : Family o f the artist, by descent;
Professor Guliana Scime; [G. Ray Hawkins,
Los Angeles].
Guido Rey, the most noteworthy o f the
Italian artist-photographers i n the interna­
tional Pictorialist movement, is especially
renowned for his delicate platinum prints
British, 1856-1936
of elaborately staged interiors. Born i n
A Stiff Pull, ca. 1886
Turin, Rey was an upper-class business­
Albumen print, 22.9 x 29.3 cm (9 x
man who was active as a photographer
11V2 in.). Inscribed: recto mount
from 1885 to 1920. His earliest Pictorialist
imprinted title and Silver Medal. Class 3
photographs, taken about 1892, depict
No. 143 and PH. Emerson. B.A.:M.B;
Japanese-style interiors that he meticu­
verso mount imprinted Class III/
lously arranged. A few years later he
COUNTRY HOUSE. / For the best and
photographed a series o f re-creations o f
second best Out-door Group, Studies of
seventeenth-century Dutch interiors,
Animals, Sporting Scenes, / Tennis, or other
inspired by the works of Jan Vermeer and
Parties/ MEDALS - GOLD, SILVER Pieter de Hooch, as well as a series o f tran­
quil Roman scenes derived from the paint­
ings o f Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema. To
re-create these scenes accurately, Rey hired
a seamstress to make the costumes accord­
ing to very specific instructions. For the
most part, he was able to make use o f the
rooms and everyday objects—furniture,
prints, vases, and so forth—from his own
Photographs 101


American, 1869-1950
The Heart of the Storm, 1914
Platinum print, 24.6 x 19.7 cm
( 9 % x 7% in.). Signed and dated:
recto mount i n pencil; titled: artist s
address verso mount, Camera
Club exhibition labels.
Gift of Jane and Michael Wilson.

Anne Brigman was born i n Hawaii and

moved to California at the age o f sixteen.
She trained as a painter but turned to pho­
tography around 1902. A charter member
of Stieglitz s Photo-Secession group,
she eventually became a Fellow, the
only photographer from the West to
do so. Brigman is best known for her
romantic photographs o f nudes taken i n


American (born Germany),
San Francisco, April 18, 1906,
printed 1920s
Gelatin silver print, 19.4 x 33.3 cm
(7% x 13Vs in.). Signed, titled, dated,
and inscribed: N. Y. recto mount
in pencil.

A scholar trained i n philology, Genthe

came to the United States i n 1895 to tutor
the son o f a German nobleman. Fascinated
by the street life o f San Francisco, particu­
larly that o f Chinatown, he taught himself
photography and began to take candid
scenes w i t h a small camera. Soon after he
decided to become a professional photog­
rapher and opened a portrait studio that
quickly attracted a large and distinguished
clientele. Genthe s studio and most o f his
negatives were destroyed i n the aftermath
of the San Francisco earthquake o f 1906,
but he wasted no time. He borrowed a
camera and some film and photographed
the city during the disaster, an experience
he describes vividly i n his autobiography
of 1936, entitled As I Remember. The artist
is represented i n the Getty Museums col­
lection by fifty-two photographs, includ­
ing his work i n San Francisco as well as
that from his later career i n N e w York.
P R O V E N A N C E : [Paul M . Hertzmann, San Fran­
cisco] auction(?).

102 Acquisitions/1994

the California landscape. Friends and rela­

tives served as her models i n remote loca­
tions i n the Sierra Nevada. This print was
given to the Getty Museum i n honor o f its
exhibition, The Heart of the Storm: Northern
California Pictorialism o f 1994, organized by
guest curator Michael Wilson, to w h o m
we are grateful for this timely addition to
the colletion.
P R O V E N A N C E : Stephen W h i t e Gallery; Jane and
Michael Wilson.


American, 1864-1946
Georgia O'Keeffe and Her Sister Ida,
Lake George, ca. 1923
Gelatin silver print, 11 x 8.9 cm
(4% x 3 / in.)


The painter Georgia O'Keeffe is pictured

here w i t h her sister Ida, who was two
years her junior. The portrait was made
during a visit to the S tie glitz family vaca­
tion home i n Lake George, New York,
possibly during the autumn o f 1923. Ida,
a nurse i n N e w York, was the closest to
O'Keeffe o f her four sisters, although the
two were quite different i n temperament.
Stieglitz, who married O'Keeffe i n 1924,
has captured the two women i n a seem­
ingly casual moment outdoors. O n closer
inspection, however, one finds that the
picture is carefully constructed, uniting
the sisters w i t h their dark cloaks yet 68
contrasting them psychologically.

This rare double portrait augments egalitarian arts, and turned accordingly
the Getty Museum's substantial holdings to photography, which could be used to
of some 190 Stieglitz prints, including share visual ideas i n multiple prints and
approximately sixty photographs o f through reproductions.
O'Keeffe. Simultaneously a document and a
PROVENANCE: Swann Galleries, N e w York; means o f creative expression, depicted i n
[Pace/MacGill Gallery, N e w York]. the photograph is his collage Proun No. 83
(now i n the collection o f the State Treti-
akov Gallery, Moscow), which was made
68. EL LISSITZKY public via this print at the International
Russian, 1890-1941 Theatrical Exhibition i n Vienna i n 1924.
Lenin Tribune (Proun No. 85), 1924 The collage shows Lissitzky s plan for a
Gelatin silver print, 17.2 x 12.1 cm podium structure, and pictures Lenin
(6 / x 4 / in.)
4 addressing an audience. The photograph
94.XM.60.2 is part o f a group of three works acquired
Trained as an architect i n Germany, from the artist's family and joins one other
Lissitzky was invited by the painter Marc work by Lissitzky from the collection o f
Chagall to teach applied arts at a school Samuel Wagstaff, Jr., acquired by the Getty
in Vitebsk i n 1919. As a Communist Museum i n 1984.
and a Modernist, Lissitzky rejected easel P R O V E N A N C E : Jen Lissitzky; Sophie Lissitzky-
painting for the more utilitarian and Kiippers; [Houk Friedman Gallery, N e w York].
Photographs 103


American, 1869-1945
[Cut Timber Scene with Four Loggers],
Gelatin silver print, 49.8 x 70.2 cm
(19% x 27% in.). Inscribed: recto i n
negative lower right 19(c)27 BY

Born i n Missouri, Kinsey moved to Wash­

ington i n 1889 at the age o f twenty. He
became an itinerant photographer and
concentrated w i t h religious devotion on
recording local logging scenes, working
six days per week for a period o f about
fifty years. To document scenes such as this
one, he lived with the logging crews for a
week or more at a time, photographing
them posed i n various stages o f their work.
After making the negatives i n the field,
Kinsey dispatched them back to his Seattle
studio where his wife, Tabitha, developed
and printed them, and mailed the finished
products back to h i m for distribution at
the camps. This negative was made w i t h
an 11 x 14 inch view camera, standard
field equipment for Kinsey i n the 1920s,
and was then enlarged to make this 20 x
27 inch print, which was possibly intended
for one o f the international expositions
that he occasionally entered. A n extraordi­
narily industrious photographer, he cre­
ated about sixty- to eighty-thousand
negatives, and stopped taking pictures
around 1940 when, at the age o f seventy-
one, he was injured by a fall from a large
tree stump while taking a photograph.
P R O V E N A N C E : U n k n o w n private collection;
[Andrew Smith Gallery].


69. LASZLO M O H O L Y - N A G Y films, worked i n graphic design, and cre­

American (born Hungary), ated a significant body of photographic
I895-1946 work. Characteristic o f Moholy-Nagy s
Rinnstein (Gutter), 1925 camera-made images i n its skewed per­
Gelatin silver print, toned, 37 x spective, this photograph transforms the
27.4 cm {14V2 x io A in.). Inscribed:
mundane subject o f a street drain into a
verso i n pencil Sewer, printer s marks; vital composition. Taken during a visit
photographers wet stamp. to Paris i n the summer o f 1925, it reveals
94.XM.28 Moholy's interest i n chiaroscuro, as well
as i n texture and i n form.
Moholy-Nagy was a prolific, versatile
artist and theoretician whose work has P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection; [Susan Ehrens,
been influential to others i n numerous Emeryville, California].
media. He is widely known as a Construc-
tivist painter, but he also sculpted, made
104 Acquisitions /1994


The Getty Museum's collection of prints

by Walker Evans, who was a pivotal figure
in American photography o f the 1930s, is
the largest i n a public institution, number­
ing nearly twelve hundred items. I t was
begun i n 1984 w i t h the acquisition of four
private collections—that of Arnold Crane
(Chicago), Samuel Wagstaff, Jr. (New
York), Volker Kahmen and Georg Heusch
(Todenfeld, West Germany), and Daniel
W o l f (New York)—each of which con­
tained selections of Evans's prints. I n
the decade since then the Department
of Photographs has added to this unique
holding of vintage prints i n a highly
selective manner, acquiring only rare
pictures that enhance the Museum's
holdings o f a particular series or period
from Evans's work.
In the past year the Museum acquired
eleven photographs by Evans from circa
1930 to 1946. These pieces come from
seven different sources, and i n some
cases are the only k n o w n prints from
the negatives. They have been chosen to
complement the collection's representation
of N e w York street pictures, the Victorian
House project, 35 m m portraits from the
Resettlement Administration assignments,
1940s Fortune stories, and, one o f the 72
photographer's favorite subjects- the

graphic art o f Hollywood posters.

This photograph may date from around 72. WALKER EVANS
1930, when Evans spent much o f his time Blonde Girl, ca. 1935
photographing the street life and archi­ Gelatin silver print, 19.3 x 18 cm
tecture o f N e w York. However, it is also (7% x 7%6 in.). Inscribed: verso print
closely related to his photographs o f at center Lunn Gallery stamp i n
Cuban street vendors from 1933 and the black ink.
photographs from his last Farm Security 94.XM.62
Administration assignment i n New York
It is likely that Evans made this striking
City i n 1938. I t clearly shows the influence
portrait o f a young girl during a trip to
of Eugene Atget and his eloquent Paris
Pennsylvania or West Virginia for the
street scenes, as well as Evans's lifelong
Resettlement Administration i n 1935. He
fascination w i t h all types o f signage. He
was most comfortable w i t h the anony­
also was probably attracted by the subtle
mous, candid portrait, i n which he
geometries o f the scene: the crates, the
attempted to photograph his subject
empty basket, and the wheels o f the cart.
unaware and present them i n a truthful
71 P R O V E N A N C E : [Harry Lunn, Jr., Washington]; and stylistically "honest" way. I n this par­
Edward Downe, New Y)rk; [Howard Green- ticular study he has captured the pensive,
berg Gallery, New York]. melancholic expression o f a young girl,
whose right hand grips a wire fence that
American, 1903—1975 cuts a sharp diagonal across the foreground
Fruit Cart, ca. 1930s
of the composition. Here Evans has
Gelatin silver print, 16.5 x 22.8 cm
cropped the composition to a square,
{6V2 x 9 in.). Inscribed: verso print
which intensifies the expression and
Lunn Gallery stamp numbered III and
enhances the drama.
487 i n pencil.
94.XM.61.2 P R O V E N A N C E : [Harry Lunn, Jr., Chicago];
[ T i m o t h y Baum, New York].
Photographs 105


Independence Day, West Virginia, 1935
Gelatin silver print, 17.8 x 22.9 cm
(7 x 9 in.). Inscribed: verso print
Lunn Gallery stamp w i t h III and
2 3 F i n boxes.

Evans made this photograph at a Fourth

of July picnic i n Terra Alta, West V i r ­
ginia, while traveling for the United
States government. In his quest to docu­
ment life i n small-town America during
the Depression, Evans was drawn to scenes
of community celebration. Absorbed i n
their o w n observations o f the festivities,
these two women were photographed by
Evans, apparently without their k n o w l ­
edge; one has been caught as she some­
what awkwardly adjusts her novelty party
hat. I n another print from the series, made
no more than one second later, Evans was
discovered and confronted by his subject.
PROVENANCE: [Harry Lunn, Jr., Chicago];
[Robert M a n n , N e w York, 1991]; [Stephen
Daiter Photography & Books, Chicago].


Sharecropper Family (probably
Alabama), ca. 1936
Gelatin silver print, 14.6 x 20.7 cm
(5% x SVs in.). Inscribed: verso print
Lunn Gallery stamp numbered III and
362 i n pencil and FF-580-5.

This is a striking example of Evans's efforts

to document and communicate the effects
of the Depression on individuals and fami­
lies. He may have made this informal por­
trait from a moving car or train. The three
subjects appear relaxed and imposed, but
are aware that they are being photographed;
the woman and the young boy to the
right are acknowledging the photographer
with a wave. The photograph was probably
made during Evans's Fortune assignment o f
1936, which he carried out with the writer,
James Agee. It joins a group o f sixty
photographs made i n Alabama by Evans.
P R O V E N A N C E : [Harry Lunn, Jr., Chicago];
Edward Gans, N e w York; [Howard Greenberg
Gallery, N e w York].
1o6 Acquisitions/1994

75 76 77


French, active 1930s French, 1894-1954 American (born Poland), 1907—1981
Telephone Pole, ca. 1935 Jacqueline Lamba, 1935—39 Untitled Photogram, 1937—41
Gelatin silver print, 9.1 x 6.4 cm Gelatin silver print, 16 x 11.9 cm Gelatin silver print, 12.8 x 20.3 cm
(3 / x 2/2 in.)
(6% x 4 % in.)
6 ( 5 x 8 in.). Inscribed: verso print i n
Gift of Jack Banning. 94.XM.68 pencil APG 13801D.68.
94.XM.44 94.XM.67.1
Claude Cahun was the assumed name o f
This print augments a group o f thirteen Lucy Schwob, born into a prominent Jew­ Born i n Poland, Roszak moved w i t h
photographs by the artist acquired by the ish literary family i n Nantes, France. She his family to Chicago i n 1909, where he
Getty Museum i n 1993. The photogra­ was a writer, actress, photographer, and attended the School o f the A r t Institute o f
pher, Germaine Schneider, is an enigma. political activist i n Paris i n the 1930s. After Chicago; he later studied at the National
Approximately t w o hundred o f her prints meeting André Breton i n late 1932 she Academy of Design i n N e w York. He is
were discovered i n Paris i n 1992, including became a member o f the Surrealist circle k n o w n primarily as a painter and sculptor,
a picture o f a woman at an easel, which and joined Georges Bataille s radical group but between 1937 and 1941 he made more
may be a self-portrait. I f it is, Schneider Contre-Attaque i n 1935. Bretons passion than one hundred photograms. Early i n
may have been an artist i n a variety o f for the painter Jacqueline Lamba—who his career Roszak was influenced by
media who was, perhaps, self-taught. The appears i n this portrait and became his Bauhaus theories and the Constructivist
scale o f her prints is intimate and suggests wife i n 1934—inspired his famous prose principles he read about i n Laszlo Moholy-
the flexibility o f the handheld cameras that novel LAmourfou, published i n 1937. Nagy's book, The New Vision. Roszak
became popular i n the 1930s. The Museum Cahun's photographs o f the late 1920s applied these ideas i n his sleek, machine-
is grateful to Jack Banning for this addi­ and 1930s include costumed self-portraits, inspired sculpture and i n his experimental
tion to the collection. still lifes o f small objects and assemblages, photography from 1937 to 1941. Pho­
and photomontages. I n her self-portraits tograms such as this one were made by
P R O V E N A N C E : Jack Banning, U b u Gallery,
N e w York. and montages she explores questions o f arranging objects on light-sensitive paper
gender and identity using her o w n distinc­ and exposing them to a light source. I n
tive face i n various masks and guises. these works he explores geometry, light,
and the element o f chance, just as he does
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, Britain;
in his three-dimensional constructions.
[Zabriskie Gallery, N e w York].
This photogram is directly related to the
artist's sculpture Torso Manique (Surveyor)
(1931-32), one o f his many geometric
interpretations o f the human figure. The
Photographs 107

print is from a group o f five acquired native faculties o f the child and the child's is responsible for having expanded the
from the artist's estate, an addition to willingness to share w i t h others a concep­ conventional definitions of photography.
the five photograms purchased from tion borne o f thought, fantasy, and dream. Born i n Italy i n 1905, Sommer was
the Zabriskie Gallery i n 1994. This rare vintage print is the first raised i n R i o de Janeiro, Brazil, where he
P R O V E N A N C E : Estate o f Theodore Roszak;
work by the artist to be acquired for the was instructed i n the arts o f drawing and
[Hirschl & Adler Galleries, N e w York]. Getty Museum's collection. design from an early age by his father. I n
PROVENANCE: Collection o f the artist; [Fraenkel
1925 he came to the United States and
Gallery, San Francisco, 1994]. studied for a master's degree i n landscape
architecture at Cornell University, where
he met his future wife, Frances. After
F R E D E R I C K S O M M E R returning to Europe for a few years,
Sommer came back to the United States
In 1994 the Museum was fortunate
and moved permanently to Prescott,
to acquire 107 photographs by Frederick
Arizona, i n February 1935, where
Sommer, one of America's most venerated
he still resides.
and influential artist-photographers. Som­
mer has been producing photographs o f
extraordinary vision for over five decades.
A philosophical and artistic radical with an
authentically Surrealist sensibility, Sommer



American, born 1913
"Kiss Me Mother" New York, 1938
Gelatin silver print, 18.1 x 12.4 cm
(jV* x 47s in.). Signed, titled, and
dated: verso print i n pencil by
the artist.

Helen Levitt, born i n Bensonhurst (an

Italian-Jewish neighborhood i n Brooklyn,
New York), has been making photographs
for more than fifty years, almost exclu­
sively looking to the streets of her native
city as the source o f her art.
Levitt s vision was greatly developed
through her friendship w i t h Walker Evans,
w h o m she accompanied on photographic
expeditions and shared a darkroom w i t h
for one year i n 1938-39. This study o f 1938
reveals the candid, documentary style o f
Levitt's earliest photographs and presents a
window on the idiosyncratic life o f chil­
dren from the streets o f New York i n the
1930s. The literal and metaphorical mean­
ing o f the inscribed message is open to
question, but Levitt celebrates the imagi-
io8 Acquisitions/1994

In 1936 Sommer met Edward Weston 79. FREDERICK SOMMER

in Los Angeles, an event that encouraged American (born Italy), 1905
h i m to take photography more seriously. The Anatomy of a Chicken, 1939
U n t i l that point Sommer had been using Gelatin silver print, 24.2 x 19 cm
smaller cameras, but inspired by the sensu­ ( 9 ^ x 7% in.) Signed, titled, and
ous tonalities and visual clarity of Weston's dated: i n pencil verso mount at upper
prints, he bought a large-format 8 x 10 inch left The Anatomy of a Chicken 1939;
view camera. This change provided the at center Frederick Sommer 1939;
impetus for the creation o f Sommer s at lower right 99.
first photographic masterworks, primarily 94.XM.37.96
horizonless desert landscapes (94.XM.37.78)
In 1939 Sommer began a series o f
and poetic still lifes o f dead animals
photographs that explore the biological
(94.XM.37.94). He also began a series 80
structure and the aesthetic potential o f
of carefully composed photographs o f
dead animal parts. These prints are at
chicken heads and entrails (94.XM.37.96)
once visceral and decorative, presenting
that he had collected from his local 80. FREDERICK SOMMER
the shocking yet beautiful aspects o f
butcher. I n such works a highly structured Jack Rabbit, 1939
animal parts and organs, which have been
composition is combined w i t h spellbind­ Gelatin silver print, 18.8 x 23.8 cm
arranged by the artist i n photographic
ing detail, creating a striking visual reality, (7 /s x 9 /s in.). Signed, titled, and
3 3

compositions. The juxtaposition o f a head

proving that death can yield art. I n the dated: verso mount at upper left
w i t h the eyes gouged out to the entrails
1950s Sommer started creating cameraless Jack Rabbit, 193% at center Frederick
exposed is stark and confrontational, as is
negatives o f abstract compositions that Sommer 1939; at lower right i n
the shock o f the idea and the immediacy
were painted on glass. He also experi­ unknown hand 97.
of the arrangement.
mented w i t h various cameraless processes 94.XM.37.94
such as clichés-verre, paint on cellophane P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.
During his wanderings i n the desert near
(94.XM.37.51), and smoke on foil. These his home i n Prescott, Sommer found ani­
incorporate chance operations i n the mal remains and transformed them into
Dadaist spirit, but they have also been enduring photographs that embody the
described by some commentators as related poetry o f decay. Sommer faces the ravages
to the work o f the Abstract Expressionists and death of physical matter w i t h a cool
of this era. stare. Taking a close-up vantage point,
Working i n a singular style, informed Sommer presents the decomposing form
by the contradictory sources of Dada and
Surrealism and West Coast naturalism,
Sommer s approach is encapsulated i n his
statement: " I f you can really understand
why you take a photograph, you don't
do it. You do it for the margin o f the
unstated . . . you hope to be able to come
back to it—and find a wider statement."
Throughout his career i n photogra­
phy, Sommer has strictly adhered to the
standard set by Alfred Stieglitz, Paul
Strand, Charles Sheeler, and Edward
Weston: each photographic print should be
an object o f supreme craftsmanship. His
meticulous approach has resulted i n a body
of photographs realized over sixty years
that is very small, even by comparison to
Stieglitz. Works i n the group acquired by
the Museum date from 1939 to 1985 and
include portrait, still-life, abstract, land­
scape, and composite photographs. Among
them are a number o f Sommer s most cele­
brated images, as well as several that are
believed to be the only prints ever made
from the negatives.

Photographs 109

of a jack rabbit, disintegrating into the

earth. Its extremities—ears, tail, and feet—
are still recognizable forms, and are an
eerie reminder o f the transitory nature
of mortality.
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.


Arizona Landscape, 1943
Gelatin silver print,
19.2 x 24.3 cm (7%6 x 9% in.).
Signed, titled, and dated: i n pencil
verso mount at upper left Arizona
Landscape, 1943; at center Frederick
Sommer, 1943; at lower right 80.

Sommer s desert scenes fit uncomfortably

within accepted conventions of landscape
photography. Although packed with
abundant descriptive power, they present
an environment that appears antihuman
and inaccessible. The vastness and totality
of the scene allows the eye no resting
place, yet the organization o f the view
belies the particularity o f its individual
elements—the cactus, mesquite, and areas
of ground cover, which show no trace
of man having ever passed over this
seemingly pristine land.
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.


Coyotes, 1945
Gelatin silver print, 19.2 x 24.1 cm
(jY2 x gY in.). Signed, titled, and

dated: i n pencil verso mount at upper 83

left Coyotes, 1943; at center Frederick
Sommer 1943; and at lower right i n
an unknown hand 106. left Virgin and Child with St. Anne
94.XM.37.103 and the Infant St. John, 1966; at center
Frederick Sommer 1966; at lower right
Coming across a pack o f coyotes killed
in unknown hand 39.
by bounty hunters i n the Arizona desert,
Sommer found a subject that he arranged
into a photographic composition o f Sommer made an art o f collecting refuse
extraordinary power and emotion. The that he would select carefully and then
structural complexity o f the scene creates study for years, sometimes even decades,
a tension between the severe immediacy before finding a place for it i n his art. This
of the decaying carcasses and the organiza­ peculiarly formed lump of metal was once
tion o f the picture. The emotive power o f the melted remains o f a burned-out,
the photograph rests i n the bizarre combi­ wrecked automobile. By carefully joining
nation o f textures—desiccated skin, rot­ 82 it w i t h a Victorian book illustration,
ting molars, and tufts of fur—which are Sommer invites us to recall Leonardos
the remnants o f a pack o f animals unified painting. I f the literal definition o f the
in death and disintegration. 83. FREDERICK SOMMER word imagination is "one thing seen i n the
Virgin and Child with Saint Anne form o f another," this a perfect example o f
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.
and the Infant Saint John, 1966 the photographers imaginative process.
Gelatin silver print, 24 x 17.7 cm
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.
(gYie x 6 /i6 in.). Signed, titled, and

dated: i n pencil verso print at upper

no Acquisitions/1994


Max Ernst in Sedona, 1946
Gelatin silver print, 24.2 x 19 cm
(gY2 x 7V2 in.). Signed, titled, and
dated: i n pencil verso mount at upper
left Max Ernst in Sedona, 1946; at center
Frederick Sommer 1946; at lower right 2.

Sommer met the Surrealist collage artist

Max Ernst i n Los Angeles i n 1941, when
Ernst first saw Sommer s photographs o f
still lifes o f chicken entrails. Ernst and
Man Ray, who was also present, are
reported to have responded enthusiastically
to the work and began a good humored
argument about its merits. This was the
beginning o f a long friendship between
Sommer and Ernst. This portrait o f the
intensely expressive Ernst was made i n
Sedona, Arizona, i n 1946, the same year 85 86
he settled i n a village about an hour away
from Sommer s home i n Prescott.
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott. Mexican Bather, 1952 Livia, 1948
Gelatin silver print, 24.4 x 19.2 cm Gelatin silver print, 19.2 x 23.5 cm
(9% x 7% in.). Signed, titled, and (7% x 9% in.). Signed, titled, and
dated: i n pencil verso mount at upper dated: i n pencil verso mount at upper
left Mexican Bather, 1952; at center Fred­ left Livia, 1948; at center Frederick Som­
erick Sommer 1952; at lower right i n mer 1948; at lower right 2.
unknown hand 34. 94.XM.37.3
The subject o f this vivid portrait was the
Sommer encountered the folk painting daughter o f one o f Sommer's neighbors i n
pictured here during a trip to Mexico i n Prescott. The focal point o f the composi­
1952. More than a document o f the mural tion is the transfixed, accusatory gaze o f
itself, it is a representation o f the decaying the child's waiflike eyes. She is placed
textures o f its environment that appear to emblematically dead center, cut offjust
have had a personal impact on this forlorn below the waist, her hands crossed, simu­
bather. Delicately and precariously bal­ lating the appearance o f a body lying i n a
anced, he rests his hand uncomfortably on funerary display. Her juxtaposition against
the brick wall. He immerses his legs into a weathered, disintegrating wall accentu­
cement water and they corrode, his flesh ates the clarity and vivacity of youth, and
pierced by the bullet-hole-shaped blemishes demonstrates Sommer s enduring interest
scattered over the surface of the wall. in the aesthetic possibilities of miscellaneous
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.
surfaces and their textures.
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.

Photographs 111

87 88

87. FREDERICK SOMMER 88. E D M U N D TESKE In 1936 Teske began a two-year fellowship
Paracelsus, 1957 American, born 1911 w i t h Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin East
Gelatin silver print, 34.2 x 25.6 cm Cactus, Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona, in Spring Green, Wisconsin. I n what was
(13V2 x 10M6 in.). Signed, titled, and 1943 the first photo-workshop to be conducted
dated: i n pencil verso mount at upper Gelatin silver duotone solarized at Taliesin, Teske photographed the archi­
left Paracelsus, 1957; at center Frederick print o f the 1960s, 33.7 x 24.8 cm tecture and grounds and absorbed the
Sommer 1937; at lower right i n (13% x 9% in.) Signed: i n pencil verso teachings o f the charismatic architect.
unknown hand 52. print at lower center E. Teske. In 1943 Teske traveled west from
94.XM.37.51 94.XM.29.2 Chicago to Los Angeles. En route he
The title o f this photograph refers to Edmund Teske, a native o f Chicago, stopped at Wright's winter headquarters,
Paracelsus (1493-1451), the visionary Ger­ has been one o f the foremost artist- Taliesin West, i n Scottsdale, Arizona.
man physician who taught that the life o f photographers working i n Los Angeles In the desert surrounding the complex
man is inseparable from that o f the uni­ since the 1940s. I n his work Teske marries he made this striking study o f a cactus.
verse and that physicians must minister to a virtuoso dexterity i n photographic tech­ Twenty years later he returned to the
the spirit as well as the body, thinking niques and manipulation w i t h an intuitive negative and printed this image i n
w i t h which Sommer himself closely gift for image combination. This approach his unique, self-styled technique o f
identified. I n order to create this photo­ results i n pictures of heightened technical duotone solarization.
graph, an abstraction that uncannily and emotional sensitivity, charged with a This is one o f a group o f three prints
resembles a human torso, Sommer mystical, poetic mood. by the artist that was acquired i n 1994;
squeezed paint between two layers o f Teske learned photography as a they complement twelve acquired i n 1993.
transparent cellophane, put the results—a schoolboy and took a position as an P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist;
sandwich o f sorts—into an enlarger, pro­ assistant i n the commercial studio o f [Turner/Krull Gallery, Los Angeles, 1994].
jected it on enlarging paper, and developed A. George Miller i n Chicago i n 1934.
it as i f it were an in-camera negative. This About the same time he was introduced
technique combines an inspired, poetic to the work o f several pioneers of M o d ­
imagination w i t h virtuosic darkroom ernism, including Alfred Stieglitz, Paul
practices. Strand, Edward Weston, and M a n Ray.
P R O V E N A N C E : Collection o f the artist, Prescott.
ii2 Acquisitions /1994


American, born 1912
Eleanor, 1947
Gelatin silver print, 23.1 x 16.6 cm
(9 /s x 6V2 in.). Signed, dated, and

inscribed: verso mount i n i n k 2. #


This print is the central image i n a unique

triptych o f Callahan's wife, Eleanor, w h o m
he married i n 1936 and photographed fre­
quently. This powerful group of prints
serves as both a manifesto o f Callahan's
purist, formalist tendencies and as an i n t i ­
mate, tender portrait o f his wife o f more
than ten years. Printed w i t h a wider tonal
range and much larger i n size than
the more common miniature 4 x 5 inch
format, this work shows that Callahan was
interested i n serially related compositions
early i n his career.
A self-taught photographer, Callahan
began to take pictures i n 1938. He was
invited by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy to j o i n
the faculty o f the Institute of Design i n
Chicago i n 1946, where he influenced a
generation of postwar photographers, a 90
tradition he continued at the Rhode Island
School of Design until his retirement from
teaching i n 1971. Callahan is represented 90. WEEGEE ground appears to be dancing or frolicking
by thirty-one additional works i n the (Arthur Fellig) about: the young man, dressed as a w i l d
Getty collection. American (born Poland), 1899-1968 man, bites the nape o f the neck of his
Village Party, ca. 1950s female companion whose frayed brassiere
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection; [Zabriskie
Gelatin silver print, 23 x 19.7 cm is seen to be held together by a safety pin.
Gallery, N e w York].
(9M& x 7% in.). Two photographer's Others i n the crowd seem to be caught up
wet stamps on the verso. in the frenzy o f the party atmosphere, gaz­
94.XM.14.1. ing about with gleeful faces. I n his auto­
biography, Weegee by Weegee, where this
This self-taught photographer quit school
image is reproduced, the photographer
at fourteen to help support his family.
speaks o f his fondness for working i n the
H i r i n g a pony he nicknamed "Hypo,"
"Land o f the Zombies," named by h i m
Weegee became a street photographer,
presumably because o f the condition o f
making portraits o f children on the pony.
its sometimes stupified inhabitants. This
After working as a news photographer for
print, along w i t h five others purchased
the next ten years, Weegee set up a radio
at the same time, complement the Getty
connection to the main Manhattan Police
Museum's existing collection o f more than
Headquarters i n order to be able to arrive
seventy-five photographs by Weegee.
quickly at locations of crime and other
occurrences. He thus became k n o w n as P R O V E N A N C E : W i l m a Wilcox, N e w York; [Aurel
the first "ambulance chaser" i n photogra­ Scheibler, Cologne, Germany].
phy by arriving at newsworthy scenes
ahead o f his competitors.
Weegee worked strictly i n black and
white, producing stark graphic images, the
best known of which capture incidents o f
violence or catastrophe. To record humor­
ous aspects of life he often used multiple
printing techniques.
In his photograph Village Party Weegee
89 captures an aspect o f the Bohemian scene
in the Greenwich Village o f the 1950s i n
New York City. A couple i n the fore­
Photographs 113


American, born 1942
Gallup, New Mexico, 11:37 - AM

(for Lewis Hine), 1970

Gelatin silver print w i t h borders dec­
orated i n colored ink, 22.7 x 31.3 cm
(8H x 12V4 in.). Signed and titled:
recto print i n i n k by the artist; verso
print, artists wet stamp; Bleak Beauty
and Picture Date and Print Date, both
of which have been noted i n
pencil as 1970.

By his dedication o f this photograph to

Lewis Hine (American, 1874-1940), Lyon
squarely places this work i n a tradition o f
photographic self-portraits i n which the
photographer's shadow or reflection is
present. The Hine example to which
Lyon refers, of which there is a print i n
the collection, is a portrait o f a newsboy
at a street corner i n which the fore­ 9i
ground is occupied by the shadow o f
Hine w i t h his hand stretched out toward
his camera i n the act o f making the expo­
sure. Another related picture i n the col­
lection is a self-portrait o f the French
photographer Eugene Atget (1856-1927)
catching his reflection i n a store window.
Lyon's is perhaps the most subtle o f all as
it is only his silhouette that is present,
dividing what can be seen inside the
cafe from what is reflected from outside,
behind the photographer's back, i n
and across the street.
P R O V E N A N C E : The artist; [Jan Kesner Gallery,
Los Angeles].


American, 1899-1986
Heavens Key, 1977
Gelatin silver print, 18.9 x 24.5 cm
(7% x 9% in.). Inscribed: verso print
in pencil i n an unknown hand I and
Ralph Steiner 1979-1984.

In 1963 Ralph Steiner left New York to

live both i n rural Vermont and on an 92
island off the coast o f Maine. From that
time his work focused on the natural
world rather than urban scenes. Beginning for h i m . " He left the cloud images untitled P R O V E N A N C E : From the artist to a friend, the
i n 1970 he photographed clouds. He felt with the intention that viewers assign their photographer, Marian Post Wolcott; [Linda
that they had infinite variety and were own titles. This one, Heavens Key, was Wolcott-Moore, San Francisco].
individually expressive. O f this particular suggested by someone who attended an
study, he wrote that, " I t was the afternoon exhibition o f these works at the Smith
of the day a wonderful painter and wonder­ College Museum of A r t i n 1984.
ful friend died. . . . I t seemed the right sky
114 Acquisitions /1994

Carleton E. Watkins prints collected i n an album entitled

American, 1829-1916 California Tourists Association, San Francisco,
Coastline Near Carmel, ca. 1865-85 Nineteen ninety-four was an exceptionally circa 1865—85 (94.xA.112; see illustration),
A l b u m e n print,
bountiful year for donations to the Getty and ten mammoth plate landscapes and
20.5 x 31.2 c m (8/4 x I2 /* in.)

Gift o f Weston Naef i n m e m o r y o f Leona Naef

Museum's collection of photographs. I n architectural studies, which date between
M e r r i l l and i n honor o f her sister Gladys Porterfield. addition to those mentioned i n the preced­ 1858 and 1880 (94.XM.109). I n addition he
94.XA.113.36 ing section o f the journal, we are grateful donated a possibly unique wet-collodion
to the following donors whose gifts camera. It w i l l be used for didactic pur­
w i l l greatly enhance the Museum's poses i n future exhibitions o f mammoth-
existing holdings. plate photographs.
The Department o f Photographs was John Torreano, a painter and professor
fortunate to have received a number o f at N e w York University, donated to the
important donations this year from Curator Museum a cibachrome print by Sandy
of Photographs Weston Naef. A gathering Skoglund (American, born 1946), entitled
of works by the photographer Carleton E. Revenge of the Goldfish, 1981 (
Watkins (American, 1829—1916), repre­ This image is considered to have been
senting subjects outside of Yosemite Valley, Skoglund's first major work and expands
complement the Museum's existing hold­ the Museum's collection of photographs
ing of Watkins's photographs. Included by painter/photographers into the con­
i n the group are seventy-three albumen temporary realm.
Photographs 115

•4 •

Frederick Sommer, whose work In 1994 Sommer also donated to Eugene Atget
was the subject o f an exhibition at the the Museum eleven albumen prints by French, 1857-1927
Femme, ca. 1925—26
Museum i n 1994, and whose work is dis­ Eugene Atget (French, 1857—1927), an
Gelatin silver print,
cussed i n some detail above, made two excellent complement to the Museum's 17.1 x 22.5 c m (6% x 8% in.)
important donations. The first is a group current holding o f about three hundred Gift o f Frederick Sommer.
of thirty-four unique objects that are photographs by Atget. Sommer acquired 94.xM.108.10
closely related to many o f the 107 pho­ this group of Atget s work (94.xM.108)
tographs by Sommer i n the Museum's col­ from Berenice Abbott for his personal col­
lection. Sommer carefully collected these lection because o f the special appeal o f one
objects over many years and arranged print i n particular: Epicerie Fruiterie, from
them into compositions that he photo­ around 1912. Another o f the donated
graphed, which represent the philosophical prints, Femme, circa 1925-26, is the
and physical core o f his work. Two first from Atget s exceedingly rare series
arrangements o f these objects were dis­ of nude studies to enter the collection
played i n the above mentioned show o f (see illustration).
Sommer s work.
116 Acquisitions /1994

Note: listed below are the individual GENTHE, ARNOLD TESKE, E D M U N D

photographers whose works were acquired (American, born Germany, (American, born 1911), 3 photographs
during 1994 by gift or purchase. Each 1869-1942), 1 photograph
photographer's name is followed by his U L M A N N , DORIS (ATTRIBUTED)
or her nationality, life dates (or years flour­ GURNEY, JEREMIAH (American, 1882-1934), 1 photograph
ished), and the number of photographs. (American, 1812-18 86),
1 daguerreotype WATKINS, CARLETON E.
AMERICAN SCHOOL, U N K N O W N MAKER (American, 1829-1916), 18 photo­
KINSEY, DARIUS graphs, 1 album o f 73 prints,
(Nineteenth Century), 27 ambrotypes,
3 tintypes (American, 1869-1945), 5 photographs 3 boudoir cards, 7 stereographs
Gift of Weston Naef

(French, 1857-1927), 11 photographs (American, born 1913), 1 photograph WEEGEE (ARTHUR FELLIG)
Gift o f Fredrick Sommer (American, born Poland, 1899-1968),
LISSITZKY, EL 6 photographs
BENECKE, ERNEST (Russian, 1890-1941), 3 photographs
(German, active 1850s), 5 photographs

BRAUN, ADOLPHE (American, born 1942), 1 photograph

(French, 1811-1877), 3 photographs

BRIDGES, REVEREND GEORGE W I L S O N (American, born Hungary, 1895-1946),

(British, active 1846-1852), 1 photograph
1 photograph

BRIGMAN, ANNE (British, 1810-1896), 2 photographs

(American, 1869-1950), 1 photograph
Gift of Joane and Michael Wilson REY, GUIDO
(Italian, 1861-1935), 5 photographs
(Nineteenth Century), 1 photograph RODCHENKO, ALEXANDER
(Russian 1891-1956), 1 portfolio o f
CAHUN, CLAUDE modern prints
(French, 1894-1954), 1 photograph
CALLAHAN, HARRY (American, born Poland, 1907—1981),
(American, born 1912), 3 photographs 10 photographs


(British, 1815-1879), 7 photographs (French, active 1930s), 1 photograph
Gift of Jack Banning
(British, 185 6-193 6), 1 photograph SKOGLUND, SANDY
(American, born 1946), 1 photograph
(American, 1903-1975), SOMMER, FREDERICK
I T photographs (American, born Italy, 1905),
117 photographs
(British, 1819-1869), 5 photographs STEINER, RALPH
(American, 1899-1986),
FRENCH SCHOOL, U N K N O W N MAKER 2 photographs
(Nineteenth Century), 4 photographs
(American, 1864-1946), 3 photographs

Sculpture and Works o f A r t


French, 1612-1686
Jupiter, cast second half o f the
seventeenth century from a
model o f 1652
Bronze, H : 61.4 cm (24% in.)
94. SB. 21

Michel Anguier was one o f the earliest

proponents o f a classicizing Baroque style
i n French sculpture o f the seventeenth
century. According to his biographers,
i n 1652 Anguier modeled a series o f seven
figures representing the deities Jupiter,
Juno, Neptune, Amphitrite, Pluto, Mars,
and Ceres. I n the past bronze casts based
on Anguier s models have been recognized
for all the gods except Jupiter and Juno,
which were considered lost. This bronze
is a discovery o f some importance as
it is considered the only known cast o f
Anguier s Jupiter. As is characteristic o f
the sculptor s heroic male types, the Jupiter
exhibits well-defined musculature, clumps
of wavy hair, protruding veins i n the
arms and feet, and a prominent aquiline
nose. Anguier s style is marked by his deep
understanding and incorporation of antique
models. I n pose, facial type, and drapery
this bronze resembles an ancient statue
and head of Jupiter, both formerly i n the
Giustiniani Palace, Rome.
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, France;
[Same A r t Inc., Zurich].
B I B L I O G R A P H Y : Guillet de Saint-Georges,
"Michel Anguier," i n L . Dussieux, éd., Mémoires
inédits (Paris, 1854), vol. 1, p. 438; Comte de
Caylus, "Michel Anguier," i n ibid., vol. 1, p. 455;
H . Stein, Les Frères Anguier (Paris, 1889), p. 19.

118 Acquisitions /igg4

placement i n front o f a pillar, oriented

toward the viewers approach. Flayed alive
before being martyred, Saint Bartholomew is
portrayed w i t h his skin—including
hands, feet, and genitals—draped over
the tree stump beside h i m .
PROVENANCE: Private collection, France;
[Same A r t Inc., Zurich].


French, 1824-18 87
Model for a Monument to Alexandre
Dumas pere, ca. 1883
Terra-cotta, H : 79.5 cm (31K in.);
W : 28 cm (11 in.); D : 25 cm (10 in.)
Inscribed: on base A. CARRiER
BELLEUSE; on square pillar: TROiS
de MontE CRisto./AcTE./ Etc. Etc. Etc. 19
The spontaneous modeling o f the house­
coat {robe de chambre), which preserves the
imprints o f the sculptors fingertips, and
the animated tooling o f the head and hair
indicate that this terra-cotta was made
as a preliminary sketch model, or ebauche,
for Carrier-Belleuse's bronze monument
94 erected i n 1884 i n Villers-Cotterets. The
famous novelist Alexandre Dumas pere 95

(1802-1870), best k n o w n today for writing

94. A T T R I B U T E D TO E D M E B O U C H A R D O N
The Three Musketeers and The Count of
French, 1698-1762 Monte Cristo, was a close friend o f the
Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1734—50 sculptor. In this portrait the seeming non­
Terra-cotta, H : 57 cm {22V2 in.); chalance o f Dumas s pose and his informal,
W : 21 cm (8y in.); D : 18 cm (7 in.) disheveled attire offset the intensity o f his
4 facial expression and the dramatic turn o f

his head. Another terra-cotta model by
This terra-cotta may be a preliminary but
Carrier-Belleuse for the same monument
rejected model for Bouchardon's stone Saint
is i n the Musee Carnavalet, Paris.
Bartholomew i n the church o f Saint-Sulpice,
Paris. I n 1734 Bouchardon received a com­ PROVENANCE: Private collection, Paris; [Patrice
mission for twenty-four life-size statues Bellanger, Paris].
to decorate the church, and although the
sculptor had only completed ten figures
by the time the project was suspended
i n 1751, it was the most important
monumental, sculptural cycle created for
a Parisian church i n the first half o f the
eighteenth century. I n pose, drapery, and
handling o f anatomy and facial features,
this terra-cotta exhibits marked similarities
to two of Bouchardon's Saint-Sulpice apos­
tles, Saint Andrew and Saint Peter. Like
these other figures, Saint Bartholomew is
contained i n a narrow composition arching
to one side to conform to its envisioned
Sculpture and Works of Art 119


French, 1756-1813
Allegorical Portrait of the van Risamburgh
Family, 1790 Marble, H : 112 cm
(44 in.). Inscribed: on clouds at base
Chinard 1790.
This marble group was commissioned as
a portrait o f the family of Monsieur van
Risamburgh, a prominent merchant i n the
sculptors native city of Lyons. Madame van
Risamburgh appears i n the guise o f the
goddess Minerva, her son is shown as a
slumbering boy, and her husband is repre­
sented on the shield at her feet. This sculp­
ture is the first family group by Chinard i n
which the presence o f a living but absent
father is conveyed by means o f a portrait
medallion, a device cleverly adopted from
traditional tomb monuments. W i t h its
highly detailed still life of weaponry, softly
modeled anatomy, and elegantly arranged,
transluscent folds o f drapery, the Van
Risamburgh Family is arguably Chinard's
most beautifully carved marble.
PROVENANCE: Commissioned by Monsieur
and/or Madame van Risamburgh, Lyons, i n
1789; collection of Dr. Oilier, Lyons, by 1896;
[Guy Ladriere, Paris].
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. S. Passeroy, "Biographes lyon-
naises. Joseph Chinard," Revue du Lyonnais I
(June 1835), p. 473; J. Fr. Michaud and
L. G. Michaud, eds., Biographie universelle
(Paris, 1880), 2nd ed., vol. 8, p. 157; S. de la
Chapelle, "Joseph Chinard sculpteur. Sa vie et
son oeuvre," Revue du Lyonnais 2 (1896),
pp. 89—90; S. Lami, Dictionnaire des sculpteurs de
Vecolefrancaise (Paris, 1910), p. 200; M . Audin
and E. Vial, Dictionnaire des artistes et ouvriers d'art
du Lyonnais (Paris, 1918), vol. 1, p. 190; W. G.
Schwark, "Die Portratwerke Chinards" (Ph.D.
diss., Berlin, 1937), p. 68.

120 Acquisitions 11994

98. A T T R I B U T E D TO B E N E D I K T W U R Z E L -
German, 1548—1620
Neptune, ca. 1600-20
Bronze, H : 62 cm (24V2 in.)

Wurzelbauer s sculptures combine German

Renaissance forms w i t h those of European
Mannerism, which reached southern Ger­
many during the second half o f the six­
teenth century. This Neptune exhibits a
mixture o f influences, combining, for
example, a rather stylized treatment o f the
head and rigid curls o f hair and beard
derived from late Gothic wood sculpture,
w i t h Mannered proportions o f the nude
body probably inspired by an Italian or
Netherlandish prototype. As was common
in German foundries o f the period, the
Neptune may have been produced from a
wood model rather than the more com­
mon terra-cotta or wax model o f Italian
practice. Although it is the only k n o w n
version o f its design, variants o f the sub­
ject, also attributed to Wurzelbauer, are
found i n the Henry E. Huntington A r t
Gallery, San Marino; Kunsthistorisches
Museum, Vienna; and Germanisches
Nationalmuseum, Munich.
PROVENANCE: (Sale, Sotheby's, London,
December 13, 1990, lot 119); [Trinity Fine
A r t Ltd., London].


97. Pair of Firedogs (1494—1540) and Primaticcio (1504-1570).

Italian artist working at The firedogs were most likely made for
Fontainebleau, ca. 1540—45 a monumental fireplace like the one
Bronze, H : 82.5 cm in.); designed by Primaticcio for the Chamber
W (at base): 41 cm (16 in.) of the King i n i533~35-
PROVENANCE: Probably the collection o f
Each o f these male and female herms Francois I , Fontainebleau; Baron Gustave de
stands on a base composed o f a pair o f Rothschild (sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, June 17,
1994, lot 117); [Same A r t Inc., Zurich].
grotesque heads, and each supports a vase
containing a salamander, the emblem
of Francois I (r. 1515-47). The fluent
handling o f anatomy, the inclusion o f
architectural herm and grotesque motifs,
and the decorative use o f strap work
strongly suggest that the firedogs were
designed by an Italian artist working
in the king's chateau at Fontainebleau.
The presence o f Francois Is own device
supports a dating sometime before 1547,
during the first phase o f the chateau's dec­
oration under Rosso Fiorentino
Sculpture and Works of Art 121

99 100

99. AFTER G I A N L O R E N Z O B E R N I N I PROVENANCE: [David Peel, London, by 1968]; in 1568 as belonging to the Farnese family
Italian, 1598-1680 Adrian Ward-Jackson, London, until 1990, and in Rome, the often replicated prototype
Neptune and Dolphin, ca. 1620—80 then by descent to his heirs; [Cyril Humphris, is now i n the Museo Nazionale, Naples.
London, since 1994].
Bronze, H : 56 cm (22 in.) K n o w n primarily as a bold but ruthless
94.SB.45 military leader whose brutal acts found
This work is a reduced variant of Bernini's 100. BARTOLOMEO CAVACEPPI
favor with the Roman army, Caracalla was
marble fountain sculpture executed around Italian, 1716/17—1799 a popular portrait subject with eighteenth-
1620 for Cardinal Montalto's garden i n Bust of the Emperor Caracalla, century collectors who no doubt appreci­
Rome, which is now i n the Victoria and ca. 1750-70
ated the intense psychological and historical
Albert Museum, London. I t is the finest i n Marble, H : 70.5 cm (27% in.). associations evoked by such busts. Signed
quality of four known bronze versions, all Inscribed: on front BART- copies o f antique models are rare i n
of which replace the Triton o f the foun­ LOLOMEVS CAVACEPPI FECIT. Cavaceppi s oeuvre; only one other known
copy, the Bust of the Younger Faustina i n the
tain piece w i t h a dolphin. The other ver­ 94.SA.46
Philadelphia Museum of Art, bears
sions are located i n the Victoria and Albert Cavaceppis marble is a copy o f a bust, his signature.
Museum, London; The Metropolitan which by the eighteenth century was
Museum of Art, N e w York; and the Gal- considered to be the most famous third-
PROVENANCE: Private collection, N e w York (sale,
leria Borghese, Rome, on loan from the Sotheby's, N e w York, June 6, 1994, lot 112);
century portrait o f the Roman Emperor
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome. [Daniel Katz, Ltd., London].
Caracalla (r. 211—217 A . D . ) . First recorded
122 Acquisitions /1994

Although the composition o f the Lion

Attacking a Horse derives from an antique
prototype, its design and that o f its pen­
dant have been attributed to Giambologna
since the seventeenth century. Documents
establish that models from these groups
were cast by one o f Giambologna's closest
collaborators, Antonio Susini (documented
1580—1624), and his nephew Gianfrancesco.
Moreover, the extraordinarily high quality
of these casts—among the numerous ver­
sions of varying quality that survive o f
Giambologna's compositions—supports the
association o f these bronzes w i t h the two
Susini. Unsigned, they are attributed to
Gianfrancesco since he, unlike his uncle,
did not sign casts o f models by another
artist, such as Giambologna.
P R O V E N A N C E : Beauvais collection, England (sale,
IOI (.1) 101 (.2) collection o f Mr. Beauvais, March 2, 1738/39);
Sir Jacob des Bouverie, Bart., Longford
Castle near Salisbury, Wiltshire; by descent
IOI. BASED O N MODELS BY the Paris art market; a bronze version to the eighth Earl o f Radnor (sale, Christies,
GIOVANNI BATTISTA FOGGINI of the Perseus group is i n the Fogg A r t London, December 7, 1993, lot 108);
Italian, 1652-1725; Museum, Harvard University. [Cyril Humphris, London].
FINISHED BY GASPERO BRUSCHI B I B L I O G R A P H Y : G. T., "Handel und Auktionen,"
P R O V E N A N C E : Private collection, England;
Italian, 173 7-1778; [Daniel Katz, London]; [Alain Moatti, Paris]. Kunst und Antiquitäten, no. 12 (1993), p. 61;
PAINTED I N T H E SHOP OF W E N D E L I N "Giambolognas Give Christie's a Small Edge,"
ANREITER V O N ZIRNFELD The Art Newspaper, no. 34 (January 1994), p. 26.
DOCCIA PORCELAIN FACTORY Italian, ca. 1575-1653
Mercury and Argus and Perseus Flemish (active Italy), 1529-1608
and Medusa, ca. 1749 Lion Attacking a Horse and Lion
Soft paste porcelain, polychrome and Attacking a Bull, 1600—25
parcel gilt; 34.5 x 34 x 20.1 cm (13%, x Bronze, H : 24.2 cm (9V2 in.) and
13% x 8 in.) and 35 x 29 x 20.1 cm 20.7 cm (SVa in.), respectively.
(13% x n%> x 8 in.), respectively. 94.SB.11.1-.2

These groups were intended to serve as

candelabra, possibly as part o f a table cen­
terpiece ensemble. Their compositions are
based on episodes i n Ovid's Metamorphoses
and were first created as models for bronzes
by Giovanni Battista Foggini. After Fog-
gini's death i n 1725, many o f his piece-
molds were inherited by his son, Vincenzo,
who frequently cast wax and plaster mod­
els from them for the production of figures
at the Doccia Porcelain Factory. Archival
documents at Doccia mention payments
made to the younger Foggini for the wax
models o f these groups and for the molds
taken from them, and the molds and a 102 (.1) 102 (.2)
wax o f the Mercury group are still preserved
in the collection o f the Doccia factory.
A bronze version o f the Mercury group
is i n the Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
Florence, and another was formerly on

Trustees Staff List (as o f J 30, 1995)

Robert F. Erburu John Walsh Therese Whalen

Chairman Director Administrative Services Assistant
Harold M . Williams Deborah Gribbon Lynette Haynes
President and Chief Executive Officer Associate Director and Chief Curator Nancy Smith
John F. Cooke Barbara W h i t n e y Receptionists
David I . Fisher Associate Director for Administration Yayoi Robinson
David P. Gardner and Public Affairs Research Assistant
Gordon P. Getty
Vartan Gregorian I N F O R M A T I O N SYSTEMS
Agnes Gund ADMINISTRATION R o b i n Lilien
Helene L . Kaplan Manager of Information Systems
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Stuart T. Peeler ASSOCIATE D I R E C T O R S ' Microcomputer Support Specialist
J. Patrick Whaley OFFICES Peggy Hanssen
BlendaJ. Wilson Patricia H o w a r d Staff Assistant 2
Executive Assistant to the Director
Harold E. Berg Angela Duncan
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Kenneth N . Dayton
Julia Tranner
John T. Fey D E P A R T M E N T OF A N T I Q U I T I E S
Administrative Coordinators
Jon B. Lovelace M a r i o n True
A m y Fisk
Rocco C. Siciliano Margeaux La Brew Curator
Jennifer Jones Simon Staff Assistants 3 Kenneth Hamma
John C. Whitehead John Papadopoulos
Otto Wittmann TRANSITION Associate Curators
Trustees Emeriti K . Quincy H o u g h t o n M a r i t R . Jentoft-Nilsen
Transition Manager Associate Curator for Research
Peggy Hanssen Karol W i g h t
Staff Assistant 2 Assistant Curator
Janet Grossman
PERSONNEL A N D Elana Towne Markus
A D M I N I S T R A T I V E SERVICES Curatorial Assistants
Kristin Kelly Dorothy Osaki
Manager of Administration Staff Assistant 2
Ellen W i r t h
Manager of Office Services D E P A R T M E N T OF DECORATIVE ARTS
David Blair Gillian Wilson
Budget Manager Curator
Gertrude Geeraerts Charissa Bremer-David
Accounting Services Coordinator Jeffrey Weaver
Dee Sayles Assistant Curators
Accounts Payable Clerk 2 N i n a Banna
Ron White Staff Assistant 2
General Services Clerk
124 Staff List

Nicholas Turner Weston Naef
Curator Curator
Lee Hendrix Gordon Baldwin
Jerry C. Podany
Associate Curator Judith Keller
Nancy E. Yocco Associate Curators
Maya Elston
Assistant Conservator Marc Harnly
Lisbet Thoresen
Stephanie Schräder Associate Conservator
Associate Conservators
Curatorial Assistant Ernest M a c k
Kathleen Kibler Assistant Conservator
Susan Lansing Maish
Staff Assistant 2 Joan Gallant Dooley
Eduardo P. Sanchez
Katherine Ware
Assistant Conservators
D E P A R T M E N T OF MANUSCRIPTS Assistant Curators
Robert Sieger
Thomas Kren Julian Cox
W i l l Thornton
Curator Curatorial Assistant
Conservation Technicians/
Nancy Turner Michael Hargraves
Assistant Conservator Cataloguing Assistant
Eileen Ehmann
Elizabeth Teviotdale Marcia L o w r y
Staff Assistant 2
Assistant Curator Staff Assistant 2
Kurtis Barstow Jean Smeader
Curatorial Assistant Sarah Sullivan
Dana Davey Senior Office Assistants
Brian B. Considine
Staff Assistant 2
Jane Bassett
Joseph Godla
David Jane Peter Fusco
Gordon Hanlon
Curator Curator
Associate Conservators
Dawson Carr Peggy Fogelman
Abigail H y k i n
Associate Curator Catherine Hess
Cynthia Moyer
Denise A l l e n Associate Curators
Assistant Conservators
Assistant Curator Dottie Goggin
George Johnson
Arianne Faber K o l b Staff Assistant 2
Mark Mitton
Curatorial Assistant
Adrienne Pamp
Conservation Technicians/
Staff Assistant 2 Irene M a r t i n
Exhibitions Manager
Patti H o w a r d
B u r t o n B. Fredericksen Kevin Murphy
Staff Assistant 2
Senior Research Curator Staff Assistant 2
Adjunct Curator E X H I B I T I O N DESIGN
Andrea Rothe
M e r r i t t Price
Conservator-in- Charge
Exhibition Design Manager
M a r k Leonard
Timothy McNeil
Senior Designer, Exhibition Graphics
Elisabeth D . M e n t i o n
Elizabeth Postmus
Yvonne J. Szafran
Associate Conservators
Kevin Murphy
D. Gene Karraker
Staff Assistant 2
Conservator of Frames
Diane Mooradian
Staff Assistant 2
Staff List 125

Brenda Podemski Jean L i n

Collections Management Public Information Assistant,
Systems Assistant Press and Media Relations
Teruko Burrell Patty Vargas
Charles Passela
Staff Assistant 2 Staff Assistant 2
Head of Photographic Services
Judy M c C o r m i c k
Jack Ross
Staff Assistant 1
Louis Meluso
E D U C A T I O N A N D Steve Watson
Senior Photographers
P U B L I C A F F A I R S Reservations Supervisor
Ellen Rosenbery
Claudia Comerci
Photographer 2
A m y Drezner
José Sanchez EDUCATION
Tambusi Green
Photographer 1 /Technician Diane Brigham
Lorraine Matthews
Rebecca Branham Head of Education
Diane Manuel Philip M o l i n a
Photo Technician
Program Evaluator Michael Patnaude
Jacklyn Burns
Andrew Clark Louis Recupito
Rights and Reproductions Coordinator
Jill Fins ten Yicella Rosceli
Laura Sanders A n n Friedman Elizabeth W h o l i h a n
Staff Assistant 2 Claudia Hanlon M i k e Young
Carrie Sutton Reservations Agents
PREPARATION Education Specialists
Bruce A . Metro Martha Godfrey
Head of Preparation and Slide Librarian
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Machine Shop
Pdta Gomez Administrative Coordinator
Mari-Tere Alvarez Christopher Hudson
Principal Preparator-Packing/Crating
Project Coordinator Publisher
Gary K . Lopez
M a r y Ackerman M a r k Greenberg
Principal Preparator-Art Movement Sofia Gutierrez
Mike Mitchell Managing Editor
Lisa Kandra
Principal Preparator-Fabrication John Harris
Laura Lewis
Alfonse Aguilar Senior Editor
Barbara Schreiber
Senior Preparator Anne Spackman Mollie Holtman
Stepheny Dirden Jacqueline Sutton Assistant Editor
Audio/Visual Specialist Clare A n n Van Vorst Leslie Rollins
Gallery Teachers Publishing Assistant
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Preparators Jennifer Kellen
Bruce W a l l i n Staff Assistants 2
Assistant Preparator Marisa Colon
Gretchen Greenwood Julie W i c k
Slide Library Assistant
Staff Assistant 2 Bookstore Buyer/Manager
Christopher Jacobs
REGISTRATION L o r i J. Starr Assistant Bookstore Manager
Sally Hibbard Head of Public Information Linda Anderson
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A m y Noel Marge Bernstein
Public Information Associate,
Collections Management Julie Blumberg
Events and Visitor Services
Systems Manager Greg Hicks
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Cory Gooch Nora M u r p h y
Public Information Associate,
Associate Registrar Bookstore Assistants
Press and Media Relations
Monique Maas Jason Schmitt
Andrea Leonard
Assistant Registrar Shipping and Receiving Assistant
Public Information Assistant,
Events and Visitor Services
126 Staff List


Richard Naranjo
Manager of Grounds and Gardens
Juan Romero
Grounds Foreman
Michael DeHart
Roberto R . Guerrero
Rogelio O r ope za
J. Pablo Rodriguez
Senior Gardeners
Luis Brambila, Sr.
Luis Brambila, Jr.
Eliseo Salazar
José Luna
Rosario Raya
Isabel Segura
Assistant Gardeners
Theresa W i l l i a m s
Senior Office Assistant

H o w a r d Sherman
Chief Engineer
Ronald Meza
Assistant Chief Engineer
Wayne T. Branham
Senior Engineer /Electrician
L o y d Randolph
Facilities Engineer/
Maintenance Coordinator
Alexander M c D e r m o t t
Engineer/ Plumber
Oswald Blake
General Engineer
Rosa Maria U r r u t i a
Staff Assistant 2


James Davies
Machine Shop Supervisor
Peter Shapiro
Woodworking Shop Supervisor
Project Staff 127

Project Staff

Michelle Ghaffari
Manuscript Editor
A m y Armstrong
Production Coordinator
Leslie Thomas Fitch
Charles Passela, Jack Ross,
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