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Chapter 01 System Architecture Client/server Processes Instances Clients SAP AG

Chapter 01 System Architecture

Client/server Processes Instances Clients

SAP AG

Chapter 01 System Architecture Client/server Processes Instances Clients SAP AG

Chapter 01 Objectives

 
 

Getting to know the main features of a three-level computer hierarchy

Division of work processes

What do the terms "R/3 instance" and "Client" mean?

SAP AG

SAP AG
R/3 Client/Server – Three-Level Computer Hierarchy Central DB (stores all data and application programs) Read
R/3 Client/Server – Three-Level Computer
Hierarchy
Central DB
(stores all data and
application programs)
Read database and
update buffers
Database update
Central DB
buffer
Output data to
the user
Object-
oriented
change
Application logic
requests
(asynchronous)
Input data
from the user
User interaction
SAP AG

If the R/3 System is distributed according to the principles of client/server technology, its components are spread across a three-level computer hierarchy.

A central computer functions as a database server, i.e. it contains processes which constitute the database service. This computer also houses the R/3 update service which means that it is responsible for performing database updates. The database server can be linked to several application servers. On the application servers, the actual application logic is processed.

Each application server can be connected to several front-ends (e.g. workstations, PCs ) at which users are working. All the presentation tasks are processed on these individual machines.

Division of Work Processes – "SAP Services" Message Dialog Update U D M A AA
Division of Work Processes – "SAP Services"
Message
Dialog
Update
U
D
M
A
AA
B
BB
Background
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Enque
ue
12
11
1
C
10
2
CC
9
3
8
4
E
Gateway
7
5
6
Spool
B
S
R/2
R/3
G
SAP AG

Division of work processes:

Each work process is responsible for just one request type. Request types include dialog, background, update, enqueue and spool.

The dispatcher distributes the tasks accordingly to the defined processes. However, this distinction only concerns the different roles or special services assigned to the work processes through the dispatch strategy.

Since the work processes contain applications written in ABAP/4, a process group consisting of a dispatcher and a defined number of work processes is also known as an applications server.

The message server allows the applications servers to exchange short internal messages.

The gateway server facilitates communication between R/3, R/2 and other systems.

In applications programs, the applications processes can be divided into update processes (V1,V2) and background processes (B).

R/3 Instance (Central System) instance profiles (parameters) message SAP instance server gateway dispatcher D EV

R/3 Instance (Central System)

instance profiles (parameters) message SAP instance server gateway dispatcher D EV E B S SAP
instance
profiles
(parameters)
message
SAP
instance
server
gateway
dispatcher
D
EV
E
B
S
SAP buffer
S
T
A
RT
o
r
ST
O
P
SAP AG

Definition of an instance:

An instance is an administrative unit which groups together the components of an R/3 System that provide one or more services. These services are started and stopped at the same time. All components belonging to an instance are specified as parameters in a common instance profile.

A central R/3 System consists of a single instance which includes all the necessary SAP services.

Each instance has its own SAP buffer area.

Clients Client 000 (delivery system) Client 001 (delivery system) Client nnn (customer copy) application data
Clients
Client 000
(delivery system)
Client 001
(delivery system)
Client nnn
(customer copy)
application data
application data
application data
client-
specific
customizing data
customizing data
customizing data
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cross-client
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SAP AG

In commercial, organizational and technical terms, a client is a self-contained unit of the R/3 System. Clients have their own

customizing facility

application data

user master records

Clients play a particular part in the R/3 System.

SAP distinguishes several clients which should be distributed across at least two R/3 Systems. Each client has a different purpose:

Development/test:

You use the development and test client for your customizing activities and for developing your own Repository objects. Remember, however, that all Repository objects are available and can be changed in all clients.

Quality assurance:

You use the quality assurance client to test your customizing. To reset the quality assurance client after testing, SAP recommends that you use another client to hold test data.

Training:

The training client is intended for training project teams and end-users.

Production:

The production client receives the tested customizing settings and your Repository objects. SAP recommends that you define no more than one production client.

The standard delivery system comprises two identical clients. Both contain the same customizing settings, but no application data. Client 000 is SAP’s standard client which is modified by each SAP upgrade. You should not change this client in any way. Perform your customizing work in client 001.

Chapter 01

Summary

 

The SAP R/3 System is based on a three-level hierarchy which includes database, application and presentation layers

All requests are executed by specialized processes controlled by a dispatcher

R/3 is a client-based system

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SAP AG