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Distribution of Shale in Sandstones and Its Effect Upon Porosity - Thomas, Stieber SPWLA

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AND ITS EFFECT UPON POROSITY

BY

E. C. Thomas

Shell Oil Company

New Orleans, Louisiana

S. J. Stieber

Butler, Miller & Lents

Houston, Texas

ABSTRACT

the gamma ray log in shaly sands is often used to correct the

responses of other logs for the effects of the shale. The cor-

relation of a garmna ray parameter to shale volume is usually

presented as one direct relationship. However, because the shale

can be distributed through the sand in different ways, such as

laminated, dispersed, structural, or any combination of these,

one may expect vasying gamma ray responses dependent upon

geometry. We show that each of these configurations can involve

a different response from the gamma ray and this variable response

can be used to determine the shale configuration. A gamma ray

parameter vs. porosity crossplot can then be used to determine

shale configuration, sand fraction and sand porosity; the derived

equations can be used for implicit solution when processing

digital log data. These configurational data can be combined

with electric log parameters to determine the oil saturation of

the net sand. These log derived parameters are herein verified

by direct comparison to rubber sleeve core data.

fields often necessitates that other available log data be correlated to

porosity. One log which is generally available is the gamma ray collar log

which is used to perforate the well. Thus, empirical gamma ray response -

Density log porosity correlations in a particular reservoir are developed

using recent penetrations, and this correlation is applied to the older

gamma ray logs to determine a reservoir-wide porosity distribution. This

simple approach is fruitful for reservoirs which are found in Tertiary

sand-shale sequences and usually will not apply to more complicated miner-

alogies involving carbonates. An example of this type of correlation is

shown in Figure 1.

T

-l-

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

of sand porosity and it is therefore reasonable to expect the gamma ray

to correlate to porosity. However, if sorting or mineralization are the

dominant factors in sand porosity variation, then no simple gamma ray

response correlation to porosity should be found because the gamma ray

responds to the presence or absence of radioactive minerals. We must

learn how the shale is distributed in the sand, for this distribution

governs the productivity.

There are three broad categories which describe how shale can

be distributed in a sand:

positions within the rock.

Thus, to quantitatively determine shale content and distribution we have

developed a simple mathematical model which relates gamma ray response to

shale distribution and concentration. The five main assumptions in the

model are the following:

1. There are only two rock types, a high porosity "clean" sand

and a low porosity "pure" shale. The observed in situ

porosities are generated by mixing the two.

type and the shale mixed in the sand is mineralogically the

same as the "pure" shale sections above and below the sand.

a material and thus its mass. The shale fractions we wish to

determine are a function of volume. We assume for the Tertiary

basins that both sands and shales have comparable grain

densities, thus, the radioactivity will be proportional to

volume.

in all measurements.

The components of the system are sand and shale, thus, we have

chosen to use shale rather than clay minerals, even though it is the clay

-2-

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

which contains the bulk of the radioactive material. We believe shaly sands

and shales are mineralogically similar because both facies are derived from

the same source material, carried by the same river and emptied into the

same basin. The differentiation between sands and shales begins as the

particles settle at differing rates according to their size and transport

energy and not mineral type. (This is not rigorously true but, except for

heavy minerals, very vesicular minerals, or colloids the differences in

density are not dominant.) Thus, we feel the porosity destroying material

introduced into a sand stratum will be of the same composition as the

shales above and below the sand stratum. Of course, this will not be true

for the diagenetic alteration of feldspars into clay within the sand

stratum.

block of sand material and place it near an instrument capable of measuring

the gamma rays emitted, we observe a counting rate, Ra, expressed as

Ra* = Ya Aa (1)

where Y is the counting yield, A is the activity and the asterisk indicates

that fla= 0.

Now if we crush the solid and build a porous rock with the pieces, we

introduce a void space, Ya. Express Va in terms of the fraction of the

total volume of rock, Vt, then V,/Vt = @a, the pure sand rock porosity.

The grain volume fraction, grainosity, is then Xa, and Xa = (l-@a). If we

now repeat the gamma ray detection experiment using this new porous rock,

the counting rate observed is

where the prime was added to denote a change in counting yield because of a

geometry change in the material counted.

the shale material, we observe

Rb = (I-&,) Yb ’ fib .

Let's now mix together quantities of the porous sand and shale,

and assume the counting yield will not be significantly altered (Assumption

No. 5). We will elaborate on the error caused by this assumption in

Appendix 1. There are three independent ways to place the shale in the

sand block and these are treated separately.

fraction of the total volume occupied by this shale as Xb.

T

- 3 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

R=R,+ Xb Rb (5)

the amount of shale added to the pore systems.

we must relate a defined parameter, y, which correlates to porosity, in

terms Of Xb, the bulk volume fraction occupied by shale.

above parameters as

Rb - R

Y=

Rb - Ra (6)

nearest "clean" sand.

Rb - (Ra + Xb Rb)

Y= (7)

Rb - Ra

Rb (8)

' = Rb - Ra

which is a measure of how radioactive the sands are. The relation between

y and Xb then becomes

xb = l-y

5

when Xb is pore filling.

dispersed model is when shale completely fills all the original pore

volume of the sand or when

Xb = @a,

- 4 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

When Xb > fla, then equation (4) for the counting rate is not valid because

we must remove sand grains to add shale. We derive this equation by

starting with pure shale (Xb = 1) and work back to Xb = @a. Thus, R =

(1-0b) Yb'Ab - Xa (l-@b) Yb'Ab + Xa (I-8a) Ya'Aa. (11)

R = Rb - XaRb + XaRa. (12)

Using Xa = 1-Xb, (12) rearranges to R = Rb - (1-Xb)(Rb-Ra)' (13)

2. Laminated model

Now when we add shale to the sand stratum we must replace sand

and its associated porosity, fla,with shale to keep a constant

total volume of material. The amount of sand removed and shale

added is Xb, the sand fraction. Thus

R = Ra + Xb (Rb-Ra)* (16)

Rb - Ra

3. Structural

only. Thus the porosity increases with the amount of shale

porosity that we add in place of the solid sand grain. Or

structural shale is identical to that for the laminated model.

T

-5-

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

can construct a theoretical y-porosity relationship based on these three

models.

of a or @a. We then add shale in the pore space, thus

decreasing the porosity by the amount of grainosity of the

shale.

for shale.

The end points of this equation are easily fixed and are

independent of any proposed relation between Xb and y.

When Xb = 0, 0&& = 8a and when Xb = 8a, @&a = 0a@b.

5 (20)

A reasonable number for 5 in South Louisiana sands is 1.25.h

Thus the relation between these end points is linear with y.

The actual value of y at 0~1~ is difficult to define

absolutely because of Assumption No. 5. The error caused

by this assumption is discussed in Appendix 1. The porosity

relation for the region when Xb > 0, is derived just as is

the radiation relationship by starting with pure shale and

adding sand grains which have no porosity, thus reducing

the total porosity by the value of sand added.

when Xb > fla.

When y = 0, 0dis = 0b and this is a fixed end point.

ymax in eq. (22) is limited as Ymin in eq. (20). However

this number is difficult to fix as stated before. See

Appendix 1.

grainosity of the sand and replace it by the shale porosity

and grainosity.

*This value is derived from eq. (8) using Rb = 100 API units and Ra = 20 API units.

- 6 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

Substitute (17) into (23)

The end points are easily fixed when y = 1, @lam T 0, and

when y = 0, @Iam x P)b. These end points are independent

of y-xb relation and are firm. Also equation (24) demonstrates

a linear relation between the two end points.

sand grainosity, and replace it with an equivalent bulk volume

fraction of shale porosity.

equals the grainosity of the sand or Xmax = l_Ymin = l-P)a. (27)

startling result is obvious upon inspection of the model and

is the consequence of replacing the solid quartz grain with a

corresponding volume of porous shale. The radiation at the

maximum is a simple relation because no sand grains remain.

However, the counting yield will be different than for pure

shale. But if we use Assumption No. 5, then

Rb - (1-qa)Rb = Rb (@a)

Y" (29)

Rb-Ra Rb - R,.

Y = 5 (0,) * (30)

Thus (27) and (30) are not equal, again the consequences of

Assumption No. 5. See Appendix 1.

T

- 7 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

we have a combination of the three. One simplification is to assume the

amount of structural shale is too small to be significant and remove this

possibility from the model. This simplification permits the response of

a gamma ray-density log to be solved (graphically or algebraically) for

sand fraction, sand porosity and shale distribution.

where clean sand porosity is 33% and pure shale porosity is 15%. This is

the same reservoir shown in Figure 1. We can then construct a y-density

porosity crossplot triangle limited by these data, using eq.(20), (22),

and(24), shown in Figure 2. Eq. (26) is also presented.

A line drawn between these points is the laminated model limit expressed

by eq. 24. The minimum flfor the dispersed is given by eq. 10 as 8, x @b

or 0.0495. Solution of eq. 20 for y, using 5 = 1.25, yields y = 0.588.

A line connecting this point to the y = 1 point is the graphical approxi-

mation of eq. 22.

parallel to the dispersed shale model line. The percent laminations is

then read from the laminated model line as the percentage of the laminated

model line substended by the isolaminous line measured from the y = 1.0

apex. Isoporous lines are added to Figure 2 by constructing lines which

connect the y = 0 apex to the dispersed shale model line. The porosity

of the sand laminae anywhere along a given line is read at its intercept

on the dispersed shale model line. For a specific example, a FDC log in

a thick sand reads 0 = 28% and y = 0.85. Using Figure 2, we start at the

o- 28, y = .85 point, which is on an isolam corresponding to 10% shale

laminations, then proceed up an isopor to the intercept on the dispersed

shale model line of Id= 29.4. Thus, for this example the bed is composed

of 10% shale laminations and the porosity of the interbedded sand is 29.4%.

We have illustrated this solution graphically, but of course it can be

done algebraically.

we cored a well in South Louisiana which penetrated this same reservoir.

Figure 3 shows the petrophysical log section across the reservoir.

Figure 4 shows the oil saturation and porosity calculated for the entire

interval. Figure 5 shows some of the core photographs, demonstrating the

laminated nature of the sand. Note the good sand at the top and the

extremely laminated material at the bottom. Figure 6 shows the correspond-

ing FDC 8 plotted versus stressed core porosity. The FDC 8 is calculated

using measured grain densities and fluid densities from the core adjusted

to reservoir temperature and pressure. The good agreement in the clean

sand is apparent, while a corresponding disparity appears in the lower

laminated section. This is an artifact of biased sampling. Only the sand

between the laminations was plugged for core analysis, thus giving mis-

leading results.

- 8 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

Using the core photographs, the amount of sand and shale can

be counted precisely and when a clean sand porosity of 31% (the average

0 from stressed core analysis) and pure shale porosity of 15% are

assigned to the laminations, the average porosity as seen by the density

log is reproduced. Conversely, from the gamma ray-density log porosity

crossplot, the sand fraction and sand porosity matches that counted from

the photographs and measurements in the lab.

apply the laminated resistivity model;

1 fsd b

-Ra = R,d x R,h

The value of R, is read from the induction log, f,d and fsh are

obtained from the crossplot, and Rsh takes from the induction log in a

nearby shale zone. Then the actual value percent of Rsd and Rt of the

sand can be calculated. The effect of using the true sand 0 and Rt to

calculate So is shown in Figure 7. This is a repeat of Figure 4, with

an overlay showing the change in calculated So in the heavily laminated

zones. In most cases, the oil saturation increases. The effect shown

here increases as the percent laminations increase to the point where

the shale resistivity dominates the apparent resistivity, thereby

condemning a zone which could produce hydrocarbons.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

permission to publish this work. We also thank B. E. Ausburn of Shell

Oil Company who allowed us to use Figure 4 which he had prepared earlier.

We appreciate the many discussions with our collegues who helped solidify

many of the concepts presented.

SYMBOLS

Y- void space

to the number of events counted by the detector

T

- 9 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

Y- defined by eq. 6 using counting rates in pure shales and clean sands.

It is often the sand fraction.

of the total bulk volume.

of the total bulk volume.

APPENDIX1

many of our assumptions. However, these assumptions are necessary to

arrive at the simple equations presented in the text. We feel justified

in using assumption (5) because we are also assuming no fluid radio-

activity and constant background in spite of unknown changes in borehole

size and rugosity, cement type. and placement, and detector type and size.

potential errors caused by assumption (5) and demonstrate the small error

introduced by its acceptance.

uncertainty in determining 0a from field measurements. But for the

theoretical model we can set this number exactly, thus the y = 1, 0 = @a

apex is firm. Similarly for the y = 0, 8 = t$, apex. Equation (24)

demonstrated that the equation which connects these two apexes is linear,

thus the posi ion of this line is firm within the confines of the other

assumptions. The minimum 0 available is fixed at @a&. However, the

value of y at this point is less well known. Eq. (20) predicts y = -59

while Eq. (22 predicts y = .67. The actual value is probably between t ne

two, thus the max error for fldis in the working area of the triangle

(8 apparent > @b) is -

+1.5 and the mean error about -+.5. We feel this is

acceptable for any practical application. For the structural shale model

we have similar uncertainties in y at the @max point. The value of @max

iS fixed at 8a + Xa@b or 0a + (l-oa) fib = .43. We can calculate y = .33

from eq. (27) and y = .41 from eq. (30). The Ib error introduced by

uncertainty in y is less than -

+.5.

- 10 -

SPWLA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 4-7, 1975

I

Y '0

- 12 -

API UNITS

0 60

I I

0 jo . 20 -30 .40 .50 .60 .?O .32 .30 .2B .2b .24 .22 20

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1

2

0

0

I I

.z

i -

I

%

rl

87950-

_J

I

I I

Boo0 -

,,.,S.,t

5 +

DENSITY LOGS.

mv ohm-meters

CORED INTERVAL SHOWN BY BAR IN TRACK I.

OIL SATURATION, FRAC PV POROSITY, FRAC BV

0 .lO .20 .30 .40 .M .6O .70 .80 34 .32 .30 .28 .26 .24

I I I 1 I I 1 I I

-----I r ----,-

_-_...a

1

r.___-

7900 -

l-------

l

I

I

I

r___*____-_

I

J-

L__

:----

!I

L__.-_

DENSITY LOGS, SOLID LINE. CORRECTED FOR SHALY SAND EFFECTS

ON INDUCTION & DENSITY SHOWN DOTTED LINE.

DISCREPANCY BETWEEN ANALYSIS METHODS CAUSED BY LAMINATIONS.

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