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West Nusa Tenggara

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West Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara Barat
Province
South Lombok.jpg
Lombok Wedding Party 1998.jpg Camping above the clouds at Rinjani.jpg
Rinjani Volcano, Lombok.JPG Sasak1.jpg
Palau Banta Nusa Tenggara Barat Indonesia.jpg Sunsets at Sumbawa.jpg
Gili Meno West Coast.jpg Rinjani 1994.jpg
From top, left to right : Mandalika Beach and resort area, Bride procession in
Lombok Island, Camping above the clouds of Rinjani Mountains, Segara Anak Crater
Lake, Sasak Traditional Village, Pulau Banta, Sunset at Sumbawa, Gili Islands white
sandy Beach, perfect coned Mount Rinjani erupts in 1994.
Flag of West Nusa Tenggara
Flag Official seal of West Nusa Tenggara
Seal
Motto(s): NTB Gemilang, Ikhtiar Tanpa Henti ("Glorious NTB, Unending Effort")
Location of West Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia
Location of West Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia
Coordinates: 8�35'S 116�7'ECoordinates: 8�35'S 116�7'E
Country Indonesia
Established December 17, 1958
Capital Lambang Kota Mataram.png Mataram
Government
� Body West Nusa Tenggara Regional Government
� Governor Zulkieflimansyah (PKS)
� Vice Governor Sitti Rohmi Djalilah
Area
� Total 19,708.79 km2 (7,609.61 sq mi)
Area rank 25th
Highest elevation 3,726 m (12,224 ft)
Population (2014 Estimate)[1]
� Total 4,702,389
� Rank 13th
� Density 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
Demographics
� Ethnic groups Sasak (68%), Bimese (14%), Sumbawa (8%), Balinese (3%), Dompuan
(3%), Javanese (2%)[2]
� Religion Islam (96%), Hindu (3%), Buddhist (1%) [1]
� Languages Indonesian (official)
Time zone UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Postcodes
80xxx, 81xxx, 82xxx
Area codes (62)3xx
ISO 3166 code ID-NB
Vehicle sign DR (Lombok), EA (Sumbawa)
HDI Steady 0.643 (medium)
HDI rank 29th (2014)
Largest city by area Bima - 222.25 square kilometres (85.81 sq mi)
Largest city by population Mataram - (402,296 - 2010)
Largest regency by area Sumbawa Regency - 6,643.98 square kilometres (2,565.26 sq
mi)
Largest regency by population East Lombok Regency - (1,105,671 - 2010)
Website Government official site
West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Barat � NTB) is a province of
Indonesia. It comprises the western portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the
exception of Bali which is its own province. Mataram, on Lombok, is the capital and
largest city of the province. The 2010 census recorded the population at 4,496,855;
the latest estimate (for January 2014) is 4,702,389.[3] The province's area is
19,708.79 km2. The two largest islands in the province are Lombok in the west and
the larger Sumbawa island in the east. The islands of Flores and Sumba are part of
East Nusa Tenggara.

Contents
1 History
1.1 Pre-Islamic period
1.2 Islamic period
1.3 Colonial period
1.4 Independence
2 Geography
2.1 Terrain
2.2 Climate
3 Economy
4 Administration
5 Population
5.1 Religion
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
History
Pre-Islamic period
Based on analysis of prehistoric objects found (such as complex sarcophagi,
decorated stoneware, machetes, and axes), West Nusa Tenggara had previously been
inhabited by people who come from Southeast Asia.

The natives in this region are called the Sasak people, most of whom live on the
island of Lombok. Meanwhile, on the island of Sumbawa are also natives consisting
of two groups, namely ethnic Sumbawa (Samawa) and Bima. However, with the wave of
migrants from Bali, Makassar, Java, Kalimantan, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and East Nusa
Tenggara, the indigenous people entered the farm and then stay in the interior.

The existence of this region can not be separated from the heyday of Majapahit
Empire in the 14th century who conquered all the kingdoms located on the islands of
both Lombok and Sumbawa. In the book Negarakertagama by Empu Prapanca in 1365, it
was written that West Lombok was named Lombok Mirah and East Lombok was named Sasak
Adi, Taliwang, Dompo (Dompu), Sape, Sanghyang Fire, Bhima (Bima), Seram (Seran) and
Hutan Kedali (Utan).[4]

Islamic period
In the early reign of the kings in West Nusa Tenggara, the influence of Hinduism
was very strong. It can not be separated from the influence of the Majapahit empire
expansion into the region. But with the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom, the
influence of Hinduism began to decrease with the onset of the influence of Islam in
the coastal communities.

The advent of the Demak Sultanate in Central Java had a huge impact on the spread
of the teachings of Islam in West Nusa Tenggara. The influence of Islam in West
Nusa Tenggara was generally brought by the Malays. The influence of Islam in Bima
can not be separated from the support of King I Maliingkaang Daeng-Mannyonriq of
Makassar, who was then known as Karaeng Matoaya who played an important role in the
spread of Islam in the region.

The influence of Islam in the Bima Sultanate emerged in the reign of King Manuru
Salehi around 1605 and began to grow rapidly during the reign of King Abdul Kahir .
King Abdul Kahir is also known as the Sultan of Bima I, because he was the king who
first embraced Islam in Bima, so it is considered a new era, separate from the
previous Bima king who embraced Hinduism. Islam became the official religion of the
kings in West Nusa Tenggara.[5]

Colonial period
The Europeans who first came to the land of Nusa Tenggara were the Portuguese who
landed on the island of Solor and Timor in 1605. At the same time the Dutch also
came to the island of Hitu and Ambon, in the Malukus. The first Dutch ship that
entered the area was the Ter Ver which docked in Kupang in 1611. The arrival of the
Dutch led to a long dispute between the Portuguese and the Dutch in Nusa Tenggara.
The Dutch provided assistance to the local kings who resisted the Portuguese. The
Netherlands then expanded its influence in Nusa Tenggara, to make a variety of
agreements with small kings around the island of Sumbawa.

The penetration of the Dutch colonial administration that was so strong in


Indonesia was increasingly bringing real impact to the survival of Indonesian
society in general. One result was very broad: in the eastern part of Indonesia,
the Sultanate of Gowa began to decline in its supremacy in the 17th century. Gowa
nobility who did not submit to the colonial government fled from Makassar and built
pockets of resistance in West Nusa Tenggara. To face such resistance, the colonial
government began to concentrate power in Nusa Tenggara Barat. This was reinforced
by the emergence of Lombok for international trade traffic, so the desire of the
Dutch to rule West Nusa Tenggara directly become apparent.

Faced with such a situation, the Dutch colonial government sent Stephen van Hegen
for a close look at the Bima situation in 1660. The arrival of the Dutch influenced
the political and economic situation in this area. In 1669, the Government of the
Kingdom of Bima led by Sultan Ambela Abdul Khair Sirajuddin, made peace and
friendship ties with the colonial government with the contents of the agreement as
follows:

The Sultanate of Bima and Dompu will not attack Makassar


To keep the peace, only members of the Dutch East India Company may visit the Bima
area
Bima and Makassar will not make any contact at all.
Foreign traders from Europe, India, Java, Malaya, Arab lands, Aceh, and Champa must
not engage in trade with Bima, except by special permit from the Dutch East India
Company.
The agreement with the Sultan of Bima and Dompu recognized the existence of the
Dutch colonial power. Since then, the Netherlands sought to consolidate its control
by blocking the Bima port to prevent the arrival of aid from Makassar or other
foreign countries. The effort was done so that the existing ports in Bima and
Lombok Island were considered to be strategic, and not fall into British hands.

The Dutch supremacy in the region was very strong, so the king and the people in
the region could not move freely. This condition became worse with the eruption of
Mount Tambora on April 5, 1815, which shook the entire region, and the consequences
could be felt throughout the Moluccas, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra and Kalimantan.
Mount Tambora's eruption resulted in the disappearance of the two kingdoms of
Tambora and Papekat. More than 10,000 people were killed.

Independence
The existence of the status of the province West Nusa Tenggara did not come by
itself. The struggle demanded that the formation of West Nusa Tenggara province
take place over quite a long time. West Nusa Tenggara province previously had been
part of the State of East Indonesia in the conception of the Republic of Indonesia
States, and be part of the small Sunda province after recognition of Indonesian
sovereignty.
Along with the dynamics and after some time, the process of changing the
constitutional system after the proclamation of the Independence of the Republic of
Indonesia then formed the province of West Nusa Tenggara. With the enactment of Law
No. 64 of 1958 Date August 14, 1958 on the Establishment of Regions Autonomous of
Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara, the province was officially
established and the first Governor of the province was AR. Moh. Ruslan
Djakraningrat.

Geography
Terrain
West Nusa Tenggara has two kinds of landscape. The first is the island of Lombok
with the coastline fairly straight, with the central to eastern part in the form of
mountains, and coastal lowlands in the east. The second is Sumbawa Island with a
jagged coastline because of the many headlands and bays, and the central part is
covered with hills and limestone mountains.

Selong (capital of East Lombok Regency) is a city that has the highest altitude,
which is 148 m above sea level, while the lowest Raba at 13 m above sea level. Of
the seven mountains on the island of Lombok, Mount Rinjani is the highest mountain
with an altitude of 3,775 m, while Mount Tambora on Sumbawa is the highest mountain
with an altitude of 2,851 m.

Climate
Like the rest of Indonesia, NTB has a tropical climate. Based on statistics from
the meteorological institute, the maximum temperature in 2001 ranged from 30.9 to
32.1 �C and minimum temperature ranged between 20.6 and 24.5 �C. The highest
temperatures occur in September and the lowest are in November. Being tropical, NTB
has a high average relative humidity, which is between 48 and 95%.

West Nusa Tenggara has relatively little rainfall compared to the western region of
Indonesia. Maximum rainfall in the province occurs in January and minimum rainfall
occurs in August.

Economy
The area of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) has very beautiful natural scenery, be it the
mountains or the beach. This has caused many tourists from other parts of Indonesia
and other countries to flock to the province due to its stunning scenery.

In addition to the panorama of beautiful tourist attractions, food crops and


horticulture developed and cultivated by the community that are profitable for
farmers, among others, are: soybeans, peanuts, corn, green beans, peppers, onions,
mangoes, bananas and pineapples. In addition to the nine kinds of commodities in
the regions, other horticultural commodities that can be developed are potatoes,
carrots, apples, and grapes.

As for fisheries, NTB has 3 areas of fisheries development:

The island of Lombok, with a priority on the development of marine aquaculture and
freshwater fisheries, brackish water aquaculture (ponds), catching public waters;
The western part of Sumbawa Island, priority on the development of brackish water
aquaculture (ponds), mariculture, arrest, public waters and freshwater aquaculture;
Eastern part of Sumbawa Island with priority on the development of catching,
mariculture, public waters, and freshwater aquaculture.
West Nusa Tenggara is one of the major manufacturers and suppliers of livestock and
seeds to the needs of various regions in Indonesia. The carrying capacity of
livestock-based agribusiness development, among others, the potential availability
of cattle in quality and quantity, land resources, and fodder, support all
production, pet patterns as a group, are non communicable diseases as well as the
bank still has domestic and export markets.[clarification needed] The NTB cow is a
kind of Bali cattle, which is a leading NTB commodity and has domestic and export
markets. In addition to cows and buffaloes, other supporting commodities are pigs,
goats and horses, chickens, and ducks.

Administration

Mount Rinjani
The province is administratively divided into eight regencies (kabupaten) and two
municipalities (kotamadya), listed below with their areas and their populations at
the 2010 Census and at the latest (2014) Estimates:[6]

Name Capital Area


(km�) Population
2010
Census Population
2014
Estimate HDI[7]
2014 Estimates
Mataram City 61.30 402,296 420,941 0.759 (High)
Central Lombok Regency
(Lombok Tengah) Praya 1,208.39 859,309 898,855 0.618 (Medium)
East Lombok Regency
(Lombok Timur) Selong 1,605.55 1,105,671 1,155,247 0.620 (Medium)
North Lombok Regency
(Lombok Utara) Tanjung 776.25 199,904 209,060 0.601 (Medium)
West Lombok Regency
(Lombok Barat) Gerung 862.62 599,609 626,941 0.635 (Medium)
Total Lombok 4,514.11 3,166,789 3,311,044
Bima City Bima 222.25 142,443 148,984 0.722 (High)
Bima Regency Woha 4,389.40 438,522 458,961 0.626 (Medium)
Dompu Regency Dompu 2,321.55 218,984 228,811 0.635 (Medium)
Sumbawa Regency Sumbawa Besar 6,643.98 415,363 434,469 0.628
(Medium)
West Sumbawa Regency
(Sumbawa Barat) Taliwang 1,636.95 114,754 120,115 0.671 (Medium)
Total Sumbawa 15,214.13 1,330,066 1,391,340
The Indonesian Government is currently considering the division of Nusu Tenggara
Barat Province to create a separate Sumbawa Island province.[8] There is no
information as to whether the remaining part of the present province (i.e. the
districts comprising Lombok Island) would then be renamed.

Population
Historical population
Year Pop. �%
1971 2,203,465 �
1980 2,724,664 +23.7%
1990 3,369,649 +23.7%
1995 3,645,713 +8.2%
2000 4,009,261 +10.0%
2010 4,500,212 +12.2%
Source: Statistics Indonesia 2010
Lombok is mainly inhabited by the Sasak ethnic group, with a minority Balinese
population, and Sumbawa is inhabited by Sumbawa and Bima ethnic groups. Each of
these groups has a local language associated with it as well. The population of the
province was 4,496,855 (at the 2010 census); 70.4% of the population lives on
Lombok (at the 2010 census), which has only 22.9% of the area. The latest estimate
(for January 2014) is 4,702,389.[9] The province is considered to be one of the
least developed of Indonesia's 33 provinces. In 2005, Nusa Tenggara Barat was
reported as the most affected area for malnutrition and kwashiorkor.[10] Life
expectancy in Nusa Tenggara Barat amounting to only 54 years is the lowest in
Indonesia (69 years) and infant mortality rate is the highest.[11]

Religion
Religion in West Nusa Tenggara (2010 Census)[12]
Religion Percent
Islam
?
96.47%
Hinduism
?
2.62%
Buddhism
?
0.32%
Protestantism
?
0.31%
Roman Catholicism
?
0.20%
Not Asked
?
0.07%
Confucianism
0.006%
Others
0.002%
Not Stated
0.002%
See also
Portal-puzzle.svg West Nusa Tenggara portal
References
Estimasi Penduduk Mennurat Jenis Kelamin dan Provinsi di Indonesia Tahun 2014.
Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
Estimasi Penduduk Mennurat Jenis Kelamin dan Provinsi di Indonesia Tahun 2014.
Sejarah Nusa Tenggara Barat Periode Kerajaan
Sejarah Nusa Tenggara Barat Periode Awal Perkembangan Islam
Estimasi Penduduk Mennurat Jenis Kelamin dan Provinsi di Indonesia Tahun 2014.
Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
Officials support new province for Sumbawa | The Jakarta Post
Estimasi Penduduk Mennurat Jenis Kelamin dan Provinsi di Indonesia Tahun 2014.
Ragil Suwito: Geography 2, p.151. Jakarta Timur 2010. ISBN 978-979-019-896-8
Ragil Suwito: Geography 2, p.149. Jakarta Timur 2010. ISBN 978-979-019-896-8
"Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
External links
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for West Nusa Tenggara.
Media related to West Nusa Tenggara at Wikimedia Commons
Official website
vte
Regencies and cities of West Nusa Tenggara
Capital: Mataram
Regencies
Bima Dompu West Lombok Central Lombok East Lombok North Lombok Sumbawa West Sumbawa
Seal of West Nusa Tenggara
Cities
Bima Mataram
See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
vte
Provinces of Indonesia
Categories: West Nusa TenggaraProvinces of Indonesia
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