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Lombok

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Lombok
South Lombok.jpg
Lombok Wedding Party 1998.jpg Camping above the clouds at Rinjani.jpg
Senggigi Beach by Pura Batubolong.JPG Senaru Waterfall.JPG
From top, left to right: Aan Beach, Sasak wedding, camping over the top of Rinjani,
Senggigi beach, Senaru waterfall
Lombok Locator.svg
Location (red) of Lombok
Geography
Location Southeast Asia
Coordinates 8.565�S 116.351�ECoordinates: 8.565�S 116.351�E
Archipelago Lesser Sunda Islands
Area 4,514.11 km2 (1,742.91 sq mi)
Highest elevation 3,726 m (12,224 ft)
Highest point Rinjani
Administration
Indonesia
Province West Nusa Tenggara
Largest settlement Mataram (pop. 420,941)
Demographics
Population 3,311,044 (2014)
Pop. density 733.5 /km2 (1,899.8 /sq mi)
Ethnic groups Sasak, Balinese, Mbojo, Tionghoa-peranakan, Sumbawa people,
Flores people, Arab Indonesian
Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia. It forms part of the
chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali
to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa to the east. It is roughly
circular, with a "tail" (Sekotong Peninsula) to the southwest, about 70 kilometres
(43 miles) across and a total area of about 4,514 square kilometres (1,743 square
miles). The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram.

Lombok is somewhat similar in size and density, and shares some cultural heritage
with the neighboring island of Bali to the west. However, it is administratively
part of West Nusa Tenggara, along with the larger and more sparsely populated
island of Sumbawa to the east. Lombok is surrounded by a number of smaller islands
locally called Gili.

The island is home to some 3.35 million Indonesians as recorded in the decennial
2014 census.[1][2][3][4]

Contents
1 Administration
2 History
2.1 Earthquake disaster
3 Geography
3.1 List of islands
4 Water problem
5 Demographics
6 Religion
7 Economy and politics
8 Tourism
8.1 Pre-1997
8.2 1997 to 2007
8.3 2008 to the present
8.4 Transport between Bali and Lombok
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 External links
Administration
Lombok is under the administration of the Governor of the province of West Nusa
Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Barat). The province is administered from the provincial
capital of Mataram in West Lombok.

The island is administratively divided into four kabupaten (regencies) and one kota
(city). They are as follows, with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census
and according to the latest (January 2014) official estimates:

Name Area in
km2 Population
2005 estimate Population
2010 Census Population
2014 Census Capital
North Lombok Regency
(Lombok Utara) 776.25 (included in
West Lombok) 199,904 210,133 Tanjung
West Lombok Regency
(Lombok Barat) 862.62 757,369 599,609 644,586 Gerung
Central Lombok Regency
(Lombok Tengah) 1,208.39 810,645 859,309 903,432 Praya
East Lombok Regency
(Lombok Timur) 1,605.55 1,039,195 1,105,671 1,153,773 Selong
Mataram City 61.30 342,896 402,296 441,064 Mataram
Totals 4,514.11 2,950,105 3,166,789 3,352,988
History

The Sasak chiefs of Lombok who allied with the Dutch to resist Balinese occupation.

A 75 carat diamond on exhibit at the Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. It was taken,


together with 230 kg (507 lb) of gold, 7,000 kg (15,432 lb) of silver and three
chests of jewels and precious stones from the royal palace of Lombok after a Dutch
invasion in 1894. Only part of the treasure was handed back to Indonesia in 1977.
[5]
Other than the Babad Lombok document which records the 1257 Samalas eruption,
little is known about Lombok before the seventeenth century. Before this time it
was made up of numerous competing and feuding petty states each of which were
presided over by a Sasak 'prince'. This disunity was taken advantage of by the
neighbouring Balinese who took control of western Lombok in the early seventeenth
century. The Makassarese meanwhile invaded eastern Lombok from their colonies in
neighbouring Sumbawa. The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East
India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The
Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting
resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838,
the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

Relations between the Sasak and Balinese in western Lombok were largely harmonious
and intermarriage was common. In the island's east, however, relations were less
cordial and the Balinese maintained control from garrisoned forts. While Sasak
village government remained in place, the village head became little more than a
tax collector for the Balinese. Villagers became a kind of serf and Sasak
aristocracy lost much of its power and land holdings.
Dutch intervention in Lombok and Karangasem against the Balinese in 1894.
During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs
sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the
governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with
Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese
raja capitulated to Dutch demands. (see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger
princes however overruled the raja and attacked and routed the Dutch. The Dutch
counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was
annexed to the Netherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok's
500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the
Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators
from Balinese hegemony.

During World War II a Japanese invasion force comprising elements of the 2nd
Southern Expeditionary Fleet invaded and occupied the Lesser Sunda Islands,
including the island of Lombok. They sailed from Soerabaja harbour at 09:00 hrs on
8 March 1942 and proceeded towards Lombok Island. On 9 May 1942 at 17:00 hrs the
fleet sailed into port of Ampenan on Lombok Island. The Dutch defenders were soon
defeated and the island occupied.[6]

Following the cessation of hostilities the Japanese forces occupying Indonesia were
withdrawn and Lombok returned temporarily to Dutch control. Following the
subsequent Indonesian independence from the Dutch, the Balinese and Sasak
aristocracy continued to dominate Lombok. In 1958, the island was incorporated into
the province of West Nusa Tenggara with Mataram becoming the provincial capital.
Mass killings of communists occurred across the island following the abortive coup
attempt in Jakarta and Central Java. During President Suharto's New Order
administration (1967�1998), Lombok experienced a degree of stability and
development but not to the extent of the boom and wealth in Java and Bali. Crop
failures led to famine in 1966 and food shortages in 1973. The national
government's transmigrasi program moved a lot of people out of Lombok. The 1980s
saw external developers and speculators instigate a nascent tourism boom although
local's share of earnings was limited. Indonesia's political and economic crises of
the late 1990s hit Lombok hard. In January 2000, riots broke out across Mataram
with Christians and ethnic Chinese the main victims, with alleged agents
provocateur from outside Lombok. Tourism slumped, but in recent years has seen a
renewed growth.

President Joko Widodo examining the earthquake damage.


Earthquake disaster
The July 2018 Lombok earthquake killed 20 people and injured hundreds more, the
earthquake caused significant damage to Lombok island and was the foreshock of a
larger earthquake that followed eight days later.[7][8] The 5 August 2018 Lombok
earthquake had a moment magnitude of 7.0, and it caused catastrophic damage to
North Lombok and also caused damage to nearby Bali; it caused over 550 deaths and
more than 7000 are injured.[9] Another 19 August 2018 Lombok earthquake that occur,
killing 13 people and damaging 1800 buildings.[10]

Geography

Mount Rinjani seen from Gili Air

Lake Segara Anak on top of Mt. Rinjani


The island is to the immediate east of the Lombok Strait which marks the
biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the
distinctly different fauna of Australasia; this distinction, known as the "Wallace
Line" (or "Wallace's Line") takes its name from Alfred Russel Wallace[11]
(1823�1913). Wallace was the first person to comment on the division between the
two regions, as well as on the abrupt boundary between the two biomes.[12]

To the east of Lombok lies the Alas Strait, a narrow body of water separating the
island of Lombok from the nearby island of Sumbawa.

The island's topography is dominated by the centrally-located stratovolcano Mount


Rinjani, the second-highest volcano in Indonesia, which rises to 3,726 metres
(12,224 ft), making Lombok the 8th-highest island. The most recent eruption of
Rinjani occurred in September 2016 at Gunung Barujari. In a 2010 eruption, ash was
reported as rising 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) into the atmosphere from the Barujari
cone in Rinjani's caldera lake of Segara Anak. Lava flowed into the caldera lake,
raising its temperature, while ash fall damaged crops on the slopes of Rinjani. The
volcano and its crater lake, Segara Anak (child of the sea), are protected by the
Gunung Rinjani National Park established in 1997. Recent evidence indicates an
ancient volcano, Mount Samalas, of which now only a caldera remains, was the source
of the 1257 Samalas eruption, one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded
history, which caused worldwide changes in weather.[13]

The highlands of Lombok are forest-clad and mostly undeveloped. The lowlands are
highly cultivated. Rice, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, cacao,
cloves, cassava, corn, coconuts, copra, bananas and vanilla are the major crops
grown in the fertile soils of the island. The southern part of the island is
fertile but drier, especially toward the southern coastline.

List of islands
Lombok is surrounded by many islets, including:

Northwest: colloquially the Gili Islands (North Lombok Regency)


Gili Trawangan
Gili Meno
Gili Air
Northeast (East Lombok Regency)
Gili Lawang
Gili Sulat
Gili Petagan
Gili Bidara (Pasaran)
Gili Lampu[14]
Gili Puyu
Gili Kondo
East Coast of Nusa Tenggara
Gili Puyuh
Gili Sulat
Southeast (East Lombok Regency)
Gili Indah
Gili Merengke
Gili Belek
Gili Ular
South Coast (West Lombok Regency)
Gili Solet
Gili Sarang Burung
Gili Kawu
Gili Puyuh
Southwest (Sekotong Peninsula, West Lombok Regency)
Gili Nanggu
Gili Sudak
Gili Tangkong
Gili Kedis
Gili Poh
Gili Genting
Gili Lontar
Gili Layar
Gili Amben
Gili Gede
Gili Anyaran
Gili Layar
Gili Asahan
Water problem
The water supply in Lombok is stressed and this places strain both upon the water
supply of the provincial capital, Mataram, and upon that of the island in general.
The southern and central areas are reported to be the most critically affected.
West Nusa Tenggara province in general is threatened with a water crisis caused by
increasing forest and water table damage and degradation. 160 thousand hectares of
a total of 1960 thousand hectares are thought to have been affected. The Head of
Built Environment and Security Forest Service Forest West Nusa Tenggara Andi
Pramari stated in Mataram on Wednesday, May 6, 2009 that, "If this situation is not
addressed it can be expected that within five years it may be difficult for people
to obtain water in this part of NTB (West Nusa Tenggara). Not only that, the
productivity of agriculture in value added will fall, and the residents are
experiencing water deficiency in their wells". High cases of timber theft in the
region of NTB are contributing to this problem.[15]

In September 2010 in Central Lombok, some villagers reportedly walked for several
hours to fetch a single pail of water. Nieleando, a small coastal village about 50
kilometers from the provincial capital, Mataram, has seen dry wells for years. It
has been reported[by whom?] that occasionally the problem escalates sufficiently
for disputes and fighting between villagers to occur. The problems have been
reported to be most pronounced in the districts of Jonggat, Janapria, Praya Timur,
Praya Barat, Praya Barat Daya and Pujut. In 2010 provincial authorities declared
all six districts drought areas.[16] Sumbawa, the other main island of the
province, also experienced severe drought in 2010, making it a province-wide issue.
[17]

Areas in southern Lombok Island were classified as arid and prone to water
shortages due to low rainfall and lack of water sources. On May 2011,
groundbreaking began on Pandanduri dam construction, which will span about 430
hectares and cost an estimated Rp.800 billion ($92.8 million). When finished, the
dam will accommodate about 25.7 million cubic meters of water and be able to
irrigate 10,350 hectares of farmland. Project construction was expected to last
five years.[18]

Demographics
The island's inhabitants are 85% Sasak, whose origins are thought to have migrated
from Java in the first millennium BC. Other residents include an estimated 10�15%
Balinese, with the small remainder being Tionghoa-peranakan, Javanese, Sumbawa and
Arab Indonesians.

The Sasak population are culturally and linguistically closely related to the
Balinese, but unlike the Hindu Balinese, the majority are Muslim and the landscape
is punctuated with mosques and minarets. Islamic traditions and holidays influence
the Island's daily activities.

In 2008 the Island of Lombok had 866,838 households and an average of 3.635 persons
per household.[19]

The 2014 census recorded a population of 4,773,795 people[20] in the province of


NTB, of which 70.24% reside on Lombok, giving it a population of 3,352,988 at that
date.[20]
Religion

Traditional Sasak houses.

The oldest mosque dating from 1634 in Bayan.

Pura Meru in Mataram, a Hindu temple built in 1720.

Buddhist Temple near Tanjung on the north coast.

Indigenous Sasak dancers performing traditional Lombok wardance c.? 1880


The island's indigenous Sasak people are predominantly Muslim[21] however before
the arrival of Islam Lombok experienced a long period of Hindu and Buddhist
influence that reached the island through Java. A minority Balinese Hindu culture
remains in Lombok. Islam may have first been brought to Lombok by traders arriving
from Sumbawa in the 17th century who then established a following in eastern
Lombok. Other accounts describe the first influences arriving in the first half of
the sixteenth century. The palm leaf manuscript Babad Lombok which contains the
history of Lombok describes how Sunan Prapen was sent by his father The Susuhunan
Ratu of Giri on a military expedition to Lombok and Sumbawa in order to convert the
population and propagate the new religion. However, the new religion took on a
highly syncretistic character, frequently mixing animist and Hindu-Buddhist beliefs
and practices with Islam.[22]

A more orthodox version of Islam increased in popularity in the early twentieth


century. The Indonesian government religionization programs (acquiring of a
religion) in Lombok during 1967 and 1968 led to a period of some considerable
confusion in religious allegiances and practices. These religionization programs
later led to the emergence of more conformity in religious practices in Lombok. The
Hindu minority religion is still practised in Lombok alongside the majority Muslim
religion.[23]

Hinduism is followed by ethnic Balinese and by a minority of the indigenous Sasak.


All the main Hindu religious ceremonies are celebrated in Lombok and there are many
villages throughout Lombok that have a Hindu majority population. According to
local legends two of the oldest villages on the island, Bayan, and Sembalun, were
founded by a prince of Majapahit.[23] According to the 2010 population census
declared adherents of Hinduism numbered 101,000 people with the highest
concentration in the Mataram Regency where they accounted for 14% of the
population.[24] The Ditjen Bimas Hindu (DBH)/ Hindu Religious Affairs Directorate's
own analysis conducted in close association with Hindu communities throughout the
country found that the number of Hindus in the population is much higher than
counted in the government census. The survey carried out in 2012 found the Hindu
population of Lombok to be 445,933. This figure is more in line with the commonly
stated view that 10�15% of the Islands population is Hindu.[25]

The Nagarakertagama, the 14th-century palm leaf poem that was found on Lombok
places the island as one of the vassals of the Majapahit empire. This manuscript
contained detailed descriptions of the Majapahit Kingdom and also affirmed the
importance of Hindu-Buddhism in the Majapahit empire by describing temple, palaces
and several ceremonial observances.[23]

Christianity is practised by a small minority including some ethnic Chinese and


immigrants from Bali and East Nusa Tenggara. There are Roman Catholic churches and
parishes in Ampenan, Mataram, Praya and Tanjung. There is a catholic hospital in
Mataram as well. Two Buddhist temples can be visited in and around Tanjung where
about 800 Buddhists live.

The history of a small Arab community in Lombok has history dating back to early
settlement by traders from Yemen. The community is still evident mainly in Ampenan,
the old Port of Mataram. Due to the siting of a UNHCR refugee centre in Lombok some
refugees from middle eastern countries have intermarried with Lombok
people[citation needed].

A non-orthodox Islamic group found only on Lombok are the Wektu Telu ("Three
times"), who pray three times daily, instead of the five times stipulated in the
Quran. Waktu Telu beliefs are entwined with animism, and is influenced not only by
Islam, but also Hinduism and pantheistic beliefs. There are also remnants of Boda
who maintain Pagan Sasak beliefs and could be representative of an original Sasak
culture, undiluted by later Islamic innovations.[23]

Many influences of animist belief prevail within the Sasak people, most of whom
believe in the existence of spirits or ghosts. They regard both food and prayer as
indispensable whenever they seek to communicate with spirits, including the dead
and ritualistic traditional practices endure.[26] Traditional magic is practised to
ward off evil and illness and to seek solutions to disputations and antipathy.
Magic may be practised by an individual alone but normally a person experienced in
such things is sought out to render a service. Normally money or gifts are made to
this person and the most powerful practitioners are treated with considerable
respect.[citation needed]

Economy and politics


Many of the visitors to Lombok and much of the islands goods come across the Lombok
Strait by sea or air links from Bali. Only 40 kilometres (25 mi) separate the two
islands.[27] Lombok is often marketed as "an unspoiled Bali," or "Bali's sister
island." With support from the central government, Lombok and Sumbawa are being
developed as Indonesia's second destination for international and domestic tourism.
[citation needed] Lombok has retained a more natural, uncrowded and undeveloped
environment, which attract travelers who come for its relaxed pace and the
opportunity to explore the island's unspoiled natural environment.[citation needed]
The more contemporary marketing campaigns for Lombok/Sumbawa seek to differentiate
from Bali and promote the island of Lombok as a standalone destination. The opening
of the Lombok International Airport on 1 October 2011 assisted in this endeavor.

Local Sasak children (c.? 1997)


Nusa Tenggara Barat and Lombok may be considered economically depressed by First
World standards and a large majority of the population live in poverty. Still, the
island is fertile, has sufficient rainfall in most areas for agriculture, and
possesses a variety of climate zones. Consequently, food in abundant quantity and
variety is available inexpensively at local farmer's markets, though locals still
suffer from famine due to drought and subsistence farming. A family of 4 can eat
rice, vegetables, and fruit for as little as US$0.50. Even though a family's income
may be as small as US$1.00 per day from fishing or farming, many families are able
to live a contented and productive life on a low income. However, the people of
Lombok are coming under increasing pressure from rising food and fuel prices.
Access to housing, education and health services remains difficult for many of the
island's indigenous population although public education is free throughout the
province and elementary schools are tried to be present in even remote areas.

The percentage of the population living in poverty in urban areas of Nusa Tenggara
Barat in 2008 was 29.47% and in 2009 it was 28.84%. For those living in rural areas
in 2008 it was 19.73% and in 2009 it reduced marginally to 18.40%. For combined
urban and village the figures were 23.81% and in 2009 it fell slightly to 22.78%.
[28]

In Mataram in 2008 the percentage of the population that was unmarried was 40.74%,
married 52.01%, divorced 2.51% and widowed 4.75%.[29]
Tourism
See also: Mandalika, Lombok
Tourism is an important source of income on Lombok. The most developed tourism area
of the island is on the west coast of the island and is centered about the township
of Senggigi. The immediate surrounds of the township contain the most developed
tourism facilities. The west coast coastal tourism strip is spread along a 30
kilometres (19 miles) strip following the coastal road north from Mataram and the
old airport at Ampenan. The principal tourism area extends to Tanjung in the
northwest at the foot of Mount Rinjani and includes the Sire and Medana Peninsulas
and the highly popular Gili Islands lying immediately offshore. These three small
islands are most commonly accessed by boat from Bangsal near Pemenang, Teluk Nare a
little to the south, or from further south at Senggigi and Mangsit beach. Many
hotels and resorts offer accommodations ranging from budget to luxurious. Recently
direct fast boat services have been running from Bali making a direct connection to
the Gili islands. Although rapidly changing in character, the Gili islands still
provide both a lay-back backpacker's retreat and a high-class resort destination.

Other tourist destinations include Mount Rinjani, Gili Bidara, Gili Lawang, Narmada
Park and Mayura Park and Kuta (distinctly different from Kuta, Bali).[30] Sekotong,
in southwest Lombok, is popular for its numerous and diverse scuba diving
locations.

The Kuta area is also famous for its largely deserted, white sand beaches. The
Smalltown is rapidly developing since the opening of the International airport in
Praya. Increasing amounts of surfers from around the globe come here seeking out
perfect surf and the slow and rustic feel of Lombok. South Lombok surfing is
considered some of the best in the world. Large polar lows push up through the
Indian Ocean directing long range, high period swell from as far south as Heard
Island from late March through to September or later. This coincided with the dry
season and South-East trade winds that blow like clockwork. Lombok is famous for
its diversity of breaks, which includes world-renowned Desert Point at Banko Banko
in the southwest of the island.

The northern west coast near Tanjung has many new upmarket hotel and villa
developments centered about the Sire and Medana peninsular nearby to the Gili
islands and a new boating marina at Medana Bay. These new developments complement
the already existing five-star resorts and a large golf course already established
there.

Pre-1997
Tourist development started in the mid-1980s when Lombok attracted attention as an
'unspoiled' alternative to Bali. Initially, low budget bungalows proliferated at
places like the Gili islands and Kuta, Lombok on the South Coast. These tourist
accommodations were largely owned by and operated by local business entrepreneurs.
Areas in proximity to the airport, places like Senggigi, experienced rampant land
speculation for prime beachfront land by big businesses from outside Lombok.

In the 1990s the national government in Jakarta began to take an active role in
planning for and promoting Lombok's tourism. Private organizations like the Bali
Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC) and the Lombok Tourism Development
Corporation (LTDC) were formed. LTDC prepared detailed land use plans with maps and
areas zoned for tourist facilities. Large hotels provide primary employment for the
local population. Ancillary business, ranging from restaurants to art shops have
been started by local businessmen. These businesses provide secondary employment
for local residents.

1997 to 2007
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis and the fall of Suharto regime in 1998 marked the
beginning a decade of setbacks for tourism. Spurred by rapid devaluation of the
currency and the transition to true democracy caused all of Indonesia to experience
a period of domestic unrest.[31] Many of Indonesian Provinces struggled with
elements of the population desiring autonomy or independence from the Republic of
Indonesia. At the same time, fanatical Islamic terrorism in Indonesia further
aggravated domestic unrest across the archipelago.

In January 2000, radical Islamic agitators from the newly formed Jemaah Islamiyah
provoked religious and ethnic violence in the Ampenan area of Mataram and the
southern area of Senggigi. Many foreign expatriates and tourists were temporarily
evacuated to Bali. Numerous foreign embassies issued Travel Warnings advising of
the potential danger of traveling to Indonesia.

Subsequently, the 2002 Bali bombings, the 2005 Bali bombings and the Progress of
the SARS outbreak in Asia all dramatically impacted tourism activities in Lombok.
Tourism was slow to return to Lombok, provoked in part by a worldwide reluctance to
travel because of global tensions. Only since 2007�2008, when most developed
countries lifted their Travel Warnings[32] has tourism recovered to pre-2000
levels.

2008 to the present


The years leading up to 2010 has seen a rapid revival and promotion of tourism
recovery in the tourism industry. The number of visitors has far surpassed pre-2000
levels. All signs indicate the long-term trend will see a steady increase in the
number of visitor arrivals.

Both the local government and many residents recognize that tourism and services
related to tourism will continue to be a major source of income for the island. The
island's natural environment and the customary hospitality of its residents make it
an obvious tourist destination.[original research?]

Lombok retains the allure of an undeveloped and natural environment. Tourism visits
to this tropical island are increasing again as both international and local
tourists are re-discovering the charms of Lombok. With this new interest comes the
development of a number of boutique resorts on the island providing quality
accommodation, food, and drinks in near proximity to the relatively unspoiled
countryside.

The Indonesian government is actively promoting both Lombok and neighboring Sumbawa
as Indonesia's number two tourist destination after Bali. Then�President of
Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Ministry of Cultural and Tourism and the
regional Governor had made public statements supporting the development of Lombok
as a tourism destination and setting a goal of 1 million visitors annually by the
year 2012 for the combined destination of Lombok and Sumbawa.[33][34] This has seen
infrastructure improvements to the island including road upgrades and the
construction of a much delayed new International airport in the islands south.[35]
Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC) has been empowered to develop Mandalika
Resort Area at southern part of the island, extending from Kuta along 8 kilometers
of sandy beach. Despite this, Sumbawa retains a very rustic feel compared to
Lombok.

Lombok International Airport (Bandara Internasional Lombok) (IATA: LOP, ICAO: WADL)
is south west of the small regional city of Praya in South central Lombok. It
commenced operations on 1 October 2011. It replaced Selaparang airport near
Ampenan.[36][37] It is the only operational international airport within the
province of West Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Barat).

Selaparang Airport in Ampenan was closed for operations on the evening of 30


September 2011. It previously provided facilities for domestic services to Java,
Bali, and Sumbawa and international services to Singapore to Kuala Lumpur via
Surabaya and Jakarta. It was the island's original airport and is situated on Jalan
Adi Sucipto on the north western outskirts of Mataram. The terminals and basic
airport infrastructure remain intact but it is closed to all civil airline traffic.

Lembar Harbor seaport in the southwest has shipping facilities and a ferry for road
vehicles and passenger services. In 2013, the gross tonnage is 4.3 million Gross
Tonnages or increase by 72 percent from 2012 data means in Lombok and West Nusa
Tenggara the economy progress significantly.[38] Labuhan Lombok ferry port on the
east coast provides a ferry for road vehicles and passenger services to Poto Tano
on Sumbawa.

Pelni Shipping Line provides a national network of passenger ship services


throughout the Indonesian archipelago.[39] Pelni have offices in Ampenan.

One of the unique traditional crafts from Lombok

The Gili Islands

Manta ray Biorock reef in Gili Islands

Mawun Beach

Harbour of Labuhan Lombok

Transport between Bali and Lombok

Lombok International Airport


Flights from Ngurah Rai International Airport (IATA: DPS) to Lombok International
Airport (IATA: LOP) take about 40 minutes. Lombok international airport is located
in southwest Lombok, 1.5 hours drive to Senggigi main tourist areas in the west
Lombok, 2 hours drive to the jetty of Teluk Nara before you cross to Gili Islands
and about 30 minutes drive to Kuta south Lombok.

Public Ferries depart from Padang Bai (Southeast Bali) and Lembar (Southwest
Lombok) every two hours, taking a minimum of 4�5 hours make the crossing in either
direction.

Fastboat services are available from various departure points on Bali and
principally serve the Gili Islands, with some significant onward traffic to the
Lombok mainland. Arrival points on Lombok are dependent upon the operator, at
either Teluk Nare/Teluk Kodek, Bangsal harbour or the township of Senggigi, all on
the northwest coast. Operating standards vary widely.

See also
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia portal
Tanak Tepong
Notes
"Lombok Island & West Nusa Tenggara Demography & Gender Ratio (Based on BPS 2014
Census)". MarlionLLC. 19 August 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-08-19.
Retrieved 19 August 2017.
"15 Things You Should Visit in Lombok". 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
"Population of Indonesia by Province". Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia
(Statistics Indonesia). 2010. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017.
Retrieved 7 February 2011.
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References
L, Klemen (1999�2000). "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-
1942". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26.
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lombok.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lombok.
Official website
Tropenmuseam Collection of historic photos from Lombok
Lombok Indonesia Tourism
Mount Rinjani Lombok National Park
NY Times on Lombok
The Australian reports on Lombok: The New Bali
Kabupaten Lombok Utara the Regency of North Lombok
Kabupaten Lombok Tengah, the Regency of Central Lombok
Kabupaten Lombok Timur, the Regency of East Lombok
Kabupaten Lombok Barat, the Regency of West Lombok
Kota Mataram, City of Mataram
Gili Asahan
vte
Regencies and cities of West Nusa Tenggara
Capital: Mataram
Regencies
Bima Dompu West Lombok Central Lombok East Lombok North Lombok Sumbawa West Sumbawa
Seal of West Nusa Tenggara
Cities
Bima Mataram
See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
GND: 4036297-8 NDL: 00629499 VIAF: 256243027 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF):
256243027
Categories: LombokIslands of West Nusa TenggaraLesser Sunda Islands
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