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Universidad Nacional De Colombia

Facultad de Medicina

Departamento de imágenes diagnósticas

Strategies for quantication of brain


changes in Autism Spectrum Disorders
(ASD)

Javier Andrés Almeida Moreno

Nelson Fernando Velasco Toledo M.Sc

Advisor
Eduardo Romero Castro M.Sc, Ph.D

August 28, 2015


Outline
1

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
2

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?
3

The Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) are a group of neurological


disorders characterized by problems in:

Verbal and nonverbal communication


Socialization
Repetitive and stereotyped patters

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Prevalence
4

Around The World

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Prevalence
4

Around The World


I Every year 1 Child among
160 is diagnosed with ASD.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Prevalence
4

Around The World


I Every year 1 Child among
160 is diagnosed with ASD.
I This neuropathology
affects more boys than
girls, at a ratio of 3-4:1.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Prevalence
5

Colombia
Colombia has not official ASD
statistics.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Diagnosis
6

Diagnosis

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Diagnosis
6

Diagnosis
I The ASD diagnosis remains strictly clinical.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Diagnosis
6

Diagnosis
I The ASD diagnosis remains strictly clinical.
I The diagnosis is made using neuropsychological tests and
structured interviews with the parenthood.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


ASD Diagnosis
7

however...

1 Posada M. Et.Al. Investigacion epidemiologica en el autismo: una visión

integradora. Revista de Neurología,2005.


Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD
ASD Diagnosis
7

however...

Diagnosis is not accurate,


specificity and sensibility are
not 100%.1

1 Posada M. Et.Al. Investigacion epidemiologica en el autismo: una visión

integradora. Revista de Neurología,2005.


Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD
Evidence
8

The ASD brains increase in size during first years. Specially in:

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Evidence
8

The ASD brains increase in size during first years. Specially in:
I Basal Ganglia

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Evidence
8

The ASD brains increase in size during first years. Specially in:
I Basal Ganglia
I Cerebral Cortex.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Evidence
8

The ASD brains increase in size during first years. Specially in:
I Basal Ganglia
I Cerebral Cortex.
I Corpus Callosum

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Evidence
8

The ASD brains increase in size during first years. Specially in:
I Basal Ganglia
I Cerebral Cortex.
I Corpus Callosum
I Amygdala

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Evidence
8

The ASD brains increase in size during first years. Specially in:
I Basal Ganglia
I Cerebral Cortex.
I Corpus Callosum
I Amygdala
I Cerebellum

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
9

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Motivation
Why?
10

Use the neuroimaging to diagnosis neuropsychological alterations,


however this not easy task...

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
11

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Problem
Problem Definition 12

The anatomopathological correlation in ASD is difficult because of


both the disorder variability and the anatomical brain changes during
the first five years.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
13

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Question
Research Question 14

How to quantify structural brain changes and associate


them to the described ASD clinic alterations?

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
15

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Objetives
Main Objetive
16

Main Objetive
To quantify brain changes and associate them with ASD
anatomopathological alterations.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
17

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Proposed Methodology
Advantage
18

Autism Brain Imaging Data


Exchange

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Proposed Methodology
Advantage
18

Autism Brain Imaging Data


Exchange
I 539 RMN individuals with
ASD

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Proposed Methodology
Advantage
18

Autism Brain Imaging Data


Exchange
I 539 RMN individuals with
ASD
I 573 RMN controls.

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Proposed Methodology
Advantage
18

Autism Brain Imaging Data


Exchange
I 539 RMN individuals with
ASD
I 573 RMN controls.
I Phenotypic information

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Proposed Methodology
Advantage
18

Autism Brain Imaging Data


Exchange
I 539 RMN individuals with
ASD
I 573 RMN controls.
I Phenotypic information
I Diagnosis in the Spectrum

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Proposed Methodology
Strategy
19

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Outline
20

General Concepts
What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Master Thesis Proposal


Motivation
Problem Definition
Research Question
Objetives
Proposed Methodology

Current Work

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


Current Work
Writing a master’s thesis...
21

Almeida, Velasco, Romero | Determination Of Structural Changes Brain In ASD


That’s All! Thank you very much