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Figura 11.

74

EL SISTEMA DE COORDENADAS ESFÉRICAS


En un sistema de coordenadas esféricas, un punto P en el espacio se representa
por medio de una terna ordenada #", $, #$.
1. " es la distancia entre P y el origen, " ≥ 0.
2. $ es el mismo ángulo utilizado en coordenadas cilíndricas para r ≥ 0.
Fórmulas para convertir coordenadas \

3. # es el ángulo entre el eje z positivo y el segmento de recta OP , 0 ≤ # ≤ &.



Hay que observar que la primera y tercera coordenadas, r y f, son no negativas.
OBSERVACIÓN: Nosotros vamos
r es la letra minúscula ro el
a manejar , y forden
es la letra(griega
𝜌 , 𝛾 , 𝜃 ) para
minúscula fi. las esféricas, y
cambiaremos en las fórmulas 𝜙 por 𝛾
La relación entre coordenadas rectangulares y esféricas se ilustra en la figura 11.75.
z Para convertir de un sistema al otro, usar lo siguiente.
r = ρ sen φ = x2 + y2
Esféricas a rectangulares:

z
x ! " sen
sin # cos $, y ! " sen
sin # sen
sin $, z ! " cos #
φ P
(ρ, θ , φ )
(x, y, z) Rectangulares a esféricas:
O ρ
y

% '
θ r y z
x " 2 ! x 2 % y 2 % z 2, tan $ ! , # ! arccos
x &x 2 % y 2 % z 2
x y
Larson-11-07.qxd 3/12/09 17:44 Page 822
Coordenadas esféricas Para cambiar entre los sistemas de coordenadas cilíndricas y esféricas, usar lo siguiente.
Figura 11.75
Esféricas a cilíndricas #r ≥ 0$:

r 2 ! " 2 sen
sin22 #, $ ! $, z ! " cos #
822 CAPÍTULO 11 Vectores y la geometría del espacio
Cilíndricas a esféricas !r ≥ 0":

11.7 Coordenadas cilíndricas


" ! &ry %esféricas
z, $ ! $, 2 2 # ! arccos % r z% z '
& 2 2

■ Usar coordenadas cilíndricas para representar superficies en el espacio.


Usar coordenadas esféricas para representar superficies en el espacio.


Coordenadas cilíndricas
Ya se ha visto que algunas gráficas bidimensionales son más fáciles de representar en coor-
denadas polares que en coordenadas rectangulares. Algo semejante ocurre con las superfi-
cies en el espacio. En esta sección se estudiarán dos sistemas alternativos de coordenadas
espaciales. El primero, el sistema de coordenadas cilíndricas, es una extensión de las
Coordenadas cilíndricas: coordenadas polares del plano al espacio tridimensional.
z
r2 = x2 + y2
Coordenadas y
rectangulares: tan θ = x
EL SISTEMA DE COORDENADAS CILÍNDRICAS
x = r cos θ z=z
y = r sen θ
z=z En un sistema de coordenadas cilíndricas, un punto P en el espacio se representa
(x, y, z)
P (r, θ , z) por medio de una terna ordenada !r, $, z".

x
1. !r, $" es una representación polar de la proyección de P en el plano xy.
y
θ r 2. z es la distancia dirigida de !r, $" a P.

Para convertir coordenadas rectangulares en coordenadas cilíndricas (o viceversa), hay que


x y usar las siguientes fórmulas, basadas en las coordenadas polares, como se ilustra en la figu-
Figura 11.66 ra 11.66.
Cilíndricas a rectangulares:

x ! r cos $, sin $,
y ! r sen z!z

Rectangulares a cilíndricas:

y
r 2 ! x 2 % y 2, tan $ ! , z!z
x

Al punto (0, 0, 0) se le llama el polo. Como la representación de un punto en el sistema de


coordenadas polares no es única, la representación en el sistema de las coordenadas cilín-
dricas tampoco es única.

(x, y, z) = (−2 3, 2, 3)
P EJEMPLO 1 de coordenadas cilíndricas
Conversión
z
a coordenadas rectangulares
4 z

3
−4
Convertir el punto !r, $, z" ! 4, $ 56#, 3%a coordenadas rectangulares.
−3
2 Solución Usando las ecuaciones de conversión de cilíndricas a rectangulares se obtiene
−2

1
r
x ! 4 cos
5#
!4 "$ 3 %! "2
#
#3
11.7 11.7
SECCIÓN Cylindrical and Spherical
Coordenadas Coordinates
cilíndricas y esféricas 827
827
11.7 Cylindrical
11.7 Cylindrical and
Cylindricaland Spherical
andSpherical Coordinates
SphericalCoordinates
Coordinates 827
827
11.7
11.7
11.7 Cylindrical
Cylindrical and
and Spherical
Spherical Coordinates
Coordinates 827
827
827
11.7
11.7 Cylindrical
11.7 Cylindrical and
Cylindrical and Spherical
and Spherical Coordinates
Spherical Coordinates
Coordinates 827
827
827
11.7
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A120 Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises Soluciones de los ejercicios impares A-27

73. La botella de Klein no tiene un interior ni un exterior. Se forma Rectangulares Cilíndricas Esféricas
insertando el extremo delgado abierto a través del costado de la 73. 4, 6, 3 7.211, 0.983, 3 7.810, 0.983, 1.177
botella y uniéndolo a la base de la botella. 75. 4.698, 1.710, 8 5, 9, 8 9.434, 0.349, 0.559
Sección 11.7 (página 827) 77. 7.071, 12.247, 14.142, 2.094, 20, 2 3, 4
14.142 14.142
1. 7, 0, 5 3. 3 2 2, 3 2 2, 1 5. 2 3, 2, 3
79. 3, 2, 2 3.606, 4.123, 0.588,
7. 5, 2, 1 9. 2 2, 4, 4 11. 2, 3, 4 0.588, 2 1.064
13. z 4 15. r 2 z 2 17 17. r sec tan 81. 5 4 3
2, 3, 2 2.833, 0.490, 3.206, 0.490,
19. r 2 sen 2 10 z 2 1.5 2.058
21. x2 y 2 9 23. x 3y 0 83. 3.536, 3.536, 5 5, 3 4, 5 7.071, 2.356, 2.356
z z
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87. 1.837, 1.837, 1.5 2.598, 2.356, 1.5) 3, 3 4, 3
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1
95. Rectangulares a cilíndricas:
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4 3 4
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r 2 x 2 y 2, tan y x, z z
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−2 Cilíndricas a rectangulares:
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25. x 2 y2 z2 5 27. x 2 y2 2y 0 97. Rectangulares a esféricas:
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x 2 y 2 z 2, tan y x, arccos z x 2 y 2 z 2
3
2 Esféricas a rectangulares:
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99. a) r 2 z 2 25 b) 5
3
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103. a) r 4 sen b) 4 sen sen 4 sen csc
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105. a) r 2 9 cos2 sen 2
29. 4, 0, 2 31. 4 2, 2 3, 4 33. 4, 6, 6 a) 2 9 csc2 cos2 sen 2
35. 6, 2, 2 2 37. 0, 0, 12 39. 52, 52, 5 2 2 107. z
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2
1 1
0 y 10
x 2 2 y
−2
−3 −1 0 z 10
x 3
2
1
2 −2
119. Cilíndricas: r 2 z2 9, r 3 cos , 0
3
121. Falso. r z representa un cono.
y

57. 4, 4, 2 59. 4 2, 2, 4 123. Falso. Ver página 823. 125. Elipse


61. 2 13, 6, arccos 3 13 63. 13, , arccos 5 13
65. 10, 6, 0 67. 36, , 0
Ejercicios de repaso para el capítulo 11 (página 829)
69. 3 3, 6, 3 71. 4, 7 6, 4 3 1. a) u 3, 1 b) u 3i j c) 2 5 d) 10i
v 4, 2
3. v 4, 4 3 5. 5, 4, 0

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