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THAT’S ENGLISH!
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THAT’S
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THAT’S
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THAT’S ENGLISH!
Autores Edición gráfica
Caroline Cooke; Anna Cowper; Susan Lea-Wilson; Fidel Puerta
Alejandro Zarzalejos
Maquetación
Edición Maritxu Eizaguirre
Gregory Backes; Valerie Clark; Sarah Jackson; Esther Patricia Fernández
Lema; Verónica Moro
Coordinación técnica y de diseño
Corrección Mario Dequel
Nicola Gooch Maritxu Eizaguirre
Ilustración Dirección del proyecto
Chema García Vicki Caballero Anderson
Grabación
EFS Motivation Sound Studios

Fotografía
ARCHIVO SM; Amanda Clement, Andrew Ward / PHOTODISC; MANOS UNIDAS; EFE; CORBIS; PHOTONONSTOP;
THINKSTOCK; CORDON PRESS; 123RF; SHUTTERSTOCK; iStock; GETTY IMAGES; AGE FOTOSTOCK; ALBUM

Fuentes
P. 10: The Telegraph (05/03/15); P. 15: Uncommon Knowledge (05/03/15); P. 30: The Guardian, BBC (24/02/15); P. 35: The
Independent (24/02/15); P. 40: Pay It Forward Day, Catherine Ryan Hyde (20/01/15); P. 45: The Independent (04/02/15); P. 54:
Mother Jones (17/03/15); P. 104: The Guardian (14/06/15); P. 108: Dream Moods (20/04/15); P. 109: The Guardian (19/04/15)

Diseño curricular y seguimiento técnico del proceso de elaboración de los materiales didácticos de Inglés a Distancia
desde el CIDEAD realizado por:
Rocío Arias Bejarano
Silvia Ávila Duez
Nuria Cambronero Sicilia
Rafael Fernández Alonso Este material se ha elaborado con papel
María Ángeles Fernández Melón certificado por la cadena de custodia PEFC
(Programme for the Endorsement of Forest
Ana Mª García Romero
Certification), procedente de plantaciones
Karen Ludlow
forestales, totalmente libre de cloro
Cleo Merino de Diego (TCF – Totally Chlorine Free) y cumpliendo
Ángel Nieto Serrano la ISO14001, siguiendo lo estipulado en
Elena Terán Herranz la Orden PRE/116/2008, de 21 de enero.
Alejandro Zarzalejos Alonso

MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN, CULTURA Y DEPORTE


SECRETARÍA DE ESTADO DE EDUCACIÓN, FORMACIÓN PROFESIONAL Y UNIVERSIDADES
Centro para la Innovación y Desarrollo de la Educación a Distancia (CIDEAD)

Edita:
© SECRETARÍA GENERAL TÉCNICA
Subdirección General de Publicaciones y Documentación
Catálogo de publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte: http://www.educacion.es
Catálogo general de publicaciones oficiales: www.060.es
Fecha de edición: julio 2015
NIPO: 030-15-137-7
ISBN: 978-84-369-5635-1
Depósito legal: M-20310-2015
Impreso en la UE - Printed in EU
Imprime: Reyper, S.L.
THAT’S ENGLISH!
Contents 4
Introduction 6
Unit 1 8
How are you feeling today?
Unit 2 18
It’s just good manners
Unit 3 28
A bright future
Unit 4 38
Every little bit helps
Revision 1 48
Unit 5 52
As easy as 1, 2, 3
Unit 6 62
The gentle art of persuasion
Unit 7 72
Your choice
Unit 8 82
I need a hero!
Unit 9 92
Let’s hit the road
Revision 2 102
Unit 10 106
Exam strategies
Self Tests (Units 1-9) 112
Reference Section 121
Pronunciation Guide 145
List of Irregular Verbs 148
Audio Scripts 150
Answer Key 166

3
Contents FUNCTIONS GRAMMAR

UNIT
1
• -ed vs -ing adjectives
• Expressing sadness,
How are you happiness and fear
• Narrating
• Modifying adverbs with gradable
vs non-gradable adjectives

feeling today? • It in impersonal and anticipatory


uses

UNIT
2
• Present simple, will, present
It’s just good • Talking about habits
• Describing and comparing
continuous
• keep on, carry on, go on
manners
social behaviour
• used to, get used to, would

UNIT
3
• going to vs present continuous
• Future continuous and future perfect
• Emphasising
• Present continuous and future
• Predicting
A bright future
continuous
• Focus adverbs: only, just …

UNIT
4
• Verb + -ing/to + infinitive
• Making requests
Every little bit • Asking someone to do
something
• New subject before -ing
• Why don’t…?, Can I…?, Let me…, etc.

helps • Expressing disagreement • Can you…?, Could you…?, Will


you…?, etc.

REVISION 1
UNIT
5
• Asking for and giving • Cardinal and ordinal numbers
As easy as information related to data
• Recommending and
• Plurals
• both, all, none, neither, either
advising
1, 2, 3 • Organising information • recommend and suggest

UNIT
6
• Use of modals for politeness
The gentle art • Persuading
• Dissuading
• Question tags
• No way!, Absolutely not!, Over my
of persuasion • Refusing
dead body!, etc.

UNIT
7
• prefer, would rather
• Expressing preference • 2nd and 3rd conditionals
• Making hypotheses • Mixed conditionals
Your choice • Connectors

UNIT
8
• Inversion with so and such
• Expressing admiration and
disappointment • What clause + be
• Emphasising, exaggerating • Adjective + preposition

I need a hero! • Speculating • Passive voice + infinitive / perfect


infinitive

UNIT

9
• Expressing cause and
• owing to, due to, because of, etc.
Let’s hit the effect
• Describing actions about
• be about to, be on the point of, be to
• Expressions for thanking and
to begin in the past
road • Thanking and apologising
apologising

REVISION 2
UNIT
10
Exam
strategies
4 THAT’S ENGLISH!
PHONETICS VOCABULARY SOCIOLINGUISTICS WRITING / SPEAKING

• Sadness, happiness and fear • Cultural and/or gender


• Intonation: extreme differences and • Writing a personal
adverbs and adjectives • Strong emotions and constraints connected to anecdote
emotional states the expression of feelings

• Good manners in different


• Social behaviour and culture
cultures • Monologue: comparing
• Intonation of exclamations clash
• Use of words related to social habits and customs
• Taboo words
religion as taboo words

• Intelligence and artificial • Awareness of different


• Silent e • Writing an article
intelligence types of intelligence

• Organizations and
charities to help people
• Help • Interaction: how to reach
• Intonation in requests in need
• People in need agreement
• Community networks and
volunteering

• Pronunciation of numbers • Numbers, decimals, fractions • Different measurement


• Pronunciation of plurals of and percentages • Billion is different from • How to write a proposal
Latin and Greek origin • Measure the Spanish billón

• How to be more
• Monologue: giving a
persuasive and how to
• Sounding persuasive • Sales and advertising persuasive sales pitch
improve your persuasion
or presentation
skills

• What makes a good choice


• Stress and weak forms in • Choose and choice in different societies and
• Writing a discursive essay
conditionals • Preferences at different moments in
people’s lives?

• Heroes
• Stress and intonation for • Interaction: how to
• Admiration and • Modern heroes
emphasis express disappointment
disappointment

• Travel
• How travel is seen in • Writing a formal email of
• Pronunciation: schwa • Expressions related to means different cultures apology
of transport

THAT’S ENGLISH! 5
Introduction
Bienvenido al módulo once del curso That’s English!
con el que comenzamos el segundo curso de nivel Reading (páginas 3 y 4)
avanzado.
Bajo el encabezamiento Reading, se encuentra un
En esta introducción te proponemos algunas texto relacionado con el tema de la unidad. Léelo las
sugerencias para seguir cómodamente y con éxito veces que lo consideres necesario para realizar las
los nuevos módulos de That’s English!, que constan actividades relacionadas con él.
de 9 unidades, 2 unidades de revisión y 1 unidad de
preparación para el examen de fin de módulo.
Language Study (páginas 5 y 6)
Antes de empezar cada una de las unidades del
módulo, es útil consultar la tabla de contenidos Estas páginas están dedicadas al desarrollo de los
del principio del libro donde verás recogidas las siguientes aspectos:
funciones, estructuras, vocabulario, etc., que la
configuran. Pronunciation
Los ejercicios que vas a encontrar en esta sección son
Programa de vídeo A (páginas 1 y 2) fundamentales para mejorar tu pronunciación. Para
hacerlos, deberás usar el CD de audio. Conviene que
Al empezar cada unidad, en la primera página, grabes tu propia voz y la compares con el modelo del
están detallados los objetivos que se espera que CD. Repite tantas veces como consideres necesario
hayas conseguido al finalizar el estudio de la misma. hasta obtener una pronunciación aceptable.
Puedes volver a ellos entonces y comprobar si los Listening
has conseguido. Estas actividades sirven no solo para desarrollar la
Los encabezamientos Before you watch, While you importantísima destreza de comprender el discurso
watch y After you watch te indican qué actividades oral, sino también para reforzar el vocabulario, las
debes hacer en cada momento. estructuras y funciones estudiadas.
Before you watch presenta el vocabulario y las Vocabulary
frases clave del programa. Debes, por tanto, leerlas
Las actividades de vocabulario tienen como objetivo
atentamente y buscar en el diccionario cualquier
practicar el que se presenta en el vídeo y en la sección
palabra que desconozcas.
de Reading e introducir nuevos términos de forma
While you watch contiene las preguntas que los contextualizada.
presentadores hacen al comienzo del programa; sirven
para que te hagas una idea del contenido del episodio Grammar
correspondiente de la serie 12, Penn Road y para que El conocimiento de las reglas gramaticales te
centres tu atención en sus aspectos esenciales. Los ayudará a entender ciertas estructuras complejas o
presentadores te darán las respuestas al final. simplemente distintas a las españolas. También te
Mientras ves el programa, intenta responder a las permitirá corregir tus propias producciones y te dará
preguntas de los presentadores. No te preocupes si sensación de confianza. Recuerda, sin embargo, que
hay algunas palabras o expresiones que desconoces. se pueden conocer todas las reglas de una lengua
Muy probablemente aparecerán de nuevo en otras y ser incapaz de expresarse en la misma, así como
secciones de la unidad. Es conveniente que tengas también es posible expresarse con toda fluidez y
papel y lápiz a mano, pues puede haber palabras o corrección sin conocer las reglas.
explicaciones de los presentadores que te interese A lo largo de la unidad encontrarás llamadas de
anotar. Cuantas más veces veas el programa, mejor referencia a la sección Reference section, en la que
lo entenderás. encontrarás una explicación más detallada de las
Las actividades de la sección After you watch te estructuras presentadas.
permitirán comprobar tu grado de comprensión Speaking
del programa. Si te resultara muy difícil realizar las Hay dos clases de actividades de speaking: de
actividades de esta sección, deberías volver a ver el producción y de interacción, identificadas con sus
programa y hacerlas de nuevo. correspondientes iconos. Las actividades de producción
En la sección Now you! se te pide que relaciones las realizarás solo. Sin embargo, para trabajar las
el tema del programa con tus propias vivencias y actividades de interacción necesitarás a otra persona. Si
opiniones utilizando el lenguaje que has aprendido. conoces a alguien que también esté estudiando inglés,
Por eso conviene que hagas esta actividad nada más sería muy útil que pudieras hacer estas actividades con
ver el programa. esta persona. Siempre tienes, por supuesto, la sesión
La segunda página consta de tres secciones: Street de tutoría, donde podrás realizar estas actividades con
Interviews, Activate your English and Now You!, y tus compañeros de clase. Un consejo: no seas tímido.
en ella se trabajan y practican ciertos aspectos del Lánzate a hablar. No te preocupes por los errores que
idioma utilizado por las personas entrevistadas en la puedas cometer. No hay nada más que una forma de
calle. aprender a hablar y es hablando.

6 THAT’S ENGLISH!
Writing para analizar textos escritos u orales (forma y
Esta sección te ayudará a desarrollar la destreza de estructura) y el lenguaje y funciones utilizados en
expresión escrita. Sigue las indicaciones y aprovecha ellos. Al final de cada sección el alumno tendrá que
todas las oportunidades que se te ofrecen para producir o bien un texto escrito basado en el tipo
practicar. No es necesario que todo lo que escribas de texto trabajado en la sección o bien un texto oral
sea absolutamente correcto. Relee tus textos y en forma de monólogo o diálogo. Al final del libro
compáralos con los modelos de respuesta que te encontrarás las secciones Writing Reference y Answer
proporcionamos en la clave. Key. En la primera se incluyen modelos de los tipos de
texto presentados en las unidades, y en la segunda se
Programa de vídeo B (página 7) ofrecen respuestas modelo para todos los ejercicios.

La sesión B, que abarca el segundo programa de Self Tests


vídeo, tiene por objeto ampliar la lengua presentada
en la sesión A de forma menos controlada y más Al final del libro se incluyen los Self Tests
natural. Este segundo programa está compuesto por correspondientes a cada una de las unidades. Estas
diversos apartados: páginas te dan la oportunidad de que te autoevalúes
y repases los contenidos fundamentales de la unidad.
• Documentary: aquí podrás ver un documental sobre
algún aspecto relacionado con el tema de la unidad.
• Same language, different lives: ofrece la oportunidad
Revision Units
de ver a personas de diferentes países de habla
En este módulo se han elaborado dos unidades de
inglesa respondiendo a preguntas relacionadas con
revisión. Revision Unit 1, que se encuentra después
el tema de la unidad. De esta manera, además de
de la unidad 4, revisa los contenidos de las cuatro
oír diferentes acentos, podrás aprender cómo es la
primeras unidades. Revision Unit 2, que aparece
vida en estos países y contrastarla con la tuya.
después de la unidad 9, revisa las cinco restantes.
• That’s the USA: es una sección con la que podrás
Constan de cuatro páginas para repasar y
disfrutar de un viaje cultural y turístico por los Estados
consolidar los contenidos principales del módulo.
Unidos de América conociendo aspectos de la vida
Incluyen actividades de gramática, vocabulario y
norteamericana. En este módulo visitaremos el estado
pronunciación, y práctica de las 4 destrezas.
de Florida. En cada episodio nuestra presentadora,
Jodi Darren, visita un lugar de interés y conversa
con personas que aportan información sobre lo que Unit 10 Exam Strategies
estamos viendo. Esta sección te ayudará a mejorar
La última unidad del libro está destinada a preparar
tu comprensión auditiva y a conocer de cerca
el examen de final de módulo. Plantea un modelo de
interesantes aspectos de la cultura norteamericana.
examen por destrezas similar al que se propone en las
Realiza las primeras actividades de cada sección Escuelas de Idiomas de la mayoría de las Comunidades
antes de verla. Te ayudarán a familiarizarte con el Autónomas. Además proporciona actividades y
lenguaje que se va a usar. Haz el resto de actividades consejos para desarrollar las estrategias necesarias
de comprensión después de ver cada sección. para enfrentarse a las distintas partes del examen.
Un consejo: no te preocupes si no entiendes todas
las palabras de cada sección. Lo importante es captar Reference Section
la información principal y los detalles sobre los que
se pregunta en las actividades de comprensión. En esta sección encontrarás las secciones de
Grammar Reference, Writing Reference y Answer
Skills Work (página 8) Key que ya se han mencionado. Además, se incluye
la sección Pronunciation Guide con explicaciones
Esta página está reservada para trabajar las distintas teóricas del contenido de pronunciación presentado
destrezas de listening, reading, speaking y writing en las unidades.
de forma integrada y con actividades más abiertas
y menos controladas que las de las sesiones A y B. Por último, un par de consejos. Primero, intenta
Comprueba en la página de respuestas los modelos asistir a las sesiones de tutoría con regularidad. Son
que se proporcionan para hacer las actividades fundamentales para el desarrollo de tu competencia
escritas y practica las actividades orales en tu tutoría. comunicativa. En segundo lugar, te animamos a
que hagas uso de la plataforma digital, en la que
además de todo el contenido del curso digitalizado,
Writing / Speaking (páginas 9 y 10) encontrarás material de estudio extra y herramientas
de comunicación que te pueden facilitar tu aprendizaje.
En estos módulos del nivel avanzado se alternan cada
dos unidades dos páginas dedicadas a las destrezas Un saludo y mucho ánimo.
de writing o speaking. En ellas se incluirán actividades El equipo de That’s English!

THAT’S ENGLISH! 7
1
How are you feeling
UNIT today?

OBJECTIVES
• To discuss feelings of happiness, sadness
and fear
• To write a personal anecdote

A I’ve got a lump in my throat


BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Are the statements true (✔) or false (✗). Correct
the false ones.
1 Match the words (1-4) to the definitions (a-d).
1 Omar is frightened that he could be sent back
1 an immigrant to his own country.
2 an economic asylum seeker 2 Karen thinks that the media is responsible for
3 a political asylum seeker making people worry about immigration.
3 Omar feels grateful to the people who helped
a can’t stay in their own country because they him escape from his country.
are opposed to the government 4 Danny doesn’t want to help Omar.
b has come to live permanently in another country
c wants to live in a country to have access to 5 Complete the text about Omar’s history with
jobs, education, health care, etc the words from the box.

WHILE YOU WATCH lump in my throat heart-breaking


desperate overtaken by fear
2 Answer the questions. beside herself feel a bit down

‘Nobody becomes an asylum seeker unless


they are completely 1… .’
‘Leaving your family and your country forever
is 2... . I didn’t have the choice.’
‘Since the military takeover, the whole country
has been 3... .’
1 Why did Omar come to the UK?
‘If I came home even a few minutes later than
usual my mother would be 4… with worry. I
left because it was the only thing that would
make her happy.’
‘Every time I 5… about all my problems trying
to be accepted here, I try to remember that.
But if I talk or think about my family for one
second, I get a 6… . I miss them so much.’
2 How did Omar get to the UK?

AFTER YOU WATCH NOW YOU!


3 Choose the correct option. 6 Complete the sentences so that they are true
for you.
1 Karen is meeting Omar because she wants to
write an article about him / help him. 1 It brings a lump to my throat when …
2 Omar is upset because his parents are dead / I see images of hungry children. It’s normal
he can’t get news of his family. to feel desperate if you have absolutely no
money.
3 Omar’s parents wanted / didn’t want him to
leave the country. 2 The most heart-breaking thing I have ever
seen was …
4 Omar was a journalist / scientist in his home
country. 3 When I feel a bit down, I …
5 The people in Omar’s country are very poor / 4 I would be beside myself with worry if …
scared. 5 I was overtaken by fear when …

8 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
7 The speakers below were asked the following question: In what situations do you find it
easier or more difficult to express your emotions?
1 Predict a situation the speakers could mention in which it’s easy to express emotions.
2 Predict a situation they could mention in which it’s difficult to express emotions.

Kristen Cheryl Victor Tina Dena Glenn Chelsi Thierno

8a Complete the statements with one word.

1 Most of the speakers say that they find it easier to express their emotions when they are with
… and … .
2 Tina prefers sharing feelings with people she can … .
3 Kristen needs to feel … in order to talk about her emotions, but Samantha needs to be … .

8b In which situations do the following speakers find it hard to express their emotions?

1 Cheryl 2 Dena 3 Glenn 4 Thierno

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 9b Complete the sentences with a suitable word


from the table.
9a Complete the table with the correct forms of
words for describing emotions. 1 When I’m angry, that feeling takes over
everything: it’s a(n) … emotion.
Adjective 2 Forcing refugees to talk about their past lives
Noun can bring up sad memories and cause them a
(-ed and -ing form)
lot of … .
annoyance annoyed / 1… 3 It’s impossible not to give him your full
attention; he’s an absolutely … speaker.
4 I badly needed to communicate my situation,
frustration 2
…/… and I felt … by the fact that I couldn’t make
myself understood.
compulsion 3
…/… 5 I really believed I was going to get the job, so it
was a big … to me when I heard someone else
had been chosen.
disappointment 4
…/… 6 I made the decision to leave my country out of
… . I felt I had no other choice.
fear frightened / 5…
NOW YOU!
distress 6
…/… 10 When do you find it easier to express your
emotions? Is there anything that helps you
when trying to share feelings? When do you
desperation desperate have a hard time expressing emotions?

I find it easier to express my feelings to ... , but


7
… / overwhelming I have a difficult time expressing my feelings
to ... . I think they are going to laugh at me
and ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 9
How are you feeling today?

READING
1a Listen

1
to the people talking about their
emotional reactions to the situations below.
How do you think you would feel?
Robot heart
1 3
‘Humanity is not something unique and
special,’ he told her not long after they were
married. ‘Every aspect of being human,
including emotions, is based on the law of
physics, and therefore, can be recreated by
scientists. Perfect artificial intelligence is
only a matter of time.’ He didn’t understand
why she was distressed by this. ‘But what
about love?,’ she protested. ‘What about
poetry?’
2 4 It was typical of her to introduce irrational
elements into a logical conversation, he
thought. Early in their relationship, he had
found it touching when unimportant things –
a view from a window for example – moved
her to tears or to ecstasy. But gradually, it
just started to irritate him: she cried and
laughed too much and it was simply too easy
to hurt her feelings. Once, when he told her
that her new dress didn’t suit her – a simple
1b Complete the definitions of strong emotions fact – she sobbed for hours. In the evening,
with the words from the box. he was exhausted after a long day in the
laboratory and it got on his nerves when she
relieved despair rage burst out laughing at a television programme
ecstatic distress grief or poured her heart out to her friends on the
phone. ‘I would appreciate it if you would
1 People experience … when they are very make an effort to control yourself,’ he would
angry.
say and go into his study closing the door.
2 You feel … when you realise that something
bad isn’t going to happen. The subject of artificial intelligence became
3 You feel … when you are extremely happy. something they couldn’t discuss without
4 … is a terrible feeling of deep sadness, e.g. if arguing. It hit her really hard when Kara,
someone you love dies. the fembot* that was his special project
5 … is a terrible feeling: when a situation is at the lab, won the Loebing Prize since it
awful, but nothing you can do will change it. obviously meant that the judges had been
6 … is a general feeling of unhappiness or unable to distinguish the robot’s reactions
anxiety.

2 Read the title and first paragraph of the story.


What genre do you think it is?
2 The woman and man’s attitudes to life are … .
1 a love story 3 a murder story a similar b different c the same
2 science-fiction

3 Read the whole story. Choose the correct answers. 3 The idea that it is possible to build a robot
exactly the same as a human … .
1 The main character in the story is … . a distresses the woman
a a robot c a doctor b makes the woman laugh
b a computer scientist c hurts the woman’s feelings

10 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 1

6 The woman is unhappy that the robot the man


built will be used to ... .
a build schools
b make people
c teach children and look after old people

4 Why is the man happy at the end of the story?


What do you think has happened?

5a Look at the expressions in bold in the story and


match them to the phrases below.
1 It affected her so badly she became ill and
incapable of doing anything.
from those of a real human being. Instead of She went to pieces.
being excited for him, she stopped smiling. 2 It made her feel so emotional that she began
And when the lab won a contract to build to cry.
thousands of bots to replace schoolteachers 3 You make me feel extremely uncomfortable.
and care assistants in old people’s homes, 4 She talked very openly without holding
she went to pieces completely and refused to anything back.
leave her bed. ‘Can’t you see how horrifying 5 It affected her strongly.
this is?’ she shouted, almost beside herself 6 She was extremely angry and sad.
with rage and grief. ‘I hate you. You give me 7 It was too easy to make her upset.
the creeps.’
5b Complete the sentences with the correct form
Divorce was not an option, but given her of the expressions from activity 5a.
obvious distress, he decided to allow her to
1 He’s obsessed with Apple products, so he’s
stay with her sister for a few weeks. When beside himself with excitement because the
she returned, her despair – to his relief – had new iPhone is coming out tomorrow.
disappeared. They began spending enjoyable 2 You’ll … Roberto’s … if we invite Ana to the
evenings together in silence, sometimes party and not him.
with a little logical conversation. Even her 3 He relies on his wife for everything – he’ll … if
appearance had improved. Her soft skin and she leaves him.
hair now resembled Kara’s smooth silicon 4 I find the idea that it might be possible to
skin and hair. And when he lay in her arms create robots like human beings absolutely
at night, he seemed to hear, coming from the repulsive: it … me the … .
region of her heart, a very quiet electronic 5 We talked for hours on Skype last night: he …
his … to me about his problems at work.
hum. The sound made him feel calm and
6 It … her … when her parents got divorced. She
happy, and he fell asleep with a blissful smile lost all her self-confidence.
(online source)

on his face. 7 The images of the victims of the genocide …


*fembot: a female robot
me … . I cried for hours.
TRACK 2

6 Complete the sentences so they are true for you.

4 The woman annoys the man because … . 1 It hit me hard when … my parents sold the
family home. I felt as if I was homeless.
a she talks too much
2 In my opinion, the most blissful experience in
b she is too emotional the world is …
c she is always in a rage 3 … gives me the creeps.
5 The winner of the Loebing Prize is a robot 4 I get enraged when …
which is judged to be … . 5 I might go to pieces if …
a as intelligent as a human 6 I would be relieved if …
b no different from a human
c more logical than a human

THAT’S ENGLISH! 11
How are you feeling today?

LANGUAGE STUDY
1a Read the sentences and complete the uses with 2 It wasn’t simply an ugly town; it was the most
-ed or -ing. … place I’ve ever visited.
3 She couldn’t believe it when she heard the
1 He was surprised by her reaction.
surprising news. She was … .
Her reaction was surprising.
4 I thought I would die: it was a … experience.
2 My holiday was boring. I felt really bored.
5 The film was … – we laughed and laughed.
• Adjectives ending in … describe how people feel. 6 When her dog died she was ... .
• Adjectives ending in … describe people, things 3a Listen and mark the stressed syllable in the
and situations. underlined words. Does the intonation rise ➚ or
3 fall ➘?
1b Complete the text with the correct form of the
Alice: The film was pretty frightening.
words in brackets.
Hugo: It wasn’t a little bit frightening, it was
I am 1… (exhaust). My work commitments are 2… ➚absolutely terrifying!
(tire), and at times 3… (bore) too. I don’t expect Alice: The zombies were very ugly. In fact, I
my job to be 4… (thrill), but it should at least be found them deeply disturbing.
5… (interest). I’m no longer 6… (motivate) by it,
Hugo: My dear, they were utterly and completely
which is rather 7… (depress). I used to wake up 8… repulsive!
(exhilarate) by the day’s challenges, but now I’m
9… (disenchant). I want to be 10… (stimulate) by my 3b Listen again and repeat.
work, but the reality is I’m simply not 11… (inspire).
3
-ed / -ing adjectives page 121 4a Complete the summary with the modifiers from
activity 3a.
2a Match the faces to the adjectives from the box.
• 1… , 2… and utterly only modify non-gradable
sad angry disgusted adjectives.
funny afraid surprised • Slightly, 3… , rather, deeply and 4… only
modify gradable adjectives.
1 3 5 • Really and pretty modify both.
Modifiers page 121

4b Which modifier can’t be used?

2 4 6 1 I’m utterly / very / really exhausted.


2 This room is a little bit / totally / utterly
hideous.
3 Jealousy is a(n) rather / very / utterly ugly
emotion.
4 When he heard the news, he was very / really /
2b Match these extreme adjectives which express absolutely astonished.
strong emotions to those in activity 2a.
5 It was a(n) really / absolutely / slightly
1 grief-stricken / heartbroken very sad astonishing performance.
2 hilarious / sidesplitting
5a Complete the table with gradable and
3 furious / enraged non-gradable adjectives.
4 astonished / astounded
5 terrifying / horrifying Gradable Non-gradable
6 hideous / repulsive
Plot interesting fascinating
Non-gradable adjectives page 121
Script
2c Complete the sentences with a suitable adjective
Actors
from activity 2b.
1 It makes me … when people lie and cheat. Director

12 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 1

5b With a partner develop a dialogue about a film. 4 It was great to see him, but I was so affected
by emotion that I cried loudly.
The plot was quite Interesting? It was 5 Jane adored her brother’s jokes and always
interesting. absolutely fascinating. laughed in a silly way at them.
6 I was pleased that you unexpectedly bought
me flowers.
6a Listen and complete the sentences with the
correct form of the verbs from the box. 7a Match the sentences (1-5) to the uses of it (a-c).
4
gasp sob chuckle giggle 1 How far is it to the next town?
2 It’s snowing.
1 It was awful: her husband had left her and she
3 It’s good that they are finally talking about
was just … uncontrollably.
their problems.
2 I always … when I’m nervous, for example,
4 I don’t like it when people argue over silly things.
when a boy I like talks to me.
5 They love it here.
3 The audience … with astonishment when the
actors took off their clothes.
a Impersonal it: used when there is no real subject.
4 All the children found it hilarious, even the
teacher was heard to … . b Empty it : used when the structure requires an
object but there isn’t one.
6b Complete the text with the correct form of the c Anticipatory it : used when the subject or
verbs from the box. object is very long.
chuckle giggle gasp move touch Uses of it page 121
overcome burst sob paralyse
7b Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-5) to
the endings (a-e).
Something that affects us emotionally is
1m…: I was 2m… by that film. But if a person 1 How long is it
is unexpectedly nice, we say it’s 3t…: Her 2 I like it
kindness 4… me. 3 They think it should be recognised
When amused, people laugh softly or 5c…, but 4 I take it
if it’s really funny, they’ll 6b… out laughing. 5 It was a real delight
7G… is to laugh nervously or in a silly way: The

children 8g… when they saw the clown. a here.


A person may 9b… into tears if upset. And b to the next break?
children 10s… loudly when they cry. c to finally have some time off.
When afraid or surprised, people make a noise d this is our best option.
– they 11g…: She 12g… with horror. If we have e that they had the idea first.
a strong reaction, e.g. fear, we are 13o… by it or
14p… with it. 8 Rewrite the sentences. Use the words in
brackets and it expressions.
1 What’s the distance to the nearest big town?
6c Replace the words in italics with the correct (how far)
word or expression from the box.
How far is it to the nearest big town?
chuckled giggled overcome touched 2 He was surprised she didn’t enjoy herself.
paralysed with fear burst out laughing (find / surprising)
burst into tears gasped with astonishment He …
3 Please, try to make less noise. (appreciate / if)
1 When I saw the snake, I was so afraid I couldn’t I would …
move.
4 I understand that there must be some kind of
2 He found the joke amusing and laughed softly problem. (take)
to himself.
I…
3 I made a noise because I was so surprised
when I saw her. She suddenly started laughing 5 He doesn’t think this is a nice place. (not like /
out loud at my expression. here)
He …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 13
How are you feeling today?

B Wearing your emotions on your sleeve


DOCUMENTARY 2 The Canadians are maybe a little bit more
closed or … than people in some cultures.
1 Rank these factors in order of importance (1-5) 3 In the States, people wear their … on their sleeve.
for a successful marriage.
4 In the States, I think people keep it … ,
sharing the same hobbies and interests especially if they are men.
being physically attracted to each other
respecting each other THAT’S THE USA
liking each other’s family and friends 6 What do you know about Miami?
sharing religious and political beliefs

2 Watch the documentary and choose the correct


option.
1 Dorinda and her husband split up after …
years of marriage.
a 21 b 31 c 13
2 Dorinda was a(n) … type of wife, who didn’t
have a life independent from her husband.
a daughter b adoring c doormatty
1 Miami is in the state of Alabama / Florida … .
3 When Dorinda started travelling and ‘pushing
boundaries’, her husband … . 2 One of the best ways to tour the city is on a
Segway / bicycle … .
a refused to go with her
3 Cubans went to Ellis Island / Freedom Tower …
b was jealous of the attention she got to be documented and processed.
c was upset because she was away so often
4 Cheryl Massey thinks that when there are Watch the video to check your answers.
negative emotions in a marriage, it’s difficult
for people to … . 7 Watch again and complete the fact file.
a share them so they can be resolved MIAMI
b act them out Visitors 1
… million
c keep them inside The 2… City (because it grew
Nickname
5 Emma and Sean are discussing the … for their so fast)
wedding. 70% from 3… countries and
Community
a menu b guest list c seating plan the Caribbean
6 Cheryl Massey believes that … is essential to The 4… Tower
build a strong marriage. Famous
Little 5... (the Cuban quarter)
landmarks
a feelings c expression The Domino Park
b emotional intelligence Important The largest 6… in the world
yearly event in Calle Ocho
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES
3 Do you think these cultures are openly emotional NOW YOU!
(O) or do people tend to hide their emotions (H)?
8 Complete the statements so that they are true
Jamaica Australia New Zealand Canada for you.
South Africa USA Scotland
1 For me, emotional intelligence is the ability to …
put yourself in somebody else’s place and
4 Watch the video and check your predictions. In imagine how they see things. I think this can
which culture is there a difference of opinion help you solve problems because it gives you
about how emotional people are? more understanding.
2 I wouldn’t like to be a doormatty partner
5 Watch again and complete the statements with because …
one word.
3 I would/wouldn’t like to visit Miami because …
1 In New Zealand it’s important to keep a stiff 4 I think it’s important to keep a stiff upper lip
upper … . when …

14 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 1
SKILLS WORK
1 Which of these statements do you agree with?
1 Women are better at expressing their feelings than men.
2 Society doesn’t allow men to express their feelings openly.
3 Women are emotional and men are rational.

2 Read the article about men and emotion and answer the questions.
1 Do you think it was written by a man or a woman? Why?
2 In your experience, do you think what the writer says about the
differences between the sexes is true? Why / Why not?

Why a man can’t be more like a woman


‘What are you thinking?’ Men hate process emotion in different ways. system to return to normal than
it when a woman asks them this In fact, research suggests that men for a woman’s. It’s not surprising
question because it represents a are actually more sensitive to its then, that if a man thinks he might
fundamental difference between effects. For example, research be overcome by emotion, his first
the sexes. Women initially tend with children has demonstrated instinct is to leave and calm down.
to go quiet when they feel upset that when boys burst out crying, There’s another reason for this
or distressed, yet confusingly they release higher levels of stress behaviour, too. Men’s brains are
for men, women also want to be hormones into their bloodstream naturally wired for action and
reassured by later talking through than girls do. Similarly, when an strong emotion, such as anger,
the problem and assume that men adult man becomes very emotional, which is likely to result in action –
will want the same thing. Men, he goes to pieces physically much possibly violence. So, ladies, don’t
however, stop communicating more than a woman. His blood let your feelings be hurt when your
when they feel they have a problem pressure skyrockets, and he is man doesn’t want to talk to you
to solve. at risk of having a heart attack. about his problems. It may be that

(online source)
But men are not less emotional It also takes much longer for a he’s just trying to protect himself –
than women: it’s just that the sexes man’s blood pressure and immune and you.
TRACK 5

3 Read the article again and complete the 4b Listen again and answer the questions.
summary with the correct form of the words in
bold from the text. 6 1 What used to hurt Charo’s feelings?
2 How does Charo say that Mark copes with his
When men get 1… or find themselves in 2… emotions?
situations, they become more 3… than women 3 How does Mark explain the fact that he finds it
do.They are also more likely to resort to violence. difficult to talk about his feelings?
Women generally manage their emotions more 4 What makes Gianni ‘beside himself with rage’?
successfully and when 4… , they need to be 5…
5 What sad event hit Sunita particularly hard?
and to talk about their problems.
5 What advice would you give to a young couple
4a Listen to two couples talking to a relationship about how to manage their different attitudes
therapist about their reactions to the article. towards expressing their emotions?
6 Who is the most emotional person in each
couple, the man or the woman?
Well, I’d say that knowing and accepting
that you’re different is the first step towards
a healthy relationship. Moreover, …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 15
How are you feeling today?

WRITING
1a Choose the best definition of an anecdote.

1 an informal account of an event or experience


2 a funny story
3 a short, interesting, engaging, believable story from the writer’s personal past experience

1b Where would you expect to find personal anecdotes?

1 letters between friends 4 blogs


2 personal statements for university or job applications 5 forums
3 a research paper 6 a report

2 Kibibi Odongo is a Ugandan-born nurse who lives in London. Read her anecdote and complete
it (1-7) with an adverbial phrase (a-g).
a after that c when my sight returned e at the very last moment g for a second
b luckily d as I lay on the floor f it happened some years ago in

A frightening experience
1… a town in the Congo, where I’d been working as a nurse. I absolutely loved my job
and was thrilled to be helping people, but unfortunately civil war had broken out. I’d
already started making plans to leave and was quite relieved to be going: in fact, if I’m
honest, I was actually desperate to leave. But on the morning of my departure, a group
of rebel soldiers arrived. They were looking for food, money and petrol, and they would
kill anyone who got in their way.
2… , I’d had just enough time to hide under the bed. 3… , I could see the soldiers’ boots as

they passed by. My heart was beating so hard I thought it might explode. If they found
me, I knew I’d be severely beaten before they eventually killed me, and by then, I knew
I would be glad to die. I’d been in war zones before and I knew what some soldiers were
capable of: I’d been utterly horrified by the atrocities I’d seen.
Finally, after what seemed like forever, the soldiers started to leave. But 4… , one of them
stopped and bent down to pick up a ball that was next to the bed. He turned his head and
looked straight into my eyes. He smiled slowly and I started to shake uncontrollably. 5… ,
everything happened in slow motion. He stood up and came towards me, and my blood
turned to ice. 6… , everything went black, I think I’d literally fainted with terror.
But 7… , the soldier was running to catch up with his colleagues. He didn’t look back and
he soon disappeared. I don’t know what had made him smile when he looked into my
eyes, but thankfully, he had been touched by it and his humanity had triumphed.

3 Tick (✔) the emotions you think she was feeling.

relief joy amusement ecstasy surprise


fear rage envy despair love

Writing a personal anecdote


4 Complete the groups of adverbial phrases with a phrase from the box which has a similar
meaning.

surprisingly then finally for one moment at first

1 to start with, in the beginning, ... 4 luckily, fortunately, ...


2 after that, what happened next was, ... 5 for a second, for some time, ...
3 eventually, in the end, ...

16 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 1

5 Read the anecdote again and answer the 2 a That experience, though hard, was
questions. invaluable: I realised I was capable of
making it on my own.
1 When and where did the action take place?
b I learnt a lot from working in that environment,
2 Who was involved in the action? and I really enjoyed myself.
3 What is the key event that grabs the reader’s
3 a Then I started talking to some people and I
attention in this story?
actually had a great time: they were really
4 Why was the writer so frightened? What did funny.
she think was going to happen?
b I realised that underneath everyone is the
same and that we shouldn’t judge people on
6 Anecdotes should use descriptive and evocative what they have or don’t have.
language. Replace the highlighted words with
the words from the box. 8b Write a one-sentence memorable ending for
these anecdotal situations.
ecstatic devastated by desperate
turned my blood to ice fainted with terror

1 We were all very upset about his death.


2 I was so scared that I literally lost consciousness
from the fright.
3 Everyone was very happy when the war
ended.
4 They’re in a real hurry to live somewhere else.
5 The thought of the destruction a bomb could
cause frightened me a lot.

7a Look at the first paragraph of the story again.

1 What tense is used to talk about the background


action? 1 I had had the best day of my life! It was a
2 What tense is used to refer back to what sunny summer’s day and I’d arranged to meet
happened before the time of speaking? some friends for a quiet picnic in the park.
2 I’d been studying hard all year and I was
7b Complete the paragraphs with the correct past exhausted. The exams had been challenging
tense of the verbs in brackets. and I was nervous about the results.
1 It happened when I … home late from work. I 3 The holiday of a lifetime … at least that’s what
… late in the office to finish some work and I the advert had said. It all started to go wrong
… tired. (drive / stay / feel) from the moment I stepped out of my front
door.
2 A few years ago, I spent a year living in Mexico
City. I … in a big hotel in the city centre. I … 9a Think of a time in your life when you experienced
never … work so hard before and I ... it difficult. a strong emotion. Look at the questions in
(work / have to / find) activity 5 and make notes.
3 I was once invited to stay in the home of a
billionaire. It was about the middle of my visit
and I … myself very much. I … any of the other 9b Write a short anecdote (150-180 words) about
guests before and I … very alone. (not enjoy / an occasion when you experienced a strong
not meet / feel) emotion. Use your notes from activity 9a.
Remember to include the following:
8a Good anecdotes should have memorable
• who, what, when, where and why
endings. Choose the best endings for the
anecdote beginnings in activity 7b. • narrative tenses
• adjectives, adverbs and modifiers to make the
1 a When I got home I went to bed and slept story interesting and powerful
very well because I was very tired.
• sequencing words and adverbial phrases
b I was very shaken by the whole experience
• connectors to link the actions
and as soon as I got home, I poured myself a
large drink. • a memorable ending

THAT’S ENGLISH! 17
UNIT
2 It’s just good manners

OBJECTIVES
• To discuss personal habits and social
customs
• To describe changes in social behaviour

A When in Rome ...


BEFORE YOU WATCH 3 Where is Anthony taking Shelly?
4 What has Bridget bought?
1 Match the American words to the British
equivalent from the box. 5 Read the extracts from the drama and match the
expression in bold with a meaning from the box.
mobile lift trousers taxi pavement mum
to be introverted and reserved
1 cab 3 cell 5 elevator
to find something very surprising
2 pants 4 mom 6 sidewalk to adapt your behaviour
to avoid a topic
WHILE YOU WATCH
1 Shelly: I just gave him a load of coins.
2 Answer the questions.
Anthony: They were pound coins, mom.
Shelly: Well, blow me down. That little thing is
a pound?
2 Anthony: Listen, mom, don’t take this the
wrong way, the English keep themselves to
themselves more than us.
3 Shelly: When your father was alive, I would
1 What aspects of Bridget’s behaviour does Shelly never put my plans before his.
criticise? Anthony: Don’t go there, mom.
4 Anthony: Mom, you’re not putting that on
my chef’s salad. You’re not at home now. And
when in Rome, do as the Romans do.

6 Complete the sentences with the correct


expression from activity 5.

2 What things does Shelly notice are different in 1 Whilst you’re here, I’d advise the women to
British cafés and restaurants? wear trousers in public. So, … .
2 A: He’s a good worker, but he’s late every day.
I need to speak to him about it.
AFTER YOU WATCH B: Just … , Jim. People have different attitudes
3 Are the statements true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct to time over here.
the false ones. 3 Well, … . If it isn’t my old friend, Al! What on
earth are you doing here?
1 Generally speaking, Americans tip more
generously than British. 4 It’s not that people are unfriendly, they just …
more than we do.
2 Anthony’s mother doesn’t talk much.
3 Americans are more reserved than English.
4 Bridget promises not to miss the wine tasting NOW YOU!
evening next week. 7 What examples of good manners do you think
5 Shelly is worried about her weight. are most essential? What examples of bad
manners annoy you the most?
4 Answer the questions.
One example of essential good manners for
1 Why is Bridget upset with the shop assistant?
me is ...
2 Why does the man pay for Shelly’s coffee?

18 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
8 The speakers below were asked the following question: Are you a creature of habit and in
what ways?
1 Predict two habitual actions that the speakers will mention.
2 Watch the video and check your predictions.

Kristen Cheryl Nicole Gina Victor Thierno Borislav

9a Which speakers … ?

1 don’t see themselves as creatures of habit


2 are religious people
3 talk about the things they do after they wake up in the morning
4 mention OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) and touching things in a certain order
5 wish they could be less of a creature of habit outside their work and daily routine

9b Complete the sentences with up to three words in each gap.

Cheryl: I do the same things every day. 1… the day with morning mass and then go out with
friends. I’m back home at a certain time to 2… the house.
Victor: Personally, I do everything the same way, every day. So, um, everything. So, from
when I wake up in the morning, I brush my teeth the exact 3… . When I shower, I dry
off in the very exact same way. I 4… .
Borislav: I have 5… every day and that's what I do.

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 10b Rewrite the descriptions of habits using the
structures given in activity 10a.
10a Match the beginnings of the phrases (1-5) from
the videos to the endings (a-e). 1 You often talk about buying a new house.
(always + -ing go on about)
1 Everything I do, You’re always …
2 It’s common to 2 People in my country usually shake hands the
3 She’ll go on for ever first time they meet. (common)
4 I know I’m always 3 She always chooses blue; she doesn’t like any
5 You’re always going on other colour. (has to)
4 They often try new diets because they want to
a about seeing a musical in the West End. lose weight. (always + -ing)
b doing this. 5 He finds it difficult to make decisions. I always
c leave 20% if the service is good. decide for him. (will never)
d it has to be the same.
e if you don’t stop her. NOW YOU!
11 Are you a creature of habit?

I’m definitely a creature of habit. I need …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 19
It’s just good manners

READING
1a Match the behaviour shown in the pictures to
the verbs in the box. A legal alien: an
hug slap someone on the back
have good manners pick your nose boast
blush / feel embarrassed
Englishman in LA
British Actor, Ralph Wilding, talks
After
1
you!
4
about adapting to life in Hollywood
The first thing a British person needs to adapt
to when in LA is the optimism. Angelinos tend
to present everything positively since, as the
writer Julian Fellowes* observes, ‘LA is a town
where status is all and status is only given to
2 5 success. How’s the family? Great! The new job?
Best decision I ever made! The house? Terrific!
And this is when you both know that our man
is bankrupt, the bank is about to repossess his
house, his children are on drugs and his wife
about to divorce him.’
If you want to fit in in LA society, you too
3 6 will have to learn this optimism. And this
includes getting used to ‘talking up’ your
achievements. In Britain, we value modesty
and there’s a stigma attached to talking about
one’s own achievements. In fact, the opposite
– self-deprecation – is more acceptable.
However, in a place where everything – even
1b Complete the sentences about British culture your shoes – is all ‘great’, it’s not a good idea
with words from activity 1a. to put yourself down. If you’ve just won the
1 In the past, men who used to open doors for Nobel Prize for literature, don’t say to people,
women were said to … , but not so much now. ‘Yes my last little book did rather well’. People
2 We normally only … people … to congratulate will either be offended by your insincerity, or
them, for example if they win a competition.
worse, simply believe that your book really is
3 Family will … you, but you’d be shocked if
your colleagues did. nothing special.
4 It is generally considered bad taste to … about Another thing that can be a culture shock for
how much money you have.
5 Young people sometimes drink too much and
Europeans is the American work ethic. My
behave badly. They often … and … about their LA friends will go on and on about how hard
behaviour next day! they work: they’re always boasting about their
6 It’s considered rude to … in public or burp ‘100-hour weeks’ as if they were a status
when eating in company.
symbol. Hard work is highly valued in
2 Read the title and the first paragraph of the American culture, an attitude that dates
following text. Where do you think the text is from the Pilgrim Fathers, the first European
from?
settlers. Even now, most American companies
1 a biography only give two weeks’ paid annual holiday and
2 an American magazine
3 a British magazine

20 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 2

3 Read the complete text. What does the author


say about … ?
1 success 4 optimism
2 modesty 5 hugging people
3 work 6 good manners

4 Read the text again and decide if the sentences


are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones.
1 Ralph thinks that the Angelinos are more
positive than the British.
2 Angelinos don’t especially admire very
successful people.
3 Modesty is important to the Angelinos. You
shouldn’t boast about your success.
4 Ralph probably tends to be self-deprecating.
5 Americans work longer hours than most
Europeans.
workers are expected to arrive early and stay 6 Ralph still feels uncomfortable when his
late daily. American colleagues hug him.

The puritanical streak in American culture 5 Complete the sentences with the expressions in
bold from the text.
expresses itself in other ways too. Many of the
rules of ‘polite behaviour’ my friends lecture 1 My parents always had a strong … and would
only give me pocket money if I helped round
their children about – don’t stare at people or the house.
pick your nose in public, put your hand over 2 iPhones have become an important … for
your mouth when you yawn, don’t burp or put young professionals.
your elbows on the table during meals – are 3 Although my father isn’t normally … , he
gave me a big hug when I came back from six
also part of British culture. But I was surprised months in Australia.
by how much less adult Angelinos swear, drink 4 In the acting profession, there’s … to women
or tell rude jokes than my British friends, and by being overweight.
the strict laws about swearing and nudity on TV. 5 Living in China was a huge … for him and he
found it difficult to adapt.
But if you can cope with becoming a wildly 6 I think … is charming: modesty and being able
optimistic workaholic, there is much to enjoy to laugh at yourself is great.
in Los Angeles. It’s easy to like the friendly, 7 He’s got a bit of a … , he seems to feel that
enjoying himself is wrong!
physically demonstrative Angelinos. At first,
I used to be embarrassed when my colleagues 6 Complete these sentences so that they are true
hugged me and slapped me on the back, and for you.
when the (male!) receptionist at the studio 1 My attitude towards the American work ethic
said, ‘You look great in that sweater, it matches is …
your eyes’, I would find it difficult not to blush. that it’s ridiculous! How can anyone think it’s
healthy to work a 100-hour week and only
But now, I’ve started hugging and backslapping have two weeks’ holiday?
myself – and no doubt I’ll soon start telling 2 Among my possessions, the object that is
people they look fantastic too. In LA, it’s only closest to a status symbol is … because …
good manners – and I think I’ll miss it when I 3 I do / don’t consider myself a physically
demonstrative person. I often / don’t usually …
go home.
4 When people are self-deprecating, I …
5 In our society, I think there is a stigma attached
*Past Imperfect by Julian Fellowes TRACK 8 to …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 21
It’s just good manners

LANGUAGE STUDY
1a Listen to three people talking about their habits Sister: Why doesn’t she get a job?
when eating out, travelling or shopping. Who Mother: Well, it’s not easy for an unknown
9 talks about what? American actress. And if I suggest she
does something else, she 5… (get) really
1 Liliane: … 2 Robert: … 3 Dieter: …
angry. Sometimes she 6… (not speak)
to me for days. And she 7… always …
1b Listen again and answer the questions.
(make) plans for when they’re back in LA.
9 1 What does Liliane say about lists? What is she Sister: Does Tom know how unhappy she is?
always looking for? Mother: Of course, and he 8… always … (talk)
2 What will Robert always visit before he eats about moving back to the States, but
out? What is he constantly trying? I don’t think he’s serious. When she’s
3 What is Dieter always experimenting with? upset he 9… (buy) her presents and he
10… (make) her promises, but I think he
What will he try to do before he gets on the plane?
should be honest with her.
1c Listen again and complete the sentences. Describing repetitive behaviour page 123

9 L: I 1… often … a list before I go out but I 2…


always … it. I 3… also always … for bargains. 4 Tom and Jen are talking about their marriage
problems. Rewrite their remarks using the
R: I 4… always … the kitchens. I 5… just … my head structure in brackets.
round the door. I 6… constantly … new places.
D: I 7… usually … to the airport with lots of time.
I 8… almost always only … hand luggage. I 9…
always … with ways to carry as little luggage
as possible. I 10… to find somewhere to eat.
Describing habits page 123

2 Think about your eating out, shopping and


travel habits. What type of things do you find
yourself always doing? What will you usually do
as a matter of course?
Eating out: When I’m meeting friends for lunch 1 Tom: She shouted at me a lot. (keep on)
or supper, I’ll always let someone else choose She kept on shouting at me.
the restaurant.
2 Jen: I always believed that we would soon be
Shopping: ... moving back to LA. (carry on)
Travel: ... 3 Jen: When he told me about staying in
London, I cried a lot. (repetition of verb)
3 Tom (British) and Jen (American) live in London,
which Jen hates. Complete the dialogue between 4 Tom: I always hoped that our marriage would
Tom’s mother and sister with the correct form of work. (keep on)
the verb in brackets: will + infinitive or present 5 Jen: I continued trying to find a job. I refused
continuous. to give up. (go on)
6 Tom: I tried to earn more so she’d be happy: I
worked a lot. (repetition of verb)
7 Jen: He comes home late from the office every
night. (present continuous + always)

5a Look at the extract from Jen’s diary. Then choose


the correct answers to complete the explanation.

I’m trying to get used to living in the UK, but


it’s hard. I just can’t get used to the accents –
Mother: Jen is having a difficult time in London.
She 1won’t go out (not go out) and try to well, I am used to Tom and his mother’s accent
meet people, and she 2… (never help) now, and with time I might even get used to
in the house. She 3… constantly … their friends’. When I first arrived, nobody could
(moan) about how dirty and expensive understand me either, but everyone seems to
London is, but she 4… (spend) a fortune be used to hearing my American accent now.
on taxis and clothes every week.

22 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 2

• If you are used to something you 1don’t find / sing / didn’t use to sing and dance all over
find it unusual. New York. The men and the women celebrate
• If you are getting used to something you 2are / separately at Hasidic weddings, but I 8got
aren’t becoming accustomed to it. used to wondering / used to wonder what
it would be like if we could sing and dance
• Be used to and get used to can be followed by together.
3
a noun / -ing or a noun.
Describing past habits and routines page 124
Get used to and be used to page 123

5b Complete the rest of the extract with the correct 7a Write three things you used to / didn’t use to do
form of be used to or get used to and the verb and three things you would / would never do
in brackets. when you were younger.
I didn’t use to be very shy as a child, in fact, I was
Also, I find the English very distant. In the US, I 1… pretty outgoing.
friendly smiles from everyone, and so I can’t 2…
I would never drink my milk at morning break. It
(be) polite but reserved all the time. In Los Angeles,
used to make me feel sick.
I had my own car, and so I 3… (be) independent. But
here I simply can’t 4… (drive) on the left, so I take 7b Write three things you are used to doing or are
taxis. And as for the weather! Well, coming from getting used to doing now.
LA I 5… (feel) warm all the time, though I suppose I
6… the cold now – at least my nose isn’t constantly I’m used to trying new foods from different
red now! But I don’t think I’ll ever 7… the rain. And countries.
I definitely won’t ever 8… the short winter days – I’m gradually getting used to the heat.
it’s dark at 4:30 pm!
8a Check the highlighted verbs in the text on pages
20-21. Complete the sentences with the correct
6 Choose the correct form of the verb. In which
form of a verb from A and a preposition from B.
case are both options correct?
A
adapt talk put fit cope

B
with down to up in

1 He is finding it difficult to … his new life in Brazil.


2 Don’t … yourself … . You’re just as good at
your job as anybody else in the office!
I 1used to live / would live in the Hasidic 3 She’s worried that she won’t … very well in
Jewish community in Brooklyn. My childhood her new job. She’s younger than most of her
was very happy. I 2wouldn’t be / didn’t use colleagues and the only woman.
to be dissatisfied with the Hasidic way of life 4 He’s always … his great qualifications, but he
then. That started when I was older. At school, isn’t any better than you or me.
we studied the Torah and I 3would make / used 5 Do you think you can … looking after a family
to make the Rabbi angry by asking too many and working full time?
questions: I 4got used to / get used to being
regularly punished for my curiosity! There 8b Complete the sentences so they are true for you.
were so many things we were forbidden to
do: I 5used to speak / would never speak 1 In order to fit in with my friends / in my family,
to girls for example, except for my sisters, you need to be interested in sport, or at least
because there was complete segregation of pretend!
the sexes. I 6used to want to / would want 2 I often find it difficult to cope with …
to go to the movies so badly that I started 3 Something I’ve had to adapt to is …
going in secret. As a teenager, I worked with 4 When someone brings up the topic of … in
my father as a wedding singer and we 7would conversation, I …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 23
It’s just good manners

B Modern working habits


DOCUMENTARY THAT’S THE USA
1 Answer the questions. 5 Match the words (1-3) to the pictures (a-c).
1 wood carving 2 basketry 3 beadwork
a

1 How many hours do you usually work a day or


a week?
2 Do you usually take a lunch break? How long b
is it?
3 What makes you happy at work?

2 Watch the documentary and decide if the


sentences are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the
false ones.
1 If someone is chained to their desk this means
they work for long hours and often don’t take
c
a lunch break.
2 Habitual overwork can result in workers
becoming exhausted and burnt out.
3 Salesforce is an innovative company with a
very open culture.
4 Salesforce encourages the spirit of competition
in its employees.
5 Damilola Erinle from Salesforce thinks work
and home life shouldn’t be separate.
6 Watch the video and answer the questions?
6 Consultant Charles Fair says that trust is not
that important in creating a great workplace. 1 What is a chickee?
2 How long did it take Linda to make the big
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES sweet grass basket?
3 Why did the Seminole have a reputation for
3 Which of these personal qualities or habits do
being ‘wild people’?
you personally appreciate the most? Choose
your top three. 4 In traditional Seminole society, who is the
head of the family?
politeness openness sense of humour 5 Which clan do Sam and his family belong to?
kindness punctuality cleanliness
being respectful honesty NOW YOU!
7 What personal qualities do you think are the
4 Watch the video. For which culture is each of the most and the least highly valued by Spanish
qualities or habits below the most important? people?
1 sense of humour
I think one of the qualities Spanish
… and New Zealand people value most is ... . It’s very
2 respect for your elders important to come across as a ...
3 being kind and polite and having good manners person who means what they say.
4 general respect for people around you
5 being close to your family I don’t think the Spanish value … as
6 punctuality and cleanliness much as in some other cultures ...

24 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 2
SKILLS WORK
1 In which parts of the world do you think
there may still be undiscovered tribes?
What do you know or have you heard
about them?

2a Read the text about the Sentinelese. How


would you describe their attitude towards
strangers?

The last undiscovered tribe: the Sentinelese


North Sentinel Island is a tiny island of about 72 km2 Sentinelese would take the gifts, and in return,
in the Bay of Bengal and is part of the territory of shoot arrows at the expedition boat. Finally, in 1991,
India. On the island lives a remarkable isolated tribe the tribe allowed Pandit alone to land, but he had
whose habits and customs haven’t changed since to take off his glasses and all his clothes first. The
the Neolithic Age and who reject, with violence, any Sentinelese didn’t understand what his clothes were
type of communication with outsiders. They attack for and believed that he could be hiding something
– and will kill – anyone who tries to visit the island. under them!
Anthropologists believe that the tribe originally Pandit believes there are between 100–250
migrated from Africa around 60,000 years ago. They Sentinelese. He visited them many times, recorded
live exactly like our earliest ancestors: they don’t their language and learned their traditional greeting,
even practise agriculture, but instead survive on a which is to sit on your friend’s knee and slap your
diet of jungle fruits, fish and honey. right buttock. However, they are not interested in
In the 80s, an Indian anthropologist called TN adapting to modern life – all they want is to be left
Pandit started to try to make friendly contact with alone. The Indian government has decided to honour
the Sentinelese. His team would leave gifts of their wishes, at least for now, and has introduced a 3
pigs and coconuts on the beach, but for years, the mile ‘no-go’ zone round the island.
TRACK 10

2b Read the text again and complete the table about the Sentinelese.
Where they live
Diet
Size of population
Traditional greeting

3 Sanjay Singh, an Indian anthropologist, is talking to Laila Da Silva, a student, about his
experiences with the Sentinelese. Listen and answer the questions.
11
1 What does Sanjay say about the Sentinelese’s attitude to fire?
2 What surprises Laila about the Sentinelese social structure?
3 Why does she say that the Sentinelese have ‘an ideal life’?
4 What three examples does Sanjay give of ways in which the Sentinelese way of life could
seem very primitive to us?

4 In your own words write a paragraph (70-100 words) about the Sentinelese. Include the
information in activity 2b and say what you think would be the advantages and disadvantages
of introducing them to modern civilization.
The Sentinelese live on an island off the coast of India and follow a way of life that is probably
similar to how our ancestors lived thousands and thousands of years ago. The population of
the Sentinelese is estimated to be between 100 to 250 in total …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 25
It’s just good manners

SPEAKING
1 Discuss the questions. 4 What is an expletive?
5 What do you think ‘mind your language’ means?
1 Do you sometimes swear? When?
2 When is swearing acceptable and not 2b Listen again and complete the exclamations.
acceptable in your culture?
3 Are there any words that you consider taboo 12 1 Absolutely … !
and would never use? 2 Why … did they do that?
3 What in … are they doing now, … idiots?
I rarely swear and I find it quite offensive when
4 He’s … person I would consider employing!
other people do. Like my grandmother always
used to say, ‘If your vocabulary weren’t so 5 Don’t look now, but … Sam is coming!
limited, you wouldn’t need to swear.’ 6 For … , mind your language!
Showing impatience page 124

2c Underline the most stressed word(s) and mark


with an arrow the intonation (➘ then ➚, or ➚
13 and then ➘) in the exclamations in activity 2b.
Listen again, check and repeat.
➚ ➘
1 Absolutely no way!

3 Complete the sentences below.


2a Listen to a linguistics expert talking about
swearing and exclamations in English. Answer In an expletive or exclamative sentence,
12 the questions. • the intonation often 1goes up / goes up and
then down.
1 Which three subjects are most English
swearwords related to? • the intonation is 2more / less heavily marked
than usual.
2 What two English swearwords does the
speaker mention? • the expletive or exclamative is the 3most /
3 Where do they originate from? least heavily stressed word in the sentence.
Intonation of exclamations page 147

Monologue: comparing social habits and customs


4a Match the descriptions from the box to the photos.

invading someone’s personal space having a laid-back attitude complaining


public displays of affection slurping your food deferential behaviour

1 3 5

2 4 6

26 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 2

4b Discuss your answers to the questions with a partner.


I can’t stand it when people slurp or eat with
1 What eating habits do you consider unacceptable? their mouth open. It’s just such bad manners!
2 What are your feelings about public displays of affection?
3 Do you usually complain if you have a problem in a shop or a restaurant?
4 Who do you habitually defer to: e.g. your parents, older people, your boss?
5 Do you have a laid-back attitude to life or are you more uptight?

5a Listen to Satoshi Mizushima talking about his country’s culture and social customs and
choose the correct answers.
14
1 Satoshi is comparing Japanese and British culture / experiences and attitudes.
2 He says that the British / Japanese used to have a reputation for being reserved.
3 He describes a kiss / a bow as ‘an intimate gesture’.
4 European societies are less / more individualistic than Japanese society.
5 He says that both the British and the Japanese / the Japanese prefer indirect communication.
6 According to Satoshi, not saying what you think hurts / protects social harmony.
7 Satoshi thinks that the Japanese and the British share a tendency to be eccentric / dress
crazily.

5b Listen again and complete the phrases Satoshi uses in his talk.

14 1… my experience,
Making generalisations
2… speaking,
Drawing attention to a funny or surprising fact 3… enough,
Illustrating a point 4… , for example
Not 5… , but also
Adding points
But 6… us not forget (that)
Contrasting This is in 7… to
Concluding / summarizing All in 8…

5c Add the expressions from the box to the table in activity 5b.

To conclude / sum up To give you an idea Surprisingly On the other hand But in fact / actually

6a You are going to prepare a talk contrasting the habits of your own culture with another culture
you know about. Choose three of the topics from the box below and make some notes.

food social life culture social life: families get together to celebrate
money and work greeting styles important dates like birthdays, anniversaries, etc …
attitudes towards animals and children greeting styles: friends always kiss on both
cheeks when they meet, …

6b Give your talk. Use your notes from activity 6a to help you and include expressions from
activity 5b to structure your talk and contrast your main ideas.

I am going to talk about the differences between Spanish and American culture.
In my experience, most Americans …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 27
UNIT
3 A bright future

OBJECTIVES
• To make predictions
• To organise written information

A Exceptionally gifted
BEFORE YOU WATCH 5 Choose the option that best matches the
expressions that Adrian and Laura use.
1 Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
1 Adrian: Some of those look mind-bending.
Being good at school subjects like languages and a They require a lot of effort.
maths is a sign of true intelligence.
b They seem very difficult.
WHILE YOU WATCH 2 Adrian: Rosie loves puzzles. She’s bound to be
able to do them.
2 Answer the questions. a She’ll almost certainly be able to do them.
b She has no choice whether to do them or not.
3 Laura: Some doubt has been cast over the
accuracy of the IQ test.
a It is definite that IQ tests are inaccurate.
b It is uncertain whether IQ tests are accurate.
4 Laura: I’m not trying to blind you with science.
1 Why is Adrian worried about Rosie? a To confuse you with technical information.
b To make you think I am very intelligent.
5 Adrian: Rosie’s been identified as exceptionally
gifted.
a She has a natural talent for arts.
b Her intelligence quotient is very much above
average.
2 What possible reason does Laura give for Rosie’s
poor results at school? 6 Use the correct form of the expressions from
activity 5 to complete the sentences.
AFTER YOU WATCH 1 One student took a mobile phone into the
exam room and so ... over all the results.
3 Answer the questions.
2 Some children who behave badly at school
1 What did the teacher tell Adrian about Rosie’s are in fact ... and bored by normal lessons.
attitude to school? 3 I tried my best to follow the lecture on the
2 What did the teacher say may be Rosie’s problem? universe, but the speaker ... and I couldn’t
3 What mistake did Karen recall making at school? follow it.
4 What help did Karen get and why? 4 Alice has always been brilliant at maths so
5 How does Karen offer to help Adrian? she’s ... to get an A grade.
5 I can’t understand these instructions for
4 Decide if the following sentences are true (✔) or installing this machine at all – they seem ... .
false (✗). Correct the false ones.
1 Adrian thinks the puzzles look difficult. NOW YOU!
2 IQ tests are not always fully accurate in assessing 7 Compare the experiences of Rosie and Karen in
children’s abilities. the drama with your own experience at school.
3 The multiple intelligence test will definitely
reveal if visual-spatial intelligence is Rosie’s I really understand how Rosie felt because
strongest area. I was always being told off for ... In fact, I
4 The tests revealed that Rosie is unusually bright. couldn’t see the board and ... I didn’t have
5 Rosie is now getting extra encouragement at a problem like that but I recall one of my
school. friends was often in trouble for ...

28 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
8 The speakers were asked the following question: Can you tell us about a time when you acted
intelligently, or wished you had?
1 In which of the following situations do you think acting intelligently is important?
1 solving problems 3 everyday life 5 choosing a holiday 7 studying
2 playing a board game 4 career decisions 6 watching TV

2 Watch the video to see if any of the ideas are mentioned.

Jenna Cheryl Diquietta Nicole Chelsi Victor Thierno Borislav

9a Which speakers … ?

1 have to solve unexpected problems on a regular basis


2 realised there would be problems at work and left the job
3 have learnt to control their behaviour from past bad experience
4 act intelligently, doing every day what they are supposed to do
5 think studying is a wise choice
6 regret not acting more wisely in a particular situation

9b Listen to the speakers and complete the sentences.

Jenna: I think every day I do something really clever, to be honest. Working, going to work,
getting up, doing what you 1... to do every day.
Diquietta: I 2... something very intelligent would be graduating from college.
Victor: You have to 3... ways to fix it.
Thierno: So I’m being 4... right now and I’m being intelligent, so I’m very proud of that, yes.

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! get older. Scientists have proved keeping the
brain active is 2... have a positive effect so many
10a Match the expressions from activity 9b (1-4) to people try to do 3... puzzles regularly to challenge
the meanings (a-d). their brains. Consuming fish oil may be beneficial
especially for children although recently 4... on
a intelligent
its usefulness. However, many parents believe
b think about a problem and decide on the solution that giving their children fish oil will help them
c everyone thinks you should develop their potential and become 5... . In the
d think past people were 6... stand on their heads for ten
minutes a day so that more blood reached the
10b Complete the sentences so that they are true brain but luckily that idea is no longer popular! A
for you. lot of websites which are trying to sell vitamins
try to 7... which can leave you even more unsure
1 I guess something very intelligent would be ... what to do. I 8... the answer is to keep your mind
2 I’m good at / not good at figuring out ways to ... active and eat healthily.
3 Doing everything you’re supposed to do is ...
4 Some people think ... is smart but in my opinion ... NOW YOU!
10c Use the correct form of the expressions from 11 Think about a time you acted intelligently or
activities 5 and 9b to complete the text. wish you had.

Nowadays, many people are interested in I remember I didn’t listen to my teacher’s


improving their memory and staying 1... as they advice about my studies and later I realised ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 29
A bright future

READING
1a Classify the statements into advantages and
potential dangers of using technology. Add your
own ideas. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE:
1 Machines can’t interpret feelings, so
interaction is more dehumanised.
2 We are too dependent on computers and
GOOD OR EVIL?
technology, which is problematic if a machine 1 ... because it is linked to a computer, a world
breaks or crashes. where all vehicles are driverless and where tiny
3 Machines don’t make mistakes, people do. computers will thin our blood automatically,
4 Workers are replaced by machines, which and therefore, increase our brainpower. A
increases unemployment. nightmare or a thrilling prospect? It all depends 5
5 People stop thinking about how to solve on whose point of view you share.
problems because machines can do it for them.
6 Technology means more people have access
to education, health care, etc.

Advantages Potential dangers

1b Read the text. What potential dangers does it


mention?
2 Read the text again and complete the paragraphs
(1-5) with the missing words (a-e). 2 ... whose unusual theories and predictions
a However, according to have often become reality: in 1990, he
b There are also concerns that millions of jobs predicted that a computer would beat a world
c Just imagine a world where a person’s mind chess master by 1998. In 1997 IBM’s Deep 10
can live forever Blue achieved this. He is also the brains
d Colleagues recall thinking Kurzweil was mad, behind many devices that have transformed
e Ray Kurzweil started out as a technology the world, such as the first computer program
whizzkid that could actually read type. Kurzweil now
predicts that the moment when a computer 15
3 Choose the best summary for the text.
will show intelligent behaviour similar to a
1 Humans will not be able to control artificial human’s will be reached in 2029.
intelligence.
3 ... but now his views are more accepted.
2 Artificial intelligence can benefit society in
numerous ways but it must be controlled. Recently, Kurzweil was made the leader of
Google’s artificial intelligence (AI) project 20
3 The benefits of artificial intelligence are much
greater than the dangers. and announced that his team are going to
brainstorm ideas and will be developing
programs to teach computers to understand
natural language. At present, computers don’t
understand the meaning of what we write, so 25
they can’t interpret the message. But by 2045,
Kurzweil predicts that computers will have
become a billion times more powerful than all
the human brains on Earth. While that might
sound worrying to you and me, Kurzweil is 30
very excited by the idea. He even feels that the
changes we are going to see will be beneficial
for and desired by everyone – for him, it’s a
no-brainer.

30 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 3

4 Are the following statements true (✔) or false


(✗)? Find information in the text to justify your
4 ... Professor Stephen Hawking, ‘the development 35
answers.
of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of
the human race’. Hawking suffers from motor 1 Ray Kurzweil’s ideas are not very practical.
neurone disease and uses a new computer 2 Ray Kurzweil is more respected now than before.
system to generate speech. The system, using a 3 Experts don’t know exactly when computers
predictive text keyboard which is the brainchild 40 will demonstrate the ability to think like humans.
of British company Swiftkey, analyses how 4 Computers can already understand the
the professor thinks and his personal style, concepts in a text.
retrieves the information, and then suggests 5 Ray Kurzweil cannot understand why anyone
would object to the benefits AI will bring the
words he might want to use. While Hawking
human race.
admits this is very useful, he reminds us of the 45
6 Stephen Hawking is not open to the benefits
danger of creating artificial intelligence that of computer science.
is superior to human intelligence: ‘It would
7 Stephen Hawking thinks it is inevitable that
take off on its own, and redesign itself at an intelligent computers will take over the world.
ever increasing rate’. Hawking concludes that 8 Other potentially dangerous scientific
‘humans, who are limited by slow biological 50 developments have been successfully
evolution, couldn’t compete and would be controlled.
superseded’.
5 Match the expressions (1-7) to the definitions (a-g).
5 ... will be lost to clever computers. More
seriously, scientists are warning of the 1 a no-brainer
need to debate the use of AI in warfare and 55 2 whizzkid
the dangers of terrorists gaining control 3 the brains behind (something)
of the Internet. Many universities will be 4 the brainchild
incorporating safeguards to prevent the 5 it’s not rocket science
unauthorised use of AI projects. Similar 6 brainpower
guidelines on controlling DNA technology 60 7 to brainstorm
have worked well for 39 years so it’s not
a the person responsible for inventing something
rocket science to protect ourselves. The big
b it’s easy to do
question is, can we really afford not to use
c to generate ideas from a group of people
AI to find cures for disease, develop clean
energy and provide education? 65
d a highly successful young person
e intelligence
f so obvious you don’t need to think about it
g an original idea, concept or invention

6 Complete the sentences with one of the


expressions from activity 5.
1 The Internet was ... of British computer expert
Tim Berners-Lee.
2 Richard Branson was a ... who started a music
publishing company before he was 20.
3 Not many people know it was a woman,
Josephine Cochrane, who was ... the invention
of the dishwasher.
4 Fish oil is believed to increase a child’s ... and
ability to concentrate.
5 Don’t use your date of birth as a password – ...
to realise it’s important to create a safe one.
6 The boss asked us ... some ideas for new
(online source)

marketing strategies.
TRACK 15 7 Of course I want scientists to find a cure for
cancer – it’s … .

THAT’S ENGLISH! 31
A bright future

LANGUAGE STUDY
1 Rewrite the sentences with the correct form of B: No, I haven’t. But I 1… (see) her tomorrow
going to or the present continuous. at Peter’s wedding. She’s also invited.
2 A: 2… you … (go) to the meeting tomorrow?
1 I’ve got an appointment at the psychologist’s
at 9:00 a.m. tomorrow. (see) B: Yes, I am. 3… you … (go) too?
I’m seeing the psychologist at 9:00 a.m. A: Yes. But I’m not looking forward to it.
tomorrow. B: Why not? Is it because of Vanessa? If she’s
2 My daughter’s definitely decided to study a going, you 4… (see) her there.
Masters in Intelligence Studies next year. (study) A: Yes. We really don’t get along and … .
3 Do you intend to take the test? It’s very difficult! 3 A: What cities 5… you … (stop) at during your
(take) cruise?
4 He’s thinking about opening a language B: We 6… (stay) for two nights in Rome and then
academy. (open) we 7… (move) on to Ephesus. We 8… (pass
5 There’s a study group meeting at my place on by) Athens, but the ship doesn’t stop there.
Friday at 8:00 p.m. (have)
4a Match the sentences (1-7) to the tenses and their
6 I’ve got a ticket to go to a lecture on multiple
use (a-g).
intelligences on Saturday. (attend)
Going to vs present continuous page 125 1 I think United will win the cup this season: if
they do, I’ll buy everyone a drink to celebrate.
2 Complete the text with the correct form of the 2 The express train to London leaves at 7:00.
future with the verbs in brackets. 3 I’m seeing the doctor on Tuesday at 10:00.
4 This time tomorrow, we’ll be lying on the
Artificial intelligence is making our lives easier
beach in Florida.
daily. According to experts, by 2040 we won’t
even need to pass a driving test because everyone 5 Be careful – that tree is going to fall down!
1
... (use) driverless cars. It is predicted that by then 6 He’s going to fly to Peru sometime next week.
the number of traffic accident deaths 2... (fall) 7 They’ll have finished the new building by next
to zero if all vehicles are computer-controlled. June.
Additionally, the number of injuries on the roads
3
... (drop) dramatically. People will save a lot a going to + infinitive to talk about intentions
of time as they 4... (travel) safely at much faster b future continuous to talk about actions in
speeds, there will also be fewer traffic jams, and progress at a particular time in the future
the job of delivery drivers 5... (disappear).
c future perfect to talk about an action
Future continuous and future perfect page 125 completed by a certain time in the future
d will to make predictions based on opinions,
3a Listen to the speaker. What is he describing? to make promises or indicate spontaneous
decisions
16
e going to + infinitive to make predictions based
3b Listen again and complete the extracts.
on present evidence
16 1 First of all, we … for a traditional Scottish f present continuous to describe definite
breakfast. arrangements
2 Next, we … a whisky distillery. g present simple to talk about timetabled events
3 By the way, we … through some lovely
countryside.
4b Choose the correct form of the verb in bold to
4 Then, we … the rest of the day in … complete the sentences.
3c In which extracts could you use the present 1 Look at that boy hanging from the tree branch,
continuous as well as the future continuous? he will fall / is going to fall.
Future continuous and present continuous page 125 2 I call / ’ll call you later.
3 This time next week, we’ll be taking / ’ll take
3d Complete the dialogues using the verbs in our exam.
brackets in the correct form: sometimes both 4 Freddy will have / is going to have a party next
forms are possible. Friday.
5 Laura will be finishing / will have finished her
1 A: Have you seen Jane recently?
degree by 2016.

32 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 3

6 The airport bus is leaving / leaves at 6:00 a.m. 7a What are Liz and Penny talking about?
every day.
21
7 They are coming / come here for dinner next
Friday night. 7b Listen again and match the words (1-7) to the
Future forms page 126 definitions (a-g).
21
1 a souvenir 5 to remember
5a Listen to someone talking about the future role
of computers and complete the summary with 2 to remind 6 to retrieve
17 the words you hear. 3 recollection, a memory 7 to recall
4 memory
The speaker thinks computers won’t 1… be
used for work and recreation; he thinks they’ll a to find stored information on a computer
2… have replaced people. He thinks he won’t
b to help someone remember
be affected because he’ll 3… be using his
c to remember a specific event and tell people
computer for recreational activities. However,
about it
in the end the speaker realises that computers
won’t 4… affect the future and that he hasn’t d something you bring back from holiday
5… considered their effect on the present. e the mental capacity to remember
f something you remember, a flashback
5b Are the sentences more emphatic with or g not to forget, to bring back events to your mind
without the word in brackets?
7c Choose the correct answer.
I imagine computers won’t (just) be used for …
1 My father still reminds / recalls the first time
They’ll (even) have replaced people …
he saw a television.
I’ll (only) be using my computer to … 2 Sadly, my mother’s memory / recollection is not
Focus adverbs: only, just, (not) even page 126
very good now.
3 My computer crashed but luckily I was able to
retrieve / recall all my work.
5c Rewrite the sentences with only, just or even to
make them more emphatic. 4 We bought these plates as a recollection /
souvenir of our trip.
1 Lauren can’t sew a button on a shirt. 5 I clearly remember / remind my first day
2 He wants to be left alone to think. at school. However, I have no souvenir /
3 This exam is too difficult. recollection of my first day at college.
4 The students won’t listen to me. 6 She always puts her ring on her little finger to
remember / remind her to buy bread.
5 They sleep in five-star hotels so no bed and
breakfast for them!
8 Complete the text with words from the box or
6 My exam results were as I’d expected. the correct future form of the verb in brackets.

6a Listen to the extracts from the reading text. recall no-brainer reminds brainpower
What sound changes does the silent e cause?
18 not rocket science
1 Colleagues recall thinking he was mad.
He was made the leader of the AI project.
Food for thought
2 He reminds us of the danger. There is an obvious connection between eating
It suggests words he might want to use. well and the development of children’s 1... . Eating
Pronunciation: silent e page 145 chips is not good 3for a growing child – it’s a 2... .
The government ... (start) a scheme next month
to give nutritious lunches to all 5-7 year olds. By
6b Listen to the pairs of words in bold from activity 4
next September, they ... (provide) a free hot lunch
6c and repeat. to 85% of infant schools and they hope by next
19 5
year, that all schools ... (build) a suitable kitchen.
6c Listen and indicate the word you hear. Education chiefs 6... (extend) the scheme to older
children7 when funds become available. Some
20 1 It’s mad / made. 4 Do you want a bit / bite? people … school dinners as horrible but Jamie
2 It’s for us / use. 5 He’s cut / cute. Oliver
9
8
… us that things are different now: no one
3 Press the strip / 6 Have you seen the rat / ... (serve) over-cooked cabbage to children today –
stripe. rate? it’s 10... to make healthy food taste good!

THAT’S ENGLISH! 33
A bright future

B Intelligent decisions
DOCUMENTARY c Deciding against becoming an independent
nation.
1 Which animals do you think of as being
intelligent? What about birds and sea creatures? d Deciding not to adopt a new and fairer political
system.
e Encouraging international companies to set
2 Match the phrases (1-3) to the definitions (a-c). up their headquarters.
1 cognitive abilities f Giving women unequalled opportunities to
succeed in public life.
2 problem solving
3 self-awareness
THAT’S THE USA
a being able to recognise
oneself as an individual
5 Answer the questions.
b connected with how
the brain recognises
and understands things
c finding answers to
complex difficulties

3 Watch the documentary and decide if the sentences


are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones.
1 Past ideas on who had the ability to use tools
have been proved correct.
2 One test of intelligence is the ability to learn
from experience. 1 Have you ever visited a luxury seaside resort?
3 Animals demonstrate social intelligence by 2 What kind of facilities would you expect to see?
knowing how to relate to each other in large
groups. 6 Watch the video of the tour of Palm Beach and
complete the sentences.
4 Research proves that apes are the most
intelligent species of animals. 1 Today, it’s still a ... for affluent Americans
5 A sign of intelligence is the ability to realise wanting to escape the harsh northern winter.
someone is experiencing something you have 2 Lined with designer stores, ... boutiques and
felt. world-class restaurants, this spotlessly clean
6 Many types of animals can recognise street is one of the most ... in the country.
themselves in a mirror. 3 Well, if you’re coming down here, as a ...
resident, it’s a society area. It’s where to be ... .
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES 4 Henry Morrison Flagler was a 19th century
industrialist and ... .
4 Match the speakers (1-6) to the most and least
intelligent decisions made by their governments 5 Well, perhaps his first and biggest achievement,
(a-f). where he ... , was as the co-founder of Standard
Oil Company.
1 3 5
6 Architect Addison Cairns Mizner designed in a
Mediterannean and … style and many newer
buildings still reflect Mizner’s style.
7 In addition to the ... , the parks and gardens of
Palm Beach are equally impressive.
2 4 6
NOW YOU!
7 What are the most and least intelligent decisions
made by your country?

a Taking too long to make an apology to the There are plenty of options for the least
native people who had been mistreated. intelligent decision, but I’d have to say it was ...
b Welcoming people suffering oppression from In my opinion the most intelligent decision
all over the world. was ... That resulted in …

34 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 3
SKILLS WORK
1 Read the magazine column. What is special about Adam Kirby?

This week, husband and wife team of psychologists,


Dominic and Laura Russell, give their views on child
prodigy Adam Kirby aged 29 months who has just
joined Mensa, the society for people with exceptionally
high intelligence levels.
He says She says
Young Adam is the youngest ever boy to join Mensa I totally disagree with the approach Adam’s parents
and with an IQ* score of 141 – that’s just 4 points are taking. There’s absolutely no point in joining
below genius level – and he’s even brighter than Mensa at his age – he doesn’t even speak in complete
Barack Obama, so why not? He can already spell 100 sentences! His parents have done it for publicity and
words and name all the planets, so he’s obviously to gain status for themselves. In any case, I’m not at
going to need more stimulation than the average all comfortable with the idea of parents pressurising
child. He’ll be able to mix with their children to succeed at such a
other super-intelligent children young age. His parents admitted
as he gets older, and he’ll get they were actively developing his
help with getting the right sort of intelligence from 10 weeks old!
education. His parents say he is a Surely that’s ridiculous? Childhood
happy, playful and energetic child is very short nowadays – let a
so clearly they aren’t bringing him small child have the freedom to
up in an abnormal way. There’s learn through play and having fun.
nothing wrong with celebrating There’s plenty of time for tests and
Adam’s unique abilities as long as formal learning ahead. Anyway,
he’s encouraged to have a normal other factors are just as important
childhood. Intelligence and a great as intelligence to succeed in
education are the main things for life, such as having good people
success in the future. skills. In fact, I think that is more

(online source)
important than being a genius.
*IQ: intelligence quotient or level
TRACK 22

2 Read the article again and answer the questions.


1 According to Dominic, what advantages will be gained by joining Mensa?
2 Why does Laura dislike the idea of Adam being in Mensa?
3 Who thinks Adam’s parents are bringing him up well? Why?
4 What does Laura think is the best approach to raising children?
5 What are Dominic and Laura’s views on what is most important for a child’s future?

3 Listen to four people reacting to the views expressed by Dominic and Laura. Complete the table.
23
Who do they agree with most: Reasons given
Dominic or Laura?
Speaker 1
Speaker 2
Speaker 3
Speaker 4

4 Prepare a short talk on your views on how parents should treat very intelligent children.

I totally disagree with ... I’m If the child seems very intelligent, they’ll ... so why
not at all comfortable with ... not? There’s nothing wrong in ... as long as the child
Surely ... In fact ... is encouraged ... They’ll be able to ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 35
A bright future

WRITING
1 Read the article and decide which of the three titles would be more suitable.
1 Is using social media making us stupid?
2 Using social media is not an intelligent thing to do.
3 Only intelligent people use social media.

2a Read the article again and choose the correct answers.

A Most people can’t imagine life without texting, tweeting and using other social media many
times a day to keep in touch with friends. It’s fun but it takes up a considerable amount of
time. But is using social media a negative or positive thing? More importantly, is it affecting
our brainpower?
B Some teachers argue that using social media is affecting young people’s reading ability and
concentration span but I’m not convinced. It’s true that nearly half of 18-24-year-olds never
read for pleasure and the average attention span has halved in the last ten years. There’s
evidence though, that young people’s research skills and visual intelligence have improved
greatly. So it isn’t all bad news.
C Interestingly, there has been a huge
increase in the amount of writing. I
prefer to email, text and tweet rather
than call on the phone. True, it’s a
different kind of writing, but you need
to be creative and understand sentence
structure well to communicate in just
140 characters!
D So, what’s the answer? I’m sure social
media are here to stay so perhaps we
should limit how much time we spend
on using them and try reading an old-
fashioned book sometimes! That way,
we’ll get the best of both worlds.

1 The style is formal / informal.


2 It is written for university academics / people who have similar interests to the writer.
3 It includes personal examples / quotations from textbooks.
4 It includes / doesn’t include personal opinions.

2b Read the article again and match the paragraphs (A-D) to the functions (1-4).

1 conclusion 3 introduction
2 first idea and development 4 second idea and development

3a Match the features of a well-written paragraph (1-3) to the descriptions (a-c). Then put the
features in the correct order to make a coherent paragraph.
1 supporting sentences a summarizes the main points made before
2 a topic sentence b give more information about the subject of the paragraph
3 a concluding sentence c tells us what the paragraph is about

3b Look at paragraph B in activity 2a: indicate the topic sentence, the supporting sentences
and the concluding sentence.

36 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 3

4a Look at the questions in the article in paragraph A. What is their purpose?

1 asking the reader to reply with information


2 focusing the reader’s attention and engaging them

4b Rewrite the sentences (1-5) as questions to make them more engaging.

1 I wonder if this is a good idea.


Is this a good idea?
2 We surely don’t want to return to the bad old days.
3 I don’t understand why someone would do that.
4 I wonder if you like adventure and new challenges.
5 I don’t know what the solution to this problem is.

Writing an article
5 You are going to write an article for a college magazine on the subject of Brains or beauty?
Which brings greater success in life? A mind map is a useful way to plan your work. Add your
own ideas to the mind map below. Think about the introduction and conclusion.

Introduction

Good looks Brains Academic success


Popularity or Better qualifications
Social and career success beauty? Career success

Conclusion

6a Read the paragraph below and answer these questions: What is wrong with this paragraph?
What do you think is the ideal number of topics in a paragraph?

I totally disagree with the idea that beauty opens doors for people because it doesn’t mean that
these good-looking people can do the job. Also, I think it’s a bad idea to hire people only on their
looks. Being attractive is something that comes from birth. This is totally irrelevant to intelligence.

6b Write ...

1 a topic sentence for this paragraph. 3 a concluding sentence for this


paragraph.
For example, getting good qualifications will improve your
chances of studying at a prestigious university. Having an However, people who only concentrate
education like this will unquestionably give you better career on their studies may struggle with their
opportunities. This is something beauty cannot give you. social behaviour and life skills. If they
only study books, they will never learn
2 a supporting sentence for this topic sentence. how to interact with people at social
events. They may get used to working very
Academic success and good qualifications can be the key to ensuring hard but be unable to carry on a normal
career success … conversation ...

7 Now write your article (150-180 words). Remember to include the following:
• topic / supporting / concluding sentences in each paragraph • questions to involve the reader
• personal examples and opinions • a good engaging title

THAT’S ENGLISH! 37
UNIT
4 Every little bit helps

OBJECTIVES
• To make offers and requests
• To discuss different options and reach
agreement

A A friend in need ...


BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Answer the questions.

1 Choose the types of help you have given 1 What does Karen feel confident about?
someone in the last year. 2 Why is Jen in difficulties?
3 How does Karen’s helping Mrs D lead to
looking after a neighbour’s pet cleaning
helping Omar?
listening to someone’s problems gardening
4 What two things has Danny arranged to help
fixing something broken babysitting Jen with when he visits the second time?

WHILE YOU WATCH 5 Read the extracts and choose the option that
matches the meaning.
2 Answer the questions.
1 Omar: What goes around, comes around.
a Whatever you do, you can’t change the future.
b What you do to others, will be done to you.
2 Jen: A real knight in shining armour, eh?
a a helpful person who comes to the rescue
b someone ready to fight for you
1 Why do Karen and Danny decide to help others? 3 Danny: I asked her if she’d like to pass a favour
on for me.
a to refuse to help someone
b to help someone after you’ve been helped
4 Mrs D: You spoke to Karen about doing good
turns for other people.
a helping someone for no pay or reward
b helping someone to be a better person
2 In what way can Mrs Dalton help Jen?
6 Complete the sentences with the correct
AFTER YOU WATCH expression in bold from activity 5.

3 Choose the correct option. 1 You must be careful what you do to other
people because … .
1 Karen feels … . 2 Alex really loves … for others. He says it
a people are responsible for helping others makes him feel good.
b it’s the government’s job to help others 3 It’s a good job my neighbour helped me when
2 Omar thinks … . I lost my flat keys. He’s ... .
a people should give more money to the needy 4 I feel the need … . I feel so grateful for the help
received, I want someone else to feel the same.
b time is often more valuable than money
3 Danny thinks people should … . NOW YOU!
a rely more on themselves
7 Give your opinion: Do you think it’s true that,
b expect others to help them when in need
‘What goes around, comes around’?
4 Omar … .
a feels he can’t offer to help the others I do believe it’s true I don’t think so,
b would like to repay Karen and Danny’s because … because …
kindness to him

38 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
8a The speakers were asked the following questions: In what kind of situations do you help
other people? When do you like to receive help?
1 Have you ever practised or experienced any of the following?
Helping others
1 through work 2 giving money 3 doing voluntary work 4 being kind
Receiving help
5 from a charity 6 from family 7 from work colleagues 8 from teachers
2 Now, watch the video and choose the ideas that are mentioned.

Kristen Robert Dena Nicole Chelsi Victor David

8b Complete the table with the types of help the speakers mention when talking about giving help.

Kristen
Dena
Nicole
Chelsi
Victor
David

8c When talking about receiving help, which speaker mentions … ?

1 problems with studying


2 finding it difficult to take help from others
3 needing help when they are exhausted

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 2 Women who work should get more help with
the ... from their families.
9 Look at some of the expressions the speakers 3 I missed the bus but luckily my neighbour was
used about help. What do they mean? ... and gave me a lift to my interview.
1 Kristen: I think the best way you can help someone 4 I was happy to lend you my car and ... – it’s my
is just by listening and being compassionate. pleasure!
a very enthusiastic to help 5 In the winter, we should ... for our elderly
neighbours and do their shopping.
b very caring
6 They helped me in the past so now I feel I have
2 Robert: I give every day, I don’t expect payback. ... to you.
a I don’t want anything in return. 7 When people saw the news about the earthquake,
b I don’t want money for my help. they felt very ... and donated millions.
3 Nicole: When you’re trying to do big things [...]
simple help with household chores. NOW YOU!
a mending broken equipment in the home 11 How good are you at accepting help? Are you
b everyday tasks like washing-up happy to accept it? Or do you feel it is a sign of
weakness?
10 Complete the sentences using expressions from
activities 5 and 9. I don’t mind accepting Actually, I really
help because ... / but … find it difficult to
1 Don’t feel sorry for Jim – he’s upset lots of accept ...
people in the past so ... .

THAT’S ENGLISH! 39
Every little bit helps

READING
1 Look at the pictures of people doing good
Three million acts
deeds. Which of them do you think would be
easy or difficult to do? Why?
of random kindness
1 3 a ... Few authors of fiction expect to start a truly
global movement but that’s what happened
to Catherine Ryan Hyde when she wrote
Pay it Forward in 1999. The story of Trevor,
a twelve-year-old boy living hand-to-mouth
in a dysfunctional family, seems an unlikely
candidate for success. The book was, however,
a huge hit and has since been translated into
twenty languages, published in over thirty
countries and even made into a film. Recently,
the fifteenth anniversary edition was published
2 4
along with a version for younger readers who
are encouraged to actively join in the Pay it
Forward project.

2 Read the article and choose the best headings


(1-4) for the paragraphs (a-d).
1 Two-way benefits 3 Runaway success
2 Acting globally 4 Local hero

3 Read the text again. What do these numbers b ... Trevor’s social studies teacher sets homework
refer to?
for his class: to design a plan that will change the
1 one million 5 1999 world. Trevor’s simple idea is to lend a hand to
2 sixty-five 6 twelve three people, but instead of his asking them to
3 twenty 7 thirty return the favour, Trevor asks them if they would
4 three ‘pay it forward’ by helping three others. Trevor’s
good deeds include giving his newspaper delivery
4 Choose the correct answers. job to a homeless man instead of giving him a
handout, and caring for an old lady’s garden.
1 The background of the story … .
Initially, things don’t go well (an addict he tries
a initially sounds unappealing
to help goes to jail) and so Trevor stops helping,
b is unimaginative but gradually Trevor’s plan takes effect and the
2 The story … . unforeseen results of his efforts are astounding.
a was first written for children It might all sound sweet and sentimental but
b has been adapted for children the author shows that a positive attitude can go
3 Trevor’s idea … . hand in hand with facing social problems like
a is difficult to put into practice
alcoholism, family breakdown and racism.
b has unexpected good consequences
4 The message of the book is that … .
a major problems are beyond the help of the 5 Doing random acts of kindness … .
individual a might be unwelcome to some
b every individual can empower themselves b is very common in modern society

40 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 4

5 Match the expressions (1-7) to their meaning


c ... The message is that rather than wringing (a-g).
your hands and doing nothing when confronted
by major problems, everyone can promise to 1 to lend a hand
do kind actions to those near at hand, such 2 to go hand in hand with
as giving someone your umbrella on a rainy 3 near at hand
day. This simple idea was quickly adopted 4 a handout
by people across the US, and the recipients 5 their hands are tied
of the good deeds are given Pay it Forward 6 to live hand-to-mouth
cards explaining the scheme. Over one million 7 to wring your hands
bracelets publicising the movement have been
a to show anxiety about a situation but do
distributed so far and Pay it Forward Day now nothing to help
takes place every year on the last Thursday in
b to live in poor circumstances
April. Last year, it was celebrated in sixty-five
c money given as charity to a person
countries and inspired three million acts of
d to be connected to
random kindness.
e close by
d ... The world is surely in need of acts of random f to help
kindness, so how could anyone object to your g they are unable to do anything or much
lending them a helping hand? Generally, many of
us avoid approaching strangers, and those hearing 6 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of
the unusual words, ‘Don’t worry, I’ll help you’ an expression from activity 5.
from a stranger may not appreciate the gesture, 1 I’d really love to help, but I can’t break the
or even reject it. Reassuringly, this reaction is rules. My ... .
rare, and most participants report that once they 2 We’d better keep some water ... in case the
explain the situation, they are rewarded with barbecue gets too hot.
smiles and thanks. Let’s be honest, those doing 3 Her son ran away from home and was found
the good deeds also benefit emotionally from the on the streets ... .
experience in many ways – it builds confidence, 4 Could you ... with carrying these boxes inside?
improves self-esteem, and can even contribute 5 It’s better to give training and accommodation
to greater longevity. Above all, when so often to the homeless than ... .
people feel their hands are tied regarding 6 Respect for a person’s dignity should ... giving
economic and political situations, random acts charity.
of kindness are within everyone’s power. So, 7 It’s no good ... at the problems in our
what are we waiting for? community, we need to take action.

7 Think about your answers to the questions and


discuss them with a partner.
1 Have you ever been in a situation where your
hands were tied and you felt frustrated?
2 In what ways do you lend a helping hand to
friends and family?

I was managing a company a few years ago


when I received the order from the head
office to fire two of my employees. I really
(online source)

didn’t want to because they were great


workers, but my hands were tied and I just
TRACK 25 had to follow orders.

6 Most recipients of good deeds … .


a are instantly delighted
b are a little puzzled at first

THAT’S ENGLISH! 41
Every little bit helps

LANGUAGE STUDY
1 Choose the correct answers. 10 I nearly forgot ... yesterday.
11 Let’s stop ... .
12 We’d better stop ... and start running.

2c Complete the table with a verb followed by


-ing or to + infinitive and an example from
activity 2b.
Verb
Use Example
pattern
Say an action finishes stop + -ing 12
Say why an action
finishes
In 1988, writer Richard Curtis and comedian Attempt something
Lenny Henry decided 1starting / to start a charity unsuccessfully
because they wanted 2helping / to help victims of
Attempt something to
the famine in Ethiopia, but they never imagined
3raising / to raise nearly one billion pounds! see what happens
They aimed 4changing / to change lives in Africa (Never) forget a past
and the UK by encouraging people 5having / event
to have fun and donate money at the same Forget something you are
time. For example, if you don’t mind 6being / or were supposed to do
to be cold and wet in order to help others, you
could offer 7sitting / to sit in a bath full of beans Recall a definite past
in tomato sauce throughout Red Nose Day. If event
you fancy 8doing / to do something easier, you Recall something you are
could consider 9wearing / to wear a red nose or were supposed to do
to work. Another popular idea is dyeing your
Be sorry for what
hair pink if your friends promise 10sponsoring / happened
to sponsor you, or if you enjoy 11baking /
to bake, you could have a cake sale. Millions Be sorry for what you
of people never miss 12watching / to watch the are going to say
Red Nose Day television marathon every two Really like this activity
years. This year, Comic Relief hopes 13passing /
to pass the one billion pound mark and intends Really like this activity
14keeping / to keep expanding the project to
(often with a time
bring help to many more needy people. expression)

Verbs followed by -ing / to + infinitive page 127


3 Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets.
2a Listen to two conversations. What are they about?
1 Don’t forget ... (post) that letter.
26 1 a a healthy lifestyle b healthy cooking 2 We regret ... (inform) you that the vacancy
2 a travel documents b travel plans has been filled.
3 They tried ... (help) him but he refused to
2b Listen again and complete the sentences. listen.
26 1 I love ... every day. 4 I remember ... (see) our team winning the
championship in 1998.
2 I love ... Mexican food.
5 It started raining so we stopped ... (have)
3 I regret … you that’s not very healthy!
coffee.
4 I tried ... the gym but it was so boring.
6 I love ... (get up) early and … (go) running −
5 I regret ... now. but I rarely do it!
6 I tried ... to swim but it was really difficult. 7 This computer won’t print – I’ve tried ... (turn)
7 I remembered ... the passports. it off and on again.
8 I’ll never forget ... my passport behind. 8 ‘Stop ... (chat) and get on with your work.’
9 I remember ... them on the table. 9 Please remember ... (return) all textbooks
next week.

42 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 4

10 Oh no! We forgot ... (lock) the back door. A: 6... me a ... with this box, 7... you?
11 He regretted ... (leave) his wife but it was too B: Sure, no problem.
late.
A: 8... you 9... post this letter for me?
12 My brother has always loved ... (skateboard),
and now he’s a world champion. B: 10... .
A: 11... you please tidy up?
4a Listen to the dialogue. Why is the speaker upset?
B: 12... , OK.
27
A: Don’t forget to bring some milk on your way
4b Listen again and complete the sentences. home, 13… you?
27 Alex: I’m annoyed at 1… forgetting to pay. B: Don’t worry, I 14… forget.
Emma: I can imagine you would be annoyed at Offers and requests page 128
2… forgetting to pay.

Emma: Do you mind 3… making a suggestion? 6c Listen again and repeat the sentences paying
Alex: Why on earth would I mind 4… making a attention to the intonation.
28
suggestion? Intonation in requests page 147

4c Look at the missing words in activity 4b and


7 Write requests using the words in brackets.
complete the rule.
1 Ask for help with the washing-up. (lend)
When the subjects of the main clause and the
2 Ask someone to take the rubbish out. (will)
-ing clause are different, we can indicate this by
using a possessive … or an … pronoun before 3 Ask someone to help with the shopping.
(would) (give)
the -ing form.
4 Ask someone to open the window. (possibly)
New subject before -ing form page 128 5 Ask someone to close the door. (mind)

5 Rewrite the sentences with a possessive 8 Complete the text with a suitable form of the
adjective or an object pronoun and the -ing form. verbs in brackets or one of the expressions from
the box.
1 Please forgive us for being so late.
Please forgive our / us being so late. a handout lend a hand hand in hand with
2 She didn’t have a problem with the children
making a noise. If you’ve ever tried 1... (collect) money for
3 Please excuse me for using your parking space. charity in the street, you’ll recognise it’s not
much fun. However, online movements like
4 The police overlooked the fact he was speeding.
the ice bucket challenge, aim 2... (change) the
5 Her parents forgave her when she crashed the way we give to charity and also intend 3...
car. (raise) awareness. Nowadays, raising money
6 Do you mind if I tell you the truth? goes 4... having fun and sharing it on social
7 I object to that man sitting next to me. media. The idea was simple: post a picture of
8 Her teachers were annoyed that she failed the yourself having ice-cold water thrown over
exam. you and recommend three friends 5... (do)
the same and give a small donation to a brain
6a Listen to the conversations and say if the charity. If they refuse 6... (take) the challenge,
relationship between the speakers is formal or they promise 7... (donate) $100 instead. So
28 informal. many people considered 8... (be) soaked such
fun that almost $100 million was raised even
1 ... 2 ... 3 ... 4 ... 5 ... 6 ... though many people probably forgot 9...
(make) a donation. What was the secret of the
6b Listen again and complete the sentences.
challenge’s success? People would rather 10...
28 A: Excuse me, 1… you ... lifting my suitcase down? by doing something more amusing than just
giving 11... , and they‘ll always remember 12...
B: Not 2... .There you are.
(laugh) their heads off when their friends got
A: Could you 3... a hand with 4... these books? wet. Everyone loves 13… (see) someone else
B: Yes, 5... . suffer a little!

THAT’S ENGLISH! 43
Every little bit helps

B The gift of life


a Religious groups play a major role in helping.
DOCUMENTARY b A lot of money does not reach the needy due
1 Match the phrases (1-4) to the definitions (a-d). to dishonesty.
c There is good provision for retired people and
1 bone marrow
their financial needs.
2 bloodstem cell
d Nearly half of the people get help from the
3 a complete and utter stranger government for various needs.
4 live happily ever after e There is very good help available for the sick,
jobless and older people.
a someone totally unknown to you
b the soft part inside a bone where blood cells
develop THAT’S THE USA
c a traditional ending for a fairy tale 7 Which of these types of National Parks have you
d a special cell which can grow into any organ of visited?
the body
wildlife conservation marine conservation
2 Have you ever given blood? Would you agree to wetlands forests mountains
donate an organ to another person?
8 Watch the video of Jodi’s visit to Big Cypress
3 Watch the documentary and answer the
Indian Reservation and decide if the sentences
questions.
are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones.
1 Why did Fran need to use the Anthony Nolan
organisation?
2 What help does the charity give?
3 What motivates Maggie Marshall to help others?

4 Watch the documentary and complete the


sentences.
1 For many a ... or blood stem cell transplant is
the only chance of ... .
2 At Anthony Nolan we match potential stem
cell donors to patients who are in need of a
potentially ... .
3 Now we’re able to find a donor who is the best 1 The Everglades cover a large area of Florida.
possible ... for about ... of patients. 2 Billie Swamp Safari is a park run by the Oconee
4 I do think all donors are the most incredible Tribe of Florida.
people to do what they do, their generosity 3 Corn snakes kill their prey by poison.
and kindness and ... to do that.
4 The mouth of the common snapping turtle
resembles a bird’s beak.
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES 5 Alligators live in saltwater swamps and
5 What kind of help from the government do you marshes.
think is essential? 6 Eagles are the symbol of the Everglades.

6 Match the speakers (1-5) to the comments


(a-e). More than one speaker may go with each NOW YOU!
comment.
9 To what extent does your country have an
1 2 3 infrastructure to help people in need?

Overall I think the system we have is


good at supporting ... However, there
is room for improvement regarding ...
4 5 because recently ... People have had to
rely on ... and they shouldn’t have to.
The government should ...

44 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 4
SKILLS WORK
1a Listen to the radio interview about The Real Junk Food Café and tick (✔) the ideas you hear.

29 fast food obesity supermarkets organic food waste food


community big business making a profit food banks food poverty

1b Listen again. Who or what do these numbers refer to?

29 47 £30,000 272 20 tonnes a million tonnes 2003 47%

2 Read Jed’s blog about food banks in the UK. Who doesn’t agree with Jed’s opinion?

Burning Issues
Welcome to my blog where we debate hot topics in modern society
1 One million people in need of a food handout. That’s nothing new. But we’re not talking about some
faraway land on the other side of the world, we’re talking about Britain in the 21st century. How can
it be that families are going hungry in one of the world’s richest countries? So they are turning to
the growing number of food banks for emergency food supplies. No one would have believed it a
few years ago, and yet we seem to have accepted it as normal now. We should be marching in the
streets and demanding change! But so far, I haven’t really noticed it happening. Do we no longer
care or is it just too difficult? So what’s really behind this issue? Let me know what you think. Jed

2 As far as I’m concerned, this problem is being made worse by modern working practices, you know, like ‘zero
hours’ contracts where people don’t have a fixed number of hours of work a week. They might end up with no
work at all one week! Who on earth can live like that? Only people who have family to help them. If they haven’t,
it takes months to get welfare benefits, and so they go hungry. This kind of contract should be illegal. Dom

3 That’s absolutely right and there’s another aspect to this, which is wages are too low for a decent standard of
living for many families. The trouble is housing and energy costs have risen massively and wages haven’t.
Even if people are employed, they can’t afford to put enough food on the table once all the bills have been paid.
It’s high time the authorities realised this. It’s not just the unemployed who are affected. Tamzin

4 I couldn’t disagree more, actually. I strongly believe that this ‘food poverty’ is really a lack of understanding of
TRACK 18
how to cook nutritious food. People have lost the cooking skills our great-grandmothers had and rely on fast
food. Then, when money is tight, they don’t have the skills to prepare food economically and run out of cash.
We need to teach young people the basics of meal planning and cooking above all. Polly

5 Possibly, but that’s only a small part of the problem. There’s another negative effect of the rise of reliance on
food banks which is that there’s only a limited amount of time and resources that people can give to charity.
(online source)
So, if they are donating food or volunteering at food banks, other kinds of charities – for health problems for
instance – are missing out. Some health charities are having to use their funds to help their clients with basic
living needs rather than research into cures. Seems crazy to me. Paddy
TRACK 30

3 Match the summaries (a-e) to the blog posts (1-5).


a Society in general needs to rediscover past abilities.
b The rise of food poverty will have an impact on other areas of
need.
c Food poverty is a new phenomenon in Britain.
d The cost of living has risen too high for those on lower wages
to cope.
e Some employment strategies are impractical and unfair.

4 Write a short blog post on the issue of food banks.


As far as I’m concerned, food wastage is a real problem today. This
is being made worse by ... I strongly believe that ... We need to ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 45
Every little bit helps

SPEAKING
1a Match the charities (1-8) to the photos (a-h).

1 anti-gang culture 4 homeless shelter 7 animal rescue


2 helping the elderly 5 help for seriously ill young people 8 children’s creative arts theatre
3 anti-bullying 6 rehabilitation of wounded soldiers

a c e g

b d f h

1b Have you ever donated to any of these types of charities? Which type of charity appeals to
you? Are some charities more worthwhile than others?

I sponsor a young girl in Uganda. Basically, I pay for her education. I started doing this
when she was six and now she’s going to university to study journalism. I’m just so ...

2a Listen to the conversation between Richard, 4a Listen to the next part of the meeting. Are the
Mervyn and Laura. Where are they? following statements true (✔) or false (✗)?
31 32
1 in a restaurant 3 at a meeting 1 Mervyn thinks many charities are a waste of time.
2 at a party 4 at a lecture 2 Laura is angry with Mervyn.
3 Mervyn thinks the arts theatre is dishonest.
2b Which charities do the speakers mention from
4 Mervyn thinks some social needs are more
the list in activity 1a?
31 important than others.

4b Listen again and complete the table with the


3 Listen again. Tick (✔) the phrases you hear.
phrases (1-6). Then add the phrases (7-10) to the
32 table as well.
31 What about giving ... ?
Making
We might consider giving ... 1 Sorry, I think you’ve
suggestions
How about tackling ... ? misunderstood me. 7 That’s not quite
As far as I’m concerned, ... 2 Could I just say what I meant.
Stating On the whole, I’d rather … something here?
preferences 8 Even so, ...
X appeals to me more than Y. 3 Sorry, can I come in 9 May I add
I’m not very keen on that idea. here? something?
Slight I can’t go along with that. 4 Fair enough, 10 I haven’t made
disagreement To be honest, that’s not how 5 All the same, myself clear.
I see it at all. 6 Possibly, but ...
I totally disagree with that.
Strong I couldn’t disagree more. Interrupting
disagreement That’s completely Correcting someone
unacceptable.
Partial agreement

46 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 4

5a Listen to the final part of the meeting. What charities do the speakers agree to support?

33
5b Listen again and complete the gaps (1-6) with one word. Do the phrases express: a partial
agreement, b agreement or c disagreement?
33
Mervyn: I 1... no 2... with 3… . Laura: That sounds 4... to me. Laura: 5... plan. Mervyn: 6... by me.

Interaction: how to reach agreement


6 You are members of a committee deciding which charities to support financially. Read the
descriptions of the charities and choose a different one each to support and give funding to.

Carefree Kids Gift of Sight


We aim to support children aged 5 to 16 who care Don’t throw your old glasses away – send them
for a disabled or sick parent. These children often to us with a donation and we’ll send them to
miss out on a normal childhood. We provide: one of our clinics in Africa to be reused. We also
• emotional support perform thousands of sight-saving operations
• sport and youth clubs every year. The gift of sight is the greatest you
• camping holidays can give.

Woodland Warriors
Help us fight global warming starting at home. We plant over half a million trees a year, reducing
air pollution and greenhouse gases. But we need your help to buy and plant the trees. Do it for
your children’s and grandchildren’s future!

7 Make notes about why you want to support 8b Listen to each other’s opinions and disagree.
your chosen charity. Use expressions to show agreement and to
interrupt and correct.
✔ WW – future of planet (+ human race) most
important – no planet = no life I’m not very keen on
To be honest,
✘ Kids – local social services can help them that idea because
that’s not how I
social issues are
✘ Glasses – too far away – no control over how see it at all. It’s not
equally / not as
a high priority ...
money spent important as ...

8a Present your choice to your partners. Use


appropriate expressions for making suggestions 9 Now role-play the whole meeting. Use
and stating preferences. appropriate expressions to develop the
conversation and reach an agreement.
As far as I’m concerned, I
think ... should get our help What about I have no problem
because ... supporting ... ? with that.

On the whole, I’d rather


give our support to … Does everyone
Fine by me.
because … agree?

THAT’S ENGLISH! 47
OBJECTIVES
Revision 1 • To review the contents of units 1-4

LANGUAGE REVISION
1 Complete the email with the correct tense of
the verbs in brackets. Use future forms: future
simple, future continuous, future perfect, present 15 September
continuous and going to. Sometimes more than Dear Aunt Mary,
one tense is possible.
How are you doing? Just thought I’d write
and let you know how things are going.
Do you remember 1that I tell / me telling
you I’d found a job in London? Well, I’m still
here! I know I said I was going travelling,
but I’ve got used to 2be / being here, and
surprisingly, I 3quite / absolutely like it!
The job has turned out to be 4slightly /
pretty interesting although my boss is very
demanding. 5He’s constantly asking / He’d
constantly ask me to work late, and I’ll
often 6get / be getting home at ten at night.
My other news is that I’ve met someone –
15 July a girl 7who would get / who had got the
Dear Aunt Mary, same bus as me every day and smile at me.
Apologies for not writing for a while. I’ve We soon got chatting and I intend 8to see /
been busy with exams, but now you 1… seeing a lot of her in the future!
(be) pleased to hear that your nephew has a I occasionally regret not 9going / to go
Master’s degree! My graduation ceremony abroad, but this was such a good chance, I
is next Saturday and Mum and Dad 2… had to take it. I used to 10thinking / think that
(come) up to the university for it. I’d always travel, but that will have to wait!
Now what? Well, I’ve decided to take a gap Best wishes,
year! First, I need some money so I’ve found Tom
a job for the summer. This time next week I
3
… (move) to London and be working in an
office. You won’t recognise me. I 4… (wear) 3 Complete the sentences with adjectives ending
a suit and tie! in -ing or -ed made from the words from the box.
Anyway, after my two-month contract, I 5…
(travel) around Europe for a while. I hope astonish bore devastate distress
I 6… (find) work grape-picking for a month, exhilarate inspire
and then I 7… (plan) to visit some friends in
Germany. Then, back to the Alps for the ski
season. I 8… (work) for at least three months 1 I don’t know why she found the photos so … .
in a restaurant there. Finally, my dream is to She nearly cried when she saw them.
go to Asia. With any luck, I 9… (save) enough 2 He gave up his job because he was … with the
money by March to spend at least three same routine every day.
months there.
3 Jane thought the lecture on volunteering was
After that, I promise I 10… (look) for a proper really … , so she decided to take part in the
job! project that summer.
Love, 4 It was … that he managed to get promotion
Tom when he never does any work!
5 I have never felt so … as when I tried skydiving
2 Read Tom’s next email and choose the correct – what an adrenaline rush!
option. 6 When his girlfriend left him, he was totally …
and didn’t eat for days.

4 Complete the second sentence so that it has a


similar meaning to the first. Use the words in
brackets. Write between two and five words.
1 I think we should look after local issues first.
(concerned)
As … , we should look after local issues first.

48 THAT’S ENGLISH!
Revision 1

2 She told me about all her problems. (heart) 6 I think you have … what I was saying. I meant
She poured … to me. something different. (understand)
3 I don’t think it’s possible he’ll pass the exam. 7 Children are much more … than adults in
(unlikely) showing their feelings. (demonstrate)
… he’ll pass the exam. 8 The offer you have made is totally … . I can’t
agree to it. (accept)
4 I’m sorry I’m late. (forgive)
… being late. 7 Complete the text with the words from the box.
5 We’re sorry to inform you that you weren’t There are three words you don’t need.
accepted for the job. (regret)
… that you weren’t accepted for the job. safeguards guidelines brainchild
6 I should have spoken to him earlier. (regret) nightmare wages shelter deed
gesture behaviour
I … to him earlier.
7 I can’t do anything about it. (hands)
My … . Today’s report comes from Liverpool where
8 Mark invented the robot. (brains) workers in a robotics factory are calling
Mark was … the robot. for better 1… after a prototype attacked a
supervisor during a test. The device is the
5 Complete the sentences with a preposition or 2
… of the scientist Professor D.K. Brown,
particle. who has been working on it for the past ten
1 He’s finding it very difficult to adapt … his years. The supervisor described the situation
new school. as a 3… when the robot tried to kick him. To
2 Every time I make a suggestion, he puts me date, no one has been able to explain its
… and says it’s ridiculous. aggressive 4… . Employees feel that they
3 I don’t think I’ll ever fit … with the others at should receive extra 5… due to the danger
work. They’re very different from me. of the situation, but management has said
4 Did you remember to bring … the subject of that they will introduce stricter 6… for the
a pay rise at the meeting? programming of these machines.
5 I’m not sure I can cope … so many children in
a class.
6 She went … pieces when she heard the 8 Choose the correct option.
terrible news. 1 In the first year we had a lot of unforeseen /
7 When I have a problem, I always turn … my inevitable difficulties that no one had thought
father for help. would happen.
8 Oliver kept … walking, even though his leg 2 Everyone in the cinema giggled / gasped
was hurting. when the man pulled out a knife to kill the
9 I strongly object … your taking every Friday president.
afternoon off. 3 He’s so boring because he’s always boasting /
10 She was beside herself … worry when her complaining about his great achievements.
daughter disappeared. 4 I was so overcome / puzzled by all the letters
of sympathy I received that I cried.
6 Complete the sentences with the correct form 5 Do you recall / realise the name of your maths
of the words in brackets. teacher in fourth grade?
1 I would like to thank you for your … . (kind) 6 I think we need to encourage / brainstorm
2 He’s been living on the streets since he became some ideas before we write the proposal.
… . (home)
9 Listen and choose the word you hear.
3 These vitamins are very … for your memory.
(benefit) 35 1 a cap b cape
4 The big companies are too … for us to fight 2 a tap b tape
them. (power) 3 a pin b pine
5 The situation has become extremely … . 4 a win b wine
(problem)
5 a pet b Pete

THAT’S ENGLISH! 49
Revision 1

SKILLS WORK
1a What can you donate to help others? Have you ever donated anything? Choose the things you
have donated.
1 money to organisations 2 blood or an organ 3 clothes or furniture 4 your time as a volunteer

1b Read the article and decide which donation the story is about.

Pay it forward
Harvey was an energetic 55-year-old with
two children and three grandchildren, a job
that involved frequent travel and a love of the
countryside. However, in 2013 he began to feel
unwell. He no longer had the energy to go out
hiking and over time he found he couldn’t even
lift his grandchildren anymore. He was diagnosed
with a kidney disease and had to undergo dialysis
daily while he was waiting for a transplant.
After a couple of years, his wife Janice decided that
she would donate one of her kidneys to her husband, Carrie, who can now take her children to school and
but to their disappointment her blood type was not is looking forward to having a trip to see her sister
compatible with her husband’s so the donation living in France, says, ‘It’s difficult to put what I
was not viable. At the same time, the hospital feel into words. How can you ever thank someone
received an offer from an anonymous donor who enough for giving you a new opportunity in life?
had decided to donate a kidney. His blood type did It’s an amazing act of kindness I will never forget.’
match Harvey’s, so the operation was arranged. Janice simply says, ‘It was just the right thing to
Janice was so overcome by this completely selfless do. I was incredibly grateful to the person who
gesture by a stranger that she decided to continue saved my husband and thought that I needed to
with her initial plan and donate a kidney, not to pass on the favour in the most useful way I could.’
her husband, but to any person who needed it. The Undoubtedly, giving a kidney while you are alive
waiting list for transplants is always long and the is a major commitment, but we can all donate our
hospital soon found a recipient for Janice’s kidney: organs when we die. The important thing is to be
Carrie, a mother of four who had been waiting for on an organ donor register. After an accident or
over five years for this life-changing event. In sudden death, there is often little time to make
the end, both operations were performed on the decisions about donations, so if doctors know
same day and to date, the donors are well and the immediately, more lives can be saved.
recipients are ecstatic with the improvement in
their daily lives. TRACK 36

2 Read the article again and decide if the sentences 3a Listen to five people talking about an event or
are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones. situation in their lives and decide if they feel
37 positive (P) or negative (N) about it.
1 Harvey’s illness was due to a lack of energy.
2 Harvey’s wife’s donation wasn’t accepted by 1… 2… 3… 4… 5…
the hospital.
3b Listen again and match the speakers (1-5) to the
3 The anonymous donor inspired another
feelings (a-e).
person. 37
4 Carrie wanted to continue the chain of favours a relief d feeling powerful
by donating a kidney. b disenchantment e embarrassment
5 The writer is promoting organ donation c feeling disgust
between living people.

50 THAT’S ENGLISH!
Revision 1

4 Imagine the cultural differences a foreigner 7 What would the purpose of an article written
who comes to work here will have to deal with. about a charity be? More than one answer may
Complete the sentences with a verb from the be possible.
box. There are two verbs you don’t need to use.
1 to entertain
adapt behave cope fit get have 2 to give information
3 to persuade the reader to do something
1 Foreigners sometimes find it difficult to …
with staying up so late. 4 to describe a process
2 People are generally very friendly, so it’s not 5 to give an opinion
hard to … in with a team at work. 6 to summarise information
3 Another thing he will have to … to is eating a
big meal at lunchtime. 8a Which of these alternatives (a or b) makes a
more engaging first sentence for an article?
4 I’m not sure if he will … used to having dinner
at ten o’clock. 1 a Many people help others in need.
b What could be more important than helping
5 Put the expressions in the table. others in need?
2 a The day I received the first photo of Malika
But in fact, Another thing is …
was amazing.
In addition, However,
b One day, I received a photo of a girl called
Actually, Furthermore, Malika.

8b Choose the correct options.


Adding points Contrasting
To engage the reader we can use:
1 formal language
2 personal opinions
6 With a partner, role play the following situation. 3 interesting adjectives
4 questions
A and B
9 Write an article about a charity you know with
You and your partner have a friend from the title A helping hand. Use some of the ideas
abroad who is coming to work in your from activities 7, 8a and 8b and the model in
country. Talk about the cultural differences unit 3 to help you. Write 200 words. Include
he/she will have to deal with. information about the following points.

Mention the following points:


➜ greeting people
➜ timetables
➜ good manners in social life, at mealtimes
and at work

When you meet a friend, you


usually kiss each other twice
here. However, in other countries
people shake hands or kiss three
times! • what the charity does
• how you found out about the charity
• an example of how the charity helps people
You will have to get used to
• how the reader can get involved with the
having a rather late lunch, and
charity
in addition, you will have to
cope with working until quite There are so many charities in the world that it
late … is difficult to decide where we can best help and
contribute. A very deserving charity I know is …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 51
UNIT
5 As easy as 1, 2, 3

OBJECTIVES
• To discuss figures and numbers
• To write a proposal

A A head for numbers


BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Decide if the statements are true (✔) or false (✗).
Correct the false ones.
1 Do you agree or disagree with these statements?
Why? 1 Anthony wanted to order 400 pounds of rice.
2 One pound equals 2.2 kilos.
1 A business is only as good as its accountants.
3 Anthony has 75% more rice than he actually
2 You need to be good at maths if you want to needs.
be successful in life.
4 The rice-themed evening was a great success.
3 Good decisions are based on knowledge, not
5 John didn’t know that Anthony had given him
on numbers.
the figures in kilos.

WHILE YOU WATCH 5a Complete the number-related idioms from the


video with the phrases in the box.
2 Answer the questions.
do a number one too many in two minds
head for numbers by the dozen

1 I wish I had a … . It would make doing the


accounts so much easier!
2 When I ask people to enter their credit card
details, they sometimes think I’m trying to … on
them, but this information is heavily protected.
1 Why does Anthony need help with his
restaurant? 3 I was … about doing yet another accountancy
course, but I’m so glad I signed up for it.
4 The new ad has been a great success – people
are ringing up … to reserve a table.
5 I think I had … last night. I’ve got a terrible
headache this morning!

5b Match the idioms in bold from activity 5a with


their meaning (a-e) below.
2 Why were John’s figures incorrect? a I had too much to drink.
b in large numbers
AFTER YOU WATCH c I was good at maths.
d I’m trying to cheat them.
3 Complete the sentences with information from
the drama. e I couldn’t decide.

1 John and Anthony are playing a … . NOW YOU!


2 Whilst they are playing, John throws a …
twice in a row. 6 Discuss these questions with a partner.
3 John says that … of restaurants fail within the Do you have a head for numbers? Do you find
first three years. maths fun and easy?
4 Anthony says his problem is … .
5 Because of this, the restaurant’s … are three I have a head for numbers.
times as much as they should be. I find maths …
6 John is going to help Anthony to order the
right … of food.

52 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
7 The speakers below were asked the following question: Have you got a lucky number and
why is it lucky?
1 The numbers below were all mentioned. Guess which one was mentioned more than once.
7 19 38 8 21 17 10

2 Predict reasons why people might choose a number to be their lucky number.
3 Watch the video and check your predictions.

Kristen Claudio Nicole Jameeka Victor David Borislav Samantha

8a Which speakers:

1 have a lucky number connected to their birthday?


2 mention sports or gambling in connection with their lucky number? Which sports?
3 mention somebody else’s favourite number? Whose?

8b Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.

Nicole: 38 was a 1… number for him because he got his 2… approved on 8 March.
Jameeka: My lucky number is 6 because that’s my 3… number.
Victor: 8 is perfect because no matter how you 4… it, it’s always 5… .
David: 21 was the number of my favourite 6… growing up.
Samantha: It’s double 7… and it’s really fun to be 10.

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! Numbers in English


In the Roman numeral system all numbers are
9a Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-6) to the
expressed using the 1… 1-9 and 0, which can
endings (a-f) to make statistics from the drama. be called either zero or 2… . Numbers smaller
1 Four plus two than zero can either be expressed as a 3… –
such as ½, ¼, etc. – or as parts of one hundred,
2 The probability of throwing a double six according to the 4… system. So the fraction ¾s
3 Your food costs are three times as much (three quarters) can also be expressed as zero
4 First I’d cut it into two halves,
5
… seven five.
5 Food costs should be 28-30% In English, groups of 6… over one thousand
are separated by a 7… . For example: one
6 Nought or zero point five litres thousand is written 1,000, and one 8… is
written as 1,000,000.
a is one point nought six pints.
b of your total costs.
c then into four quarters. NOW YOU!
d makes six.
10 Find interesting statistics on the Internet.
e as they should be.
Write five questions. Trade with a partner and
f is less than three per cent! complete each other’s quiz.

9b Complete the text about numbers with the You have a one in Quiz question: The
words from the box. 2,067,000 chance of probability of dying
dying in a plane crash in a plane crash is
comma decimal digits fraction and a none in 423,548 one in: 2 million, 22
figures million nought point chance of dying from million or 200,000?
falling out of bed.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 53
As easy as 1, 2, 3

READING A
1a Read the extracts (A-D) about money and
wealth. Match them to the titles (1-4) and the
According to a series of reports by the charity
photos (a-d). Oxfam into global wealth distribution, you need
just $3,650 to be in the wealthiest half of world
1 The wealth of Wall Street citizens, a criterion that many Europeans easily
2 The top 1% meet. Indeed, you only need to possess some
3 The last will and testament of J. Dodd $77,000, which can include the market value
4 Farewell to ‘the Queen of Mean’ of your home minus the mortgage (equity), to
be amongst the top 10% of the world’s richest
a c
people. However, to belong to the top 1% you
need more than a thousand times as much,
around $798,000,000. The richest people on
the planet – who between them control as
much wealth as the poorest half of the global
population – aren’t exactly a dime a dozen, in
fact, they add up to just 85 in total and indeed
could all fit onto a London bus.

b d B
Between 2007 and 2009, Wall Street profits
increased by 720%, while unemployment rates
doubled and home equity dropped by 35%.
Since 1979, the bottom 90% of the nation has
consistently lost money while the top 10%
has gained. If the average person’s wages had
multiplied by the same rate as the economy
since the 70s, most people would now be
making $92,000 annually. You don’t need to be
an economics expert to understand the maths.
1b Which text is … ? There could be more than one. The banking executives, who helped cause the
1 from a will economic recession or crisis of 2008, received
2 from an obituary incredible ‘performance bonuses’. However,
3 from a newspaper or magazine article recent legislation on ethical banking practices
means that hopefully the days of such unfair
2 Read the extracts again and answer the questions. payments are numbered.
1 Who gets ... ?
a $92,000 a year c $12 million
b £500 a year d £1,125
2 How many thousands of dollars do you need 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form
to be in the top 1% of the richest people in the of the words in bold from the texts.
world?
3 What lost a third of its value between 2007 1 The ... the seller pays to the government is
and 2009? higher than average for luxury items and is
included in the price.
4 What has increased twofold since 2007?
2 Come on, we need to sell at a higher price
5 What do Wall Street bankers no longer receive than that or we won’t make a … .
and why?
3 His enormous … does not only consist of
6 What examples does the writer give of Leona money but also of property and investments.
Helmsley’s meanness?
4 The exchange … for the euro to the dollar is
7 Why did Mary receive no money after her very favourable at the moment.
husband’s death?

54 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 5
C
4 Look at the illustrations. Complete the comments
Despite her huge fortune made in the hotel with the highlighted words from the extracts.
business, Leona Helmsley was famously mean
1 4
and only ever looked after number one. The
most famous quotes attributed to her are ‘Only
the little people pay taxes’ and ‘That's how the
rich get richer’, said when she ordered a jeweller
to rewrite a bill to save her $4 sales tax.
2 5
During the 80s Mrs Helmsley was charged
with avoidance of sales taxes on hundreds of
thousands of dollars' worth of goods. It’s not
surprising she was always dressed to the nines
in fabulous jewels and clothes, as she rarely paid
3 6
full price for anything. Eventually in 1989, she
served 18 months in jail for tax evasion and was
fined $7.1 million. In the last years of her life,
Mrs Helmsley tried to rebuild her reputation
at the eleventh hour by donating millions of
dollars to charities. When she finally died in 1 ‘There are ten of us, but the recipe was for
2007, she left a fortune of $4 billion, none of two, so I … the amounts … five.’
which went to her grandchildren, but she did 2 ‘Our sales have … 25%.’
leave $12 million to her dog. 3 ‘I’ve … the sweets … you all.’
4 ‘We have to reduce our expenses: our gas bill
has … since last year.’
5 ‘So, this … that equals X, really?’
D I give to my sons-in-law, Richard Tims 6 ‘I can’t … all these numbers!’
and Jeremiah Archer, all my property – both the
farmland in Lincolnshire and the buildings in 5a Match the expressions (1-5) to the definitions
(a-e).
London – and also the sum of two thousand two
hundred and fifty pounds to be divided equally 1 a dime a dozen 4 dressed to the nines
between them. I give to my sister, Lucinda, the 2 (Its) days are numbered 5 at the eleventh hour
yearly sum of five hundred pounds, during life to 3 look after number one
commence at my death and to be paid annually. a to wear fashionable, smart clothes and
To my wife, Mary, I give the grand total of nought. accessories
(online source)

Mary did nothing for me during our marriage, and b so common that it has little or no value
I wish to repay her in the same way. TRACK 38
c at the very last possible moment
d take care of yourself first
e something or someone that will not exist for
very much longer
5 My grandfather worked at the port in Barcelona
and earned a very low … . 5b Answer the questions about you.
6 He believes his antique furniture is very
1 On what occasions do you go out dressed to
valuable, but actually it isn’t … much.
the nines?
7 A property like this will definitely … in value
I rarely go out dressed to the nines, I’d much
with time. Don’t ever sell it!
prefer to wear jeans and be comfortable rather
8 They have borrowed so much money – I don’t than worrying about what I look like.
know how they will ever … it.
2 Do you often leave things to the eleventh hour,
9 The only … needed to do this course is that or do you prefer to be well-prepared?
you have an appropriate qualification.
3 Do you know anyone who only looks after
number one? Describe them.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 55
As easy as 1, 2, 3

LANGUAGE STUDY
1 Complete the text about zero with the words 4b Listen again and complete the table with the
from the box.Then listen and check your answers. figures from the box.
39 42

‘oh’ ‘0’ a thousand million 16 1760 6.3503 28.35


a million million nought point nought 12 0.9144 2.54
nothing nought trillion
Imperial Metric
Zero is important because the concept of 1nothing
is needed to separate a positive from a negative 1 inch 1
… cms
number. Zero was represented by an empty space 1 foot 2
… inches 0.3048 m
until 1202 when the symbol 2… was introduced.
The words zero and 3… are interchangeable, so 1 yard 3 feet 3
…m
a decimal fraction like 0.01 can be pronounced 1 mile 4
… yards 1.6093 km
zero point zero one or 4… one. People often say
5
… for zero (nought) when repeating long lists of
individual numbers like phone numbers.
Imperial Metric
Numbers with lots of zeros in them can have
different names. In British English, a billion used to 1 ounce 5
…g
be 6… (1,000,000,000,000), but now the British use
the American and European system and it means 7… 1 pound 6
… ounces 0.4536 kg
(1,000,000,000). Similarly, a 8… used to be a million
1 stone 14 pounds 7
… kg
million million (1000,000,000,000,000,000). But
nowadays, it generally means a million million.
5a Complete the lists with the correct plural of the
words from the box.
2 Listen and choose the number you don’t hear.
40 1 a 55,000,000 b 55,000,000,000 c 550,000 datum cactus child nucleus syllabus
2 a 0.0058 b 0.0085 c 0.058
symposium radius crisis woman
medium analysis phenomenon ox
3 a 66,666 b 666,666 c 666.666
man curriculum diagnosis criterion
4 a 0150021 b 0150201 c 0105021
5 a 75,500 b 750,000 c 7,500,000 • nouns of Anglo-Saxon origin > plural ending
6 a 0.023 b 0.032 c 0.230 in -en, e.g. man > men
1
… 2… 3…
3a Practise saying the sets of three numbers in • nouns of Greek origin > plural ending in -es,
activity 2. e.g. diagnosis > diagnoses
4
… 5…
3b Listen, check and repeat.
• nous of Latin and Greek origin > plural ending
41 Pronunciation of numbers page 146 in -a, e.g. medium > media, criterion > criteria
6
…7… 8… 9…
4a Rolando is talking to his English colleague • nouns of Latin origin > plural ending in -i, e.g.
Alyson about the imperial measurement system. radius > radii
42 Listen and choose the correct answers. 10
… 11… 12…
1 Originally, the imperial system was used ... .
5b Complete the sentences with words from
a across the British Empire c in Britain activity 5a. Listen, check and repeat.
b in America and Britain 43
2 The system began in ... . 1 This is the latest c… in the long series of c…
over the last 20 years.
a medieval times b 1824 c the 1970s
2 Some cells do not have just one n…, but several
3 An inch is based on the size of a ... . n… .
a human foot b nose c thumb
3 This is a new ph… for us, but other such ph…
4 Imperial measurements are calculated in units are known to exist.
of ... .
Pronunciation of plural nouns page 146
a 12 and 14 b 10 c 12 and 16

56 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 5

6a Add the words from the box to the correct list. d It’s worth 100% more than a year ago.
e We need to decrease our losses by 50% in half
1
a year.
classics linguistics means physics f The number of people out of work has decreased
clothes earnings savings surroundings by 25%.
Expressing quantity page 129
funds economics politics series
phonetics headquarters news goods
7b Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
Nouns that only 1 There are four times as many people out
Nouns that end in s
exist in the plural of work as there were four years ago.
(take a singular verb)
(take a plural verb) (unemployment / quadruple)
economics, news, ... goods, ... Unemployment has quadrupled in the last
four years.
2 2 The company earns 50% less from its
publishing activities than last year. (publishing
grown-up bagful takeover passer-by revenue / halve)
commander in chief coat of arms Publishing revenue has halved this year.
vice-president babysitter son-in-law
3 Over 66% of those that begin the programme
don’t reach the end. (thirds / not finish)
Compound nouns Compound nouns 4 There has been a 100% increase in recycling
with the plural in the with the plural in the over the last six months. (we recycle / twice as
second element first element much)
grown-ups, ... sons-in-law, ... 5 Since we installed the traffic lights, there are
75% fewer traffic accidents. (traffic accidents /
fall / three-quarters)
6b Rewrite the sentences in the plural.
6 Last year only three out of the ten candidates
1 He gave a bagful of money to a passer-by. passed. (the pass rate / 30%)
2 We attended a symposium on the subject of
the latest crisis. 8 Complete the text about the maths twins with
the words from the box.
3 There was a former vice-president as well as a
commander in chief on our team.
all both (x2) either neither (x2)
4 The curriculum is changing and so is the none nor
medium of communication.
5 The doctor gave us a different diagnosis.
6 The bank kept all my savings. Dima and Alyosha Burov are identical twins,
but until six months ago 1… of them knew they
7a Match the expressions of quantity (1-6) to the had a twin brother. Survivors of a fire in a
synonyms (a-f).
Russian orphanage in which 2… records of their
1 The value of our house has doubled over the family were lost, they were adopted by different
last year. American families thousands of miles apart. 3…
2 Unemployment figures fell by a quarter. of the orphanage staff survived and the twins
3 We are seeing three times as many people were identified only by the labels in their clothes.
leaving the country.
As teenagers, 4… Dima 5… Alyosha found it easy
4 Our target is to halve our losses in the next six
to form personal relationships, 6… because of
months.
their traumatic early lives or because they were
5 Three-fifths of those asked said they hadn’t
noticed a difference. naturally shy. However, they 7… demonstrated
6 There are two and half times as many unusual mathematical ability, so much so that
incidences of violence. they were 8… selected to join a special Harvard
programme for young mathematicians, which is
a Emigration rates have tripled.
where, finally, they met.
b Incidences of violence have increased by 250%.
c 60 people out of 100 were unaware of any
All, both, none, neither, either page 131
change.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 57
As easy as 1, 2, 3

B Maths magic
DOCUMENTARY 4 Watch the video and check your answers.

1 Choose the reasons why you think maths is THAT’S THE USA
often unpopular as a school subject. You can
add other reasons too. 5 Match the words (1-4) to the pictures (a-d).

not necessary too difficult 1 citrus farming 3 sea sponge diving


not taught properly too boring 2 cattle ranching 4 fisheries
a c
2 Watch the documentary and answer the questions.

b d

1 What does Peter use to help him to teach maths?


2 Why does Peter say that his approach works?
3 What are some teachers using in the classroom
to teach multiplication tables? 6 Watch the video about two important industries
4 What subject does Peter teach with the help of in Florida and complete the sentences with the
a card trick? appropriate word or figure.
5 What is the ratio of innumerate adults in the UK?
6 Why does Sofia Cuzano say that she found
maths difficult?

SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES


3 Before you watch the video, try to fill in the
blanks with the statistics in the box.

5% 5 5.51 8 55 years 85 years


90% 54 million 25% 50 million 1 Sea sponges are … that live on the floor of the
ocean.
Country Statistics 2 The sponge industry started up in Tarpon
The ethnic origin of 1… of the Springs at the … of the century.
Jamaica
population is West African. 3 The sponge industry produces … a year.
New There are 2… million people in 4 The Barthle Brothers Ranch has been operating
Zealand New Zealand and 3… sheep. since … .
5 Ranching is important in the USA because
The population is 4… . The
South they need to produce … .
number of people infected with
Africa 6 Land that can’t be farmed is good for cattle to
HIV is 5… million.
….
In Glasgow life expectancy for
Scotland the wealthiest is 6… , whilst for
the poorest it is 7… . NOW YOU!
8
… of the world’s population 7 Write about a time when an ability or lack
live in the USA. of ability to do maths helped you or caused
USA 9
… of the people in prison are problems for you.
in the USA.
When I started my new job, I was responsible for a
Great … million people live in
10
budget and had to do financial reporting for the first
Britain London. time and my weak maths meant I was really slow ...

58 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 5
SKILLS WORK
1a Read the text about the rise of big data. What exactly is big data and how is it different from
traditional statistics?

Barack Obama and the rise of big data


and 10,000 volunteers to ‘measure data tactics. Of the nine ‘swing’
everything’. Using data related states – those who didn’t have
to voters’ age, level of education, a clear affiliation to either the
social status, job, even what sport Democrats or the Republicans
teams they supported – and at the beginning of the election
by running 666,000 computer – Obama’s campaign won seven
simulations daily – the analysts (77.77%), convincing proof of the
predicted how likely they were power of big data and its ability to
to vote Democrat. The analysts predict human behaviour.
then identified and focused their
Computer technology causes data efforts intensively on ‘persuadable
to proliferate. Consequently, we voters’: those groups that they
possess almost infinite amounts calculated they had the most
of data, more than ever before in chance of convincing.
history, and we can use it to find It worked. Even if the turnout of
patterns and make connections in voters was only 59.4%, Obama won
ways we never dreamed of before. the election with campaign costs
Barack Obama was one of the of only around $400 million (less
first to demonstrate the power of than the Republicans) and a clear
big data – by using it to help him majority. 51% voted for Obama
win his 2012 election campaign. versus 44% for Republican Mitt
His campaign manager employed Romney. But the biggest overall
over a hundred full-time analysts victory belonged to Obama’s big
TRACK 44

1b Read the text again and complete the table.


Obama’s 2012 election campaign in numbers
Cost of campaign $ 1… Voter turnout 59.4%
Full-time analysts employed 2
… Volunteers 4

Percentage of ‘swing’ states won 3
…% Percentage of final vote 5
…%

2a Listen to students Kara and Antoine. Tick (✔) 4 Antoine talks about how researchers have
the examples of the application of big data they been using big data to develop new medicines.
45 discuss. 5 Big data has helped doctors to develop successful
Kara Sivas (20). Social policy student. treatments for infections in new babies.
Antoine Cunot (21). Business studies student. 6 Antoine is more impressed by the potential of
big data than Kara is.
• Asian-American women’s university choices
• identifying infections in babies 3 Read the quotes about statistics. Which do you
agree and disagree with? Say why.


• Obama’s 2012 election campaign
• population samples It is the mark of a truly intelligent person to be
moved by statistics. ‘

2b Listen again. Are the sentences true (✔) or false George Bernard Shaw
(✗)? Correct the false ones. There are three types of lies: lies, damned lies
45
1 Antoine disagrees with Kara that the quantity of and statistics.
data is less important than what you do with it. Benjamin Disraeli

2 Before big data, statistical analysis relied on I agree most with Disraeli – statistics can
taking samples. be manipulated to add up to whatever you
3 We can process and analyse lots of data as want. It just depends on what you want to
quickly and efficiently as we can collect it. convince people of. Take for example …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 59
As easy as 1, 2, 3

WRITING
1a Listen to the head teacher of St. Anne’s secondary school introducing a meeting. What is the
meeting about?
46
1 a school competition 2 three new members of staff 3 proposals for a grant

1b Listen to the rest of the meeting. Match the speakers (1-3) to the ideas (a-c).

47

1 Bev James. 2 Stuart McGregor. 3 Taslim Begum.


Deputy head teacher Art teacher Head of technology

a IT equipment b nurture unit c redecoration and refurbishment

2 Match the beginnings of the phrases the speakers use (1-8) to the endings (a-h).

Recommending and suggesting


1 My personal recommendation is that we ...
a spending the money on redecorating.
2 This is why I strongly recommend …
b that we set up a nurture unit.
3 I would like to put forward the proposition …
c invest the money in IT equipment.
4 What I would like to propose is …
d this option.
Persuading e something to be proud of.
5 Obviously, computing skills are … f completely inadequate.
6 As we all know, our IT facilities are … g essential.
7 Importantly, it would give the kids and us … h are disruptive in class.
8 It’s common knowledge that we all have problems
with the kids who …

3a Match the examples for the use of propose, recommend and suggest (1-3) to the structures (a-c).

1 I will propose that she takes the train. a verb + subject + subjunctive
2 I recommend (her) taking the train. b verb + that + subject + verb
3 I suggested she take the train. c verb (+ object) + -ing
Propose, recommend, suggest page 131

3b Write the sentences in three different ways using the prompts.

1 I would like / recommend / you / use / a professional decorator.


2 He / suggests / we / start / again.
3 The school / proposes / you / take / the exam again next April.
4 We would like / suggest / that / they employ / more teachers.
5 The committee / propose / they close / the school buildings during the holidays.

4a Read Bev James’ proposal for the nurture unit. It is divided into five sections. Which section ... ?

1 summarises the benefits


2 talks about how much it will cost
3 introduces the proposal and gives an overview of what it’s about
4 describes the actual project i.e. what the writer of the proposal wants to do
5 explains why the writer thinks what they propose is necessary and important

60 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 5

How to write a proposal

Proposal for a nurture


unit at St. Anne’s School
Executive summary: This document
concerns the proposal to invest £180,000
in setting up a nurture unit at St Anne’s.
Statement of need: St Anne’s is a day school
for children age 11–18 in Manchester. The
catchment area has high unemployment,
crime and drug abuse and many children
suffer from emotional and behavioural
problems, which have a negative effect on
their learning.
Project description: We propose to convert the caretaker’s house into a nurture unit. Students
assigned to this unit will follow a special curriculum learning life skills as well as numeracy and
literacy. The long-term aim is to integrate them back into a normal classroom.
Budget analysis: The estimated cost of renovating and equipping the property is £50,000, with
additional running costs for the building of £2,500 p.a. The new teaching assistants’ salary would
be £46,000.The cost of staffing the unit outside normal school hours is an additional £20,000 p.a.
Conclusion: This unit would help care for vulnerable children and enable them to access education.
It would also relieve teachers of the responsibility of dealing with violent and disturbed children,
thereby improving the whole school as an effective learning environment.

4b Look at the expressions in blue in the proposal.


Budget analysis:
Match the definitions to the correct expression.
Redecoration and refurbishment:
1 what we want to achieve in the end 30 new laptops: £10,000
2 how much we think something will cost A new computer science lab: £100,000
3 the money you need to spend on something to Insurance and maintenance: £30,00
keep it going IT equipment:
4 the area the students come from Repaint and redecorate classrooms: £80,000
5 an abbreviation of the Latin per annum meaning New canteen furniture and equipment: £40,000
per year Plants and benches for student garden: £10,000
6 how much it costs to employ people Conclusion: (include 2 benefits of the project)
1 ... 2 ...
5a Listen again to Taslim (IT equipment) and
Stuart’s (redecoration) suggestions. Choose one
48 and make notes in the executive summary. Add 5b Write your proposal. Use your notes from
your own ideas too. activity 5a. Remember to include the following:
• an executive summary
Executive summary
• a statement of need
Statement of need: (include 2 reasons why
this project is a good idea) • a description of the project
1 ... 2 ... • a budget analysis
• recommendations and suggestions
Project description: (include the long-term aim)
... • a strong conclusion

THAT’S ENGLISH! 61
The gentle art of
UNIT
6 persuasion

OBJECTIVES
• To persuade someone to do something
• To express refusal

A It’s a deal!
BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Are the statements true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct
the false ones.
1 Choose the statements you agree with.
1 Karen has told everyone she is going to her
1 I’m good at persuading people. friend Elly’s this evening.
2 Nobody can persuade me to do anything. 2 Bridget invites Anthony out to dinner.
3 I don’t want to do it. 3 Anthony and Bridget are going to cook some
Chinese food.
4 I know people who lie and exaggerate when
they are trying to persuade. 4 Karen persuades Danny to watch Definitely
Dancing!

WHILE YOU WATCH 5 Read the extracts from the video and choose
the correct meaning of the expressions in bold.
2 Answer the questions.
1 Omar: Why don’t I try to persuade Danny to
watch the football somewhere else?
Karen: Save your breath. He’ll never agree.
a Don’t make him angry.
b It isn’t worth talking about it.
2 Bridget: We thought we’d have the place to
ourselves.
1 What does Danny try and persuade Jen to do? a be able to do what we want here
b be alone here
3 Karen: We’ll all watch Definitely Dancing!
together. That’s the deal. Take it or leave it.
a Shall we talk about it?
b That is what I’m offering.
4 Danny: You drive a hard bargain, Karen!
a aren’t an easy person to negotiate with
b don’t think about other people’s feelings
2 What does Karen suggest they all do together
later? 6 Complete the sentences with an expression
from activity 5.
AFTER YOU WATCH 1 I’m trying to negotiate a pay rise with my boss,
but she … a … .
3 Answer the questions.
2 A: She says that she can explain why it happened.
1 Karen says that watching Definitely Dancing! B: Tell her to … . She broke the rules and she
is ‘my guilty pleasure’. Why do you think she has to take the consequences.
feels guilty about it? 3 We’ll pay you 30% now and 70% on completion
2 When is Omar going to watch the documentary of the work. … .
about DNA? 4 There’s nobody in the building so we … the … .
3 What can’t Anthony do now but agrees to do
next week? NOW YOU!
4 Why hasn’t Jenny seen Danny for a long time?
Why can’t she have coffee with him now? 7 Tell a partner about a time when you tried very
hard to persuade someone to do something.
5 What’s the real reason why Omar invites
Danny to the pub? I remember trying to persuade my parents
to let me ... It was my father who was …

62 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
8 The speakers below were asked the following question: In what situations are you easily
persuaded by others?
1 What do you think are common influences which persuade people to do things? Choose
your top three from this list.
advertising    the media    friends / peer pressure    feeling guilty about something
feeling sorry for someone    passion and conviction    convincing arguments

2 Watch the video. What influences do the speakers mention? Did they mention any of your
choices?

Kristen Jenna Diquietta Claudio Nicole Chelsi Victor Thierno

9a Which speakers … ?

1 can always be persuaded if they think that they will gain something out of the situation
2 are more persuaded by actions than words
3 specifically mention being persuaded to buy things
4 claim they aren’t easily persuaded in any situation
5 mention the influence of friends and peers
6 are motivated by feelings of concern for others

9b Complete the sentences.

Kristen: I would say that there is persuasion all around – from people, from 1… and from 2… .
Jenna: You 3… to me enough and you can 4… me to do anything.
Nicole: I can easily be persuaded by people when I don’t have a strong 5… about something.
Jameeka: I get easily persuaded by 6… because they're 7… .
David: I would say in group situations, peer 8… can get the best of me at times.

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 10b Choose the correct sentence from activity 10a
which has the same meaning.
10a Match the sentence (1-4) to a similar meaning
(a-d). 1 My parents just keep on talking and eventually
I agree with them.
1 You talk to me enough, you can convince me 2 There is no way he is ever going to convince me!
to do anything.
3 Adorable young people can get me to do almost
2 I get easily persuaded. anything.
3 I'm not usually easily persuaded, but I can be 4 My mates have a way of influencing me.
when I'm around my best friends.
4 Never. I'm my own man. I do what I want. NOW YOU!
a I never let anything influence me. 11 In what situations are you easily persuaded by
b Peer pressure gets the best of me. others?
c I will give in after a long convincing. I think I’m easily persuaded by others in a
d If I don’t generally have a strong viewpoint, I group situation. If the group wants to do
can be persuaded. something, I’ll probably agree even if I don’t
want to.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 63
The gentle art of persuasion

READING
1 Match the advertising concepts (1-6) to the Apple® and the
sentences (a-f).
1 catchy slogan 4 expert opinion
power of cool
2 celebrity endorsement 5 great value 1 ... ‘If you’d like to come this way, Madam, I can
3 personal aspirations 6 convenience show you some different colours.’ Direct face-
a 9 out of 10 dentists recommend Staybrite to-face selling has always been an art. Go to any
toothpaste. market or bazaar in the world and you will see
b Big Brother winner Sandy D. always uses gifted salespeople at work – people who are
Totalbronze suntan lotion. capable of seducing the unwary customer into
c ‘Yes, we can.’ spending more than they originally intended,
d Your life can only get better with BeCool perhaps even walking away with something they
trainers.
never intended to buy in the first place! Most
e We have the lowest prices on the planet.
use similar techniques: first build a rapport
f Bubblesoap: making your life easier.
with the customer by maintaining eye contact
2 Read the first paragraph of this text about and smiling, then find some common ground,
advertising. Where is the text from? such as sports teams or taste in music, and then –
1 a shopping website when the customer starts to relax and trust them
2 a website which gives advice to consumers – move in with the sales pitch and sell, sell, sell!
3 a website for sales and marketing professionals
2 ... , but for global companies in the modern
3 Complete the paragraphs (1-4) with the missing world, direct contact with the customer isn’t
first lines (a-d). always possible. Instead, such companies have
a Personally, I believe at least some of their had to find other ways of building rapport, and
success is due to Apple®’s 2006/10 advertising nobody is as good at this as Apple®. Over the
campaign last 30 years, they have succeeded not only in
b So, is Apple® technology really superior to the launching a highly successful line of computers,
alternatives and is it worth the price?
phones and music devices, but they have
c These are techniques that have worked for
created a band of almost fanatically loyal users
centuries
d ‘Can I interest you in our newest model
and customers who on no account would ever
instead, Sir?’ use another brand. So, how did they do it?

4 Read the text again and choose the correct 3 ... with the catchy slogan ‘Get a Mac’. The ads
option. feature a traditional middle-aged man wearing
1 According to the text, a gifted salesperson a suit and glasses (‘Hello, I’m PC’) and a younger
can … . trendy man in casual dress (‘Hello, I’m Mac’).
a seduce customers
b charge too much money
c persuade customers to do things they hadn’t 4 Apple® have been unusually successful in … .
planned to do
a inventing a new type of computer
2 You can build a rapport with a customer by … . b launching a brand
a liking them c creating exceptionally loyal customers
b finding interests or ideas you share
5 The ‘Get a Mac’ ads were very short and … .
c talking about sport and music
a simple b trendy c unusual
3 The difficult thing for modern companies is … .
6 The purpose of the ‘Get a Mac’ ads was to … .
a building a rapport with new customers
a demonstrate the reasons Macs are better
b finding new customers than PCs
c building a rapport without face-to-face b prove that Macs are good value for money
communication
c persuade people that Macs are cool

64 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 6
The two have a short conversation about some
aspects of what they can do, and the result is 5 It’s not just slightly more expensive, it costs …
more money – almost double!
always that Mac does it better. The ads only
6 I don’t think he’s a(n) … good salesman, but
lasted 30 seconds, and they didn’t even show he’s learned lots of effective techniques.
the actual computers. But if you repeat a very 7 These ideas have become part of the … .
simple message enough times – and Apple® Most people believe in them unthinkingly and
ran 24 ads over four years – everybody will get would never question them.
the message. Exactly why and how Macs are 8 He began his … badly by criticising other
better was never important or even explained: products rather than presenting what he had
to offer.
the aim of the ad was to establish the idea
in the collective subconscious that a Mac 6a Listen to two colleagues, Jerry and Leonora,
is inherently superior to a PC and – more discussing Macs and PCs. Answer the questions.
51
importantly – way cooler.

1 Who’s got a Mac and who’s got a PC?


2 Why is Leonora frustrated?
3 What kind of work does Jerry say Macs are
much better for?
4 What does Leonora say will happen in 18
months’ time?
4 ... Keeping in mind a Mac usually costs at least
40% more than a PC of similar power and size, 6b Listen again and complete the summary with
the objective answer to the first part of that words and phrases from activity 5.
51
question is probably ‘no’. Experts agree that Leonora believes that Jason 1… Jerry into buying
Apple® technology has weaknesses as well a Mac, and she is annoyed because she thinks
as strengths and PCs are better for some things. that he is making a 2… to persuade her to do the
However, a PC never looks as stylish as a Mac, same. She thinks Jason is an Apple® fanatic and
nor is anyone going to automatically think you’re can’t understand how the idea that Macs are
cool because you’ve got one. This is part of what better than PCs has become part of the 3... . Jason
you pay for when you buy a Mac – and who is to had believed that he and Leonora had found
say that it isn’t worth the price? some 4… and were beginning to build 5… , but
TRACK 50 her reaction makes him see this is impossible.
He says that Macs are 6… superior in design and
7
… more powerful than the average PC.
5 Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the words and phrases in bold from the text.
7 Complete the sentences so that they are true
1 It’s not easy to … with our new colleagues for you.
because they don’t make much effort to
communicate or be friendly. 1 The best way to build a rapport with someone
2 The … tourist didn’t realise that the thief was you don’t get on with is to …
watching her and planning to steal her purse. 2 It is way more important to be … than to be …
3 They … people into coming on these trips with 3 I’m not fanatical about it, but I do very strongly
promises of a once in a lifetime experience. believe that …
4 In the end, we managed to find some … . We 4 … are inherently superior to … because …
are both football fans and support the same 5 Something that I was seduced into buying /
team. doing was …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 65
The gentle art of persuasion

LANGUAGE STUDY
1a Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-6) to
the endings (a-f). 1 With a positive statement we have a ... question
tag.
1 She talked me into coming on a luxury spa 2 With a negative statement we have a ... question
break with her tag.
2 I wasn’t very impressed by him at first, but he
won me over with Question tags page 133
3 Our aim is to bring our customers round to the
idea that 3b Complete the statements with appropriate
4 Only let visitors see the front of the building – question tags.
we don’t want to put them off by letting them
see 1 Come on, she’s a nice girl really, … ?
5 My friend talked me out of buying the 2 You’ve never really liked being single, … ?
insurance plan – 3 She enjoyed the evening, … ?
6 Don’t try to seduce me into upgrading to a 4 You can’t carry on like this, … ?
more expensive model:
4 Samuel, the manager of a seven-star hotel, is
a the one I’ve got is good enough for me. talking to some guests. Choose the correct verb
b and we had a great time! forms to complete the conversation.
c he said it wasn’t a good deal.
Husband: O
rder a car for me, will you, Samuel?
d how dirty it is at the back. I’ve been trying to 1talk / win my
e his charm and good manners. wife 2up to / into going out and I’ve
f a bigger phone is actually a better phone. finally 3won / talked her 4over / up by
promising to take her shopping.
1b Which verbs in activity 1a are used for persuasion
and which for dissuasion? Samuel: V
ery good Sir, but might I suggest
you use the hotel helicopter service,
Verbs for persuasion: talk someone into instead?
something, … Wife: h Samuel! You’re trying to 5seduce /
O
Verbs for dissuasion: … bring us 6round / into spending more
money again, aren’t you?
2a Listen to these extracts from a conversation. Samuel: N
ot at all, Madam. It’s just that the
Does the intonation go up (➚) or down (➘) on heat is very uncomfortable.
52 the following underlined words?
Husband: That’s true, I was going to walk to
1 You can’t sit around being depressed forever the spa yesterday, but the heat quite
➘ 7
put / talked me 8off / out. Perhaps we
now, can you?
2 But that’s not going to make you feel any should stay at home, darling.
better, is it? Wife: h no! You’re not going to 9seduce /
O
3 You won’t meet anyone if you never leave the talk me 10from / out of going shopping
house, will you? now! I think I’ve been 11brought / won
4 Come on, Ben! 12
through / round to the idea of the
5 Go for it, Ben! helicopter after all. Samuel, could
page 147
you make a reservation for half past
Pronunciation: sounding persuasive
seven?

2b Listen again, check your answers and repeat. 5a Now listen to Samuel talking to another
52
customer at the hotel.
53
3a People often use question tags for persuading. 1 What does the customer want to do?
Look at the examples and complete the rules. 2 What does Samuel want to persuade the
customer to do?
• You don’t want her to be too tired to enjoy her 3 What two main objections does the customer
special day, do you? make?
• You’ll brush your hair before you go, won’t you? 4 What do they agree to do in the end?

66 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 6

5b Listen again and complete the expressions. 7a Ben’s depressed because his girlfriend’s left him.
Listen to the conversation and write the things
53 1 Might I suggest our complete wedding package? 54 Ben’s friends try to persuade him to do.
2 I … about that, Sir.
3 It’s a very inclusive package, so you don’t …
paying for any extras.
4 … deal with lots of different people, you can
work exclusively with our wedding planner.
5 … have that burden taken off your shoulders?
6 I would strongly … the young lady against
taking on so much work.
7 I … that your daughter would have full control.
8 She’d be free to get on with other more
important things … .
9 … you won’t regret it.

5c Which expressions … ?

a are used to offer alternatives 1 ... a party 4 join an Internet ... site
b are used to make suggestions 2 ... a football match 5 go on a ... date
c are used for reassuring 3 go to a ... club
d are used for dissuading
Persuading and dissuading page 132 7b Ben doesn’t like his friends’ suggestions. Listen
again and complete his refusals.
54
6 Complete the dialogue between Alice and a sales 1 No … am … going back there again!
assistant with the expressions from the box. 2 … not! I hate big groups.
might I suggest instead of advise against 3 … no circumstances … I ever voluntarily go
back to Abi’s house.
I can assure you wouldn’t bother about
4 … my … body! I … think of anything … .
don’t have to worry about 5 Don’t … think … signing me up … my back!
wouldn’t you prefer I guarantee you won’t 6 … in a million years … I … to go on a blind
date.
A: I want a cheap mobile phone. Refusing page 133
SA: 1Might I suggest the Freedom 247? It’s very
popular. 8 Your friends are trying to persuade you to
A: Do you have a pay-as-you-go model? make some changes in your life. Write negative
SA: I would 2… pay-as-you-go phones. Most responses using the structures in brackets and
people prefer a contract because you can add reasons.
use your phone all the time 3… having to
buy credit. 1 Shall I put up your profile on a dating website?
(dead body / you / put up )
A: No thanks, I’d prefer pay-as-you-go.
Over my dead body will you put up my profile
SA: But 4… not to risk running out of credit in on a dating website! I’m married!
the middle of a call?
2 Why don’t you have some cosmetic surgery?
A: Yes, but I don’t want more bills to pay! (never / million years / I / have)
SA: Oh, I 5… that! The Freedom contract informs 3 I suggest that you take up a martial art like
you when you have reached your limit so karate or judo. (can’t think / worse)
you 6… spending too much.
4 Shall I sign you up for fitness ‘boot camp’?
A: But will price of the contract suddenly go up (not /even / think)
after a month?
5 Why don’t you get a tattoo? (no way / I / ever /
SA: No, 7… that the price is fixed for at least a get)
year.
6 Sell your house and give away all your
A: What about other charges? possessions. (absolutely + negative)
SA: There are no hidden charges. It really is a 7 You should become a vegetarian. (no
bargain. 8… regret your decision. circumstances / I / become)

THAT’S ENGLISH! 67
The gentle art of persuasion

B The power of persuasion


DOCUMENTARY 4 Watch the video. In which countries has the
government recently run campaigns to try to
1a Use one word to complete the gaps in Winston persuade people of the following?
Churchill’s most famous persuasive speech.


1 If we have plain packaging on cigarettes,
We shall … on the beaches, we shall …
on the landing grounds, we shall ... in
the fields and in the streets, we shall ...
‘ people will be less tempted to buy them.
2 Terrorism is an increasing danger and we
need more police.
in the hills, we shall never surrender. 3 We need to change the healthcare system.
1b Watch the documentary and check your answer 4 We need to change our lifestyles to protect the
to 1a. Why do you think it was so effective? ozone layer.
5 Recycling is important.
2 Choose the right answer. 6 It’s important to control the importation of
plants and animals because they could affect
1 According to Tina Lamb, the reason why
local biosecurity.
persuasion is an art is that … .
a it’s so difficult to get it right
b there is a human element
THAT’S THE USA
c there are a lot of ways of approaching a 5 Which city in your region could you describe
situation like this?


2 Observation helps you to succeed in being
persuasive because … .
a people love being observed
and beautiful architecture have made
it a major tourist attraction. Almost

Its rich heritage, historical significance

b it ensures you don’t act too quickly everything in this city is old.
c it helps you to choose the right tactic in each
6 Watch the video and complete the information
situation
about St Augustine, the oldest city in Florida.
3 When Tina Lamb is trying to persuade a client
to do something she focuses on … .
a the ways in which it will benefit them
b the long-term future
c the financial consequences if they don’t do it
4 Nick Fox says that our initial response to an
advertisement … .
a is intellectual
b is influenced by our perceptions
c depends on the time of day
5 The persuasive technique India Pearson learns
1 Why is St Augustine a favourite tourist attraction?
is to … .
2 Who is Aviles Street named after?
a always offer a solution
3 What was Ponce de León looking for when he
b structure her conversation carefully
showed up in 1513?
c not show when she’s angry
4 How did the Spanish persuade the local
people to let them stay in Florida?
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES 5 What is the most lasting influence the Spanish
have had on the city?
3 Which of the following do you have strong
opinions (S) about? Which do you have more of
an open (O) mind about? NOW YOU!
clothes and what to wear    politics 7 Talk about an issue that is important to you and
ecological and green issues    gun control that you would like to persuade about.
food and diet    gender roles I would like to persuade the government to
the healthcare system in your country spend more on … . If you have access to … ,
it gives you the tools to do everything else ...

68 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 6
SKILLS WORK
1 Read about three successful advertising campaigns. Match the pictures (a–c) to the texts (1–3).

a 1
This advertising campaign was created in 1960 to bring Americans round to
the idea of buying Volkswagen® cars. At the time, most American cars were
big, and car adverts were packed with information. The ‘Think small’ campaign
took the opposite approach: a black and white ad with a small picture and very
little text. The ads simply focused on the advantages of small cars – using
less fuel, and being able to park your car more easily. The ads not only talked
Americans into buying lots of Volkswagen® cars but revolutionised advertising
b culture in America.

2 3
The Nike® ‘Just do it’ campaign The Marlboro® man ads ran from
increased sales of Nike® trainers from 1954 to 1999. They showed a tough
$800 million in 1988 to $9.2 billion in man, usually a cowboy, smoking
1998. The ads didn’t just show people in a cigarette in nature. The ads
Nike® trainers doing sport, but focused were effective because they didn’t
instead on the person and the effort they rely on slogans; instead they used
were making rather than the product. In images to suggest a whole way
this way, a strong rapport was built and of life which was way cooler. Be a
the ads won the public over because real man. Be a Marlboro® man.
they were about how people feel when While the campaign was running,
they exercise. Don’t want to run five everybody knew the Marlboro®
c
miles? Just do it. Don’t want to get up man, and even now, nearly 20
early and train? Just do it. The ads made years after the campaign ended,
Nike® trainers an aspirational product his image is still recognised.
by associating them with self-discipline
and success. People who never in a TRACK 55
million years would have thought of
doing sport were seduced by the ads.

2 Read the texts again and answer the questions. 4 Tobacco companies still sponsor big sports
events.
1 Why do you think most Americans in the 1960s
5 New advertising campaigns, which are aimed
didn’t think they wanted a small car? How did
at young women, create a link between
Volkswagen® persuade them to change their
smoking and staying thin.
minds?
2 What do you think people who saw the adverts 4a You are going to write a blog post about
and bought Nike® trainers aspired to? advertising. Make some notes.
3 How did the Marlboro® man adverts work?
What did they use to persuade consumers to 1 How strongly do you think you are influenced
buy cigarettes? by advertising? What sort of ads are you
exposed to?
3a Ben and Bill are talking about advertising. Listen 2 Examples of ads you think are powerful or
and say what product they are talking about. effective, items you have bought because of
56 ads.
3b Listen again. Are the statements true (✔) or 3 Any products that you think shouldn’t be
false (✗)? Correct the false ones. advertised. Why?
56
1 The tobacco industry admits that its advertising
4b Write a blog post of 120 words.
might encourage children to start smoking.
2 One multinational tobacco company claims Advertisements are all around us, all the time.
that advertising does not increase cigarette I’m surrounded by adverts all day – when I’m
consumption.
watching TV, browsing the Internet or driving to
3 British ad campaigns about the health risks of
smoking don’t seem to have stopped people
work. Even though I don’t think I’m influenced by
from doing it. them very much, I probably am.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 69
The gentle art of persuasion

SPEAKING
1a Listen and complete the sales pitches for two 3a An effective sales person describes or pitches the
different products. product in an attractive way. Find adjectives and
57 expressions in the texts from activity 1a which
You’ll turn heads this winter with this 1… silk mean:
scarf in an eye-catching shade of 2… . Made
of 100% pure silk, this 3… soft scarf is not only cheap: 1…
comfortable but 4… enough to wear anywhere. attractive: 2… , 3… , 4…
It’s easy to hand wash and doesn’t lose its high-quality and up-to-date: 5…
colour. Its 5… size gives you extra warmth and
the flexibility to wear it as a shawl or a scarf. noticeable: 6…
Get yours now while you still can! People will notice you: You’ll 7…
You are wrong: You 8…

Did you think it was impossible to find an 3b Sales people often use superlative adjectives to
6
… elegant state-of-the-art phone for under intensify their language. Match the superlative
£100? Well, you can think again. The new adjectives from the box to the adjectives.
Motosung17 is it! Despite the 7… price, its 8…
stylish good looks will impress your friends. sumptuous exceptional outstanding
The 540 x 960 screen resolution gives you 9… enormous huge cutting edge
clear graphics and it has an 10… long battery up-to-the-minute opulent innovative
life too: this phone will give you a full day
of use without needing to be recharged. Buy 1 good/nice: 3 big:
one now and be the envy of everyone. 2 luxurious: 4 new: cutting edge, …

3c Rewrite the descriptions using adjectives from


1b Listen again and write the correct answer. activities 3a and 3b. Replace very with the adverbs
mega, ultra or super to sound more persuasive.
57 Scarf
1 a big very luxurious bed
Features Benefits An enormous ultra luxurious bed
1 bright red 2 a very stylish car
2 made of silk 3 new technology
4 a very cheap computer with nice features
3 big
5 a good performance
6 a luxurious suite in a modern hotel
Phone
7 very attractive boots
Features Benefits
You have enough money to buy 4a Look at the description of colour in the scarf
4 sales pitch. Complete the table with the colours
it.
from the box.
5 It will impress your friends.
You can see what’s on the yellow green black blue white brown
6
screen clearly.
You can use it all day without ruby* scarlet crimson red
7
having to recharge.
emerald forest* sea* olive*

2 Look at the structure of the sales pitches and bright sapphire cornflower* sky*
choose the correct option. soft
deep saffron sunflower* sunshine*
1 A good sales pitch starts with a general /
personalised statement or question to get the rich
reader’s attention. vibrant chocolate*
2 It includes both the features and benefits / snow* creamy*
only the features of the product.
3 It uses a wide variety of descriptive and ebony
evocative / technical and functional language.
4 It ends with a call to action / thank-you. * these adjectives are used with the colour adjective,
e.g. ruby red scarf, snow white sheets

70 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 6

4b Work with a partner. Take turns to describe 5b Listen to a sales pitch for a mobile phone.
people’s possessions using the colour words and
appropriate adjectives. 59 1 How often does she use the word ‘you’? And
the listener’s name?
I like your sumptuous Whose is that sky 2 How does she end the presentation?
creamy white wool scarf. blue bag?
5c How persuasive you are also depends on your
intonation. Listen and say if the speakers (S1 and S2)
She’s wearing a deep rich chocolate 60 sound persuasive or not. Listen again and repeat.
brown coloured skirt.
S1 S2
1 Just say yes.
5a Listen to a talk about the five most persuasive 2 So what are you waiting for?
words in English. What are they?
58 3 Go for it, Richard!
4 Come and buy one now!

Monologue: giving a persuasive sales pitch or presentation


6a You are going to present a sales pitch for one of the products below. Complete the table with
the phrases from the box.

walking boots organic soap expensive watch posh gloves

So, what are you waiting for? Have you ever wanted a … ?
Your friends will be surprised / be delighted / envy you when … Act now!
Take advantage of this opportunity while it’s still available. Are you looking for a … ?

Opening statement or question Closing call to action


Have you ever wanted a … ?

6b Choose one of the products to talk about. Prepare your presentation.

1 Decide who you are addressing and why they need this product.
Women who enjoy a little luxury and want to be elegant in the cold weather. These gloves
will protect your often neglected hands and prevent dry skin.
2 Make a list of the features and benefits of your product. Use activity 1a to help you.
These ultra soft leather chocolate brown gloves will keep you warm even on the coldest day.
3 Find appropriate adjectives to describe the product.
soft (super) elegant (mega) warm and cosy luxurious
4 Develop a statement or question to get people’s attention and begin your presentation.
Don’t your hands need as much protection from the freezing cold as the rest of you?
5 Develop a call to action to end your presentation.
Come and enjoy the experience: the luxury of leather protecting your hands today!

6c Give your presentation. Remember to include the following:

• the features and benefits Ladies, with the long cold winter ahead, you need
• descriptive and evocative language to think about keeping warm whilst staying smart
• speak slowly and clearly and use persuasive and stylish. And, don’t your hands need as much
intonation protection from the freezing cold as the rest of you?

THAT’S ENGLISH! 71
UNIT
7 Your choice

OBJECTIVES
• To talk about different options and preferences
• To speculate about events that never took place

A I’d rather you didn’t do it


BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Answer the questions.

1 When you have to make a difficult or important 1 What difficult choice about his family does
choice, which of these things do you do? Omar have to make?
2 What reasons does Anthony give for Omar not
put it off as long as you can returning home?
make a list of pros and cons 3 What is the reason behind Omar’s father’s illness?
make a quick decision depending on how you feel 4 What are his parents wishes regarding what
discuss it with good friends Omar should do?
think very carefully 5 Which job does Omar choose?
6 What are his reasons for turning down the
WHILE YOU WATCH other job?

2 Answer the questions. 5 Choose the expression which best matches the
words in bold.
1 Omar: Mm, that’d be challenging ...
a extremely difficult
b difficult but interesting and enjoyable
2 Omar: I feel I’ve got no choice.
a I don’t know what to do.
b It’s clear I can do only one thing.
1 Why is Omar unsure about the biogenetics job?
3 Anthony: Have you decided which one to pick?
a chosen an alternative from the options
b decided not to do one of the options
4 Mother: It won’t help in the slightest if you
come back.
a It won’t improve the situation at all.
b It will only help the situation a little.
5 Karen: Have you made up your mind about
2 What does Omar decide to do and why? the job?
a thought carefully about it
AFTER YOU WATCH b come to a firm decision
3 Decide if the following sentences are true (✔) or 6 Omar: The job in Belfast would have been very
false (✗). Correct the false ones. tempting.
a attractive b convincing
1 Omar isn’t completely honest when he is
offered the warehouse job.
2 Karen thinks Omar should think carefully
NOW YOU!
about all the possibilities before deciding. 6 Tell your partner about a difficult decision you
3 Omar doesn’t mind if people know about his had to make using some of the phrases from
research job application. activity 5.
4 Anthony thinks the warehouse job sounds
boring. The most difficult decision I ever had to
make was deciding whether to ... Both
5 Omar is delighted that the research job is in options were tempting because ...
Belfast.

72 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
7 The speakers were asked the following question: What are some of the best and worst choices
you’ve made in your life?

Jenna Claudio Nicole Chelsi Brandy David Borislav


1 Which of the following topics do you think the speakers will talk about?
getting married   emigrating   having a career   getting an education
changing schools   leaving home   breaking the law   buying a home
2 Now watch and check.

8a Which speaker says … ?

1 it doesn’t matter if you don’t always make the right choice the first time
2 being independent is important
3 he/she made a mistake about a job choice
4 he/she made the right choice and hopes to succeed in life
5 he/she was attracted to the USA because of its scientific progress
6 he/she regrets choices made when he/she was immature

8b Read the sentences and decide if they are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones.

1 Jenna says she is satisfied with all her life choices.


2 Claudio came to the USA to work in the space programme.
3 Nicole thinks she has benefited from all the education changes she has made.
4 Chelsi thinks the food at the restaurant she works at is very bad.
5 David was allowed to drink alcohol when he was younger.
6 Borislav thinks the USA offers many choices to people who try hard to succeed.

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 9b Choose the sentence from activity 9a which


best describes the situation.
9a Look at some of the things the speakers said
about choices. Match what the speaker says 1 I really learned a lot of English and grew as a
(1-3) to what they mean (a-c). person while studying abroad for a year even
though the school was quite bad.
1 Nicole: A lot of my worst choices have turned 2 Everyone told me that studying to be a mechanic
out to be the best ones. was a mistake, but now I have a great job.
2 Borislav: We can all make something happen 3 I wanted to be a doctor since I was 10 years
if we work hard and have our heads straight. old. Now after seven years of study and being
3 Nicole: Progress is more important than responsible, I’ve achieved my goal.
making the right choice the first time.
a Sometimes personal growth is better than
NOW YOU!
being right. 10 What are the best and worst choices you’ve
b Choices can turn out differently from what you made in your life?
first thought.
I’d say the best choice I’ve ever made was ...
c Determination and being focused will lead to
what you want. My worst choice? I really shouldn’t have ... I
was immature and so …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 73
Your choice

READING
1a Which of the following quotes do you prefer?
Say why.
Between a rock
and a hard place
Sheila walked from the office to the park. The
sun was out and she needed some fresh air.
She opened the envelope that had arrived that
morning. ‘Let us make your dreams come true on
our luxury world cruises,’ she read. There was a
huge choice of destinations. She could have her
‘ pick of India, New Zealand or South America. If


she could afford it, she’d visit them all. Finally, she
1 Your life is a result of your choices. If you don’t
like your life, then make better choices. ‘ had saved enough for a trip of a lifetime – nearly


2 No matter how long you have travelled in the £10,000. She smiled as she imagined telling her
wrong direction, you always have the choice to
‘ boss, Mr Hawkins, that she wanted leave to go on
turn around.


a round-the-world trip. He wasn’t exactly pleasant
3 Sometimes the wrong choices bring us to the and was often very bad-tempered. Everyone said
right places.
you wouldn’t want to argue with him. If there was
1b Answer the questions. an argument, he’d win it every time. But she knew
how to handle him. Anyway, after 30 years with
1 Do you tend to give things a lot of thought or
do you usually make hasty decisions? the company, she deserved some time away.
2 Are you good at making decisions or are you It was nearly 5:30 p.m. Sheila stared at the
often indecisive? company accounts for the last three months
3 Have you ever made a decision that had and added them up again. She just couldn’t
negative consequences? What happened?
understand it – there was over £9,000 missing.
2 Read the text and answer the questions. Only Sheila and Dean, the trainee accountant, had
access to the company’s funds. Eventually, Sheila
1 Where could you find this text?
a in a newspaper
went home and thought about the situation. She
b in a women’s magazine
felt to blame as the senior accountant. Why hadn’t
c in a current affairs magazine
she seen the discrepancy before? She realised
that Dean must have taken the money bit by bit.
2 What is the text about? They’d argued before over completing reports late
a a difficult relationship but nothing like this.
b a difficult boss
c a difficult decision She lay awake all night worrying and weighing
up all the options. She certainly didn’t want to
3 Read the text again. Are the sentences true (✔) make any hasty decisions. Dean and his wife were
or false (✗)? Correct the false ones.
1 Sheila hadn’t decided exactly which
destinations to visit yet.
2 Sheila thought Mr Hawkins would probably be 7 Sheila hadn’t told Dean about her discovery
pleased when he heard about her plans. before she saw Mr Hawkins.
3 Sheila wasn’t very worried about Mr Hawkins’ 8 Sheila thought some things were more
reaction to her holiday plans. important than money.
4 Sheila couldn’t understand why she hadn’t
4 Read the text again and put the following events
noticed the problem before.
in order.
5 Dean had made some serious mistakes at
work before. 1 Dean became a father.
6 Mr Hawkins would definitely accuse Sheila of 2 Sheila showed the corrected accounts to her
stealing the money if he knew it was missing. boss.

74 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 7

5a Match the expressions (1-7) to the meanings


(a-g).
1 to be in two minds about something
2 to make a hasty decision
3 to weigh up all the options
4 to have no choice
5 to make the right choice
6 to have your pick of something
7 to be caught between a rock and a hard place
a to be forced into a particular decision
b to do the correct thing
always so friendly and they had become parents c to be able to choose anything you want
last year and had proudly invited Sheila round. d to be in a situation where both alternatives are
Sheila was in two minds about what to do: if she equally bad
told Mr Hawkins of her suspicions, he would call e to decide to act too quickly without giving it
enough thought
the police. Dean would go to prison and his wife
f to take everything into account
would be left alone with a new baby. If she didn’t
g not to be able to decide one way or the other
tell her boss, he would find out eventually and she
might be accused of stealing. She’d prefer to tell 5b Complete the sentences with the correct form
him the truth herself than wait. Both alternatives of an expression from activity 5a.
were awful – she really was caught between a 1 Just take your time and don’t … about this.
rock and a hard place. You should … first and then decide what to do.
2 I … whether or not to take the job.
Morning came at last. Sheila’s head hurt, but she
3 There were four bedrooms in the villa so we
knew what she had to do. She knocked on Mr ... the rooms and got one with a lovely sea
Hawkins’s door and showed him the accounts. view.
‘Hmm everything seems to be in order,’ he said. 4 … doesn’t necessarily mean choosing the
‘I know I can always rely on you, Sheila.’ ‘Thank easiest option.
you, sir,’ she whispered as she left the room. 5 I’m sorry, but you … , you have to do this.
Outside in the corridor, she sighed: time now for 6 Adam hates his job but if he leaves, he
a very difficult conversation with Dean, and no probably won’t get another. He’s ... .
wonderful holiday to look forward to. She had 6 Answer the questions.
had no choice. If she hadn’t repaid the company,
the theft would have been discovered. If Dean had 1 If you could have your pick of jobs, what would
you like to be?
gone to prison, his family would be destroyed.
If I could have my pick of jobs, I’d absolutely
She had made the right choice. It was only money love to be a top chef! I adore cooking and
after all. everyone says I’m a great cook. I’m always
TRACK 62 experimenting with new tastes and food
combinations.
2 Do you usually weigh up all your options
3 Sheila had no regrets about her final decision. before making decisions, or are you more
4 Dean stole the money from the company. spontaneous?
5 Sheila used her holiday money to repay the 3 Have you ever made an important decision and
company. then changed your mind? What happened?
6 Sheila told Dean she knew about his actions. 4 Have you ever been caught between a rock
and a hard place? What happened?
7 Sheila realised money was missing.
5 What kind of decisions are you usually in two
8 Sheila felt partly responsible for not realising minds about?
sooner.
6 What hasty decisions have you made and then
9 Sheila had saved enough money for the cruise. later regretted?

THAT’S ENGLISH! 75
Your choice

LANGUAGE STUDY
1 Answer the questions so they are true for you. 5b Listen to the extracts and choose the correct
Say why. option.
66
1 Which would you prefer to watch: a comedy or 1 I’d rather you didn’t do / hadn’t done that.
a horror film?
I can’t stand horror films, so personally I’d
2 I’d rather you had put / put it in the garage.
much prefer to watch a comedy because … 3 I’d prefer it if you ask / had asked me first.
2 Where would you rather go on holiday: to the 4 I’d prefer it if you hadn’t / haven’t come back!
beach or to the mountains?
3 What would you rather be: an ordinary person Prefer / would rather + past perfect page 134
or a celebrity?
6 Rewrite the sentences using the past perfect and
2 Choose the correct form of the verb. the word in brackets.
1 They prefer to have / have summer holidays 1 I didn’t want you to tell my friends. (rather)
rather than to go / go in winter.
I’d rather you hadn’t told my friends.
2 Would you rather studying / study English in
2 They didn’t want us to bring presents. (rather)
Britain or the USA?
3 I wanted everyone to leave by midnight. (prefer)
3 My father prefers walk / walking to cycle /
cycling. 4 She didn’t want him to leave all his belongings
4 She would rather to be / be unemployed than at her flat. (rather)
work / working for that company. 5 We wanted him to stay longer. (prefer)
5 He would prefer be / to be a musician rather 6 I wanted them to be more positive. (rather)
than a teacher. 7 My mother wanted me to study law. (prefer)
6 I prefer play / playing football to watch /
watching it. 7 What would you say in these situations?
Expressing preference page 134
1 Your friend has entered you in a reality show.
You hate reality shows.
3a Listen to the conversation. What is it about?
I’d rather you hadn’t entered me in a reality show.
63 I’d prefer it if you hadn’t entered me in a reality
3b Listen to the extracts and complete the sentences. show.
2 You wanted to go to the cinema but your
64 1 ... rather you ... entertain visitors after midnight. friends have bought tickets to the theatre.
2 I’d ... you ... have a shower for longer than 10 minutes. 3 Your mother has arranged a blind date for
3 I’d prefer it ... you ... keep food in your bedroom. you. You don’t want to go.
4 I’d prefer ... if you ... play loud music. 4 Your boss has offered you a new job. You
don’t want to leave your present job.
Prefer / would rather + past simple page 134
8a Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-6) to
the endings (a-f).
4 Rewrite the sentences using the past simple and
the word in brackets. 1 If the bride hadn’t taken so long to get ready,
1 I don’t want you to stand on that chair. (rather) 2 What would you have done
I’d rather you didn’t stand on that chair. 3 We’d have a swimming pool
2 Don’t come tomorrow. (prefer) 4 What would you do
3 We want you to pay for the damage. (rather) 5 Paul might have been promoted
4 Please don’t play the drums. (prefer) 6 If I could afford it,
5 They want him to tell the truth. (rather)
a if you saw someone commit a crime?
6 I want you to follow my instructions exactly.
b if he had worked harder.
(prefer)
7 He doesn’t want his ex-wife to come to the c if you had been to university?
party. (rather) d I’d buy a red sports car.
e if we lived somewhere warmer.
5a Listen to the conversation. Why are both Betty f she wouldn’t have been late.
and Phil upset?
65 Second and third conditional page 135

76 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 7

8b Choose the correct option. 10b Read the mixed conditional sentences (1-2) in
10a and choose the correct options to complete
1 It was / would be / were a funny situation if the rules (a-b).
poor Jane isn’t / wasn’t so upset.
2 What did / were / would you do if you find / a Sentence … (mixed 2nd and 3rd) contrasts a
found a valuable watch in the street? present condition with a past result.
3 We can have / had / could have a picnic if it b Sentence … (mixed 3rd and 2nd) contrasts a
isn’t / wasn’t raining. past condition with a present result.
4 What did / would / does she do if she would
lose / lost / loses her job? Mixed conditionals page 135

9a Complete the sentences with the correct form of 10c Complete the dialogue with the correct form of
the verb in brackets. the verb in brackets.
1 I ... (bring) you a present from Rome last A: We’ve been in this traffic jam for two hours!
month if I ... (have) enough money.
B: If we 1... (leave) earlier, we 2... (be) at the hotel
2 She is famous now but she ... (never succeed) by now.
if her parents ... (not encourage) her.
A: That’s not my fault.
3 Oh dear, if we ... (know) you were coming, we
... (save) some dinner. B: Yes, it is. If you 3... (not be) always so
disorganised, we could 4... (leave) earlier.
4 Our trip ... (be) wonderful if the weather ... (be)
better, but it rained every day! A: That’s not fair. I had a lot to do.
5 What would they ... (do) if their car ... (break B: Well, if you 5... (listen) to my advice, we 6...
down) in the desert? (not be) in this situation now.
6 If Suzy ... (not miss) so many lectures, she ... A: You refused to help me. If you 7... (be) more
(get) better results. helpful, I 8... (finish) my packing last night.

9b Listen to the sentences from activity 9a and repeat. 11 Complete the text with a suitable form of the
Pay attention to sentence stress, contractions and verb in brackets or one of the expressions from
67 weak forms. the box. There is one extra expression.
Pronunciation page 146
to make a hasty decision
10a Read the text and answer the questions. Why is to have someone’s pick of
Zoe West upset? to be caught between a rock and a hard place
to weigh up all the options

Young entrepreneurs on the increase


According to recent research if they could 1...
careers, many young people would rather 2... (start)
their own company than work for a large company.
Almost 40% of those questioned would prefer 3...
(work) for themselves because it would be more
flexible, and 20% of those currently employed
My lottery nightmare! said they would prefer it if they 4... (not work) for
When Zoe West bought a lottery ticket last year, someone else. A significant percentage said that
she put it in a safe place and forgot about it. if they 5... (run) their own business, they 6... (be)
happy to earn less money at the beginning.
Last week she found it again and when she checked
the numbers, to her delight, she had won £2 The rising cost of university fees has affected many
million! But imagine her horror when she realised graduates, who said they were 7... as they now
the ticket was out-of-date, ..., by one day! ‘I can’t owed a lot of money for their studies and could not
believe it,’ she said. ‘I had completely forgotten afford to start a business. If they 8... (realise) this
about the ticket. I don’t often do housework, but 1if before they started their studies and had had more
I cleaned the house more regularly, I would have information so that they could 9… , they 10... (not go)
discovered the ticket in time. 2If I had found the to university. If they 11... (not acquire) such huge
ticket one day earlier, I’d be a millionaire now.’ debts, they 12... (be) free to set up a business now.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 77
Your choice

B Difficult choices
DOCUMENTARY SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES
1 Choose the three factors which are the most 4 Match the speakers (1-6) to the aspects of choice
important to you when choosing a place to live. available in their country (a-f).
1 3 5
location & facilities price age of property
decoration state of repair number of bedrooms
modern kitchen and bathroom size
2 4 6

a Choice is limited by lack of employment.


b Financial status controls choice.
c Schools and universities have a very good
reputation worldwide.
d There is a wide range of free education available.
e Recently different types of colleges have
opened and created more opportunities.
f People can study any subject at a higher level
after taking a degree.
2 Match the expressions (1-5) to the definitions
(a-e).
THAT’S THE USA
1 to boil down to
2 to tick all the boxes 5 Do you like shopping in malls? Give at least two
reasons.
3 bay window
4 stained glass
5 creaky floorboards
a windows with coloured sections
b wooden planks that make a noise when walked
on
c to be the most basic reason for something
d a large window that sticks out from the main
wall 6 Watch the video of Jodi’s visit to Miami and
e to meet all the requirements complete the sentences.
1 Now there are many upscale stores here but
3 Decide if the following sentences are true (✔) or you can still find a ... .
false (✗). Correct the false ones.
2 The ... of the mall means guests can still enjoy
1 According to David Simpson, the most the sunshine while shopping.
important factors in choosing a home relate to 3 The Art Deco architecture is the ... .
price range and size of the property. 4 Art Deco is a style of ... that expresses the
2 In David’s experience most people won’t get elegance and pace of the 1920s and 30s.
everything they want in a home. 5 Well, me personally, I’ve heard about the ... .
3 Dawn is finding it difficult to choose as she They’re like really ... out here.
needs bigger accommodation for her family.
4 The advantage of the first property is that it
doesn’t need much work doing on it.
NOW YOU!
5 David tries to convince Dawn that the second 7 Does your country offer enough choices
property is more interesting than the first. regarding education, jobs, homes and lifestyles?
6 Dawn hasn’t got any strong preference after I think we have a huge variety of choice of ... but
the two viewings. nowhere near enough choice of ... This is because
7 Dawn can’t make a decision yet. ... and I think people would benefit from ...

78 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 7
SKILLS WORK
1a Read the title and the first paragraph of the article. What does spoilt for choice mean?

1 There are so many choices that you don’t want to choose.


2 There are so many good choices that it’s hard to choose.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• •

• •












• SHOPPING: ARE WE TOO SPOILT FOR CHOICE?
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • •




• •
• •




• Retailers
• • • want • •us •to believe
• • • • • • • •
• • •that • the
• more
• • choice
• • • • • • • • •
• • there
• •is, the• •better • •the•shopping
• • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • •


• •
• •




• experience; but is this really
• • • •
• • • • • • • •
• • • • • true? Or does too much retail
• • •
• • • • • • • • •
• • • • • choice have a negative
• • • •
• • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • •


• •
• •




• effect on us? We asked some
• • • •
• • • • • • • •
• • • • • readers for their views.
• • •
• • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • •


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • •I’m a • • • • • shopaholic! • • • • • nothing • • better• • • a•day• out • • • •with • • •
• • • • • • • Well,• • • •self-confessed
• • • • • • • I like • • • • • than • • • • shopping • • • • •a •
• • • • • • • • good • •friend.
• Yes,
• •I suppose
• • I•do buy • •a load
• of• stuff
• I•don’t • actually
• • need.• • I must
• • have • over
• •70 • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • pairs • of• shoes
• • and • never
• •worn • at•least
• half
• of• them!
• •But•I might • •wear • them
• one
• •day.• Anyway,
• • I• •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • like • to•be •able• to •have• my• pick
• of•things;
• •so •if there
• •weren’t• •so many• • options,
• • then• •I wouldn’t
• • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • enjoy • •shopping
• • so • much.
• • Anyway,
• • it’s• my• money
• • and • there’s
• • plenty• • of•time • in•the•future
• •for • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • saving• • and • pensions
• • •and•all •those • boring
• • things.
• • Jade• • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • I don’t
• • buy • this
• consumerism
• • • •message • • –•buying• •things
• will• bring
• • happiness.
• • • It’s• all•the•things • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • you • can’t
• •buy•that• bring • happiness
• • • like • friendship,
• • • love • •and•family. • •If I have
• •any•spare • money,
• • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • I go • travelling,
• • • experience
• • • other • • cultures
• • or • learn
• •how• to •make • something
• • • new. • • This • year
• • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • I’m • learning
• • how • •to make• • a wooden
• • •boat! • People
• • may • •think • I’m• mad,
• but• •I’m convinced
• • • I’ve • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • made the right life choice. Damian
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • To • tell
• the
• truth,
• • shopping’s
• • •no •longer • •a pleasure
• • since
• • • • • • It’s • • • • I •have • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I•had•the•family. • • •just•a chore • • • • •
• • • • • • • to • do• each
• •week. • What• •really • annoys
• • me • is• the
• special
• • offers
• •at the • supermarket,
• • • • you • know
• • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • BOGOF• • • • • • •one•free. • • •a headache
• • • • • • • • • • and • • • to • •
• • • • • • • • • • – •buy•one, • get
• • • •I get • • • • weighing• • • up• all •the •options • • • trying • • • •
• • • • • • • work • • out • whether
• • it’s • good
• • value
• •or not.
• •Then • I buy
• • • than
more • I• need• and
• half
• • goes • in• the
• •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • bin. • •Why • don’t
• •they•just• reduce • • the• price
• for
• single
• • items?
• • Then • we’d
• •reduce• •waste.
• •Megan • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • Basically,
• • • I’d • be•happier
• •if I •didn’t
• have
• • to waste
• • time• and• energy
• • choosing
• • • between• • •20 types • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • of • toothpaste.
• • • When • • I was
• •young,
• •there• were
• •two• or three
• • brands • • and • that
• was
• •it. We • didn’t
• • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • need • • a huge
• • choice
• •then,
• and• we
• don’t
• •need • it•now.
• In •fact,• I got
• so• fed• up•with
• all• this
• choice,
• • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • I•started• • shopping
• • at • the• discount
• • •retailers.
• • It’s• win-win,
• • there’s
• • usually
• • just • one
• •or two • types
• • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • of • everything
• • • and • it’s• really
• •cheap• because
• • • they • don’t
• have
• • to •store • lots
• of•different
• • products.
• • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • I•tell• you • – it’s
• the• future
• • of•food • shopping.
• • • Frank • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TRACK • •68 • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1b Read the text again and answer the questions 3 Why are the discount retailers doing well?
for each person. 4 What happens when consumers are faced
with too much choice?
1 Does the person find shopping enjoyable or not?
5 What is an ideal number of brands to choose
2 What are their reasons for their opinions?
from?
2a Listen to a radio interview about consumers and 6 What type of spending leads to the greatest
choice. Tick (✔) the topics they discuss. customer satisfaction?
69
special offers too much choice 3 Do you think we are too spoilt for choice?
corner shops spending on experiences Discuss your views on shopping and choice with
discount retailers debt a partner.

2b Listen again and answer the questions. I’d prefer it if Why don’t they ... ?
stores didn’t ...
69 1 What has happened to some out-of-town stores?
2 Why has this change come about? I’d be a happier
consumer if ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 79
Your choice

WRITING
1a What is the purpose of a discursive essay?

1 to present a balanced discussion of contrasting opinions 2 to present a strong position of one opinion

1b Tick (✔) the points that should not be included in a discursive essay.

• anecdotes • a conclusion that states your point of view


• an interesting introduction • arguments against plus supporting evidence
• arguments for plus supporting evidence • quotations, statistics or facts
• a proposal

2a Read the title of the essay and the opening paragraph. Match the sentences (1-4) to the
purposes (a-d).

‘The Internet has benefited people more than the discovery a introduction of one side of the
of antibiotics.’ Discuss and give your viewpoint. argument
1
‘3 billion users of the Internet worldwide versus 200 million b statement outlining which aspects
lives saved by using antibiotics.’ 2Some people would say it is will be discussed
impossible to function in modern society without information c statistics, facts and quotations to grab
technology and many aspects of life would be far more the reader’s attention
difficult without it. 3Others would say medical advances are
d introduction of the opposite side of
more significant for the human race overall. 4In this essay
the argument
both aspects will be considered.

2b Now read the main body of the Internet essay from activity 2a. Which paragraphs (1-4) support
the essay statement and which are against it?

1 The Internet has certainly revolutionised all aspects of life, such as education and business, and enabled us
to work much faster. Whereas previously people had to visit libraries, a vast range of information is available
at home or on phones in a few seconds. In addition, companies can now use video conferencing, saving
time and money as well as providing a much faster service to customers.
2 Moreover, using the Internet helps people in the developing world to survive. For example, farmers in rural
Africa can learn how to deal with plant diseases whereas before they would lose all their crops. It is claimed
that over half of Kenyans use the Internet every day.
3 However, it is undoubtedly true that the discovery of antibiotics has saved many millions of lives. Before
their discovery, even a small cut could lead to death. It is believed that in the 1900s a third of children under
five died in Britain as a result of diseases like pneumonia, which today are treated by antibiotics.
4 Consequently, the discovery of penicillin has helped people live longer and healthier lives. In the past, even
young adults were killed by illnesses like tuberculosis. Life expectancy has nearly doubled since the 1900s,
partly due to medicines like antibiotics.

3a Read paragraph 1 and choose the correct answer. 3b Complete the connectors lists (1-3) with the
expressions in bold from activity 2b.
1 The purpose of the sentence highlighted is … .
a to support the main idea 1 Adding extra information to an argument:
b to draw a conclusion In addition, ...
c to introduce the main idea 2 Introducing a contrasting idea: …
2 The purpose of the other sentences is … . 3 Giving reasons and results: …
a to support the main idea
3c Add these expressions to the lists in 3b.
b to draw a conclusion
c to introduce the main idea
due to furthermore therefore in spite of
although nevertheless even though
on the other hand as a result
Revision of connectors page 135

80 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 7

4 Read the conclusion to the Internet essay. Tick (✔) the points it includes and support your
answer with evidence from the text.
1 summarising
summarising expression3 summary
expression of ideas
summary of ideas 5 personal opinionopinion
personal
statistics
2 statistics final conclusion 6 scientific
4 final conclusion scientific
opinionopinion

To sum up, it is true that the Internet has brought many economic and educational benefits to a vast number of people.
Better communication has united people as never before in history. Nevertheless, people can only use technology
if they are fit and well, and antibiotics have greatly improved people’s health. Personally, I believe that good health
is the most important thing in life. Without it, even if we have very advanced technology, we can achieve very little.

Writing a discursive essay


5a You are going to write an essay on this topic: Racial equality rather than gender equality
should be the main priority for a world leader. Discuss and give your opinion. First, complete
the introduction below.

‘I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will
not be judged by the colour of their skin …,’ said Martin Luther King in 1963, but King
never even mentioned his children’s gender.

5b Add your own ideas in sections c and d.

Racial equality is the main priority Gender equality is the main priority
FOR AGAINST FOR AGAINST
a Racial inequality is still a Many countries legally c Gender inequality c Nowadays women have
widespread / unacceptable protect all races. affects all races … achieved ...
in today’s society. b Racial equality alone d Some countries made d Women’s rights are
b More racial equality is not enough if there progress but many changing everywhere
promotes prosperity both is work and education are still biased ... because ...
nationally / internationally. discrimination.

6a Look at the underlined expressions in activity 2 Research has proved that men and women are
2b. Match the expressions (1-2) to the uses (a-b). equally intelligent.
3 Some people believe that different races
1 X is/are supposed / said / believed / claimed /
benefit from having separate education.
understood to be ... / thought to be ...
4 Researchers know that women still experience
2 It is known that … / It’s a well-known fact that … /
difficulty getting top jobs in business.
It is undoubtedly true that ... / It is thought that ...
5 People say that having a family means a
a to show that we are 100% sure the information woman is less committed to her career.
is correct 6 Scientific evidence shows that all human races
b to show that the information is not a certain are descended from the same small group of
ancestors.
fact, but may be opinion
It's thought that ... page 136 7 Write your discursive essay (160-200 words).
Remember to include the following:
6b Rewrite the sentences using a suitable expression • the introduction you wrote in activity 5a
from activity 6a. • arguments for and supporting ideas
1 Many people think women should only work • arguments against and supporting ideas
as homemakers in some cultures. • suitable connectors
It is thought that women should only work as • expressions of fact and opinion
homemakers in some cultures. • a strong conclusion with your opinion

THAT’S ENGLISH! 81
UNIT
8 I need a hero!

OBJECTIVES
• To express admiration and disappointment
• To describe people or facts emphatically

A A fallen idol
BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Decide if the following sentences are true (✔) or
false (✗). Correct the false ones.
1 Which of these people is the most heroic? Say
why. 1 The scheme went wrong from the beginning.
2 Karen doesn’t dare to tell Danny what she’s
1 A climber who reaches the top of Mt Everest found out.
without oxygen. 3 Karen is unsympathetic to Danny when she
2 A nurse who has never had a day off sick in 25 reveals the truth.
years. 4 Danny is reluctant to believe the news about
3 A businessperson who has created thousands Graham Snow’s crimes at first.
of jobs. 5 Danny decides to punish Graham.

WHILE YOU WATCH 5 Choose the correct option.

2 Answer the questions. 1 Danny: He’s presenting his latest book: How to
make it in business.
a how to run a company
b how to succeed and get rich
2 Danny: He’s a self-made man.
a He’s a selfish person.
b He succeeded through his own efforts.
3 Omar: The Financial Times called him a snake
1 Who is Jane and what are her feelings about charmer, whose followers worship him blindly.
Graham Snow? a admire him and cannot see his faults
b think he is superhuman
4 Karen: I’ve been trying to pluck up the courage
to tell you.
a quickly do something difficult
b persuade yourself to do something frightening

6 Complete the sentences with the correct


expression from activity 5.
2 What happened to Sheila and her husband?
And how did they feel? 1 It took me 10 minutes ... to dive into the icy water.
2 It can be difficult ... in business if you don’t have
AFTER YOU WATCH some capital to start with and have to borrow.
3 It’s no use criticising Angie’s boyfriend because
3 Answer the questions. she ... and won’t listen.
1 How does Danny feel about Graham Snow’s 4 Alan Sugar is ... who started out selling radios
on the streets of London.
achievements?
2 How does Graham Snow help needy people?
3 What is Danny’s explanation for criticism of
NOW YOU!
Graham Snow? 7 Discuss with your partner.
4 Why is Karen interested in getting information
about Graham Snow? Can you think of a self-made man or woman
you admire?
5 How has Jane’s opinion of Graham Snow
changed over time? I’ve always admired ..., a self-made man
who made it by the age of …

82 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
8 The speakers were asked the following questions: Who would you say are some of your
heroes or heroines? Why do you admire them?
1 Name three types of heroes or heroines you think they will say. E.g., sports star.
2 Watch the video to see if your ideas were mentioned.

Kristen Cheryl Robert Dena Glenn Gina Thierno Nicholas

9a Watch again and match the speakers above to their heroes and heroines.

1 His father 4 Parents 7 JK Rowling


2 Neil Armstrong 5 Jim Henson, creator of the Muppets
3 Hillary Clinton 6 Beyoncé

9b Watch again and write the reason each speaker gives for choosing their hero.

1 Kristen 2 Cheryl and Robert 3 Dena 4 Glenn 5 Gina 6 Thierno 7 Nicholas

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 10c Complete the text with the correct expressions
from activities 5 and 10a.
10a Look at some of the things the speakers said
about heroes and heroines. What do you think It seems very successful people are often heroes
they mean? or villains. For example, Bernie Madoff was a
1
... from a poor family who made his fortune
1 Thierno: My father was the total package, you in investment banking. Thousands of people
know, educator ... trusted him with their savings, inspired by his
a very correct and organised aura of authority and he was able to commit a
b everything he should be $65 billion fraud. Investors 2... even when others
warned them to be careful because he offered
2 Thierno: He passed away three years ago and
them a huge return on their investments. He was
I idolise him.
an arrogant man who never thought he would
a I love and admire him greatly, intensely, be caught, but because of his dishonesty, his
devotedly. own sons 3... and handed him over to the police.
b I think about him excessively. On the other hand, Bill Gates is an entrepreneur
3 Thierno: I’m striving to be just like him. who 4... in the computer business and seems
a trying very hard to be the 5 ... – devoted husband and father and
b finding it very difficult famous philanthropist. Through his medical
foundation he is 6... to make the world a better
4 Nicholas: Hillary Clinton, of course. She’s all place. Starting up online businesses is 7...
the rage right now. nowadays, but people should be careful not to
a making people very angry 8
... all entrepreneurs until they are sure of their
b extremely popular true character.

10b Complete the sentences so that they are true


for you. NOW YOU!
1 Someone who is/was the total package for me 11 Who would you say are some of your heroes or
is/was ... because ... heroines? Why do you admire them?
2 I idolised ... when I was a child and I used to ...
3 The person I strive to imitate is ... because ... I really admire ... She’s the total package
because ...
4 At the moment, ... is all the rage because ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 83
I need a hero!

READING
1a Listen to someone talking about the ‘heroes’ in ‘For most of history,
the pictures. Which of them does she admire?
71
1 4 Anonymous was a woman’
(Virginia Woolf)
Dishwashers, computer programming and DNA testing
are all familiar parts of modern life but 1… . Everyone
knows Marconi and Edison from the inventor’s
2 5 hall of fame, but why is so little known about the
contribution of women to science and culture? In
this era of greater equality, it’s time to celebrate the
unsung heroines who have shaped our lives.

3 6

1b Listen again. Which expression does the speaker


use to describe heroes who receive little attention
71 or reward?

fallen heroes unusual heroes unsung heroes You’ve maybe never heard of Josephine Cochrane, but
her claim to fame is the invention of the dishwasher.
2a Look at the title of the article, which is a quotation
She was a wealthy woman with servants to do her
from the writer Virginia Woolf. Choose the best dishes, but 2… that she decided to invent a machine
definition of what it means. to wash the dishes safely: the dishwasher.
1 In the past women didn’t want public recognition. Another pioneering thinker, whose name has long
since sunk into oblivion, was Ada Lovelace.
2 In the past women felt unable to claim their
achievements due to prejudice against them.
3 In the past women had low social status.

2b Read and complete the article (1-5) with the


missing clauses (a-f). There is one extra clause.
a so irritated was she by their constant breaking
of her best china
b what was strange was that women didn’t object
c Such was the lack of respect for women that
d what might surprise you is that each one was
the brainchild of a woman Lovelace showed strong mathematical abilities from
e who quickly realised it held the final information an early age. She wrote the first usable computer
they needed programme in 1840 although the actual computer
f was said to have been an excellent musician wasn’t invented for over another 80 years.
It’s a well-known fact that society was male-dominated
3 Read the text again and decide if the statements in the past and women were believed to have smaller
are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones.
brains and be less intelligent. Men valued women
1 Josephine Cochrane’s invention of the for their looks and personalities and put them on a
dishwasher saved her from poverty. pedestal. When women entered male territory, such
2 Ada Lovelace first showed her astounding as science and research, men often tried to exclude
mental capacity when she was just a child. them. As a result, women like Annie Maunder, who
3 Unfair treatment of women in academic circles
ended after the 19th century.

84 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 8
came first in the mathematics exams at Cambridge
4 Contemporary sources praised Maria Anna
University in 1889, was not allowed to take a degree!
Mozart’s musical abilities.
Such injustices have continued until quite recently. In
5 Male artists tried to minimise the contribution
1962, Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize for of Angelica Kauffman to the Royal Academy.
their discovery of DNA, but in fact, the main research 6 Songs should be written about women’s
was done by a woman, Rosalind Franklin. achievements.

4 Look at the phrases in bold in the text and


match them to the meanings below.
1 idolise or admire someone so much you
believe they are absolutely perfect
2 try to appear courageous even though you
feel frightened or upset
3 group of people famous for a specific activity
or a place where you can learn about them
4 been completely forgotten by the world
During a visit by Watson and Crick to Cambridge 5 reason for being successful
University, Franklin’s male colleagues gave her rivals 6 talk about how great someone is
a copy of her work, 3… . They published their research 7 a specific time when a person is applauded for
first, denying Franklin her moment of glory. It seems achieving something great
even icons like Nobel Prize winners have feet of clay. 8 a weakness or character fault in a person you
admire or respect
Unsurprisingly, in the past, ignored women also
had to put on a brave face in the arena of culture. 5 Complete the sentences with the correct form
Mozart was a musical genius, but few people have of the expressions in activity 4.
heard much about his sister, Maria Anna.
1 His ... came when he won an Olympic medal in
2012.
2 Charles Darwin is one of the greatest names in
the scientific ... .
3 Even though she didn’t win a prize, she smiled
and ... .
4 Her only ... was writing a best-selling book 20
years ago.
5 Kara was very impressed with her new boss
and ... to the other staff.
6 Andy doesn’t think his girlfriend has any faults
As a child, she performed with her brother and 4… . – he’s ... .
But her parents felt she should concentrate on making 7 I used to really admire that actor, but then we found
out that he had a history of violence and had ... .
a good marriage and she vanished from public view.
None of her musical compositions survived. Or take 8 After winning the prize for Book of the Year in
1999, Thomas Nickells never published another
the painter Angelica Kauffman, one of the founders book and ... .
of the Royal Academy of Art in London in 1768.
5
… in a painting to celebrate the opening of the Royal 6 Discuss the questions with a partner.
Academy, only the male founders appear!
1 Can you think of an unsung hero you know?
The past can’t be changed, but today information What are they like?
can be circulated and updated much more easily
I think my neighbour is an unsung hero – she
than before. Perhaps the way forward is to rewrite always helps the old people in our apartments
the history books and sing the praises of women with their shopping and checks on them every day.
whose achievements were previously ignored.
There are many more waiting to be rediscovered! 2 Have you ever had a moment of glory?
TRACK 72
3 Have you ever had to put on a brave face?
4 Can you think of a hero you used to admire
but who had feet of clay?

THAT’S ENGLISH! 85
I need a hero!

LANGUAGE STUDY
1a Join these sentences using so or such a/an. 3b Listen again and complete the table with the
adjectives and the correct prepositions.
1 He trained hard. He won the gold medal. 74

He trained so hard that he won the gold medal. staggered thrilled overjoyed shattered
2 She’s a talented artist. People pay thousands glad disappointed depressed pleased
of pounds for her work. delighted devastated interested
3 The child was brave. He didn’t even cry when Adjective Preposition
he broke his leg.
Positive
4 He was very kind to the refugees. They thought
Negative disappointed in, with, about, at
he was an angel in disguise.
5 My favourite teacher is a gentle and kind person.
3c Listen again and complete the summary with
We think she’s the best teacher in the world.
dependant prepositions.
74
1b Rewrite the sentences from activity 1a to begin We use:
with so or such.
disappointed + 1… or 2… to refer to a situation
1 He trained so hard that he won the gold medal. or thing.
So hard did he train that he won the gold medal. disappointed + 3… or 4… to refer to a person.
Inversion with so and such page 136 devastated / staggered + 5… or 6… to refer to
a situation or thing.
2a Which is more emphatic, a or b? overjoyed / thrilled + 7… + 8… + 9… to refer to a
situation or thing.
1 a It was fantastic that she was the first female Adjective + preposition page 137
astronaut.
b What was fantastic was that she was the 3d Which preposition cannot be used in these
first female astronaut. sentences?
2 a They discovered that winning was not 1 We were all overjoyed at / in / about the safe
everything. arrival of the baby.
b What they discovered was that winning was 2 I was staggered on / by / at the violent reaction
not everything. to my idea.
3 She was thrilled in / at / about winning the award.
What clause + be page 136
4 Gemma was very disappointed about / at / in
losing the race.
2b Rewrite the sentences to begin with what. 5 They expected great things, but sadly they
were soon disappointed with / about / in her.
1 It was incredible that he did it on his own.
2 It’s amazing that so many people want to help. 4a Underline the important information in the
3 I think it is important to try your best. sentences. Which sentence best focuses the
reader’s attention on this information?
4 They found it was impossible to do it all.
5 It’s unbelievable that no one knows what to do. 1 People say Bill Gates has given $10 billion to
medical charities.
6 It was thrilling that we raised so much money.
2 Bill Gates is said to have given $10 billion to
2c Listen and check. Repeat and practise the stress medical charities.
and intonation.
73 Pronunciation guide page 147 4b Which sentences refer to the present and which
to the past?
3a Listen to three dialogues. Answer the questions. 1 Bill Gates is said to be the richest man in the USA.
74 1 Why do the judges think the unlucky candidate 2 He is believed to have saved over 6 million lives
will be upset by their final choice? through his medical charities.
2 Why is Harry’s mother upset about the judges’ 3 He is known to be based in Seattle.
decision? 4 He is thought to have been encouraged to help
3 Why weren’t Sonia’s parents pleased about her others from childhood by his mother.
applying to go on the Arctic Heroes expedition?
Speculating: passive + infinitive /perfect infinitive page 136

86 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 8

5 Rewrite the sections in bold using a suitable where his heroism was revealed, but he was
form of the passive infinitive. not overjoyed 5... the publicity! 6... attention
made him feel uncomfortable. Since then, he
7
... (know / shower) with awards, including a
knighthood in 2003. Surprisingly, his name
hasn’t yet been added to the Yad Vashem 8... in
Jerusalem, which celebrates those who saved
Jewish lives in the war.

7a Listen to the introduction to a talk. What is it


about?
J. K. Rowling is, of course, the creator of Harry 75
Potter and 1people estimate she makes $1.6 million 7b Complete the sentences with the correct words
a day from the schoolboy wizard. 2Many believe from the box and listen again to check your
she is the first woman billionaire author. However, 75 answers.
great wealth hasn’t made her forget the time
when she was a poor single mother and she feels activist fallen idol rough diamond
a responsibility to help others. 3Many think she freedom fighter folk hero icon
had the idea of writing about a boy wizard while
she was on a train journey. 4People say she was 1 Robin Hood was a popular ... because he kept
rejected by more than twelve publishers before her escaping from the law.
first book was accepted. However, 5some people
know her first publisher advised her to get a day 2 Doctor House seems a bit rude at first, but
job. 6People say he told her there was no money really he’s very kind-hearted – he’s a ... .
in writing children’s books! Luckily, he was wrong 3 Nelson Mandela was a non-violent ... in his
and her incredible success has enabled Jo to give efforts to campaign against aparheid.
generously to many charities. 7Experts understand 4 The life of ... Princess Diana has been made
she donated $160 million dollars in 2012. into several films and TV series.
5 Malcolm X was a very influential civil rights ...
in the USA.
6 Complete the text with the correct passive form
6 He used to be a respected politician but he
of the verbs in brackets or a word or phrase
became a ... after it was revealed he used drugs.
from the box.
7c Match the expressions from activity 7b to the
definitions (1-6).
1 A person who may seem unrefined but who
has a trustworthy character is a(n) ... .
2 Someone who receives a lot of media attention
and is greatly admired is a(n) ... .
3 A person engaged in trying to replace an
unfair government is a(n) ... .
4 Someone who is seen as a representative of
the common people is a(n) ... .
hall of fame so … was sank into oblivion
5 A person who was once greatly respected but
unsung heroes at such has lost their reputation is a(n) ... .
6 Someone who campaigns to improve the
In 1938, Nicholas Winton went to Prague to rights of certain sections of society is a(n) ... .
help the refugees who were escaping the
Nazis, and so he became one of the 1... of 8 Answer the questions.
WW2. He 2... (believe / organise) the escape
of nearly 700 Jewish children to Britain, but 1 Do you have any fallen idols? Describe them.
after the war his story was never publicised I used to idolise Oscar Pistorius, the Paralympic
and he 3... for nearly 50 years. 4... modest ... runner, then he was accused of murdering his
he that even his family only had a vague idea girlfriend and …
of his achievements until his wife found his 2 Who is your favourite folk hero? Why?
wartime notebook and gave it to a journalist. 3 Which modern icon do you most admire?
He was then invited on a TV programme

THAT’S ENGLISH! 87
I need a hero!

B Global heroines
DOCUMENTARY Speaker Heroine
Reasons for
their choice
1 Have you ever heard of these people?
Katrina Kaif
Boudica the Duke of Wellington Flora McDonald
Lord Nelson Sir Ernest Shackleton Princess Diana
Malala Yousafzai Rosa Parks
Portia Simpson
2 Match the expressions (1-4) to the definitions Nancy Wake
(a-d) below.
Katie Taylor
1 nursery rhymes
2 to make your name 4b Complete the third column with the reason for
3 to brand someone each speaker’s choice.
4 to speak out
a to do something that brings you fame
THAT’S THE USA!
b to state your opinion firmly and clearly 5 Choose the activities you associate with a
c traditional songs for small children beach holiday.
d to label or describe someone scuba diving trekking snorkelling
sailing sunbathing cycling
3 Watch the documentary and answer the
questions.
6 Watch the video of Jodi’s visit to Daytona Beach
1 How did some people become heroes in the and decide if the following sentences are true
past? (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones.
2 Who was Boudica and what did she achieve?
3 How did Queen Victoria use Boudica’s
reputation?
4 How did people see the Duke of Wellington at
different times?
5 What did Sir Ernest Shackleton do to become
a hero?
6 Why is Malala Yousafzai seen as a heroine?
7 Are heroes today the same as heroes in the
past? 1 Daytona is not a good place to go to if you
want to go to the beach.
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES 2 Spring break is a holiday between the two
semesters of the school year.
4a Complete the first column and match the 3 Daytona Speedway is well known internationally.
speakers to their heroine.
4 A stock car is just a standard family car.
1 2 3 4 5 High speed racing and good visibility are the
main attractions of the Daytona track.
6 Richard Petty won the Daytona 500 a total of
14 times.

5 6 7 NOW YOU!
7 Who are some of your country’s national
heroines? Do you think their heroic status is
justified?
... is a national heroine that comes to mind and I believe
it’s a well-deserved status. She is known to have ...

88 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 8
SKILLS WORK
1a Read the newspaper article. Match the photos (1-4) to the nominations (A-D). Who would you
vote for and why?
1 2 3 4

Your moment of glory


We invited readers to nominate their unsung local heroes for our Moment of Glory award and say what a
difference their heroes have made. Here are the finalists. Email your vote to momentofglory@lymetonpost.com
and we’ll publish the winner next week.
A I’d like to nominate Gerry Phillips, who devotes his C I know it’s predictable but I want to sing the praises of my
spare time to coaching youngsters in football. He’s mum, Khadija. She’s had a hard life but she always keeps
done this for over 25 years, but what’s fantastic about smiling. When she first came to this country, she didn’t
Gerry is it isn’t just sports that he teaches; he’s a great speak English and then my dad died. She was devastated
mentor and role model too. I should know, I got into but determined to keep the family business going, so she
trouble in my teens and if it hadn’t been for Gerry, I learnt English at evening classes after a busy day in the
think I would’ve ended up in prison. He inspired me to shop. She always came to our school parents’ evenings
achieve more and now I’m a qualified fitness coach. and checked we did our homework. Whatever we ask of
Gerry would hate to know I’ve nominated him – but he her, she’s always ready to help. What I find amazing is
deserves it! Jermaine Rogers she doesn’t understand the meaning of me time, so this
prize would be something special just for her. Alia Khan
B My unsung heroine is Kathy Derwent, the road crossing
warden at our school. Not only does she never miss D Someone who deserves a moment of glory is my
work, whatever the weather, but she knows all the neighbour, Johnno Trevor. He may seem abrupt but
children’s names. She’s also a school governor and bakes when you get to know him, you realise he’s just a rough
the best chocolate cake ever! In fact, she’s raised over diamond. Many people might not realise that Johnno’s
£5,000 through her cake sales. Such is her devotion to responsible for all the flowers growing on the roundabouts
the school that she even spends the holidays painting in town. He’s passionate about growing food in his
the classrooms. Being a part of the school community garden and gives the surplus to local families in need.
is reward enough she says, but I know she’d be secretly He’s also great at mending things and he often does it for
overjoyed at winning the award. Harriet Vickers – Head free for the elderly. He’s not very keen on authority and
of Grove Primary School rules, but he’d do anything for anyone. I’d say he’s a bit of
a folk hero round here. Darren Flowers
TRACK 76

1b Read the article again. Answer the questions. 2b Listen again and complete the table with the
journalists’ opinions.
1 Which finalist is considered to be extremely 77
reliable by her co-workers? Gerry Kathy Johnno
Khadija
2 Which finalist is said to be an inspiration to Phillips Derwent Trevor
others? Clare
3 Which finalist is thought to enhance the Aiden
environment?
4 Which finalist is seen as courageous and 3 Write an entry (80-100 words) for the Moment
selfless by her family? of Glory award about someone you think is an
unsung hero.
2a Listen to two journalists from the Lymeton Post
discussing the award nominations. Do they My unsung heroine is my aunt Christina. I want to sing
77 agree about who should win the award? her praises because she’s ... She always ... She inspired
me to ... What I find amazing is ... She’d be overjoyed
at winning because ...

THAT’S ENGLISH! 89
I need a hero!

SPEAKING
1 What characteristics do you think a modern-day Expressing surprise
personal hero should have? Choose the ones 8 Never! 10 You don’t say!
you consider important and add some more of
9 Fancy that! 11 Really!
your own.
3 The definite article the is often stressed to
emphasise information. Listen to the sentences
79 and repeat with the same stress and intonation.
1 She overcame her disability in the most amazing
way.
2 She is just the most courageous person ever.
3 They helped me succeed in the most wonderful
way.
4 Sadly, the result was the worst possible
outcome.
Pronunciation for emphasis: the page 147

have a sense of humour


avoid conflict be open to bribery 4a Listen to Zak telling Annie about his hero. Choose
the feelings Zak has about him.
be compassionate give up easily be resilient 80
be courageous be truthful show humility 1 letdown 4 annoyed
2 thrilled 5 shattered
3 disappointed 6 staggered
2a Listen to the conversation between Zak and
Annie. Answer the questions. 4b Listen again and complete the extracts with the
78
missing words.
80
A: I don’t know much about him really, other
than he’s a fallen idol.
Z: You 1... it! What a 2... !

Z: That was a terrible example for kids.


A: Too 3... !
Z: 4... I found most disappointing 5... he wouldn’t
admit the truth for ages.

Z: It was 6... to realise it had been going on


for many years. It makes you lose faith in
1 What is special about Annie’s personal heroine? sportspeople.
2 Does Zak share Annie’s enthusiasm for her A: You’re 7... !
heroine’s achievements?
4c Choose the correct answers.
2b Listen to the conversation again. Tick the
phrases you hear. 1 The expressions in bold in activity 4b express:
78
a anger b confusion c disappointment
Describing emphatically
2 The underlined expressions express:
1 What was fantastic was she was the first
person to ... a slight agreement c disagreement
2 What I find fascinating is ... b emphatic agreement
3 She’s reported to have raised ... Expressing disappointment page 137

4 She overcame her disability in the most


amazing way. 4d Listen and say the complete expression after
the beep. Pay attention to the intonation.
Showing admiration 81
5 Unbelievable! 1 What a ... ! 4 What I found ... .
6 That’s so incredible! 2 Too ... ! 5 It was absolutely ... .
7 I have to say, that is extraordinary! 3 You’re … ! 6 You said ... !

90 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 8

5 Listen to the end of Zak and Annie’s conversation. Z: But 6… , I 7… now that being 8… and doing
How have they been influenced by their heroes? your 9… is all you need to do. Winning isn’t
82 Complete the gaps with one word. 10
….
A: Maybe you need to find a new hero –
Z: 1... , do you think you’ve been 2... by Claire
someone whose 11... you 12... .
Lomas?
Z: ... !
13
A: Yes, she’s 3... me 4... my problems aren’t that
bad. What 5... you?

Interaction: how to express disappointment


6a Think of a person/hero you really admired but who let you down and you no longer admire.
First, choose three characteristics that made you admire this person from the box below and
make notes saying why.

truthful and honest courageous compassionate brave resilient modest

Example: resilient
I really admired X. She was such a fighter. She had to overcome all kinds of problems when
she was a child, but she managed to achieve great success despite her disabilities.

6b Choose the reasons why you no longer admire this person from the box below and make
notes saying why.

they cheated and didn’t admit it they betrayed a cause


they showed off after achieving success they showed weakness
Example: showing off after achieving success
I used to admire Y. She was the best … But later, success went to her head and she started
acting like a real diva. She’s even rude to people when they express their admiration for her.

7 Work with a partner. Talk about a former personal hero you no longer admire. Use your
notes from activities 6a and 6b and include emphatic expressions. Structure your interaction
according to the flow chart below. Swap roles.

A Ask B about someone they used to B Describe hero / heroine emphasising


admire their good qualities

A Show surprise and ask why B


B Explain why
thought he/she was the best

A Ask why B no longer admire this B Reply to A’s question expressing


person disappointment

A Ask for more information B Reply

A Respond and agree. Ask B if they


B Reply and ask A about someone they
were influenced by their former
used to admire
hero/heroine

THAT’S ENGLISH! 91
UNIT
9 Let’s hit the road

OBJECTIVES
• To talk about different travel experiences
• To thank and apologise politely

A Expand your horizons


BEFORE YOU WATCH 4 Answer the questions.

1 Write the type of transport you associate with 1 Why do they decide to take an alternative
each group of words. route?
2 What objections does Karen raise about the
1 buffet car, rails, locomotive new route?
2 departure lounge, take off, wing 3 How does Danny claim he helped Karen and
3 petrol station, seat belt, hand brake Anthony when they were changing the tyre?
4 ferry, seasickness, port 4 What makes Antony decide to give up and go
5 helmet, pedal, handlebar home?
5 How do they get home in the end?
WHILE YOU WATCH 5 Match the expressions (1-5) to their meaning
2 Answer the questions. (a-e).
1 miss out a hit someone with a car
2 set off b begin a journey
3 hit the road c return in the same direction
4 turn back d lose an opportunity
5 run over e start a trip

1 How does Anthony convince his housemates 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form
to come with him? of the words given in activity 5.
Ada: Come everybody it’s time to go! Let’s 1... .
Mike: Wait a minute. I’m finishing my tea.
Ada: Well, drink it quickly, then. We were
supposed to 2... almost half an hour ago.
Liz: Hurry up Mike, if we arrive late, we’ll 3...
on the welcome glass of champagne and
that would be terrible!
2 Why does Anthony have to change his route? Ada: The car’s over there, so be careful when
you cross the road. I don’t want anyone
AFTER YOU WATCH to get 4... . Make sure you’ve got all your
luggage. We’re not 5... for anything once
3 Decide if the statements are true (✔) or false (✗). we’re on the motorway.
Correct the false ones.
1 Anthony is rehearsing for a job interview. NOW YOU!
2 Anthony invites Danny so that he can help him 7 Describe a disastrous journey you experienced.
to improve his presentation skills.
3 Danny is excited by the idea of luxury travel. My last trip from … was … . We’d decided to
4 The expenses only cover the room. come back by … , but …
5 There isn’t enough room in the boot for
Danny’s golf clubs.

92 THAT’S ENGLISH!
STREET INTERVIEWS
8 The speakers below were asked the following question: Do you think travel broadens the
mind? Why or why not?
1 Predict two ways in which travel broadens the mind that the speakers will mention.
2 Watch the video and check your predictions.

Kristen Cheryl Robert Dena Nicole Chelsi Brandy Thierno

9 Choose the correct answer.


1 Kristen thinks that living in the USA is like living in a cocoon / cave so when people from the
States travel they are like a butterfly / bird expanding its wings.
2 Cheryl and Robert see travel as a chance to forget about / solve their problems and leave the
world aside / behind.
3 Cheryl and Thierno both say that travel helps people to expand their horizons / worlds.
4 Nicole thinks that travel helps people to see / understand themselves better.
5 For Brandy and Chelsi, the important thing about travel is the opportunity it gives them to
experience different cultures / people.

10 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.

Dena: Travel opens your mind to 1… and 2… .


Nicole: Travel helps you get a 3… … of what’s going on.
Chelsi: Travel broadens the mind, because you get to see 4… of your normal 5… .
Thierno: I love travelling. I'm a 6… -trotter.

ACTIVATE YOUR ENGLISH! 12 Complete the sentences with a travel verb from
the box in the correct tense and form.
11 Do the sentences (a-b) have the same (S) or
different (D) meaning? board block fasten leave take off widen

1 a Travel broadens your horizons. 1 It’s the driver’s responsibility to make sure all
b Travel helps you expand your outlook. the passengers … their seat belts.
2 a My parents have always travelled a lot, 2 The plane … over two hours late.
but since their retirement they’ve become 3 I enjoy … my horizons, so I travel as much as I can.
armchair travellers. 4 Don’t forget your suitcase. We travel to … our
b My parents have always been great problems behind, not our luggage!
travellers; they’re retired now, but they’re 5 Bridget is in the departure lounge about to …
still globe-trotting as much as ever. her plane.
3 a We’re going to hit the road early tomorrow 6 There’s a danger that all this snow may … the
morning. road through the mountains.
b We’re setting off first thing tomorrow morning.
4 a Travel helps you to find out about what’s NOW YOU!
going on in the world.
13 Do you think travel broadens the mind? Why or
b Through travelling people can discover new why not?
things about themselves.
5 a There are big traffic jams so they might be late. I think travel … because it takes … normal,
everyday environment and gives you new
b We expect them to be delayed due to long
experiences …
tailbacks on the motorway.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 93
Let’s hit the road

READING
1a Look at the holiday destinations. Which would
you like to visit? Why? Which would you never
Blue skies
in Bangkok
visit? Why not?
1 3

‘People don’t realise that being a flight attendant


is a very physical job. You work long hours, you’re
on your feet all day and the food and beverage
trolleys you have to push around often weigh up
to 100 kilos. You work in a small crowded space
dealing with hot liquids, screaming babies, angry
passengers and, on top of all this, you are often
exhausted from jet lag. Flying is hard on the
human body and flight attendants can develop
2 4 health problems owing to the changes in air
pressure, the different time zones and a poor diet
of processed food from the on-board catering.
I’m lucky because I only work on long-haul
flights: I’m based in London and fly mostly to
South-East Asia. One of the best perks of the
job is the free flights, which I regularly take
advantage of: I try to get away for a short break
somewhere beautiful as often as I can.
Safety comes first in the airline industry, and there
1b Answer the questions.
are strict rules about the amount of rest long-haul
1 Some people say that travel broadens the cabin crew must have between flights on account
mind. What do they mean? Do you agree? of the essential role we play in passenger
2 What is your preferred means of transport safety. For example, if the plane had to make an
when travelling? Why?
emergency landing, we would be responsible for
2a Read the first paragraph of a text about a flight evacuating the 500 or more passengers from the
attendant. Where do you think it’s from? huge A380 aircraft and keeping them calm. So
it’s very important we rest properly, which is why
1 a biography
we always stop over for at least 48 hours and
2 an article in a tabloid newspaper or gossip
magazine when we arrive at our destination, we are always
3 a website with information about careers in picked up by an airline vehicle and safely dropped
the airline industry off at the hotel. My airline always puts cabin crew
and pilots up in the same hotel for stopovers and
2b Now read the whole text. Are the statements I think this helps to build a team spirit.
true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct the false ones.
1 Cabin crew need to be strong and fit.
2 Flying is good for your health. 3a Complete the sentences with the appropriate
3 Morley often flies to the other side of the word(s) in bold from the text.
world.
1 Your … is the place you are going.
4 Flight attendants don’t have much responsibility
after a plane has made an emergency landing. 2 Aircraft can experience … when flying through
bad weather.
5 Morley is less interested in people than he used
to be. 3 … are long-distance flights.
6 He has been attacked by passengers. 4 Flight attendants serve passengers from … .
7 People quite often get angry when Morley asks 5 … are stops during a journey, particularly
them to turn off their phones. when flying.

94 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 9

3b Complete the email with the correct form of the


words from activity 3a.

Hi Liz,
We had a bit of a difficult journey back from
Australia but we got here in the end! Our
flight out of Worramaloo was delayed due
to kangaroos on the 1… and so we missed
our 2… to London. The airline put us on
another international flight, 3... Paris! Then
we flew into an electric storm and there was
bad 4… and a flight attendant was injured
by a 5… . We had to make an emergency
landing in Malaysia and the plane was 6… .
Morley Schofield has worked as a flight attendant
After a 7… of about eight hours, we flew
for a prestigious British airline for almost 20 years back to Sydney, but this time we got put
in business class with fantastic 8… ! I have
I love my job because I like working with people terrible 9… after our three-day journey, but
– I find them endlessly interesting – but my worst I’m happy to be home.
experiences have all been due to passengers Vanesa xx
behaving badly. Because I’m a man and quite
big, my colleagues always call me when there
are problems. I was once bitten by a passenger 3c Listen to Vanesa talking to Liz about her flight
who got hysterical when the aircraft was going back from Australia and check your answers.
85
through turbulence, and I was even punched in
the face by the mother of a Hollywood celebrity! 4a Complete the sentences with the correct form
Only last week, we had an incident just as a flight of the highlighted phrasal verbs from the text.
was to take off from Sydney airport. A passenger 1 Can you … me … from the train station at
opened the emergency doors because she 9:00 p.m. please?
wanted some fresh air! Some passengers 2 Around 20 aircrafts … or land at the airport
routinely overreact when you ask them to turn every hour.
off their electronic devices during take-off and 3 The flight will … in Singapore on its way to
landing, and you’d be surprised how many still Japan.
believe we won’t notice if they smoke in the toilets! 4 My dad’s going to … me … at your house
before he goes to work.
But even now, I still get excited as I walk across 5 I’m so stressed; I really need to … somewhere
the runway to board the plane. It’s cloudy and nice and relaxing.
it’s raining but I know there are going to be blue 6 Six of my son’s friends are coming for the
skies in Bangkok later on. I think I’ve got the best weekend; I don’t know if we’ve got enough
space to … them all … !
job in the world.’ TRACK 84
4b Answer the questions.

1 How often do you try to get away for a short


6 The … is the place where planes take off and break? Where do you go?
land.
7 … is the feeling of tiredness people experience I try to get away at least once a month …
after flying through different time zones.
8 … an aircraft is when you make all the
passengers get off, for example, in an 2 Do you prefer to be picked up and/or dropped
emergency. off when going on holiday? Or would you
9 Airlines offer an … service, which provides rather do it alone? Why?
food and drink for passengers. 3 Do you enjoy putting people up in your home
or would you rather they went to a hotel? Why?

THAT’S ENGLISH! 95
Let’s hit the road

LANGUAGE STUDY
1a Read the paragraph and match the words in 2a Listen to Indian travel agent Lakshmi Patel
bold (1-5) to the definitions (a-e). talking to a European tourist about rail travel
86 across India.
1 What three reasons does Lakshmi give for
choosing to travel by train in India?
2 How many types of ticket are there?
3 What type of ticket does she recommend?

My friend Paul works for an oil company and


has to 1travel a lot. The company sends him on
lots of 2trips to exotic places. He spends hours
on planes and trains – on long 3journeys he
always takes audio books. He says that 4travel 2b Listen again and complete the fact sheet with
isn’t a problem for him as long as he has a the words from the box.
86
good book! But he sometimes has to make
long 5voyages by sea to visit oil rigs, which he carriage compartment peak times
hates because he gets seasick! platform seats berths fare bunk

a … is a verb to talk about going from one place Rail travel in India
to another.
Indian stations are crowded at 1… in big cities. You
b … (uncountable) is a general term used to
describe going from one place to another. may need help to find the right 2… to travel from.
c … is a noun which refers to the distance Second class ticket: This is the lowest 3… . You are
travelled and in one direction only. in an open-plan 4… with wooden or plastic 5… . No air
d … is a noun which refers to travel by sea or in conditioning and very crowded.
space. Sleeper class ticket: Sleeper trains are popular and have
e … is a noun which refers to travel for a short three-tier 6… beds. Great views from the open windows.
duration, normally with a precise objective, 2AC ticket (two-tier, air conditioning/AC): There are
e.g. for business. It includes the notion of two-tier sleeping 7… which convert into seats during the
there and back. day. They have curtains for privacy.
1b Choose the correct option. 1AC ticket (first class, air conditioning): You are in a
8
… with two or four sleeping berths and a door that you
1 The journey / trip by car from Madrid to can lock.
Barcelona takes about five hours.
2 We went on a great camping trip / journey in
the mountains last week. 2c Match the definitions to the words from the fact
3 I hate long journeys / travel by car – they make sheet in activity 2b.
me feel sick! 1 a train you can sleep on
4 Travel / Trips in this part of Africa can be 2 the place you sleep in a train or ship
challenging due to the poor roads.
3 beds on top of one another
5 The first or maiden voyage / trip of the ocean
liner The Titanic ended in disaster. 4 the price of a train journey
6 She invited me to come on a trip / journey to 5 where you get on and off a train
Thailand next year. 6 the busiest and most popular travelling times

96 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 9

3a Ruth is at the airport. Listen and match the


extracts (1-4) to the situations (a-d). f she had to give up working on long-haul flights.
87 g owing to the increase in operating costs.
Extract 1 a boarding the aircraft
Extract 2 b checking in her luggage Cause and effect page 138
Extract 3 c waiting in the departure lounge
Extract 4 d going through security 4b Write two possible logical endings for each
sentence.
Now complete Ruth’s flight details.
1 On account of the alarming weather reports,
Flight number: BA … Boarding time: … we had to cancel our travel plans. / we decided
Departure gate: … Seat number: … not to go climbing.
2 In view of the passenger’s unreasonable
3b Listen again and complete the questions the behaviour, …
airport staff ask Ruth. Write her reply (Yes/No).
87 3 Due to the lack of air conditioning in the train, …
1 Can I ask you some security questions? Yes 4 Owing to an accident this morning, …
2 Did you … your … yourself? 5 Because of the heavy traffic, …
3 Did anybody ask you to … anything on … for
them? 5a Study the examples. Then complete the rule.
4 Have you … your … ... at any time? 1 We’re about to land. / We were about to land.
5 Can you … that you are not carrying any sharp 2 We’re on the point of landing. / We were on
… , guns, firearms or … devices? the point of landing.
6 Do you have any … luggage? 3 We’re to land soon. / We were to land soon.
7 Are you … any … or gels?
We use these structures to describe actions
3c Listen again to the first four questions from 3b. that are/were about to happen in the immediate
Underline the stressed syllables and circle the future:
88 vowels that reduce to schwa (/ə/).
• be about to + 1…
1 Can I ask you some security questions? • be on the point of + 2…
• be to + 3…
3d Listen again and repeat.
Pronunciation: schwa page 145 Be about to, be on the point of, be to page 138
88

4a Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-7) to 5b Use the prompts to make sentences about
the endings (a-g). events that are / were about to happen.

1 Due to increasing health problems, 1 The train / leave the station / all passengers /
be on board. (about to – past)
2 The airline had to raise its prices
The train was about to leave the station and all
3 This flight was delayed the passengers were on board.
4 In view of how hard the mattresses are in these 2 The flight / take off at 10:30 / crew / be strapped
berths, into their seats. (be to – past)
5 After the heavy rain, the southbound 3 She / get into her sleeping berth / notice
carriageway was closed someone steal her blankets. (about to – past)
6 On account of his unusual size and weight, 4 He / ask the passengers to sit down / captain
make an announcement. (on the point of –
7 The plane was delayed due to past)
a because of the bad weather. 5 The aircraft / make an emergency landing / we
have to evacuate passengers / immediately
b I doubt I shall get any sleep. afterwards. (be to – present)
c due to a sick pilot. 6 The airport / declare / a state of emergency.
d he was obliged to book two seats on the aircraft. (on the point of – present)
e encountering an electrical storm.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 97
Let’s hit the road

B Off the beaten track


a the south and west of the country
DOCUMENTARY b the small outer islands
1 What is your experience of travelling by c the south coast
motorbike? Do you enjoy it or would you like to
d the Civil War battlegrounds
try it? Why or why not?
e the countryside and smaller towns
f the city of Glasgow

THAT’S THE USA


5 Decide which sentences are connected with
theme parks.

2 Watch the documentary and decide if the


sentences are true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the
false ones.
1 The National British Motorcycle Federation
(BMF) has more than a million members.
2 Motorcyclists enjoy the sense of freedom and
also feeling part of the countryside they are
travelling through.
3 The first motorbikes appeared in the mid-19th
century and were steam powered. 1 I love going on rides, seeing shows and
4 Motorbike racing became popular as a sport attractions.
after the First World War. 2 Let’s go on the swings.
5 Motorbikes gradually came to be associated 3 It’s a 300 foot drop.
with gangs, fighting and violence. 4 What about feeding the ducks?
6 The British Motorcycle Federation was started 5 The roller coaster was totally awesome!
by former members of the Hell’s Angels gang. 6 I can’t stand waiting in lines.
7 The BMF aims to improve the public image of
motorcycling. 6 Watch the video and answer the questions
8 The Ace Café in London has recently become about Orlando’s theme parks.
a meeting place for motorcyclists.
1 What industry was Orlando built around?
2 What is the name of the second tallest roller
SAME LANGUAGE, DIFFERENT LIVES coaster of its kind in the world?
3 What are the three most beautiful or interesting 3 What does Miniland USA have replicas of?
places that you would recommend people visit 4 What does a Master Model Builder do?
in your country? Why? 5 Why do families enjoy going to Legoland?
6 How are the replicas built?
4 Watch the video. Match the speakers (1-6) to the
attractions they mention (a-f).
1 3 5
NOW YOU!
7 What is your opinion of theme parks? Do you
enjoy visiting them? Talk about your experience.

We took our children to Disneyland in Paris


2 4 6 and spent all our time standing in queues.
I hated it! I used to like theme parks when
I was younger, but now I find them a
nightmare.

98 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 9
SKILLS WORK
1 Do you enjoy travelling for pleasure? Where do you like to go as a tourist?
I adore travelling for pleasure and I get away either with friends or on my own as often as
possible. My favourite getaways are …

2a Read the article about the development of modern tourism. Is the writer’s attitude towards
the modern tourist industry positive or negative?

Modern tourism:
great for whom?
In Europe, tourism began in the 18th century when
wealthy families used to send their sons, and very
occasionally, their daughters on the ‘Grand Tour’, a
trip across Europe to learn about culture. They visited
historical sites, took music and art lessons, and of course
tried to improve their foreign language skills, especially
French and Italian. Transport was an expensive luxury
in those days and only the rich had the means to pay
for it: it wasn’t until the expansion of the railways in
the 1840s that ordinary people had any opportunity to
abroad. Mass travel began to develop particularly in places
travel beyond their immediate environment. Then, in
with a sunny climate such as Spain and Greece. Tourism
the 1860s a Scottish man called Thomas Cook started
has become essential to the economy of many European
offering organised tours to the middle classes and the
countries in this century, but although it creates jobs and
concept of leisure travel began to develop.
economic opportunities, it can also cause environmental
During the 20th century, Europeans enjoyed increasing problems, and break up traditional communities. If 18th
amounts of leisure time. Employers became legally century tourists were in search of art and culture, sadly,
obliged to give workers paid holidays and ordinary many 21st century tourists only seem interested in a
people started going to the seaside for holidays and then suntan and cheaper prices than at home. TRACK 89

2b Read the article again and find the following information.

1 The reasons why rich people travelled in the 18th century.


2 Two events in the 19th century that gave ordinary people more travel opportunities.
3 The reason why ordinary people in the 20th century had more time and money for travel.
4 Two advantages and two disadvantages of modern tourism according to the author.

3a Tex Wallander, a journalist, is talking to Alba Johnson Pérez from the Spanish Tourist Board.
How does she answer the criticism that tourism has spoiled the coast?
90

3b Listen again and complete the information about the Spanish tourist industry according to Alba.

90 Tourism in Spain
Contribution to the economy 1
… euros
Number of visitors to Spain last May 2

Top four countries visitors come from 3
… 4… 5… 6…
Two strengths of the industry 7
… 8…
World leader in 9
… 10… and 11… initiatives

4 Talk about your preferences when travelling. Include the following: type of holiday,
accommodation, destination, group or individual, etc.

When I was younger, I preferred to travel on my own or with a small group of friends to
exotic places, but now that I’m older, I’m actually starting to like more organised holidays
because …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 99
Let’s hit the road

WRITING
1a Read two versions of an email of apology and underline the expressions used to apologise
and thank.

A Dear Mrs Smithson,


Thank you ever so much for allowing the youth group
to use your cottage last weekend, and I really must B Dear Mrs Smithson,
apologise for the fact that the kitchen was not cleaned
Thanks for lending the youth group your cottage
properly. Some of the group were supposed to return
last weekend and sorry for leaving the kitchen in
later to finish, but due to the fact that they overslept,
a mess. Our goodbye party finished really late and
they were late. I understand that, because of this, you so I’d arranged for some of the group to go back
had done a lot of the cleaning yourself by the time later to finish the cleaning, but apparently, they
they arrived: that was so kind of you and you really overslept and you’d done most of the cleaning
needn’t have gone to so much trouble. yourself by the time they arrived.
In view of the fact that I am leader of the youth group, Obviously this wasn’t my fault, but it’s really
I take full responsibility and ask you to please accept embarrassing! I know I’m the leader, but it’s so
my apologies again on the group’s behalf. I do assure difficult to get young people to develop a sense
you that this is not typical behaviour and it will not of responsibility, not to mention trying to make
happen again. If it is convenient, we can come back them get up in the morning! Sorry again for the
next Saturday and thoroughly clean the whole cottage. inconvenience caused.
Yours truly Yours truly
Kylie Jones Kylie

1b Which version of the apology do you think is better? Why?

1c A well-written apology and thank you email follows the structure below (1-4). In which email
(A, B or both) does Kylie … ?
1 give a reason / explanation for what happened 3 reassure the other party that it won’t happen again
2 take responsibility 4 promise to take action

2a Listen to a communications expert talking about apologising and thanking in English. Choose
the correct answers.
91
1 Using appropriate expressions is important to show you are sincere / afraid.
2 In English you apologise only if it’s your fault / even when it’s the other person’s fault.
3 Not apologising a lot makes you sound impolite / polite in English.
4 You should use the same / a different register depending on the situation.

2b Listen again and complete the expressions in the table.

91 Formal Informal

I really must apologise for the I’m … sorry.


1
I’m sorry for …
fact that … I … apologise.
2
Sorry again
Apologising
I do assure you that … Please 3… my (thoughtlessness). for …
Please accept my apologies. Please 4… me for not realising that … I 5… for …
Thank you ever so much for … I really 7… your help.
Thanking / I’d … like to thank you for helping. I am most 8… for …
6
expressing Thanks for …
gratitude That’s so kind of you. How 9… !
You really needn’t have. Thank you, but you really 10… have!

Taking I take full responsibility. There really is no 12… for my It was my


responsibility I 11… … realised that … behaviour. fault.

100 THAT’S ENGLISH!


UNIT 9

3a It’s important to use suitable intonation when verbally apologising or thanking. Listen and
decide which speakers are being polite and which are not. Tick the right column.
92
A B
polite not polite polite not polite
Speaker 1
Speaker 2
Speaker 3
Pronunciation: intonation page 147

3b Listen again and repeat using polite intonation.

92

Writing: a formal email of apology


4a Read the situations and the notes below. Match the notes to the situations and add two more
of your own.
1 You shouted at the woman at reception at your hotel because you believed she had made a
mistake about the dates of your reservation. You now realise that the mistake was yours.
2 You and some people you’d just met had a party in your hotel room. When one of the hotel
guests came to complain about the noise, the person (not you) who opened the door to
them was very rude.
didn’t know the person it was my birthday too many people
Shouting at recepcionist who opened door

Noise in hotel room I overreacted room unavailable a long journey music too loud

4b Choose one of the situations and write a formal email of apology to the hotel manager (160-
200 words). Use your notes from activity 4a. Follow the structure in activity 1c and remember
to include the following:
• expressions for apologising and thanking • expressions to show cause and effect

Contact us
How can we help you?
Name Albert Duncan Email albertduncan@wohj.uk Phone (+44) 853328510

Message Dear Sir or Madam,


I am writing to apologise for my friend’s rude behaviour towards one of the hotel’s guests
last Saturday night. We had just met some people at a party and we decided to have a
drink in the hotel room. I’m afraid the noise got too loud and a guest knocked on the door.
The person who opened the door was very rude to the guest.
In view of the fact that it was my room, I take full responsibility and ask you to accept my
apologies on my behalf and on behalf of my friend. I assure you that this is not normal
behaviour and it will never happen again. I apologise again for any inconvenience we may
have caused.
Yours truly,
Albert Duncan
Submit

THAT’S ENGLISH! 101


OBJECTIVES
Revision 2 • To review the contents of units 5-9

LANGUAGE REVISION
1 Write conditional sentences to connect the two 5 The online store will send your … by
ideas. messenger service.
6 Several species of … grow in the desert.
1 I’m not happy now. I didn’t marry my old
girlfriend.
4 Complete the sentences with question tags.
If I had married my old girlfriend, I’d be happy
now. 1 I shouldn’t give up drinking milk, … ?
2 I’m a doctor now. My parents made me study 2 She’s gone to Italy, … ?
hard. 3 You can be incredibly charming, … ?
3 My mother didn’t buy the newspaper. She 4 Just bring me a newspaper, … ?
missed the news about the accident.
4 John’s afraid of heights. He didn’t go up the 5 The subjects in these sentences are not relevant.
Eiffel Tower when he was in Paris. Rewrite the sentences using the passive.
5 We didn’t arrive at the airport on time. We
1 Scientists estimate the temperature has risen
aren’t flying over the Atlantic now.
by 2 degrees.
6 I left my coat at home. I caught a cold.
The temperature is estimated to have risen by
7 You don’t make an effort. You don’t have a 2 degrees.
chance for promotion.
2 Staff know he’s a difficult customer.
2 Complete the sentences with an adjective from 3 Critics say the actor gave his best performance
the box. Then connect them with so or such in that film.
(a / an) for emphasis using inversion. 4 Experts think the disease came from a type of
mosquito.
catchy disappointed huge 5 They believe the situation is getting better.
overjoyed sumptuous unwary
6 Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first. Use the words in
1 It was a catchy slogan. Soon everyone was brackets in the correct form. Write between two
repeating it. and five words.
So catchy was the slogan that soon everyone
was repeating it. 1 I wanted you to choose the first option. (rather)
2 The decoration of the dining room will be … . I … the first option.
It will look like a palace. 2 The director wanted to change the business
3 His parents were … to see him home safe. plan. (propose)
They couldn’t stop smiling. The director … the business plan.
4 She feels … . She wants to cry. 3 It was easy taking the bus. (was)
5 It became a(n) … problem. No one could deal What … taking the bus.
with it. 4 Wages were cut because there was a
6 He’s a(n) … traveller. He always gets robbed. recession. (owing)
Wages were cut … the recession.
3 Complete the sentences with a word from the
box. Use the singular or plural as appropriate. 5 Our profits are 50% lower than last year. (fall)
Our profits … half since last year.
goods cactus criterion means 6 I don’t want you to stay out late. (if)
diagnosis passer-by I’d prefer … stay out late.
7 He says we should take the next flight out of
1 We use strict … to evaluate the students. here. (suggest)
2 Which … of transport do you prefer to use? He ... the next flight out of here.
3 Several … were injured when the car went off 8 They were about to leave when the alarm
the road. sounded. (point)
4 I’ve been given different … by three doctors. They were … when the alarm sounded.

102 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Revision 2

9 Although the speech was good, it didn’t 9 Use a word from column A with a word from
convince me. (spite) column B to complete the sentences.
In ... good, the speech didn’t convince me. A B
10 I don’t want to give them the information.
(rather) common diamond
I … give them the information.
cutting- edge
7 Complete the sentences with a preposition or fallen ground
particle.
jet idol
1 You’ll have to add … all your expenses to peak lag
make a claim.
rough time
2 Could you drop me … at the station on the
way to the office?
3 I’ve tried to talk him … of it, but he’s determined 1 We found some … to start the project as
to go. everyone agreed on the location.
4 Don’t be put … by his abrupt manner. 2 We have … business practices, which makes
Underneath, he’s very gentle. our company the most up-to-date in its field.
5 His speech was so convincing that he won … 3 Our postman is a … . Although he seems rude,
all the voters. he does care about the neighbours.
6 Before you make a decision, you need to 4 I’ve just got back from a long flight and I’ve got
weigh … all the options. terrible … . I feel exhausted.
7 A friend has offered to put me … when I go to 5 Some people regard him as a … . He was
London, so I won’t need a hotel. admired for his sporting success, but later had
8 I’m looking forward to getting … this weekend drug problems.
to a spa in the country. 6 This is the … for commuter travel, so there are
always traffic jams.
8 Choose the correct option.
10 Complete the sentences with a word from the
A: Right, we have to decide who to choose
box. There are three words you don’t need.
from the nominations for citizen of the year.
What do you all reckon? You have your 1pick /
option of ten worthy people. blue body face journey mind
B: What about James? I can’t sing his 2value / travel voyage white yellow
praises enough of the boy who saved his sister
from a fire. 1 She bought me the most beautiful saffron …
C: Hmm, but there’s also Sally who pulled her scarf for my birthday.
sister from the railway track at the eleventh 2 He was upset, but put on a brave … to hide his
3
moment / hour.
disappointment.
A: Well, I’m in favour of Carl. You know, he
3 We had a pleasant … over the ocean on our
revealed the cases of 4bribery / wealth in the
way to Cuba.
local council despite threats against his life.
4 The bedsheets were creamy … and incredibly
B: That’s right, I remember. Those councillors
soft.
5
thrilled / betrayed us by accepting money
from builders to approve their projects. 5 Over my dead … will my daughter marry that
C: Or how about Thomas? I think he’s a horrible man.
6
certain / way better option. You know he 6 I think the train … across Siberia was the most
walked a thousand miles to raise money for exciting part of my holiday.
charity and when he reached his 7destiny /
destination he walked all the way back! 11 Listen and circle the word the if it is emphasised.
A: We’re certainly 8given / spoilt for choice. 93 1 I met the most incredible woman.
I can’t believe there are so many
9
outstanding / truthful people in such a small 2 These are the best results we’ve ever had.
town. 3 Have you ever seen the real George Clooney?
C: I don’t think we should make a 10hasty / 4 You are just the greatest friend I’ve ever had.
careful decision. Let’s think about it and 5 He’s the major player in his category.
decide tomorrow.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 103


Revision 2

SKILLS WORK
1 Read the first paragraph of the text and choose the correct option.
1 7,229 people die in aircraft accidents every year.
2 8 million people travel by plane every year.
3 The number of flights per year is four times the number of passengers who fly every day.

2 Now read the whole text and choose the correct title.
1 Disaster in the river 2 A miracle landing 3 Reasons why flying is safe

Did you know that statistics tell us that air travel is the The captain became a world-wide celebrity and has
safest form of transport? Around 32 million flights take been showered with honours for his bravery and
off every year and more than 8 million people travel cool-headedness. He has become a leader in aircraft
daily for business or pleasure with very few fatalities. safety and explains that the most important factor is
In fact, only 1 in 7,229 people die in aircraft accidents pilot experience. He claims that wage cuts for pilots are
as opposed to 1 in 415 in cars. causing more experienced pilots to leave the industry
We always hear about major air disasters but not and that airlines are employing more and more pilots
so often are we aware of the disasters that have with only a few hundred hours' flying time. While there
been avoided. One hero of aviation must be Chesley are relatively few emergencies on flights nowadays,
Sullenberger, a US Airways pilot who saved 155 Sullenberger knows that many pilots do not have the
passengers on the plane he was flying by successfully expertise to deal with unexpected situations and make
landing on the Hudson River in New York. The flight had split-second decisions.
taken off from La Guardia airport a couple of minutes But this incident was not only a life-changing experience
previously and was climbing over the city when the for the pilot. The passengers lived through moments
plane flew into a flock of geese. Some of these birds they will never forget. Many of them spent those three
were caught in the engines, which cut out, caught fire minutes thinking that they were the last of their lives,
and could not be restarted. Sullenberger’s instincts and since then they have a different perspective. This
(and 19,663 hours of flying experience) advised him born-again feeling has led one passenger to give up her
against trying to return to the airport and flying over job and start working as a volunteer. Others say that they
the crowded city. For him there was no choice but to know that life is a precious gift and must be lived to the
guide the plane towards the river, pass over the George full. Incidents that used to make them irritated or upset
Washington Bridge and, three minutes later, land on can’t be compared with going down in a burning plane
the water. All the passengers and crew survived, which into a river. Most of them feel they have been given a
(online source)

made this one of the few emergency landings on water second chance and that they now choose to live their
without serious casualties. lives in the best way they can. TRACK 94

3 Now read the text again. Are these statements true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct the false ones.
1 The plane was coming in to land at La Guardia airport when the incident happened.
2 Sullenberger’s experience helped his decision to turn back to the airport.
3 Sullenberger received awards for his actions.
4 Sullenberger thinks that many pilots could not deal with a similar situation.
5 None of the passengers changed their lives because of the crash.
6 Some passengers learnt to be more tolerant after the crash.

104 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Revision 2

4a Listen to three conversations and match the 7 Put the connectors in the appropriate column.
dialogues (1-3) to the situations (a-f). There are Then complete the sentences below.
95 three situations which do not match any of the
dialogues.
as a result because of furthermore
1… 2… 3… although in spite of on the other hand
due to owing to instead (of) therefore
a two artists discussing a painting even though however moreover
b a conversation between friends
c a radio programme
d a teacher talking to a student Cause Result Contrast Addition
e a job interview
f a policeman interviewing a suspect
1 Teenagers can get into trouble … the influence
4b Listen again and complete the table. of their peers.
95 What was the Was it good or 2 Children can be overprotected. … , they don’t
change? bad? learn to be independent.
3 On the one hand, parents should make some
1 rules. … , they should sometimes let their child
decide what is best.
2
4 … parents want the best for their children,
3 sometimes they can make mistakes too.
5 They can feel too pressured … their parents’
5a Match the expressions (1-8) to their function (a-d). good intentions.
6 Discussing a choice is important. … , talking
1 I’m awfully sorry, but … 5 What a pity!
together builds a better relationship.
2 Could I interest you in … ? 6 On no account …
3 Come on, just do it 7 Please forgive 8 What would you include in an introduction (I)
for me. me, but … and in a conclusion (C)?
4 There’s no way I can … 8 Oh dear!
1 a statement about what some people think
a persuading c expressing disappointment 2 your personal opinion
b apologising d refusing 3 a statement in favour of the topic
4 a statement against the topic
5b Decide which of the expressions you would use
in a conversation with a friend. 5 a statement summarising what you will discuss
6 a statement summarising your ideas
6 With a partner, role-play the following situation:
9 Write an essay (200 words) on this topic: Parents
You are moving house and you want student should allow their children to make their own
B to help you next weekend. decisions. Use activities 7 and 8 and the model
You need: to pack boxes, to carry heavy items, in unit 7 to help you, and include the following
a car to transport them. ideas.
Try to persuade student B to help you.
• relate your point to the age of the child
Student A wants your help next weekend, but • relate your point to the type of decision
you have a lot of other things to do. Listen • give specific examples
to what student A asks, make excuses and • give reasons for your opinion
apologise.

We all know the story of Icarus, who ignored


Hi … You know I’m moving house this his father’s advice, flew too close to the sun
weekend. Could you lend me a hand? and fell to his death. Some people say that
parents should give children the freedom to
make their own decisions, while others feel
Mmm. What do
that important decisions have to be made for
you need? Well, first of all … children, depending on their age.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 105


UNIT
10
READING COMPREHENSION I
Exam Strategies
Why do we dream?
Completing a text Dreaming is a vital part of our existence. In a
night’s sleep, we can have maybe seven different
Exam tips dreams and it is said that we spend between one
and two hours each night dreaming, 1which is
✱ Read the text quickly to get an idea of what the about six years of our lives. Everybody dreams most
text is about. nights and research has shown the REM (rapid eye
✱ Look at the spaces and choose the phrases that movement) stage of sleep when we are actually
can fit grammatically into each space. dreaming is crucial to sleeping well and waking
refreshed. Experiments conducted on subjects
✱ Look at related vocabulary that will help you choose
who are consistently woken up 2… have led to the
the correct option.
conclusion that being deprived of this step leads to
anxiety and feelings of stress, even if the sleeper
has slept a normal number of hours. These people
feel irritated and depressed the next day.
1a Read the title and the text. What is it about?

1 dreams and ambitions


2 the value of dreaming
3 remembering childhood dreams

1b Choose the options that would fit grammatically


in these sentences.
1 They are woken up … .
a as soon as we wake
b before we settle down for the night
c just when they reach this moment
d two of the most common Dreaming does not only affect us physically, but
2 ... can help us to overcome our anxiety.
also has tremendous psychological implications.
Many people believe that our dreams reflect our
a To dream about these feelings
state of mind, often dealing with negative emotions
b Dreaming about these feelings such as fear, sadness or anger. 3… can help us to
c Dream monitoring technology get rid of the detrimental effects of such feelings.
d Dreaming monitor technology Dreams can be classified into different types. 4… are
recurring dreams and nightmares. The former is a
2 Read the text again and complete each gap (1-7)
dream that is repeated night after night or at least
with the correct phrase from the list supplied
(a-j). Each phrase can be used only ONCE. There on several occasions. Those who interpret dreams
are three phrases you will not need. suggest that these occur because the dreamer
has a problem or conflict that is unresolved. This
a just when they reach this moment situation is depicted in the dream and, while it
b two of the most common can be positive, it is more often unpleasant. 5…
c which people frequently have are often so frightening that you wake up feeling
d making a note each morning of what you terrified. This is often interpreted to be a reaction
remember to real traumas or problems.
e the latter kind of dreams Some people think we can benefit from remembering
f as soon as we wake our dreams. If we want to interpret our dreams, we
g dreaming about these things need to write them down 6… because in five minutes
we forget most of the events, and later in the day we
h the second is a different type of dream
can rarely recall anything. If you are interested in
i which is about six years of our lives self-analysis and understanding how your tensions
j before we settle down for the night and worries are brought out in your dreams, try 7…
and you’ll soon begin to make associations between
(online source)

reality and what happens while you are sleeping!


TRACK 96

106 THAT’S ENGLISH!


UNIT 10
READING COMPREHENSION II certain positions and offering extras to improve
the shopping experience. Research has shown
True or false that slower music makes shoppers move
more slowly through the shop and buy more.
Exam tips Good lighting is also important. If you can’t
see clearly what you are buying or the colour
✱ Find the part of the text that relates to each seems distorted, then you are less likely to buy
statement. The statements will be in the same something. Other visual effects include putting
order as the information appears in the text. items of a similar shade together to make an
✱ Statements may be a paraphrase of ideas in the attractive block of colour or decorating shelves
text, not the same words. with seasonal colours, such as red, green and
gold for Christmastime.

1a Read the text. In which paragraph can you find


information about … ?
1 bargains
2 loyalty cards
3 how music affects shoppers

1b Match the definitions (1-3) to the words (a-c).

1 the organisation of products in a supermarket


2 the way people act
3 shoppers
a consumers b behaviour c layout C Another technique is to put ‘bargains’ at the
end of the aisles that they would like to attract
2 Now read the text and decide if sentences are customers to. The shopper moves towards the
true (✔) or false (✗). Correct the false ones. special offer and then automatically looks down
1 Products are organised in a certain way in a that aisle to see what else there might be. So,
supermarket because of the way consumers for example, a certain brand of chocolate may
act. be on offer at the end of an aisle that leads
2 Music with a fast rhythm encourages shoppers to other sweet delights. The sweet-toothed
to spend more money. consumer may put a couple more things in the
3 Special offers are always less expensive than basket as well! Shoppers are often caught out
usual. by the special offers. Sometimes, they really
4 Typical consumers buy things they don’t need
are cheaper, but in that case we think that
when they go to large supermarkets. because we’ve spent less money, we have extra
to spend on something else that maybe we had
5 Loyalty cards are mainly used to give shoppers
special reductions. no intention of buying in the first place. Your
average shopper in a big supermarket leaves
with 75% of purchases that were not on their
How much are they original list. You have to be very strong-willed to
buy only the three things you went for.
manipulating us?
D One of the main ways these huge companies
A Supermarket chains have developed collect data about their customers is by using
sophisticated systems to learn about what loyalty cards. Few of us have never subscribed
shoppers buy and want, but they also have ways to a card that gives points and later discounts
of making consumers buy things they never on shopping. Using these cards means that the
thought they needed. supermarket knows exactly what we buy and
B The design and layout of supermarkets is when. This informs their purchasing policies
carefully planned using techniques such as but also the special offers they might give and
(online source)

observing shoppers’ behaviour, experimenting even personalised reductions on certain goods.


with lighting and music, placing products in TRACK 97

THAT’S ENGLISH! 107


Exam Strategies

4 According to Jenny, what activity can affect


LISTENING COMPREHENSION I the brain in a positive way?
Answering questions 5 Who can also benefit from playing games
apart from children?
Exam tip
✱ Read all the questions and think about what you
LISTENING COMPREHENSION II
might hear as an answer. Correcting the wrong information
Exam tip
1a Look at the beginning of the questions (1-5) and ✱ Underline the key words in the sentences and listen
match them to the possible answers (a-e). carefully to hear which one(s) you should change.
1 How does he feel about … ?
2 What incident … ? 1 Underline the key words in this sentence. How
3 What does it depend on … ? could you replace them with the words from
4 What activity … ? the box?
5 Who can also benefit … ? The expedition went well until the second day.
a a storm, an accident, an argument
week party morning first last badly
b horse-riding, cooking, sailing
hour fifth terribly course meeting quickly
c excited, sad, pleased
d parents, adults, teenagers
e his mood, his income, his timetable 1bExam tip

101 Make sure you write the exact words you hear.
Exam tip
✱ Much of the information you hear won’t be relevant 2 Listen and circle the word you hear in each case.
to answer the question. Listen for clues that will
help you locate the answer. 100 1 a distress b distressed
2 a surprising b surprised
3 a can b can’t
1b Listen to extracts 1-5. Which one … ? 4 a tasks b task
5 a easier b easiest
98 a expresses an opinion
6 a talk b talked
b describes a link between two things
c gives an additional example of something 3 Listen to four people talking about an emotional
d describes a leisure activity moment in their lives. Correct the wrong
101 information using the exact words you hear.
e refers to an incident in the past
Speaker 1
1c Listen again and complete the phrases you heard
1 The expedition went well until the second
that gave you the clue to find the answer.
98 third day.
1 an opinion: What … . 2 The moment the weather got better he felt excited.
2 a link: There’s an … . Speaker 2
3 an additional example: In the … . 3 At first, he thought he would be setting up the
4 a leisure activity: They … . balloons.
5 a past incident: At … . 4 He found flying in a hot-air balloon a scary
experience.
2 Listen to three students talking about the human Speaker 3
brain and answer the questions. 5 She felt especially upset when her dog died
99 because he was with her son.
1 How does Simon feel about the information 6 She doesn’t want the expense of having
he has discovered? another animal in the house.
2 What incident helped Dave remember what he Speaker 4
had for lunch one day last year?
7 In the afternoon, she had a written exam.
3 What does children’s brain development
depend on according to Dave’s findings? 8 After receiving the news about the job she had
applied for, she was delighted.
108 THAT’S ENGLISH!
UNIT 10
WRITING I WRITING II
Writing a proposal Writing a discursive essay
1 Read the task and answer the questions. Exam tips
The local authorities have decided to offer grants ✱ Use expressions to help the reader follow where
to set up small businesses that will benefit the your text is going.
community. ✱ Use linkers to connect your ideas, explain contrasts
Send your proposal in to the planning office by and give examples.
30 June.

1 Who are you writing the proposal for? 1a Match the expressions (1-9) to their function (a-f).
2 What is the aim of the proposal? 1 I would say
3 What information do you need to give the reader? 2 I will start by
3 In my opinion
Exam tip 4 Some people think
✱ A proposal needs to give clear information. Arrange 5 Undoubtedly
information in different paragraphs. You can use 6 For instance
headings. 7 In conclusion
8 It is believed to be
9 One common argument in favour / against
2 Which of these headings could you use in your
proposal? Choose the best three. a to begin a discussion
b to end a discussion
1 description of the business
c to give your own opinion
2 marketing strategies
d to give others’ opinions
3 benefits for the community
e to introduce an example
4 conclusion
f to emphasise a point
5 the past situation
6 accounting procedures 1b Complete the sentences with words from the box.
7 introduction
apart from despite due to however while
Exam tip 1 Teachers can offer much more personalised
attention. … , in a big class this is not always
✱ Use modifiers with comparatives to emphasise your possible.
ideas.
2 … the fact that you can study when and where
you want, you have to be self-disciplined to
work on your own.
3 Complete the sentences with phrases from the
3 The course I followed was online, … face-to-
box.
face tutorials once a week.
far greater much better 4 The number of students taking this kind of course
even fewer considerably more has increased … changes in the job market.
5 Online learning is suitable for academic study
1 If there is a play centre in the village, then … face-to-face classes are essential for more
small children will have … opportunities to be practical subjects.
in contact with other children.
2 Since the supermarket was built in the park area, 2 Write an essay (150-180 words) about the
parents have … places to go with their children. following topic.
3 We will be able to provide a … service.
4 There is a … need for childcare facilities than Some people say that it is almost impossible to
before. learn without going to classes. Others think that
online learning is equally effective, if not better.
Discuss both these views and give your opinion
4 Now write your proposal (150-180 words).
and examples from your own experience.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 109


Exam Strategies

SPEAKING I: Interaction a Come on! I promise I won’t tell anyone else!


b Don’t worry. I’ll take good care of it and get it
Role-play: persuading back to you tomorrow.
c Please, just give me a hand this one time. I’ll
Exam tip do the same for you whenever you want.
d It won’t take too long, and I’d really appreciate
✱ Use expressions for persuading or convincing your it if you could come with me.
partner.
e Go for it! You won’t regret it, I’m sure.

2 Look at this exam task. Choose either student


1a Are these expressions used for persuading or A or student B and think of how you could
refusing? convince them. Talk for 5-6 minutes.
1 No way! Student A
2 Wouldn’t you like to (go)? Student B is your landlord/landlady and
3 It’s really (inexpensive). wants to raise your monthly rent. Talk to them
4 I wouldn’t do that. to convince them that they shouldn’t.
5 It’s super-(interesting). Use some of these ideas to help you:
6 It can’t be that good. • your salary has been cut
7 Come on! • there are cheaper flats in the same building
8 Come off it! • you always pay on time
Listen and practise the intonation of the • you look after the flat well
102
expressions.
Student B
1b Work with a partner. Use one of the expressions You are renting your flat to student A and you
from activity 1a to refuse in these situations. want to raise the monthly rent. Talk to them to
convince them it is necessary.
Use some of these ideas to help you:
• the rent hasn’t increased in 2 years
• the increase in local taxes
• expenses you have had to maintain the
property
• the number of other people interested in
renting the flat

Good morning, I have to talk to you about the


rent for the flat. You know I haven’t asked for
an increase in the past two years. Well, now
1 Wouldn’t you like to try bungee-jumping? I have to.
2 You should buy that watch, it’s really cheap!
3 Let’s stay in and play Monopoly this evening.
4 That course on making paper aeroplanes That’s really unfair! You know my salary has
looks super-interesting. been cut from last year.

1c What could you say to convince someone to act


in these situations? Match the situations (1-5)
to the ways of persuading (a-e).
1 You want to sell them your car.
2 You want them to accompany you to the
doctor’s.
3 You want them to tell you a secret.
4 You want them to help you with some extra
work.
5 You want to borrow something valuable from
them.

110 THAT’S ENGLISH!


UNIT 10
SPEAKING II: Monologue Exam tip
Describing and evaluating an ✱ Use linkers to show cause and effect.
event in the past
Exam tip 3 Complete the sentences with a linker from the
box.
✱ Use appropriate tenses to describe events in the
past. so that as because of
thanks to that’s why

1 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets in 1 My life is going well now. … I’m happy I made
the correct tense. that decision.
2 I went abroad … I could learn another language.
3 … I’m not very adventurous, it was a difficult
decision.
4 I managed to find a job, … my tutor’s advice.
5 I didn’t get the position … my lack of experience.

4 Talk about an important choice you made in the


past. Talk for 2-3 minutes. Remember to:
• describe what you chose to do.
• explain why you made the choice.
• say what could have happened if you hadn’t
made that choice.
When I was in my early twenties, I 1… (make) an
important decision. I 2… (just / finish) my degree • explain if the result was positive or negative.
and needed to decide whether to stay in my
hometown and work for the family business
or go abroad to continue studying. It 3… (be)
tempting to take the easier option, which was a
safe job and the comfort of my own home, but I
also wanted some adventure in my life. Before
I 4… (decide) I spent a long time researching
possibilities. I 5… (not / have) much money, so
I couldn’t afford an expensive private course.
Eventually I found that the European Union
6
… (offer) grants for biochemistry masters in
Germany, so I 7… (apply) and got an offer. A
month later, I was in Frankfurt!

Exam tip
✱ Use appropriate tenses to speculate.

2 Choose the correct option.


1 If I had / hadn’t gone to Frankfurt, I’d never
learn / have learnt German.
2 If my husband Kurt had chosen / chose a
different course, I didn’t meet / wouldn’t have
met him.
3 If I weren’t / I am not married to Kurt. I wouldn’t
A few years ago, I had to make an important
be / won’t be living in Germany now.
decision. I had to decide if I wanted to study
4 If I had stayed / would stay in my home town, for a year in Dublin or stay in my home town
I’d probably be / have been married to my old to get a job and help out my mum …
boyfriend, Carlos.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 111


SELF TEST UNIT 1
1 Match (1-6) to (a-f). 4 He burst into tears when they wouldn’t give
him a visa since
1 The food at that restaurant
5 When the police found the boy,
2 I just don’t understand science, and
6 At first, he found her excuses funny and would
3 When she decided to leave him, just chuckle,
4 I was totally repulsed
a he’d been dreaming about visiting the country
5 When the driver crashed the bus,
all his life.
6 He was convinced he was the best, so he was
b but now they irritate him.
very distressed
c his mother was utterly relieved.
a I find it really confusing. d – it was so brilliant!
b by the horror of the situation. e when we won the lottery.
c when I won first prize. f my blood turned to ice.
d is disgusting.
e we were utterly astounded. 5 Replace the adjectives in italics with suitable
non-gradable adjectives and modifiers.
f it was absolutely terrifying.

2 Complete the sentences with the correct form Dear Sir/Madam


of the words in brackets. I am writing to complain about our 1very bad
holiday with your company.
1 It’s really … when you don’t listen. (frustration)
First, the accommodation: we were 2rather
2 He’ll be absolutely … by that. (rage) angry about the hotel, which was 3very ugly.
3 We’ve all experienced … situations. (disappoint) The rooms were 4very small and we were 5quite
4 I found her words of support deeply … . shocked by the filthy bathrooms. Also, it was so
(reassure) noisy we couldn’t sleep so we were 6very tired.
The only positive aspect was the 7rather pretty
5 The students were … to hear they didn’t have view. Our holiday was ruined and my children
a test. (relief) are 8very upset. I expect compensation.
6 She’s got a new job with a better salary and Yours faithfully
she’s … about it. (delight)

3 Complete the sentences with the correct form 6 Rewrite the sentences with phrases using the
of the expressions from the box. words in brackets and expressions with it.
1 What’s the distance to Paris from here? (far)
pour one’s heart out hit someone hard
give someone the creeps be beside oneself How …
fall to pieces hurt someone’s feelings 2 We understand you don’t want to come with
be moved to tears us. (take)
We take …
1 She … by his emotional leaving speech. 3 Could you turn the lights off when you leave?
2 Every time we meet, she … her … to me about (appreciate / if)
her problems. We would …
3 She … after her boyfriend’s death. She couldn’t 4 You upset me when you criticise me in front of
cope at all. other people. (find / upsetting)
4 It … him … when he wasn’t chosen to play – I find …
he was so disappointed.
5 We think there might be a problem. (seems)
5 He’s obsessed with her and follows her
everywhere. It … me … . It …
6 It really … my … when you criticise me in front 7 Listen and complete the summaries with the
of other people. appropriate connector.
7 She hasn’t heard from him for nearly a week, 7
1… the man was ecstatic about his new home,
and she … with worry.
but 2… , his joy disappeared as he discovered its
4 Match (1-6) to (a-f). problems. 3… , he had enough money for extra
repairs and solved the problems 4… .
1 We were overcome with emotion 5… the woman sat there, she daydreamed and
2 When I heard the wolves, 6… she had thoughts about her former job. 7… ,
3 We gasped when we saw his work she felt good about it.

112 THAT’S ENGLISH!


SELF TEST UNIT 2
1 Complete the sentences with a word from A c to life over here – she’s very homesick.
and a word from B. d herself down, but actually she’s extremely
good.
A
e with the heat.
physically culture self- stigma f in, but I’m not used to this lifestyle.
status work
4 Complete the sentences with would or used to
B and the verbs from the box. Always use would
if possible.
symbol demonstrative shock ethic
deprecating attached never talk not have save live like give
1 He’s really good-looking, but not at all arrogant; 1 They … in a really small house on the docks.
in fact, he’s rather shy and … .
2 They … very much money.
2 Her uncompromising … means she’s always
3 Every day she … the children fresh bread and
in the office by seven.
honey for breakfast.
3 Their yacht is just a … – they never go sailing
4 I … the apple they gave me at lunchtime and
in it.
eat it in the evening.
4 I’m not very … myself so kissing and hugging
5 I … walking by the river.
makes me feel uncomfortable.
6 He … to his wife about his problems.
5 Living in an undeveloped country was a bit of
a … at first.
5 Choose the correct options.
6 Everyone pretends to be relaxed because
there’s a … to trying too hard. 1 They keep / kept / keeping on hoping they’ll
win but they never do.
2 Complete the account of life in Antarctica. Use 2 Don’t criticise her or she’s going / ’ll go / went
the present continuous or will + infinitive of the on and on about it.
verbs in brackets.
3 They keep telling him to stop but he just
carries / carried / would carry on.
I find it really difficult to get up in the morning 4 When I heard what he’d done, I laughed /
because it’s so dark. When the alarm clock laugh / ’d laugh and laughed.
rings, I 1… (turn it off) and 2… (go) straight
back to sleep again. Even in summer, the 5 Despite the evidence, his parents are going /
sun 3… (not rise) until really late in the never go / will go on believing he is innocent.
morning and in winter it’s completely dark 6 I just can’t get used / be used to his new look.
all day. Our diet isn’t very varied and we 4… I was used / get used to his beard, and it’s
always … (try) to find ways of making the strange to see him without one!
food more interesting. We have to eat a lot
because of the cold and we have this horrible 6 Put the sentences in order to make a
porridge for breakfast. I 5… constantly … conversation.
(experiment) with different ways to cook it,
but unfortunately it never tastes very nice! 1 How stupid! He’s got no bloody common
sense. What does she see in him?
2 That’s Jake on that motorbike with Marta, isn’t
3 Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-6) to it? What on earth does he think he’s doing?
the endings (a-f). 3 I think there’s only one helmet and he gave it
1 I don’t think she’s adapting well to Marta.
2 They are finding it difficult to cope 4 Like hell they are! He couldn’t plan a trip to the
supermarket.
3 He’s always talking
5 He’s taking Marta on a tour of the city.
4 She has a terrible habit of putting
6 Well, why isn’t he wearing a helmet, the idiot!
5 I didn’t want to bring this There’s lots of traffic in the city.
6 I’m making an effort to fit 7 Marta really likes him. They’re planning a trip
a up his ‘great relationship’ with Rachel, but to America together.
actually he hardly knows her. 8 Well, I think Jake only wants to look like a
b up in front of the others, but how much million bucks and that’s why he gave it to her.
experience do you really have?

THAT’S ENGLISH! 113


SELF TEST UNIT 3
1 Listen to the conversation about a university. 2 At the conference, we were asked to
Which of the items (1-5) are intentions and brainpower / brainstorm new product ideas.
24
which are definite arrangements? 3 We’d all like to get paid more and work less –
it’s a no-brainer / brainstorm.
1 opening a new science laboratory
4 The telephone was the whizzkid / brainchild of
2 building new accommodation blocks
Alexander Graham Bell.
3 setting up a team to visit schools
5 Tommy Flowers was the brainpower / brains
4 running a science competition behind the construction of the first computer.
5 having science open days 6 Doing crosswords is meant to improve your
brainstorm / brainpower.
2 Complete the dialogue with a suitable future 7 Using a smartphone nowadays is not rocket
form of the verb in brackets. science / a no-brainer – even small children
A: Hi, how’s it going? Listen, I’ve just heard that can do it.
Jon Cleal 1... (play) here next Saturday night!
I 2... (get) some tickets. I’m in the queue now. 5 Rewrite the sentences with a focus adverb
Do you fancy coming? (only, just, even) to make them more emphatic.
B: That sounds great, but I 3... (have) dinner with
my family at 6:00 p.m.
A: Well, the concert 4... (start) at 8:00 and there’s
the support band first.
B: OK, I 5… (tell) them it’s a really special
opportunity. I’m sure they 6... (not mind). I can
leave at 7:30 because we 7... (finish) eating by
then.
A: Right. So next Saturday, I 8... (wait) outside
the arena for you from 7:45.
B: Great, I 9... (look forward) to it!
1 Teresa’s a terrible cook – she can’t boil an egg!
3 Complete the sentences with the correct form 2 I’ve had some wonderful news – I’ve got the
of a word from the box. Some words can be job!
used more than once.
3 She wants to explain what went wrong – it
won’t take long.
memory souvenir recall retrieve
4 These builders are so messy – they haven’t
remind recollection remember
taken their rubbish away.
1 Please, ... me to put the rubbish bin out 5 They eat in very expensive restaurants so no
tomorrow. fast food for them!
2 I got this painting as a ... of my visit to Bali. 6 Can you stop for a moment and listen to me?
3 I’m hopeless at … everyday things, like where 7 Please – I want to borrow it for a couple of
I put my car keys! minutes.
4 Every year, we honour the … of the brave men 6 Put the sentences in the correct order to make
who died in the First World War. a paragraph.
5 He was surprised to find his old school was so
small as his ... was of a huge building. 1 Other people may be gifted at caring for plants
6 The computer technician tried ... the files after and animals or good at making things.
we had a computer virus, but he couldn’t. 2 Everyone has something to contribute to
7 I distinctly … mentioning this before to you. life and I think we shouldn’t rate some skills
higher than others.
8 My granddad delighted us by … life when he
was a boy. I can’t … everything he said, but it 3 Someone who can get on with their colleagues
was very interesting. and be supportive is more useful than a genius
who has no people skills.
4 Choose the correct word to complete the 4 In recent years, people have started to value
sentences. different types of intelligence as much as
academic ability.
1 Bill Gates was a computer brainchild / whizzkid 5 For example, emotional intelligence is seen as
when he was a teenager. very useful in the workplace.

114 THAT’S ENGLISH!


SELF TEST UNIT 4
1 Complete the sentences with the correct form A: Thank you. Could you 4… pour me some
of the verbs in brackets. water?
B: Yes, of 5... .
1 We aim ... (increase) sales by 50% this year.
2 I can’t imagine ... (leave) my country to live 2 A: Give 6... a ... with these bags, 7... you?
elsewhere. B: No 8... .
3 The government intends ... (introduce) a tax
3 A: 9... you 10... put your clothes away?
on second homes.
B: 11... right.
4 Gary never misses ... (attend) his team’s
matches.
5 My favourite teacher always encouraged me 4 Replace the words in bold with an object
... (aim) high. pronoun or a possessive adjective + -ing.
6 We’re considering ... (buy) a new car. 1 Please forgive me and my husband for any
7 My sister fancies ... (have) a tattoo. noise we made last night.
8 I offered ... (cook) a meal, but they decided ... 2 The neighbours objected to the fact that Mr
(order) a takeaway. Sommers burnt his rubbish.
3 We excused the fact that our friends left early
2 Complete the text with the correct form of the because they were exhausted.
verbs from the box. 4 Do you mind if I make a call?
5 He overlooked the fact that his girlfriend forgot
smell experience put wait visit drive to buy the flowers.
take (x2) communicate
6 I don’t have a problem if you and your friends
use the car.

5 Listen to the conversation. Are the statements


true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct the false ones.
34
1 Steve doesn’t want to help Rachel raise money
for Africa.
2 Steve prefers to help people locally.
3 Rachel is worried about how local people
might react to help.
4 Steve doesn’t think people need to be careful
when offering help.
5 There are a lot of people living in poor
circumstances in Steve’s city.
I’ll never forget 1… Africa for the first time. 6 Social security workers could get money to
As we left the plane, I remember 2… the needy people faster.
scent of the red earth and wood smoke. I 7 Steve advises Rachel to be passive.
loved 3… a totally new culture as we stopped
4… pictures. I tried 5… with the local people, 6 Complete the dialogue with suitable words or
but they didn’t always understand. I nearly phrases.
forgot 6… my camera with me after one visit, A: Do you have any 1... ?
but luckily, the family ran after us and we B: As 2... as I’m 3... , it’s not a priority.
stopped 7… off in time. After that, I always
C: I couldn’t 4... more. I think it’s a very worthwhile
remembered 8… the strap around my neck.
project.
That trip was 15 years ago, and I regret 9…
so long but I’m going back next year. B: Sorry, I think you’ve 5... me. I meant it’s not a
priority in this area.
C: 6... enough, but we still need to consider it.
3 Complete the dialogue with suitable words. A: 7... I 8... say something here? Let’s keep it on
the list for next year.
1 A: Excuse me, 1... you ... passing the salt? 9
B: ... plan.
B: 2... at all. There you 3... . C: That sounds 10... to me.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 115


SELF TEST UNIT 5
1 Match the numbers to the facts and write them 3 I have three … because my husband has a
in words. female twin and two elder sisters.
1,399,491,185 0.666 3¾ 4 He gave us slightly different … of the problem
on different occasions.
7,000,000,000 365 3.14159
5 The genetic material of the cells is contained in
1 The population of the world is approximately their … .
…. 6 These are strange … which scientists find
2 Pi (the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its difficult to explain.
diameter) is … .
5 Rewrite the sentences using the correct form of
34-¼=… the phrases from the box.
4 Two-thirds expressed in decimal fractions is
…. halve 70% fall by a quarter double
5 The population of China is … . increase by 33% three times more
6 The number of days in a year is … . quadruple

2 Complete the text with the words from the box. 1 The college has twice as many overseas
students as it did last year.
none all both either neither (x2) The number of …
2 The price of building materials is predicted to
I met my two best friends, Luis and Paula, at rise by a third.
university. 1… three of us studied economics. People say the price …
2
… Paula and I wanted to work in finance, but
3 Sales are 25% down on last year.
3
… of us intended to be accountants. Luis
wanted 4… to work for a charity or the UN, Our sales figures have …
but he did 5… of these things and became a 4 It’s worth 50% less than when we bought it.
banker whilst I’m working for the UN. 6… of us Its value …
are doing what we planned but we’re happy! 5 Seven customers out of ten said they liked it.
It was approved by …
Listen and complete the dialogue. 6 Our success rate has increased 300%.
3
We are … successful.
49 Jean: Li, help me fill in this form to enrol you 7 It now goes four times as fast.
at the language school. They want your
height and weight. Its speed …
Li: OK, I’m 1… and I weigh 2… kilos. 6 Rewrite the sentences in different ways using
Jean: What’s that in feet, inches and pounds? the structures in brackets.
Li: OK, one metre is 3… . There are 4… inches
in a foot so, I’m 5… tall, and there are 6… 1 I really think you should look for a way to solve
pounds … ounces to the kilo so I weigh this problem. (recommend + -ing / recommend
7
… pounds! + new subject + subjunctive)
Jean: Great. The school wants you to pay in 2 ‘We must ask for government funding,’ says
advance: that’s 8… dollars. Is that OK? the chair. (propose + -ing / propose + that +
new subject + verb)
Li: The exchange rate is one dollar to 9…
yuan, so that’s 10… yuan. Yes, I’ve got 3 My parents have encouraged my sister to
that. apply for the job. (suggest + that + new subject
+ verb / suggest + new subject + subjunctive)
4 Complete the sentences with the plural of a 4 The government wanted to lower the age for
word from the box. voting. (propose + -ing / propose + new subject
+ subjunctive)
crisis analysis medium sister-in-law 5 ‘We should celebrate your birthday with a
phenomenon nucleus huge party,’ said my boyfriend. (suggest + -ing /
suggest + that + new subject + verb)
1 Her life is just a long series of … – there’s one 6 My uncle says we have to listen to this new
emergency after another. band. (recommend + -ing / recommend + that
2 I read the news on various different … – my + new subject + verb)
phone, my tablet or even a newspaper.

116 THAT’S ENGLISH!


SELF TEST UNIT 6
1 Complete the sentences with the correct form 2 I’ve never seen such beautiful carvings – they
of the words and phrases from the box. are simply … .
3 You’ll see her immediately. She’s wearing an
advertising campaign build a rapport extremely … outfit!
find common ground collective subconscious 4 We can bring you … world news and
inherently sales pitch slogan unwary information 24 hours a day.
1 He … with the cleaners by taking some time to 5 They entertained us in their … hotel suite with
laugh and joke with them every day. its own swimming pool and butler service.
2 The two sides are trying to … which could 6 It’s not as expensive as I thought; in fact, it’s
form the basis of a future agreement. extremely … .
3 These beliefs are buried deep in our … and we 4 Listen and complete the sales presentation.
are unaware of them.
4 Chemists are worried that the … used 61 If you want to 1… heads on the beach
by supermarkets to sell painkillers could this summer, consider this 2… one-piece
encourage the public to overuse them. swimsuit. Made of a new 3… light but 4…
5 His application wasn’t … better than yours, strong cotton mix fabric, this suit dries
but it was better presented. quickly and will never lose its shape. It is
6 The thieves pretend to be bank representatives available in a range of elegant colours – 5…
and persuade … customers to give them their yellow, emerald green or 6… blue – and most
account passwords. sizes. And if you buy two, we’ll give you a
7
… silk-mix beach sarong completely 8… !
7 Their first … was for the Egg Marketing Board So what are you waiting for? Buy now while
and had the … ‘Go to work on an egg’. stocks last!
2 Complete the dialogues with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets. Include the object 5 Rewrite the sentences using the correct form of
pronouns if necessary. the words in brackets.

A: Dad was absolutely against the idea to start 1 You don’t have to endure the discomfort of
with but mum managed to 1… it. a cramped seat, you can sit back and relax.
B: Good old mum, she can 2… almost anything! (instead of)
(bring someone round to something / talk 2 I really don’t think it’s a good idea to visit that
someone into doing something) area of the city at night. (would advise against)
3 The sales assistant was absolutely certain that
A: I hope all these visa problems haven’t 3… it was the cheapest model available. (be able
and you’re still coming to visit us. to guarantee)
B: Don’t worry. I 4… completely 5… by the 4 The travel agent told us we’d definitely be
beautiful pictures you sent me. A few minor delighted with the holiday we’d booked. (be
technical problems won’t stop me now. able to assure)
(put someone off / win someone over) 5 It’s a long way to walk. Why don’t you take a
taxi instead? (might I suggest)
A: I’ve decided to do it, Andrew, and that’s final.
6 Don’t ask him. He’s only just started working
Don’t try to 6… it.
here. (wouldn’t bother)
B: Your girlfriend seems to be able to 7…
anything she wants, but I’m concerned that 6 Loli is trying to persuade Marcus to get fit. Use
this isn’t in your best interests. the words in brackets to complete the dialogue.
(talk someone out of doing something /
seduce someone into doing something) L: I think you should take up running Marcus –
you could lose weight really quickly.
3 Complete the sentences with the adjectives M: … (million years / I / take up runnning /
1

from the box. much too tiring)


L: Well, how about coming to yoga with me?
affordable opulent state-of-the art
M: 2… (dead body / hate / group activities)
exquisite eye-catching up-to-the-minute
L: I know! I’ll get you a personal trainer.
1 The government of Dubai have just opened M: 3… (no account / I / get / very expensive)
a new … airport terminal which is equipped L: Shall I just buy you a bike, then?
with all the latest technology.
M: 4… (not even think / never use)

THAT’S ENGLISH! 117


SELF TEST UNIT 7
1 Complete the dialogue with the correct form of
Making a list of the pros and cons often helps
the verb in brackets.
people to make the 6... choice. If you are still
A: Let’s eat out tonight. in two 7... about your decision, then sleep
B: OK. How about an Indian meal? on it and ask advice from a good friend. Of
course, if both alternatives are unfavourable
A: To be honest, I’d prefer 1... (have) Chinese. and you are 8... between a 9… and a hard
B: Fine. Shall we go to the local restaurant? place, you’ll just have to pick one idea and
A: I’d rather 2... (try) somewhere else – maybe in hope for the best!
town.
B: Well, I’d prefer 3... (walk) rather than 4... 5 Listen to the conversation. Are the statements
(drive). true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct the false ones.
70
A: I’d rather 5... (not walk) – I feel tired.
1 Both Simon and Maddy are enthusiastic about
B: Let’s just order a takeaway pizza after all. the job in Rome.
2 Maddy will be able to choose whatever flat
2 Rewrite the sentence for each situation using
she wants.
the word in brackets.
3 Maddy is nervous about deciding too fast.
1 I didn’t want you to use my phone. (rather) 4 Simon doesn’t feel obliged to stay in his job.
2 She wanted him to help earlier. (prefer) 5 Simon could pay back his course fees.
3 We wanted you to clean the room thoroughly. 6 Maddy is sympathetic to Simon’s situation.
(rather)
7 Simon suggests looking at the advantages
4 His parents didn’t want him to give up and disadvantages of Maddy’s job offer.
university. (prefer)
5 They wanted the thief to go to prison. (rather) 6 Complete the article with the correct connector.
There is more than one possibility in each case.
3 Complete the text with the correct form of the
verb in brackets. Many people consider that playing computer
games is a waste of time.
What would life 1... (be) like now if money 2... ... some people spend an excessive amount
1

(not invent)? If gold 3... (not exist) in sufficient of time playing games, it is not true that there
amounts, people 4... (not decide) to use it as are no benefits. Research shows that players
a way of exchanging things. If people 5... develop strong problem-solving skills.
(not use) gold , they might 6... (choose) some
other precious metal or stones like rubies.
2
... , regular players develop better hand to
However, many complex societies – like the eye coordination than non-players.
Incas – didn’t use money or coins but had 3
... gamers often perform well at tennis, golf
a system of keeping accounts of what was and other sports.
used. Other societies used shells as money – 4
... , there has been a noticeable drop in
if we 7... (use) shells as money, it 8... (not be) the rate of crime committed by teenagers.
very convenient! Some people would like to Experts believe this is partly due to teenagers
replace money with a talent exchange where playing games and using social media rather
people exchange goods or services. If we 9... than hanging around and causing trouble.
(adopt) the talent exchange, we 10... (need)
very good computer systems to keep track
5
... , it is undoubtedly true that gaming can
of everything! be addictive and affect a user’s studies and
grades at school.
6
... , there have been some shocking cases
4 Complete the text with one word in each gap. where teenagers have died after three days
spent playing computer games non-stop.
Some people find making important
decisions very stressful. In fact, it sometimes
7
... , while computer games have brought
seems that having 1... choice is a lot easier entertainment to millions and can contribute
than having your 2... of something. Rather to a person’s skill set, I believe parents need
than making a 3... decision that you might to control how much they are played as there
regret, it’s best to relax and 4... up all the 5... . may be negative consequences otherwise.

118 THAT’S ENGLISH!


SELF TEST UNIT 8
1 Complete the phrases (1-6) with so or such Kate: I hear Dylan got into Oxford University.
(- / a / an) and match them to the endings (a-f). That’s so 1... !
Jane: Yes, we’re all 2... at the news! And Polly?
1 ... dangerous was the situation that
Kate: She didn’t get a place, she’s so upset 3… it.
2 ... heroism deserves
Jane: Oh 4... ! She must be 5... .
3 ... an unsung heroine
Kate: Yes, we’re all disappointed 6… it. I tried
4 ... lovely did she look that
asking the school to help.
5 ... was his devotion that
Jane: And did they?
6 ... devastated did she feel that
Kate: No. They just weren’t interested. I was 7... .
I’m very disappointed 8... them.
a he couldn’t take his eyes off her.
b to be recognised. 5 Listen to a conversation about a film. Are the
c the police had to withdraw. sentences true (✔) or false (✗)? Correct the false
83 ones.
d he never left her bedside.
e she never recovered. 1 The woman thinks the main character of the
f was the inventor of the dishwasher. film was a freedom fighter.
2 The man thought the main character was
2 Choose the correct option. justified in his actions.
1 Marie Curie had her feet of clay / moment of 3 The man thinks the main character was far
glory when she received the Nobel Prize. from perfect but basically a good person.
2 We congratulated the winners and put on a 4 The woman thinks the facts about folk heroes
brave face / sank into oblivion when we lost. are often unclear.
3 You can’t criticise my mother because my father 5 The woman thinks that Bonnie and Clyde
has put on a brave face / put her on a pedestal. deserved admiration and attention.
4 All the reviewers put her on a pedestal / sang 6 The proposed book title is Fallen Icons.
her praises when her book won the competition.
6 Rewrite the sentences to begin with what.
5 Laszlo Biro’s claim to fame / hall of fame is
being the inventor of the first leak proof pen. 1 I find it most disappointing that the whole
6 Macaulay Culkin was a child star of the 90s but team are under suspicion.
has since sunk into oblivion / sung his praises. 2 It was devastating when the singer lost her
7 It’s disappointing when someone you admire beautiful voice.
shows they have a claim to fame / feet of clay. 3 We discovered that to win you have to work in
8 Many women scientists have only recently a team.
entered the hall of fame / their moment of glory. 4 It was thrilling that we won first prize.
5 She believed that she could do it on her own.
3 Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
1 Many believe Joseph Bazalgette saved 7 Complete the dialogues with a suitable word.
thousands by building London’s sewer system.
Tom: Have you heard Rory won the marathon!
2 Experts consider that Mary Seacole was a
Mia: 1
... ! Didn’t he break his back a while ago?
major influence on improving nursing.
Tom: Yes. He was told he’d never walk again!
3 People say the Red Cross operates in 73
countries worldwide. Mia: That’s so 2... .
4 Doctors estimate 100 billion children have Tom: I 3... to say that is 4... . It’s 5... most 6...
been given vaccinations by the Red Cross. achievement.
5 Analysts understand over 100 health workers Ben: Seb Core’s been disqualified for cheating.
have died in the Ebola crisis.
Nat: What a 7... !
4 Complete the dialogue with the correct words Ben: You 8... it!
from the box. There are two extra words. Nat: You can’t believe in anyone nowadays.
Ben: Too 9... !
incredible pity dear devastated on
staggered with about (x2) overjoyed

THAT’S ENGLISH! 119


SELF TEST UNIT 9
1 Complete the dialogue with the words from the 3 flight delayed five hours / terrible weather (on
box. account of)
4 circumstances / I think / owe you / apology (in
voyage travelling travel journey trip
view of)
Keira: How was your 1… to Spain? 5 terrible flying conditions / make emergency
Monica: Tiring! It was a long 2… . The ferry to landing / Hong Kong (because of)
Santander took 12 hours.
Keira: Why didn’t you fly? 5 Complete the dialogue with the words from the
box.
Monica: Well, Dan hates plane 3… ! So he said a
sea 4… would be a nice change. carriage compartments platform seat
Keira: And was it? berths fare sleeper
Monica: No, because I get seasick! Next time,
we are 5… by car! A: I’d like an overnight 1… from Leeds to London.
What’s the cheapest 2… ?
2 Match the beginnings of the sentences (1-6) to B: A second-class ticket would be £105.
the endings (a-f). A: And that’s for a sleeping 3… , not a 4… ?
1 The flight was to B: That’s right.
2 The pilot is on the point of A: So for three of us that’s more than £300. Can
we all travel in the same 5… ?
3 The city is about to
B: The sleeping 6… are for four people.
4 The behaviour of the other passengers was so
bad that I was on the point of A: And what time does the train leave?
5 Major roadworks are to B: At midnight from 7… 14.
6 The cabin crew are about to
6 Complete the text with the correct form of the
a making an in-flight announcement. verbs from the box.
b start on the southbound carriageway. get away stop over pick up drop off
c calling the flight attendant to complain. put up take off
d become a major tourist destination.
e arrive at 12:30 the next day. The day I left for Australia, my whole family
f prepare for landing. 1
… me … at the airport. 24 hours is a long
time to travel but we 2… in Dubai first. My
3 Complete the account of a flight with the words Aussie cousins had offered not only 3… me
from the box. … from the airport but also 4… me … in their
home. I put on my seatbelt ready for the
cabin crew on-board catering jet lag plane 5… . I was so excited and just couldn’t
destination turbulence stopovers wait 6… on my great adventure.
landing long-haul evacuate
7 Match the expressions (1-5) to the situations
I booked a 1… flight from Heathrow to (a-e). Do they express gratitude or apology?
Wellington NZ last year. We had two 2… in
Dubai and Hong Kong and it took nearly 24 1 I’m terribly sorry he was so naughty.
hours to reach our final 3… .The flight was bad. 2 Thank you so much. You really shouldn’t have!
There was a lot of 4 … : at one point I was very I will remember you all.
scared. I thought the pilot was going to make 3 How extremely kind! It looks absolutely
an emergency 5… and 6… the plane. But the delicious. Thank you very much indeed.
7
… were fantastic: they reassured everyone.
And I must say the food from the 8… service 4 Please forgive me for not remembering. Can I
was great! I had terrible 9… when I was there take you out to lunch instead?
though, and only recovered in time to fly back! 5 I take entire responsibility and apologise most
sincerely for the inconvenience.
4 Write sentences using the expressions in brackets. a You forgot a close friend’s birthday.
1 this morning / congestion on the M4 / accident b Your colleagues gave you a present.
involving two lorries (due to) c Your small child has behaved badly.
2 a mistake on the part of the airline / had to d Your colleague has made you a cake.
travel first class (owing to) e You made a serious mistake at work.

120 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 1

1 REVISION OF -ING VS -ED ADJECTIVES


-ing adjectives -ed adjectives
• They describe how something or someone • They describe how people feel.
makes others feel.
This poison has paralysing effects. I was paralysed with fear.
This novel is long but interesting. We are really interested in your new product.
Ms Adams is a very encouraging teacher. Students are encouraged to study on their own.
The huge dog was a frightening sight. I’m frightened of dogs.

2 REVISION OF MODIFYING ADVERBS


Modifying adverbs with gradable and non-gradable adjectives
extremely The teacher was extremely helpful.
fairly Her eyes were fairly large.
• with gradable adjectives
rather He was rather strange.
hot, cold, angry...
slightly I find her giggle slightly annoying.
very As the water was very cold, I didn't take a dip.
• with non-gradable
adjectives* absolutely We were absolutely astonished by her reaction.
boiling, freezing, furious, totally She felt totally awful about what she’d done.
enraged, hilarious, completely His threats sounded completely ridiculous.
repulsive, heartbroken...
really (informal) I was really anxious when I found out I’d be on
my own.
pretty (informal) She can be pretty awful when she wants to be.
• with both types quite + gradable The exam was quite difficult (difficult, but not
(not very) very).
quite + non-gradable He was quite furious when he heard the news
(totally) (totally furious).

! *These are extreme, or maximum intensity, adjectives. Classifying adjectives (like international,
indoor, or civilian) are also non-gradable but cannot be modified by adverbs like very or absolutely.

• We tend to use rather with negative adjectives. When we use it with positive adjectives, it
usually means we were surprised by the positive quality described.
She’s rather nosy when it comes to my personal life.
It turned out to be a rather enjoyable experience.

• There are many other modifying adverbs we can use with both gradable and non-gradable
adjectives which add intensity or an opinion to the adjective (e.g. incredibly, purely, perfectly,
thoroughly, utterly, simply, exceedingly, ridiculously, bitterly, etc.). There are no rules for
using one or another beyond noticing what people say. Some words function together
(collocate) and some don’t.
She’s perfectly capable of doing that job on her own.
Assuming the opposite would be utterly ridiculous.
He thought the cake was incredibly good.
It was bitterly cold outside when they left the house.

3 IT IN IMPERSONAL AND ANTICIPATORY USES


• We use the pronoun it as an impersonal subject for sentences that refer to dates, time, the
weather or distances.
It’s two o’clock. It’s sunny. It’s two miles from here to the station.

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Grammar Reference Unit 1

• When we have long complex clauses as subjects, we normally put them at the end of the
sentence and use an ‘empty’ it to anticipate the subject.
Why he made such a ridiculous decision is not clear.

It is not clear why he made such a ridiculous decision.

Anticipatory it as subject
It’s obvious that he wasn’t happy with the new
It’s obvious / clear / probable that…
arrangements.
It appeared / seemed that they hadn’t taken the
It appears / seems that…
necessary precautions.
It’s a mistake to ignore their warnings.
It’s a mistake / a shame that… / to…
It’s a shame that so many resources are wasted.
It + be a good idea / a pity / absurd / It was a good idea to publish the results early.
difficult / wrong, etc. to… It has been difficult to accept his resignation.
It + be a good idea / a pity / absurd / It would be absurd / wrong for me to make that decision
difficult / wrong, etc. for someone to… because I can’t be impartial.
It + be essential / imperative / vital to… It’s essential / imperative / vital to reduce costs.
It + be essential / imperative / vital that It’s essential / imperative / vital that she (should) be
someone (should) + infinitive here at eight.
It + be essential / imperative / vital for It’s essential / imperative / vital for them to change their
someone to… attitude on this matter.
It amazes / surprises me that they have never
questioned their motives.
It amazes / annoys / bothers / frightens /
It often frightens / scares people that not every situation
scares / surprises / worries someone
can be controlled.
that / when…
It really annoys / bothers me when people waste
good opportunities.

• We can also have a long clause as an object, and therefore use an anticipatory it after the
main verb.

I like it when you smile.


Object

Anticipatory it as object
I, he, she… like(s)… it when / that / if… I, he, she... consider(s) / find(s) it
I don’t like it when he lies to me. interesting…that / to...
He hates it that you never seem to understand I consider it a major step that they have
his problems. accepted our apologies.
She would love it if they chose her for the role. We find it necessary to express these feelings
in public.

! Sometimes we use it when there is no object but the structure needs one (normally with
verbs that are similar to like or hate).
I love it here.

• Remember that we also use it + be… that / who at the beginning of a sentence when we
want to give importance to a specific element.
My ex-girlfriend decided that we should split up. ➞ It was my ex-girlfriend that / who
decided we should split up.
Most weddings are held in late spring. ➞ It is in late spring that most weddings are held.
122 THAT’S ENGLISH!
Grammar Reference Unit 2

1 DESCRIBING TYPICAL BEHAVIOUR


Routines Typical behaviour
will
• To describe characteristic behaviour.
She’s not a heavy smoker. She’ll usually smoke a
cigarette after dinner, but that’s all.
He’s very unreliable. One day he’ll work for fifteen
hours and the next day he’ll stay in bed all day.
present simple
I usually smoke a cigarette after dinner. present continuous
I don’t usually drink coffee in the evening. • To describe repetitive behaviour perceived as
exaggerated or annoying.
She’s constantly checking her phone to see if
she’s got messages.
My neighbours are always spying on us through
the window.
He’s always telling lies!

2 OTHER WAYS TO DESCRIBE REPETITIVE BEHAVIOUR


On (and on), keep (on), carry on, go on (and on)
• To continue doing something.
We were totally lost, but he just drove on (and on) hoping to find his way.
He keeps (on) telling me that he doesn’t need help… but he does!
They carried on arguing after I had left.
I went on working until my boss told me to take a break.
I told her to stop insulting me, but she went on (and on) until I lost my temper.

verb + and + verb


She insisted and insisted until she managed to talk to the manager.
He just talks and talks but no one actually listens to him.

3 GET USED TO AND BE USED TO


get used to + noun / -ing be used to + noun / -ing
• To become accustomed to something. • To be familiar or accustomed to something.
When I came to live in the city, it took me a She’s used to her new smartphone.
while to get used to the constant noise. I’m used to speaking in English with my
I will eventually get used to my new classmates now.
smartphone.
I’ve finally got used to getting up at 6:00 a.m.
every morning.

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Grammar Reference Unit 2

4 DESCRIBING PAST HABITS AND ROUTINES


Routines Typical behaviour
used to + infinitive would + infinitive
• To describe routines that have changed in • To describe characteristic behaviour in the
the present, past habits or states. past.
I used to smoke ten cigarettes a day, but I When he was young, he was very foolish.
quit smoking years ago. He would do drugs, and he’d drink and
Did she use to play volleyball when she was drive every weekend.
a student? As a student, I would always study for
He didn’t use to be very strong, but now he’s exams the night before.
started training and it shows!

5 SHOWING IMPATIENCE AND INSULTING


• In English, it is quite frequent to use religious words like God or Jesus to show impatience
and anger. However, this is considered disrespectful language and it can easily offend
people. Therefore, people often use the word goodness to avoid saying God.
A similar thing happens with the word hell, which is frequent in expressions like What the
hell…?, Where the hell…?, Who the hell…?, etc. It is safer to use alternatives like the heck
(very colloquial), on earth (more neutral) or in heaven’s name.
Oh my goodness! Look at you! You look so pretty!
Who the heck are you?
How on earth did the dog get in here?
What in heaven’s name do you think you are doing?

• When we want to insult someone, we usually address them with the word you + noun.
Why on earth did you have to do that, you fool?
Of course they wanted to keep your money, you idiot!

• When we don’t want to insult the listener but a third person, we can use the + noun.
Look at John trying to climb that tree, the fool!

124 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 3

1 REVISION OF GOING TO VS PRESENT CONTINUOUS


Going to Present continuous

• To speak about intentions. • To speak about definite plans, future


She’s going to take a few days off in spring. arrangements, firm decisions or commitments.
I’m going to buy her a present, but I can’t I’m not having lunch with Martha on Tuesday.
think of anything she might like. It’s on Wednesday.
Are they meeting us at the airport?
• To make predictions based on symptoms or I’m watching the match on TV tomorrow,
evidence.
whether I have work to do or not!
He looks all right. I don’t think he’s going to
be sick.
That cyclist is going too fast. He’s going to
have an accident!
It’s so cold that I think it’s going to snow.

!Although
important
there
Although
to use
is often
there
the
very very
is often
present
little difference
continuous to
between
little difference
make it
using one
between
clear that you
or one
using the other,
have a
or thesometimes it is
other, sometimes
commitment:
important to use the present continuous to make it clear that you have a commitment.
it is

Would
A:A: Wouldyou
you like toto
like have dinner
have with
dinner me
with onon
me Friday?
Friday?
Sorry,
B:B: Sorry, but I’m having dinner with my workmateson
but I am having dinner with my workmates onFriday.
Friday.

2 REVISION OF FUTURE CONTINUOUS AND FUTURE PERFECT


Future continuous Future perfect
• To speak about actions that will be in progress • To speak about actions that will be completed
at a particular time in the future. by a particular time in the future.
At this time tomorrow, I will be lying on the By the end of the year, they will have finished
beach! the new tunnel.
In 2050, most people will be working from We will have run out of money before the
home. bank transfer arrives!

3 PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND FUTURE CONTINUOUS FOR ARRANGEMENTS

• Both the present continuous and the future continuous are used to refer to future arrangements.
I’m meeting Paul tomorrow. = I’ll be meeting Paul tomorrow.
She’s seeing the dentist on Tuesday. = She’ll be seeing the dentist on Tuesday.

• However, we tend to use the future continuous to emphasise the fact that something will happen
anyway, whether we have arranged it or not.
We’ll be driving through Oxford on our way to Gloucester tomorrow. (We have planned to go to
Gloucester, but going through Oxford is going to happen anyway because it’s on our way to Gloucester.)
I’ll be seeing my ex-husband at Sally’s funeral. They were very good friends. (I haven’t arranged to
meet my ex-husband, but he will be at the funeral anyway.)

THAT’S ENGLISH! 125


Grammar Reference Unit 3

4 REVISION OF ALL FUTURE FORMS


Plans Predictions
• previous • no previous arrangements • based on • based on ideas or
arrangements: evidence knowledge / as part
engagements – intentions – based on of a conditional
spontaneous sentence
decisions

present continuous going to will going to will


I’m meeting the new I’m going to OK, you don’t Look at those Oil prices will
boss next week. study German have to keep black clouds… probably go up next
next year. insisting. I’m afraid it’s winter.
future continuous going to rain
I’m going to I’ll go to see that If you get there
I’ll be travelling to go out this stupid film with soon. early, you’ll have
our American branch weekend.* you! more chances of
office in April. finding a good seat.

! *Very often going to go becomes going to make it less repetitive: I’m going out this weekend.
*

Offers / promises Situations in the future*


• in progress at a certain time • finished by a certain time
will future continuous future perfect
Don’t worry; I’ll help you with At this time next week, we will be They will have sold all the
your homework! flying over the ocean. tickets by the time we get
I will love you forever. In a few years from now, people there.
will be buying artificially grown I will have left the office by
meat. 6:00 p.m.

! *We make general statements about the future with will: I will turn 30 next month.
*

5 FOCUS ADVERBS: ONLY, JUST, (NOT) EVEN


These adverbs focus on one element and limit it (only and just) or mark it as something unusual
or extreme (even). They are normally placed immediately before the element they modify.
Only Becky wants to continue with the project. (No one else.)
Becky only wants to continue with the project. (That’s what she is focused on.)

Uses of even, only, just


She wants to help you pass the exams and she’ll even do
surprising or extreme it for free!
even They haven’t even considered our proposal!
+ comparative to emphasise Dolphins may be even more intelligent than we thought.
(meaning exclusively) I only want coffee, not tea.
only
(meaning simply) I’m only / just going to get a coffee. It won’t take long.
to soften Can’t you just give her another chance?
just
to emphasise I can’t believe what happened. It’s just horrible!
(meaning exactly) That’s just what we need.

126 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 4

1 REVISION OF VERB PATTERNS


Verb patterns
verb + infinitive
They could help us if they wanted to.
modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must, shall, You must find ways to solve this problem.
should, will, would

verb + noun / pronoun + infinitive They let us use their car when they are away
on holiday.
let, make*
They made us pay for our meals. / We were
*with to in the passive voice made to pay for our meals.
verb + to + infinitive They arranged to meet us at the airport.
agree, aim, arrange, ask, attempt, choose, decide, He promised to be here at eight.
demand, expect, fail, help*, hope, intend, learn, We managed to get our picture taken with
long, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, our favourite player.
promise, propose, refuse, tend, would hate, would
like, would love, would prefer I would love to see you again.
*also follow by infinitive without to The new study could help (to) find a vaccine.

verb + noun / pronoun + to + infinitive


They encouraged us to ask for a loan.
advise, allow, ask, convince, enable, encourage,
expect, force, get, help*, intend, invite, order, She persuaded me to work for her.
persuade, prefer, remind, teach, tell, want, warn I would like you to help your brother if you
(not to), would like can.
*also follow by infinitive without to

verb + -ing

admit, avoid, can’t help, can’t stand, consider, deny, I don’t feel like going out tonight.
detest, dislike, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, give They finished repairing the roof late at night.
up, hate*, imagine, involve, keep, like*, love, mind,
We’ve given up trying to demonstrate that we
miss, practise, prefer**, put off, risk, suggest
are right.
*see note below
**see unit 7

! • Speakers use like + to and like + -ing indistinctively to express enjoyment or lack of it.
I don’t like doing the laundry. = I don’t like to do the laundry.
I like watching series on TV. = I like to watch series on TV.

• We often use like + -ing to imply we enjoy doing something, but like + to + infinitive when we do
something because we think it is a good idea or best for us. It describes habits or routines. We
often use a time expression.
I like to get a full medical check-up once a year.
We like to cook with very little salt.

• Hate + to + infinitive is used to announce an action that we’d rather avoid.


I hate to tell you this, but we’re out of money!

Verbs followed by to or -ing without a change in meaning


The baby began to cry / crying and I didn’t know what to do with her.
begin, start
As soon as we left the house, it started to rain / raining.

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Grammar Reference Unit 4

Verbs followed by to or -ing with a change in meaning


to: change activities After the talk, he went on to answer our questions.
go on
-ing: continue He went on talking for three more hours.
to: have the intention I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings.
mean
-ing: involve Saying no to the project will mean losing jobs.
to: active meaning We need to find ways to solve this problem.
need
-ing: passive meaning This house needs tidying up. (It needs to be tidied up.)
to: give bad news
We regret to inform you that your request has been denied.
regret -ing: wish something
I regret not taking their offer. I would be rich now.
had been different
to: do something as a I remembered to lock the door, but I forgot to leave the key
result of remembering under the mat.
remember
-ing: remember that Of course, I remember meeting her. She made a great
you did something impression on me!
to: reason for stopping We stopped to have a coffee, and then we continued our trip.
stop
-ing: quit I stopped worrying about the future years ago.
to: make an effort We tried to help him escape from the fire, but he got badly hurt.
try
-ing: see if it works Why don’t you try taking an aspirin for that headache? It might help.
She wants to help us with the project.
to: feel the need
want This house wants painting. Do you know of a good painter that
-ing: lack, need
can come help us with that?

! Verbs related to the senses: hear, listen to, see, smell, watch, etc. can be followed by an infinitive
without to or -ing. We use the infinitive without to to imply that we have witnessed the whole action
or event. By using the -ing form of the verb, we imply that we notice an action which is in progress.
We watched the mechanic fix the car. It only took him ten minutes.
We saw the mechanic fixing our car when we walked by the garage.

2 NEW SUBJECT BEFORE -ING


We can have different subjects in the main clause and in the -ing clause. The subject of the -ing
clause can be expressed by a pronoun in the object form or by using a possessive adjective
(in more formal contexts).
I hope you don’t mind me / my watching while you are trying to fix that.
She wouldn’t want to risk us / our losing the contract.

3 OFFERS AND REQUESTS


Offering help Requests
• Why don’t I + infinitive? • Imperative + will / won’t / would you?
Why don’t I carry those bags for you? Open that door for me, will / won’t / would you?
• Can I give you a hand + -ing? • Can you give me a hand with…?
Can I lend you a hand mowing the lawn? Can you give me a hand with this, please?
• Let me + infinitive • Could you (possibly) + infinitive?
Let me open this door for you. Could you (possibly) turn the volume down?
• Subject + would + be delighted to + infinitive • Will / Would you + infinitive?
I’d be delighted to cook for you while you’re Will you please stop making that noise?
ill. Would you please lock the door when you leave?
• Would you mind + -ing?
Would you mind helping me with the gardening?

128 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 5

1 EXPRESSING QUANTITY
Cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers
0 zero / nought 12 twelve 12th twelfth
1 one 13 thirteen 1st first 13th thirteenth
2 two 14 fourteen 2nd second 14th fourteenth
3 three 15 fifteen 3rd third 15th fifteenth
4 four 20 twenty 4th fourth 20th twentieth
5 five 21 twenty-one 5th fifth 21st twenty-first
6 six 22 twenty-two 6th sixth 22nd twenty-second
7 seven 30 thirty 7th seventh 30th thirtieth
8 eight 31 thirty-one 8th eighth 31st thirty-first
9 nine 40 forty 9th ninth 40th fortieth
10 ten 50 fifty 10th tenth 50th fiftieth
11 eleven 100 a/one hundred 11th eleventh 100th a/one hundredth

! • In sport results we often use the word nil for zero.


They lost two to nil (2-0).
• In tennis, however, we use the word love for zero.
The score is 15-love (15-0).
• When numbers are used to identify or classify (e.g. room numbers, course numbers, post office
box numbers) and for telephone numbers, we usually say oh for zero.
I’m in room five oh two (502).
Our phone number is oh eight oh eight, one six eight, double one six eight (0808 168 1168).

• When saying long numbers, remember to use the singular with million, thousand and
hundred. Say and after hundred or, when there are no hundreds, after thousand or million.
120 ➞ a/one hundred and twenty
756 ➞ seven hundred and fifty-six
39,042 ➞ thirty-nine thousand and forty-two
78,384,915 ➞ seventy-eight million, three hundred and eighty-four thousand, nine hundred
and fifteen

• We use ordinal numbers in fractions.


2⁄3 two thirds 4⁄8 four eighths 1⁄10 one tenth of a second

! ½ a/one half is an exception. We also say half a + noun.


two and a half kilos of potatoes half a pint of beer
an hour and a half / one and a half hours half a kilo of meat

• For decimals we use point and then say the figures one by one.
3.47% ➞ three point four seven per cent

• With negative numbers we use the word minus.


-17ºC ➞ minus seventeen (degrees) Celsius

• We can use some or -something (colloquial) for approximate numbers.


There were some two hundred people at the meeting. (Approximately two hundred.)
She’s thirty-something. (In her thirties.)

• We use twice, three times, etc. for multiple quantities.


There were twice as many people at the second meeting.
Their budget is three times larger than ours.
This prison was designed for one thousand people but now holds three times that number.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 129


Grammar Reference Unit 5

Basic mathematical operations


2+2=4 5–3=2 5 x 2 = 10 12 : 3 = 4
Two plus two is four. Five less three is two. Five times two is ten. Twelve divided by
Two plus two equals four. Five minus three Five multiplied by two three is four.
Two and two is four. equals two. equals ten. Three goes into
Five take away three twelve four times.
equals two.

2 PLURALS
Irregular plurals
foot – feet, tooth – teeth, man /mæn/ – men /men/, mouse – mice, woman
changes in the word /ˈwʊmən/ – women /ˈwɪmɪn/
half – halves, knife – knives, leaf – leaves, life – lives, shelf – shelves, thief –
-f(e) ➞ -ves thieves, wife – wives, wolf – wolves
-Ø deer, fish, salmon, sheep
old English -en child – children, ox – oxen
-us ➞ -i cactus – cacti, syllabus – syllabi, nucleus – nuclei
-a ➞ -ae alga – algae
Latin and Greek plurals -um ➞ -a bacterium – bacteria, curriculum – curricula, datum – data*,
(often technical or symposium – symposia
scientific)
-sis ➞ -ses analysis – analyses, crisis – crises, parenthesis – parentheses
-on ➞ -a criterion – criteria, phenomenon – phenomena
*Many people use data as a singular countable noun nowadays.

Nouns ending in -s
-s in singular and plural means, series, species
billiards, economics, linguistics, mathematics, measles, mumps,
singular words that end in -s news, phonetics, physics, politics
classics, clothes, customs, earnings, funds, glasses, goods, greens,
words used only in plural headquarters, jeans, manners, the Middle Ages, savings, scissors,
shorts, stairs, surroundings, trousers, valuables

! Remember: a piece of news, a pair of glasses / scissors / trousers

The plural of compound nouns


two nouns (the first noun acting as an adjective) ➞ the second noun takes plural form
golf clubs, apple pies, toy shops, assistant teachers, toothbrushes…
two nouns (the first noun is the word man or woman) ➞ both nouns take plural form
women teachers, men farmers, women doctors…
noun + other elements ➞ the noun takes plural form
coats-of-arms, commanders-in-chief, passers-by, mothers-in-law…
verb + particle used as noun ➞ the compound takes -s at the end
grown-ups, take-offs…

! • Some words that were originally compounds are now considered one unit and take a final -s.
bagful – bagfuls

• Some words with prefixes may look like a compound but they are not.
vice-president – vice-presidents

130 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 5

3 BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, EITHER


• Both, all and none are plural when used as pronouns.
The teacher asked two students for the answer but both were wrong.
There were a few restaurants in the area but all were closed.
They offer rooms to let but none are available.

• Both (of the) is always followed by a plural noun.


Both (of the) answers were right.

• All (of) can be followed by singular or plural.


All (of) the money is in the bank now.
All (of) the contestants have won a prize.

• None of can also be followed by a singular or plural noun. When it’s followed by a plural
noun, the verb can be singular or plural.
None of that money was ours.
None of the students is / are ready to take the test yet.

• Neither (nor) and either (or) are generally used with verbs in the singular.
Neither John nor his partner wants to continue with the project.
I have talked to both of them but neither thinks the idea will work.
If either you or your daughter needs to talk to me, I’ll be in my office.

4 REVISION OF SUGGESTING AND RECOMMENDING


These verbs can be used with the following structures without a change in meaning.
propose / recommend / suggest
The guide proposed spending some time at Stonehenge.
+ -ing I recommend starting the day early.
He suggested visiting the new factory.
They proposed that we had a new meeting the following day.
The boss recommended that we checked every single piece of
+ (that) + subject + verb
information twice.
She suggested that we increased the budget for next year.
He proposed (that) we (should) spend more money on R&D.
+ (that) + subject + (should) +
His doctor recommended (that) he (should) take up yoga.
infinitive
My daughter’s teacher has suggested (that) she (should) read more.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 131


Grammar Reference Unit 6

1 PERSUADING AND DISSUADING

A Persuading
There are many ways to express persuasion. The use of intonation is also a common
device.

– Making suggestions

Would you mind if + subject + verb? Would you mind if we stayed here a bit longer?
Can / Could I persuade you to + infinitive? Can I persuade you to stay for dinner?
Subject + might as well + infinitive If you’re going to commute to work every day,
you might as well get a travel card.
May / Might I suggest + -ing…? May I suggest visiting our local museum?

– Reassuring

Subject + don’t / doesn’t have to worry You don’t have to worry about having to pay for
about + -ing extras. Everything’s included!
I can assure you… I can assure you it will last you a lifetime.
I guarantee… I guarantee you won’t regret it!
You will definitely + infinitive… You will definitely save time and money by
buying one of our machines.
It can’t be that + adjective! It can’t be that difficult to convince your wife!

– Offering alternatives

Wouldn’t you prefer to + infinitive? Wouldn’t you prefer to stay in a hotel?


Why don’t you… instead? Tired of cooking? Why don’t you go to a restaurant
instead?
Instead of + noun / -ing, Instead of slaving away in the kitchen, you could
be enjoying a nice evening out.
… instead. You don’t need to carry cash with you. You can
use your debit card instead.

– Encouraging

Come on! Come on! You can definitely pass the exam!
Go for it! Go for it! You won’t regret it!

132 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 6

B Dissuading
These are some expressions you can use to dissuade people from doing things.

I would (strongly) advise against + I would strongly advise against trying to extend
noun / -ing the life of your car beyond fifteen years.
I wouldn’t bother (about) + -ing I wouldn’t bother fixing that lamp. Just get a new
one.
I wouldn’t bother about + noun I wouldn’t bother about the money now!

2 QUESTION TAGS
We can use question tags to soften emotional appeals, orders or suggestions and make them
more persuasive. We normally use positive question tags with negative verbs and vice versa.
Remember that we use shall we? as the question tag for let’s and will you / won’t you? with
imperatives.
You don’t really want to spend the rest of the evening here, do you?
You aren’t going to let me down, are you?
Let’s go over the contract now, shall we?
Call me when you’ve made up your mind, will you / won’t you?

3 REFUSING
Here are a few expressions that can be used to refuse to do something emphatically.

No way!
Absolutely not! A: Please, say you will buy me a new car when I
get my licence!
Over my dead body!
B: Over my dead body! I will never buy you a car or
Not in a million years!
even pay for your petrol! Get a job! And don’t
Don’t (you) even think about noun / -ing! even think about asking your mother either!
I will never (ever) + infinitive

! After negative expressions like no way, never before in my life / in a million years, etc., on
no account (formal) or under no circumstances (formal), sentences take the structure of a
question (i.e. auxiliary verb before the subject).
No way am I going to let them use my house for free!
Never in a million years would I agree to appear on a reality TV show!
On no account should they be allowed to enter the premises.
Under no circumstances does our company ever grant that kind of permission.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 133


Grammar Reference Unit 7

1 PREFER AND WOULD RATHER


A Expressing preferences
– To express preference with nouns

prefer + noun + (to + noun)


I prefer tea to coffee.
We gave my father an e-reader, but he still prefers his old books.

– To express preference with actions

prefer + (not) to + infinitive + (rather than + infinitive) prefer + (not) -ing + (to + -ing)
We prefer not to take a bus there because it takes I prefer not having to make a choice.
longer than walking. Does he really prefer cooking to eating in
She prefers to live alone rather than share a flat. a restaurant?

would rather + (not) infinitive would rather + infinitive + (than + infinitive)


Although I like coffee, I’d rather have tea in the He’d rather stay here than move to London.
morning.

! • Prefer can be followed by to + infinitive or by -ing. Both structures are similar but prefer + to
can imply habit or refer to what we think is the best way to do things.
I prefer to get up early every morning so I have more time to get ready for work. (This
doesn’t imply that I enjoy getting up early.)

• Notice that after rather than, we use infinitive without to.


They prefer to walk to work rather than take the bus.

B To indicate what we would like other people to do

would prefer it if + subject2 + past simple would rather + subject2 + past simple
I’d prefer it if you went by bus. They’d rather we paid them in cash.
She’d prefer it if we didn’t call her in the evening. I’d rather you didn’t smoke inside the house.
Would you prefer it if we stayed a bit longer? Would you rather we left now?

C To express complaints or regrets about what happened in the past

would prefer it if + subject2 + past perfect would rather + subject2 + past perfect
I’d prefer it if you had taken it a bit more I’d rather you had warned me before bringing
seriously. everybody over to the house.
Would you prefer it if she hadn’t stayed here She’d rather we hadn’t spoken to the boss, but
last weekend? how could we have known?

would rather have + past participle + (than + infinitive)


We would rather have stayed* home than go to the cinema, but mum insisted.
They would have rather spent* the weekend at home with us than stay in a hotel.
Would you rather have seen a more serious film?

! *When there is only one subject, we usually use would rather have + past participle. However,
would have rather + past participle is also correct.
She’d rather have seen the movie the first time it was on. = She’d have rather seen the
movie the first time it was on.

134 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 7

2 REVISION OF SECOND AND THIRD CONDITIONALS


Second conditional Third conditional
If + subject + past simple, subject + would / If + subject + past perfect, subject + would /
could + infinitive could + have + past participle
• Improbable or unreal condition in the present, • Impossible condition in the past, past
present consequences. consequences.
If I had a bigger house, I would get a dog. If she had known that you were coming, she
If she was / were taller, she could be a model. would have stayed longer.
Would you buy the car if it was / were If they hadn’t wasted so much money, they
cheaper? could have gone on the trip.
Would they have acted differently if they had
had the chance?

! Remember that in the case of the verb to be, you can use were for all subjects.

3 MIXED CONDITIONALS
Mixed conditionals
If + subject + past perfect, subject + would / could + infinitive
• Condition in the past, present consequences.
If I hadn’t sold those shares two months ago, we would be rich now.
If they had given you the job, you’d be my boss now.
Would you still live in Australia if you hadn’t married an Australian man?

If + subject + past simple, subject + would + have + past participle


• Present state or habit, past consequences.
If I were more organised, I wouldn’t have lost the report.
She would have understood your note if you wrote more clearly.

4 REVISION OF CONNECTORS
Reason Result
noun
because of Consequently, … As a result, …
+ pronoun or possessive + -ing
due to -ing Therefore, … So, …

because / as / since + clause (subject + verb)


Addition Contrast
Despite
in addition to + noun / pronoun / -ing + noun / pronoun / -ing, ...
In spite of
as well as + noun / pronoun / -ing
Despite
+ the fact that + clause, ...
Also, … ... as well. In spite of
In addition, … Furthermore, ... Whereas / While / Although + clause, ...
Likewise, ... Moreover, …
As well as that, … Besides (this), … However, … Nevertheless, …
What’s more, … On the other hand, … In contrast, …
On the contrary, …

THAT’S ENGLISH! 135


Grammar Reference Unit 8

1 INVERSION WITH SO AND SUCH


• Remember we use so + adjective / adverb (that…) or such (a/an) + adjective + noun (that…)
to emphasise qualities.
He’s become so famous that he seems to have lost his right to privacy.
She's such an enthusiastic person!
They’re such great artists that their works are priceless.

• In written or more literary language, we can start a sentence with so or such. In this case, the
rest of the sentence takes the structure of a question (i.e. auxiliary verb before the subject).
So quickly did the fire spread that it seemed impossible to put it out.
Such was the force of the wind that all ships had to return to port.

2 WHAT CLAUSE + BE FOR EMPHASIS


• We can use this structure to emphasise one part of the sentence (the part underlined in the
examples below).
The way he dealt with the press was amazing. ➞ What was amazing was the way he dealt
with the press.
You need a good opportunity. ➞ What you need is a good opportunity.
The encouragement from his friends gave him strength. ➞ What gave him strength was
the encouragement from his friends.

• If what we want to emphasise is a clause, we need to introduce it with the fact that.
He sold a million copies of his book and that was amazing. ➞ What was amazing was the
fact that he sold a million copies of his book.

• If we want to emphasise an action, we need to use the verb do.


They were trying to fool you. ➞ What they were trying to do was fool you.
I can give you advice. ➞ What I can do is give you advice.

3 PASSIVE + INFINITIVE / PERFECT INFINITIVE


• Some verbs, mainly connected with language or opinion, like claim, consider, know, prove,
report, say, suppose, think, etc., have two possible structures in the passive voice.

It + be + past participle + that + clause Subject + be + past participle + to + infinitive


It is thought that he lives in the south of France He is thought to live in the south of France.
now. They are said to be the richest family in the UK.
It is said that they are the richest family in the UK.

• If the action described with the infinitive is finished, we use the perfect infinitive (have + past
participle).
He is thought to have lived in France.
They are said to have been the richest family in the UK.

• There are a number of verbs that can also be followed by an infinitive in the passive voice:
be allowed to, be asked to, be expected to, be made to and be scheduled to.
We have been asked to write a report about our trip.
They were made to fill in a number of documents before they were allowed to go through
customs.
The ship is scheduled to depart at 6 a.m.

136 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 8

4 EXPRESSING DISAPPOINTMENT
Disappointment
We were expecting a lot from this book but it was really
be disappointing
disappointing.
She was disappointed about / at / by the way her
be disappointed about / at / by something
company handled her requests.
They are very disappointed in / with their teacher
be disappointed in / with somebody
because he’s been too strict with them.
I was hoping to meet her at the party, but she didn’t
Subject + was /were hoping to + infinitive
show up.
She had hoped that they would give her the job, but
Subject + had hoped that…
they hired someone else.
Subject + didn’t live up to someone’s The house we rented didn’t live up to our expectations.
expectations It was too small for the price we paid.
His parents had high hopes for him, but he turned out
Somebody had high hopes for…
to be a very bad student.
My best friend turned out to be a really selfish person.
What a pity / a letdown!
What a letdown!

5 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION
Adjective + preposition
addicted to drugs, a game, watching TV fond of football, her boss, telling jokes
afraid / terrified of the dark, making a mistake glad about your new job
glad for you
anxious about the meeting, losing his job
(but also: glad to see you)
anxious for money, your family good / bad / great / terrible at maths, giving directions
aware of your surroundings, having made a
involved in a task, a book
mistake
capable of anything, solving a problem involved with his family, their school
committed / dedicated / devoted to her keen on my neighbours, reading
family, helping others (but also: keen to help, accept the offer)
delighted / pleased about / with the results ready for school, bed
(but also: delighted / pleased to help us) (but also: ready to join the party)
depressed / worried about the future responsible for our safety, breaking the vase
desperate for a job
satisfied with their performance
(but also: desperate to find a partner)
devastated / fascinated / frustrated /
impressed / moved / shattered / shocked / short of money, breath
upset by the news, the results
disappointed in / with you, the President sick of this car, politicians, repeating the same thing
staggered / surprised at / by the price (but also:
disappointed at / about / by their response
staggered / surprised to hear her complaints)
ecstatic / excited about their new car, starting
suitable for children, the occasion
a new career
famous for her articles, being caustic overjoyed / thrilled about / with / by their success

THAT’S ENGLISH! 137


Grammar Reference Unit 9

1 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT

because of
because
due to
as
in view of + noun + clause
since
on account of
due to the fact that
owing to

We chose the hotel because of its location. Our Internet connection is currently slow
The flight was cancelled due to severe weather. because so many customers are trying to use it.
In view of the growing demand for organic As we couldn’t agree on where to spend the
products, we have expanded our range. weekend, we ended up staying at home.
All the shops were closed on account of a local We couldn’t communicate with them since they
holiday. didn’t speak English.
Owing to the new security checks, there are They treated us very well at the restaurant due
now long queues at the airports. to the fact that we were friends with the owner.

! • Because of, due to, in view of, on account of and owing to are a more formal alternative to using
because + clause.
They had to call off the match because it was pouring. ➞ Due to the heavy rain, the match was
cancelled.

• Because of, due to, in view of, on account of and owing to can be followed by -ing, often with
a possessive adjective or an object pronoun to mark a different subject. This alternative is much
more formal and less frequent.
On account of being late for boarding, they were asked to take the next plane.
Because of our / us insisting to see the manager, the hotel finally agreed to give us another room.

2 BE ABOUT TO, BE ON THE POINT OF, BE TO


• We can use be about to + infinitive and be on the point of + -ing to indicate that an action is
going to take place very soon.
We were about to leave the hotel when I remembered I’d left my camera in the room.
The number of tourists has dropped so dramatically that many restaurants in the area are
on the point of closing down.
She had to take a break because she was on the point of having a nervous breakdown.

• We can also use the expression be to + infinitive to refer to the future, usually for actions that
have been scheduled, or to give orders.
The plane was to arrive at ten.
The Government are to set up a committee to investigate the incident.
The Mayor is not to retire until November.
Children are not to leave the school unaccompanied.
You are to report to your superior by the end of the day.

138 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Grammar Reference Unit 9

3 THANKING AND APOLOGISING


Here are a few useful ways to express gratitude and say you are sorry.

Expressions for thanking Expressions for apologising

Thanks (a lot).
Informal Sorry.
Cheers!
register Sorry, I didn’t mean to…
Ta.
I’m (awfully / so / terribly / very) sorry.
It’s (all) my fault.
Neutral Thank you (very much).
My mistake.
register I really appreciate it.

I’m ever so sorry.


How thoughtful!
I hope you can forgive me.
You shouldn't have.
How careless of me!
You needn’t have.
I cannot express how sorry I am.
That's so kind of you!
Formal I do apologise for…
register I am most grateful!
I must apologise for…
I’d like to tell you how grateful I am
Please excuse my…
for…
Please forgive me for… / for not + -ing
I would like to express our gratitude
for… Please accept my most sincere
apologies.

! You didn’t need to + infinitive / needn’t have + past participle


Be aware of the difference in meaning when using these expressions. Didn’t need to means it
wasn’t necessary to do something, so you didn’t do it. Needn’t have means it wasn’t necessary to
do something but you did it.
I didn’t need to go to work yesterday because it was a local holiday. (I didn’t go to work because it
wasn’t necessary.)
I needn’t have bought this wine. I already had a bottle at home. (I bought the wine but it wasn’t necessary.)
Thanks a lot for the flowers but you needn't have bothered! (You gave me flowers but it wasn’t necessary
that you brought any presents.)

THAT’S ENGLISH! 139


Writing Reference Unit 1

Writing an anecdote
An anecdote is a short story which is often about something funny or interesting that
happened to someone. Anecdotes should try to interest and engage the reader and have a
memorable ending.

When I was studying in my last year at St Brown University, romantic In the introduction,
literature was my favourite subject and I had the best professor in the set the scene and try
world, Dr Mary Blake. I was absolutely delighted and had no idea things to catch the reader’s
would soon radically change. attention.

In fact, suddenly, in the middle of the second semester, disaster struck: In the following
Dr Blake fell ill and we were given a substitute teacher, Ms Laura Dolittle. paragraphs, describe
Although she was cheerful and acted as if she was a fellow student, what happened and who
something about her made me feel uneasy. was involved.

All of my fears came true at the end of the year when I saw I had failed
the final exam. First I was shocked. Then, I became absolutely furious.
Even though Ms Dolittle was not able to show me what was wrong
with my exam, she still refused to give me a pass mark. I left her office
seething with anger.

After I graduated, Ms Dolittle continued in Dr Blake’s position. However,


years later it was her turn to be suddenly surprised. I was appointed
Make sure the ending is
as Head of the English Department at St Brown University! Imagine
memorable.
the expression on Ms Dolittle’s face when she realised her professional
future was in my hands!

Writing tips:
➜ Make the introduction engaging and the ending memorable.

➜ Set the scene by describing the context, the facts and the people involved.

➜ Use different narrative tenses (past continuous, past simple and past perfect),
sequencing words and adverbial phrases.

➜ Use a variety of adjectives and adverbs to make the story interesting.

140 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Writing Reference Unit 3

Writing an article
An article is a piece of writing about a particular subject that is normally published in a
newspaper or a magazine. Semiformal opinion articles are the type of text that you will
write in the exam. You should present and justify your opinion in a clearly organised way.

DOES BEING INTELLIGENT MAKE YOU HAPPIER?


In the introduction, you should
It is often said that intelligence brings more happiness. But clearly state the topic of the article.
is this really true? As someone of average intelligence, I find Questions (rhetorical or real) are
this question fascinating. a good way to catch the reader’s
attention right from the start.

Contrary to what most people believe, being extremely


clever doesn’t necessarily make your life easier. In fact, it
may make your life more difficult as highly intelligent people
often feel ‘different’ and may have problems relating socially. Explain each main idea in
After all, it’s hard to chat about the weather when you’re only a separate paragraph.
interested in nuclear physics! Another potential source of
frustration is having high expectations for your life which
will rarely be achieved.

However, on a more positive note, I feel that exceptionally


bright people definitely do have the capability to focus on
being happy. They need to have the ability to realise that
long-term goals must be realistic and that every problem
has a solution if it is approached creatively.

In conclusion, I believe there is no direct correlation between In the conclusion you


intelligence and happiness. Being happy is a conscious should refer again to the
decision each individual has to take although smarter people topic of the article and
may have better tools to reach this goal. state your opinion.

Writing tips:
➜ Think of a good engaging title. The title should summarise the contents of the
article.

➜ Introduce each paragraph with a topic sentence.

➜ Give supporting arguments, amusing personal examples and opinions.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 141


Writing Reference Unit 5

Writing a proposal
A proposal is a text that is written to persuade a reader to follow a course of action. You
need to divide the proposal into clear sections. Your conclusion must be a suggestion based
on the factual information you have given.

PROPOSAL FOR BUILDING A COMMUNITY GARDEN

Executive summary: The aim of this proposal is to suggest the Explain the purpose of
creation of a community garden in our town. the proposal.

Statement of need: There is an abandoned plot of land in the


town centre, which is currently full of drug dealers, petty criminals
and rubbish. We suggest that this area should be transformed Give reasons why the
into a space where our citizens can meet, cooperate and learn by project is needed.
growing their own organic food. The garden would also become a
place in which to explore, relax and enjoy nature.

Project description: We propose that the Council should buy the


abandoned plot and transform it into a communal garden. A fence
should be put in place and the soil fertility should be improved Give details about
what the project will
to make it suitable for planting. We also suggest building raised involve.
beds for plants, laying pathways, adding benches and installing
a decorative fountain.

Budget analysis: The estimated price of the plot is £300,000.


The construction work would cost £40,000 and the benches and Describe how much
fountain would be an additional £25,000, making a total cost of the project will cost.
£365,000.

Conclusion: The garden will offer our citizens the unique


opportunity to connect with nature, grow their own food and at Summarise the
the same time build a stronger community. Crime and littering benefits of the
will be reduced as the garden will provide the neighbourhood project.
with a pleasant meeting place.

Writing tips:
➜ Divide up the sections under clear headings: executive summary,
statement of need, project description, budget analysis and conclusion.

➜ Be specific: explain the reasons for the project, the steps to be taken and
the benefits in detail.

➜ Write a strong conclusion by mentioning all the future benefits of the


project.

142 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Writing Reference Unit 7

Writing a discursive essay


A discursive essay presents a balanced and objective examination of a subject although it
doesn’t have to be absolutely neutral. You should present both sides of an argument based
on facts, but may draw personal conclusions. The style should be formal and impersonal.

ARE SUPERMARKETS BETTER TO SHOP IN THAN LOCAL SHOPS?

Supermarkets offer convenience and choice at affordable prices, but


are they truly a better option than local shops? In order to answer In the introduction,
mention both sides of
this question, we need not only to take ‘convenience’ into account, the issue but don’t go
but also to examine the impact large supermarkets have on the local into detail.
economy and the environment.

Modern shoppers have busy lives and so they need convenience. In


response, supermarkets offer easy access, free parking and extended
In one paragraph,
hours. They also allow the customer to buy products which are not summarise the
produced locally, and out-of-season produce, which would otherwise arguments in favour
only be available at certain times of the year. In addition, supermarkets of or against one side
employ many people, both on site and from suppliers. What’s more, of the issue. Be factual
and objective.
the infrastructure required for a large supermarket in terms of roads
and other services is very beneficial for the surrounding area.

However, in order to keep costs low and maximise profits,


supermarkets import food from very distant places, which has a
In another paragraph,
high environmental impact. They also impose fixed prices on their present the opposing
producers, thus making it impossible for smaller farmers to survive. view. Remember
Moreover, supermarkets often take business away from the local to state facts, not
opinions.
network of small shops and suppliers, forcing those shops to close
and increasing unemployment.
Write a conclusion
To sum up, although it may seem more convenient and cheaper based on the facts
to do your shopping at a large supermarket, going to local shops mentioned in the
certainly helps protect the economy of your local area and is more previous paragraphs.
ecological. You can include your
opinions.

Writing tips:
➜ Organise your composition well: group similar ideas together in the same
paragraph (e.g. advantages / disadvantages).

➜ Use connectors to structure your text and make it more formal.

➜ Give objective data before you give any personal conclusions.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 143


Writing Reference Unit 9

Writing a formal email of apology


In a formal email of apology you should explain what went wrong, take responsibility and
apologise. You should also explain how you plan to resolve the situation. Make sure you
sound sincere and polite.

Dear Mr Pendleton,

Please accept my most sincere apologies for my behaviour at


your daughter’s wedding last Saturday. Having been my boss
for the last fifteen years, you know that I never drink alcohol. Summarise what
However, when I arrived at the reception, I felt the happy happened and why.
occasion called for a proper toast with champagne. I only had Take full responsibility
one drink but, unfortunately, on an empty stomach. As a result, for the problem.
I soon started to feel dizzy, which explains why I tripped over
and landed on the table displaying some of the gifts the couple
had received. I am truly ashamed. I know there is absolutely no
excuse for my behaviour and I take full responsibility for what
happened.

Although I have sent your daughter and her husband a new Offer a solution or a
vase to replace the one I broke, I understand that this cannot way to amend things.
make up for the commotion I caused. I hope they, and you, will Ask the reader to
one day forgive me. accept your apology.

I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you ever so much for
inviting my wife and me to the wedding. It was a real pleasure
to be a part of your daughter and son-in-law’s celebration of the
beginning of their new life together.
End the email politely.
Yours sincerely,

John Hughes

Writing tips:
➜ Use the same format as you would in a formal letter. Check the beginning
and ending are in an appropriate style.

➜ Include polite expressions.

➜ Acknowledge the issue frankly. Describe the problem and apologise


sincerely.

144 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Pronunciation Guide
PHONEMIC CHART
DIPHTHONGS
i: ɪ ʊ u: ɪə eɪ
cheap chip put you here wait
VOWELS

e ə ɜ: ɔ: ʊə ɔɪ əʊ
bed teacher bird door tour boy show
æ ʌ ɑ: ɒ eə aɪ aʊ
cat up far on hair my cow
p t f θ tʃ s ʃ k
CONSONANTS

pea tea fly think cheese say shoe car


b d v ð dʒ z ʒ g
boat dog video this June zoo vision go
m n ŋ h l r w j
man now sing hat love red wet yellow
voiced sounds: vocal cords vibrate
unvoiced sounds: vocal cords don’t vibrate

THE SCHWA /ə/


• This is the most common sound in English. It occurs when a syllable is not stressed. Compare.
photographer /fəˈtɒɡrəfə(r)/, photography /fəˈtɒɡrəfɪ/, photograph /ˈfəʊtəɡrɑːf/

• In writing, the schwa can correspond to the letters a, e, o, u or a combination of letters.


appear /əˈpɪə(r)/, permanent /ˈpɜːmənənt/, economy /ɪˈkɒnəmɪ/, support /səˈpɔː(r)t/, famous
/ˈfeɪməs/.

• Many grammar words (i.e. auxiliary verbs, modal verbs, pronouns and prepositions) have a
weak form with /ə/ when they are not stressed.
does /dəz/, were /wə/, can /kən/, us /əs/, you /jə/, at /ət/, of /əv/, etc.

THE SILENT E
Very often a word ends in a silent -e to indicate that the stressed vowel in the word has a long
sound: /eɪ/, /i:/, /aɪ/, /əʊ/, /u:/.

/æ/ hat /hæt/, mad /mæd/, cat /kæt/


a
/eɪ/ hate /heɪt/, made /meɪd/, Kate /keɪt/

/e/ pet /pet/, let /let/


e
/i:/ Pete /pi:t/, compete / kəmˈpi:t/, delete /dɪˈli:t/

/ɪ/ hid /hɪd/, pin /pɪn/, sit /sɪt/


i
/aɪ/ hide /haɪd/, pine /paɪn/, site /saɪt/

/ɒ/ cod /kɒd/, hop /hɒp/, not /nɒt/


o
/əʊ/ code /kəʊd/, hope /həʊp/, note /nəʊt/

/ʌ/ tub /tʌb/, us /ʌs/, cut /kʌt/


u
/u:/ tube /tju:b/, use /ju:z/, cute /kju:t/

THAT’S ENGLISH! 145


Pronunciation Guide
PRONUNCIATION OF NUMBERS
• The number ‘0’ has several variations:
• zero /ˈzɪərəʊ/ is used in maths, for temperatures, and to indicate the lowest possible level.
-2ºC (minus two degrees or two degrees below zero).
Our chances have come down to zero.
• nought /nɔːt/ is used in British English as an alternative to zero.
The interest rate is only 0.7% (nought point seven percent).
• oh /əʊ/ is frequently used to spell out numbers, like room numbers or telephone numbers
(Americans often use zero for this).
Room 508 (five oh eight)
• nil /nɪl/ is used in football and rugby results.
2-0 (two-nil)
• love /lʌv/ is used in tennis results.
15-0 (fifteen-love)

• We say and after hundred or, when there are no hundreds, after thousand or million. It is
normally pronounced /ənd/.
130 /ə ˈhʌndrəd ənd ˈθɜːtɪ/
49,052 /ˈfɔːtɪ naɪn ˈθaʊz(ə)nd ənd ˈfɪftɪ tuː/

• For decimal numbers, we say point and then each number separately.
0.536 – nought point five, three, six

PRONUNCIATION OF PLURALS OF LATIN AND GREEK ORIGIN


syllabus /ˈsɪləbəs/ – syllabi /ˈsɪləbaɪ/
-us /əs/ ➞ -i /aɪ/
nucleus /ˈnjuːkliəs/ – nuclei /ˈnjuːklɪaɪ/
bacterium /bækˈtɪərɪəm/ – bacteria /bækˈtɪərɪə/
-um /əm/ ➞ -a /ə/
curriculum /kəˈrɪkjʊləm/ – curricula /kəˈrɪkjələ/
criterion /kraɪˈtɪərɪən/ – criteria /kraɪˈtɪəriə/
-on /ən/ ➞ -a /ə/
phenomenon /fəˈnɒmɪnən/ – phenomena /fəˈnɒmɪnə/
analysis /əˈnæləsɪs/ – analyses /əˈnæləsiːz/
-sis /sɪs/ ➞ -ses /si:z/
crisis /ˈkraɪsɪs/ – crises /ˈkraɪsiːz/

PRONUNCIATION OF THIRD CONDITIONALS


Because third conditionals are long sentences, we tend to emphasise only the stressed words
(words with a lot of communicative content like nouns, adjectives, adverbs, main verbs and
negative forms). Auxiliary verbs are not stressed, so we normally use contractions: had ➞ ‘d /d/
or /əd/, hadn’t ➞ /ˈhæd(ə)nt/, would have ➞ /ˈwʊdəv/, wouldn’t have ➞ /ˈwʊd(ə)ntəv/.
I would have brought you a present from Rome last month if I had had enough money.
/aɪ ˈwʊdəv ˈbrɔːt jʊ ə ˈprez(ə)nt frəm ˈrəʊm ˈlɑːst ˈmʌnθ ɪf aɪd ˈhæd ɪˈnʌf ˈmʌnɪ/
She would have never succeeded if her parents had not encouraged her.
/ʃiː ˈwʊdəv ˈnevə səkˈsiːdɪd ɪf hə ˈpeərənts ˈhæd(ə)nt ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒd hə/

146 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Pronunciation Guide
PRONUNCIATION FOR EMPHASIS: THE
The definite article the is normally not stressed. However, we may want to stress it for added
emphasis. In this case, it is pronounced /ðiː/.
She overcame her disability in the most amazing way.
/ʃiː əʊvəˈkeɪm hə dɪsəˈbɪlətɪ ɪn ˈðiː ˈməʊst əˈmeɪzɪŋ ˈweɪ/

INTONATION
It is very complicated to describe intonation theoretically. The best approach for learning
intonation is to listen to as much natural authentic speech as possible.
Here are some general guidelines for the intonation of the functions described in this module.

Why did you have to do that?


Showing impatience

I’ve told you a hundred times!

How wonderful!
Exclamations
Start on a high tone

That’s absolutely incredible!

Could you give me a hand with this?

Requests
Would you mind turning down the volume, please?

Close the door, will you?

If you want to sound polite in English you need to stress


the important words in the sentence by making changes
in tone.
Sounding polite
I do apologize.

Thanks! I really appreciate your help!


Start on a
low tone

Persuading Come on! You want to buy a new car, don’t you?
neutral tone
Start on a

What clause + be What was important was arriving on time.

THAT’S ENGLISH! 147


List
List of
of Irregular
IrregularVerbs
Verbs
Infinitive Past simple Past participle Infinitive Past simple Past participle
be was were been fly /flaɪ/ flew /fluː/ flown /fləʊn/
/biː/ /wɒz/ /wɜː(r)/ /bɪn/ /biːn/
forbid forbade forbidden
become /bɪˈkʌm/ became /bɪˈkeɪm/ become /bɪˈkʌm/ /fə(r)ˈbɪd/ /fə(r)ˈbæd/ /fə(r)ˈbɪd(ə)n/

begin /bɪˈɡɪn/ began /bɪˈɡæn/ begun /bɪˈɡʌn/ forget forgot forgotten


/fə(r)ˈɡet/ /fə(r)ˈɡɒt/ /fə(r)ˈɡɒt(ə)n/
bend /bend/ bent /bent/ bent /bent/
forgive forgave forgiven
bet /bet/ bet /bet/ bet /bet/ /fə(r)ˈɡɪv/ /fə(r)ˈɡeɪv/ /fə(r)ˈɡɪv(ə)n/

bite /baɪt/ bit /bɪt/ bitten /ˈbɪt(ə)n/ freeze /friːz/ froze /frəʊz/ frozen /ˈfrəʊz(ə)n/

break /breɪk/ broke /brəʊk/ broken /ˈbrəʊk(ə)n/ get /ɡet/ got /ɡɒt/ got /ɡɒt/

bring /brɪŋ/ brought /brɔːt/ brought /brɔːt/ give /ɡɪv/ gave /ɡeɪv/ given /ˈɡɪv(ə)n/

build /bɪld/ built /bɪlt/ built /bɪlt/ go /ɡəʊ/ went /went/ gone /ɡɒn/

burn burned burnt burned burnt grow /ɡrəʊ/ grew /ɡruː/ grown /ɡrəʊn/
/bɜː(r)n/ /bɜː(r)nd/ /bɜː(r)nt/ /bɜː(r)nd/ /bɜː(r)nt/
hang /hæŋ/ hung /hʌŋ/ hung /hʌŋ/
buy /baɪ/ bought /bɔːt/ bought /bɔːt/
have /hæv/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/
catch /kætʃ/ caught /kɔːt/ caught /kɔːt/
hear /hɪə(r)/ heard /hɜː(r)d/ heard /hɜː(r)d/
choose /tʃuːz/ chose /tʃəʊz/ chosen /ˈtʃəʊz(ə)n/
hide /haɪd/ hid /hɪd/ hidden /ˈhɪd(ə)n/
come /kʌm/ came /keɪm/ come /kʌm/
hit /hɪt/ hit /hɪt/ hit /hɪt/
cost /kɒst/ cost /kɒst/ cost /kɒst/
hold /həʊld/ held /held/ held /held/
cut /kʌt/ cut /kʌt/ cut /kʌt/
hurt /hɜː(r)t/ hurt /hɜː(r)t/ hurt /hɜː(r)t/
deal /diːl/ dealt /delt/ dealt /delt/
keep /kiːp/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/
dig /dɪɡ/ dug /dʌɡ/ dug /dʌɡ/
know /nəʊ/ knew /njuː/ known /nəʊn/
do /duː/ did /dɪd/ done /dʌn/
lay /leɪ/ laid /leɪd/ laid /leɪd/
draw /drɔː/ drew /druː/ drawn /drɔːn/
lead /liːd/ led /led/ led /led/
dream dreamed dreamt dreamed dreamt
/driːm/ /driːmd/ /dremt/ /driːmd/ /dremt/ learn learned learnt learned learnt
/lɜː(r)n/ /lɜː(r)nd/ /lɜː(r)nt/ /lɜː(r)nd/ /lɜː(r)nt/
drink /drɪŋk/ drank /dræŋk/ drunk /drʌŋk/
leave /liːv/ left /left/ left /left/
drive /draɪv/ drove /drəʊv/ driven /ˈdrɪv(ə)n/
lend /lend/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/
eat /iːt/ ate /eɪt/ eaten /ˈiːt(ə)n/
let /let/ let /let/ let /let/
fall /fɔːl/ fell /fel/ fallen /ˈfɔːlən/
lie /laɪ/ lay /leɪ/ lain /leɪn/
feed /fiːd/ fed /fed/ fed /fed/
light lit lighted lit lighted
feel /fiːl/ felt /felt/ felt /felt/ /laɪt/ /lɪt/ /laɪted/ /lɪt/ /laɪted/

fight /faɪt/ fought /fɔːt/ fought /fɔːt/ lose /luːz/ lost /lɒst/ lost /lɒst/

find /faɪnd/ found /faʊnd/ found /faʊnd/ make /meɪk/ made /meɪd/ made /meɪd/

148 THAT’S ENGLISH!


List of Irregular Verbs
Infinitive Past simple Past participle Infinitive Past simple Past participle
mean /miːn/ meant /ment/ meant /ment/ sleep /sliːp/ slept /slept/ slept /slept/

meet /miːt/ met /met/ met /met/ smell smelled smelt smelled smelt
/smel/ /smeld/ /smelt/ /smeld/ /smelt/
outrun /ˌaʊtˈrʌn/ outran /aʊtˈræn/ outrun /ˌaʊtˈrʌn/
speak /spiːk/ spoke /spəʊk/ spoken /spəʊkən/
oversee oversaw overseen
/ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsiː/ /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsɔː/ /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsiːn/ spend /spend/ spent /spent/ spent /spent/

pay /peɪ/ paid /peɪd/ paid /peɪd/ spill spilled spilt spilled spilt
/spɪl/ /spɪld/ /spɪlt/ /spɪld/ /spɪlt/
prove proved proved proven
/pruːv/ /pruːvd/ /pruːvd/ /ˈpruːv(ə)n/ spit /spɪt/ spat /spæt/ spat /spæt/

put /pʊt/ put /pʊt/ put /pʊt/ spoil spoiled spoilt spoiled spoilt
/spɔɪl/ /spɔɪld/ /spɔɪlt/ /spɔɪld/ /spɔɪlt/
quit /kwɪt/ quit /kwɪt/ quit /kwɪt/
spread /spred/ spread /spred/ spread /spred/
read /riːd/ read /red/ read /red/
stand /stænd/ stood /stʊd/ stood /stʊd/
ride /raɪd/ rode /rəʊd/ ridden /ˈrɪd(ə)n/
steal /stiːl/ stole /stəʊl/ stolen /ˈstəʊl(ə)n/
ring /rɪŋ/ rang /ræŋ/ rung /rʌŋ/
stick /stɪk/ stuck /stʌk/ stuck /stʌk/
rise /raɪz/ rose /rəʊz/ risen /ˈrɪz(ə)n/
strike struck struck stricken
run /rʌn/ ran /ræn/ run /rʌn/
/straɪk/ /strʌk/ /strʌk/ /ˈstrɪkən/
say /seɪ/ said /sed/ said /sed/
swear /sweə(r)/ swore /swɔː(r)/ sworn /swɔː(r)n/
see /siː/ saw /sɔː/ seen /siːn/
swim /swɪm/ swam /swæm/ swum /swʌm/
sell /sel/ sold /səʊld/ sold /səʊld/
swing /swɪŋ/ swung /swʌŋ/ swung /swʌŋ/
send /send/ sent /sent/ sent /sent/
tear /teə(r)/ tore /tɔː(r)/ torn /tɔː(r)n/
set /set/ set /set/ set /set/
take /teɪk/ took /tʊk/ taken /ˈteɪkən/
sew sewed sewed sewn
/səʊ/ /səʊd/ /səʊd/ /səʊn/ teach /tiːtʃ/ taught /tɔːt/ taught /tɔːt/

shake /ʃeɪk/ shook /ʃʊk/ shaken /ˈʃeɪkən/ tell /tel/ told /təʊld/ told /təʊld/

shine shined shone shined shone think /θɪŋk/ thought /θɔːt/ thought /θɔːt/
/ʃaɪn/ /ʃaɪnd/ /ʃɒn/ /ʃaɪnd/ /ʃɒn/
throw /θrəʊ/ threw /θruː/ thrown /θrəʊn/
shoot /ʃuːt/ shot /ʃɒt/ shot /ʃɒt/
understand understood understood
show showed showed shown /ˌʌndə(r)ˈstænd/ /ˌʌndə(r)ˈstʊd/ /ˌʌndə(r)ˈstʊd/
/ʃəʊ/ /ʃəʊd/ /ʃəʊd/ /ʃəʊn/
undertake undertook undertaken
shrink /ʃrɪŋk/ shrank /ʃrænk/ shrunk /ʃrʌŋk/ /ˌʌndə(r)ˈteɪk/ /ˌʌndə(r)ˈtʊk/ /ˌʌndə(r)ˈteɪkən/

shut /ʃʌt/ shut /ʃʌt/ shut /ʃʌt/ wake /weɪk/ woke /wəʊk/ woken /ˈwəʊkən/

sing /sɪŋ/ sang /sæŋ/ sung /sʌŋ/ wear /weə(r)/ wore /wɔː(r)/ worn /wɔː(r)n/

sink /sɪŋk/ sank /sæŋk/ sunk /sʌŋk/ win /wɪn/ won /wʌn/ won /wʌn/

sit /sɪt/ sat /sæt/ sat /sæt/ write /raɪt/ wrote /rəʊt/ written /ˈrɪt(ə)n/

THAT’S ENGLISH! 149


Audio Scripts

Audio Scripts self-controlled person than I am. For example,


if I get a bad review for a performance, it can
really affect me. Sometimes the critics are really
UNIT 1. HOW ARE YOU FEELING TODAY? unfair and I’ll be beside myself with rage about
something one of them said.
READING (page 10) Sunita: Yes, and when he’s like that, I know it’s best to leave
Activity 1a him alone! But that’s just work and, as far as I can see,
they’re all like that at the opera. Someone’s always
1
either over the moon about their latest role or latest
Speaker 1 success or in pieces on the floor because a rehearsal
I’m normally a very calm person, but when I see people went badly or something. They’re all drama queens,
driving stupidly or dangerously I get soooooo angry. I just the lot of them! But it goes with the job. It gets a bit
feel pure rage and I can’t control my anger. I just want to tiring sometimes when Gianni brings it home, but I
(wanna) shout and scream at the idiots! like the way he can express his emotions because
Speaker 2 it’s true that it’s more difficult for me.
Our home was flooded last year during the terrible rains. Gianni: Yes, when Sunita’s father died, for example, it hit
I remember sitting in my home surrounded by water and her really hard, but she couldn’t talk about it. She
just feeling total despair. I couldn’t even cry, I was so upset. couldn’t go to India for the funeral because there
I just lost all hope. We’d lost everything. Everything we had wasn’t time, and she was just sort of paralysed
was destroyed. with grief for about a month.
Sunita: Yes, and then Gianni made me take some time off
Speaker 3
work and bought me a ticket to Mumbai so I could
I’ve been lucky so far, no one close to me has died and so at least go and see my family. I went to where
I’ve never experienced personal grief from losing a loved dad was cremated to say goodbye to him and, of
one, but my best friend lost her mother last year, and she course, that’s when I started feeling better.
just couldn’t stop crying. It took her a long time to get over
her grief, and she still misses her mother every day. SELF TEST (page 112)
Speaker 4 Activity 7
Our 4-year-old daughter was missing, lost for two hours one
7
day last year, and we were so worried. We thought something
terrible had happened to her. The police told us to wait. They Speaker 1
were the longest two hours of my life. You can’t imagine the I was delighted with my new home in the beginning. It
relief I felt when the police found her and she was well and safe. was the first house I had ever bought, and I was extremely
proud of it. After a while though, when all the problems
SKILLS WORK (page 15) began, I soon became very depressed. And what problems
Activities 4a and 4b they were! I was lucky though, as fortunately, I had some
extra money and was able to fix everything in the end, but
6 the stress was considerable.
Conversation 1 Speaker 2
Charo: Yes, I would say that this article is true about Mark. As I sat in the chair I started to remember the events of the
The more upset he is about something, the less he previous year with a chuckle. I closed my eyes and for a
wants to talk about it. Isn’t that true, darling? minute I was back at my old job again, and surprisingly, I
Mark: Yes, I suppose so. was happy!
Charo: But I’m the opposite. If my day has gone badly, I’ll
start pouring my heart out about it immediately as UNIT 2. IT’S JUST GOOD MANNERS
soon as I get home. I’ll talk and talk and tell Mark all
about it, even if I know he’s not listening properly LANGUAGE STUDY (page 22)
because it makes me feel better. If something really Activities 1a, 1b and 1c
upsets me or distresses me, I’ll burst into tears. I’ll
go somewhere and just sob and sob, but that makes 9
me feel better. It brings me relief. But Mark isn’t Speaker 1
like that at all. The way he copes with his emotions I’ll often make a list before I go out, but I won’t always
is to keep them inside. It took me a long time to follow it. I try to use the farmer’s market and buy from local
understand that. It used to hurt my feelings that he producers rather than go to the supermarket, so I’ll buy
wouldn’t talk to me about how he felt, but now, I the things that look fresh and delicious. I’m also always
understand it more and I try to leave him alone. looking for bargains, so I’ll sometimes come back with a
Mark: Oh, do you? sack of potatoes or five kilos of apples or something that I
Charo: Don’t say you haven’t noticed? didn’t plan to buy at all.
Mark: Yes, of course I have. And I know I can be Speaker 2
frustrating to live with! Charo is from a big I’ll always visit the kitchens of the establishment before I
close Spanish family. She’s got five brothers and eat out anywhere. Sometimes I’ll ask to see them. But if
sisters and everyone always seems to be crying it’s obvious where the kitchens are, and I can do so without
and laughing and hugging all the time, but in my being noticed, I’ll just put my head round the door and take
English family, we never talked about how we felt. a look – I’ve seen some interesting sights I can tell you! But
It was something you just didn’t do. if I’m happy with the kitchen, I’ll eat there. I love variety and
Conversation 2 I’m constantly trying new places.
Gianni: In our relationship, I feel like I’m the emotional Speaker 3
one, not Sunita. She’s a much calmer, more I’ll usually get to the airport with lots of time to spare

150 THAT’S ENGLISH!


because I hate the stress of being late and I’ll check in satisfying to say when you feel annoyed about something
immediately. I’ll almost always only have hand luggage. I – My bloody train was late again! Or, My bloody boss won’t
travel a lot so I’m always experimenting with ways to carry give me a pay rise. It helps to express your feelings. Hell
as little luggage as possible. I’ll try to find somewhere to also has a religious meaning, but these days people simply
eat before I get on the plane because that means I can just use it to add emphasis to a sentence – showing they’re
sleep during the flight. angry or frustrated or just surprised – What the hell was
that? Or, What the bloody hell do you think you’re doing?
SKILLS WORK (page 25) But, be careful: just because these expressions are quite
Activity 3 common doesn’t mean that people won’t be offended by
them. Generally speaking it’s safer, if you must express
11 yourself forcefully, to use exclamations like Why on earth
Laila: So Dr Singh, what did you find out about did they do that? Or, What in heaven’s name are they doing
Sentinelese customs and habits? now, the idiots? But let us not forget that you can also
Sanjay: Well, they really do seem to live like we think that express your negative feelings about someone forcefully,
humans lived 15,000 years ago. For example, but without swearing, by using expressions like the last
they do use fire when it’s caused naturally, say or the dreaded, for example, He’s the last person I would
by lightening, but they will guard their fires very consider employing or Don’t look now, but the dreaded
jealously because they don’t yet know how to Sam is coming! Everybody run!
make fire themselves. So, to sum up, it’s important to remember that swearing is
Laila: Really? That’s incredible! a very personal thing and what is acceptable for you might
Sanjay: Yes. They don’t seem to have a formal social be taboo for another person. So, as my mother used to
structure either, or perhaps we just haven’t say, ‘For goodness sake, mind your language!’
understood it. Nor do they seem to have any kind Activities 5a and 5b
of chief or leader or anything like a witch-doctor.
Laila: No leaders, eh? That’s… well, in fact that’s difficult 14
to understand. How do they organise things if There are many big differences between British and
there are no leaders? Japanese culture, but in my experience, there are also some
Sanjay: Well, that’s just it.They don’t really need to organise attitudes that we share. Generally speaking, the Japanese
anything. In a way, they live in a kind of paradise. are rather reserved formal people who don’t invade each
Everything they need is there – for food there are others’ personal space. Adults don’t often hug or kiss
the fruits and wild pigs and lizards in the jungle, each other, and we usually bow rather than shake hands.
the fish in the sea. They don’t have to cope with Funnily enough, the British also used to have a reputation
bad weather – it’s warm sunny weather most of for being reserved, but this has changed over the last 20-30
the time so they don’t need to worry about clothes years, and they’ve generally become much more laid-back.
or shelter. They build huts from palm branches but Take, for example, the way they have adopted the habit of
kissing their friends in greeting whereas, for the Japanese,
they aren’t very strong. I think that their society
public displays of affection are embarrassing – a kiss on
hasn’t evolved because it simply hasn’t needed to.
the cheek is a very intimate gesture and definitely not
Laila: So they lead an ideal life then? something you do in public.
Sanjay: In a way, but it would seem very primitive to us. Not only are the Japanese more reserved than the British,
For example, their songs have only two notes and but we also have some very different social attitudes.
they can only count up to two, everything above Japanese society is collectivist. It’s important to be
two they simply refer to as many. The only form of deferential towards authority figures and fit in to the groups
art they have is body painting. you belong to – your family, your school or university, your
Laila: And they’re really not interested in or curious company – and the way you behave is influenced by the
about other people or other ways of life? expectations of the group. This is in contrast to Britain and
Sanjay: The truth is, we just don’t know. We have absolutely Europe, which are individualistic.
no idea what they are thinking. We just don’t know But let us not forget that the British, like the Japanese, often
them enough to even begin to understand them. prefer indirect communication. For example, we will avoid
They certainly want to protect their island from saying what we think if we believe it will hurt or offend. For
strangers and that’s understandable. us, it’s a question of being sensitive to others’ feelings and
of preserving social harmony. The other trait we share is a
SPEAKING (pages 26-27) tendency to be a bit eccentric. This is visible for example in
Activities 2a and 2b having a strong street culture where young people dress
up in crazy original ways. All in all, I think as two island
12
cultures, we have more in common than you might think.
Most English swearwords are usually related either
to religion, to sex or to bodily functions – I think that’s
probably the same in most cultures. In my experience, UNIT 3. A BRIGHT FUTURE
it’s useful to understand and recognise swearwords in a LANGUAGE STUDY (pages 32-33)
foreign language, but personally I’d never swear in another
language unless I felt very comfortable with the people I Activities 3a and 3b
was with. Absolutely no way! 16
Two common fairly mild swearwords that British people Welcome to our tour of the Highlands. Let me run through
use are bloody and hell. Bloody is religious in origin: it our itinerary for the day. First of all, we’ll be stopping for
is a contraction of by our Lady, our Lady being of course a traditional Scottish breakfast at the famous Jeannie
The Virgin Mary, Jesus’s mother, but funnily enough most McKenzie’s café. Next, we’ll be visiting a whisky distillery
people don’t know that. They just use the word because of where you’ll be able to sample Scotland’s delicious famous
the way it sounds. It’s what we call an expletive – a word drink. By the way, we’ll be passing through some lovely
you use to make an exclamation – the hard b sound feels countryside on the way there, so if it isn’t raining, you

THAT’S ENGLISH! 151


Audio Scripts
might want to take some photos for the album. Then, we’ll them. That little boy obviously loves learning and it would
be spending the rest of the day in… be wrong not to encourage him.
Activity 5a Speaker 2
To be honest, it all depends on what you think is important
17
in life. Status, career, qualifications are all very well but they
Every day it seems that computers are able to do more and
don’t necessarily lead to personal fulfilment or a happy
more things. By the time I retire, I imagine that computers
home life. If I had kids, I’d want them to value people not
won’t just be used for work and recreation anymore. In fact,
just for their academic ability, but for their character or other
I think they’ll even have replaced real people in many areas abilities. Many people could get more pleasure from creating
of life. But this won’t really affect me because I’ll only be a beautiful garden than being a successful executive. We
using my computer to do the same as I do now – listen to should value all types of ability not just academic ability.
music and watch films. Oh, and to Skype with my family,
and of course to do my shopping, and to pay my bills. Oh, Speaker 3
and also to book my holidays, and… oh, yes, well, maybe There’s nothing new in this situation, but no one seems
it isn’t just the future that will be affected. I hadn’t even to be learning from the past here. I can think of numerous
thought about the present! examples of poor children who were taught at home by
pushy parents and ended up being unhappy adults. Ruth
Activity 6b Lawrence, for example – she was the youngest ever
19 person to study at Oxford at the age of 12! She did a PhD
1 mad made as a teenager and then she fell out with her parents and
2 us use emigrated and didn’t speak to them for years. So, no. Let
3 strip stripe children be children while they can.
4 bit bite Speaker 4
5 cut cute If you ask me, it’s all down to whether parents are using
6 rat rate common sense. Most parents are decent human beings and
want the best for their kids, so yeah – if the kid seems happy,
Activities 7a and 7b then the parents are obviously doing a good job. If the
21
parents can access specialised schooling through joining a
Liz: Would you like some more coffee? group, then it’s a good idea – otherwise the boy is going to
be bored and miserable. At the end of the day, parents have
Penny: No, I’m fine thanks. Oh, by the way, I found these
to do what they think is best and take no notice of people
old photos the other day of when we went to who criticise – they’re probably just jealous!
Venice that time – here you are.
Liz: Oh, wow! Look at my hair! What on earth am I SELF TEST (page 114)
wearing? It looks like a curtain! Activity 1
Penny: I remember that dress very well – it was orange
and yellow. 24
Liz: Ugh, it was horrible! Look, here’s one of us visiting Simon Jenkins: Good morning, Ms Knox. Thanks for
the glass factory at Murano. coming down to see me.
Penny: Really? Let’s see. I don’t recall going there at all. Isabel Knox: Good morning, Mr Jenkins. My pleasure.
Liz: Yes, you must do. Look, here we are with the Simon Jenkins: So, I’d like to discuss the university’s
souvenirs we bought there. I’ve still got that blue strategic plan for the next two years.
vase. Isabel Knox: Yes, well, since we last met I’m pleased
Penny: No, I have no recollection of that trip at all. Here’s to report there have been a number of
one of us in the square, yes, I do recall visiting St. developments. We are opening a new
Mark’s and feeding all the birds there. science laboratory on 5 April and we are
starting building new accommodation
Liz: Well, I don’t recall that at all. Maybe my memory
blocks in July.
is getting worse with age.
Simon Jenkins: Really? So soon? I thought you had
Penny: Think mine is too. This one is of me with that silver
a problem with the funding for the
necklace I bought on the Ponte Vecchio. I still wear accommodation.
it a lot. It always reminds me of being young and
having fun. Isabel Knox: Yes, we did but fortunately someone has
left us a large sum of money, so we can
Liz: Ah well, time moves on. Anyway, what about our definitely go ahead in July.
next holiday in Mexico? Have you got the online
Simon Jenkins: Excellent. Now, regarding the Government’s
tickets yet?
policy on encouraging more students to
Penny: Yes, just let me retrieve the information on the study science, any progress there?
computer and print it for you. Just a sec...
Isabel Knox: Well, at the latest academic board meeting
SKILLS WORK (page 35) it was fully discussed, and we are going to
set up a team to visit schools in the local
Activity 3 area and demonstrate some experiments.
23 That kind of thing.
Speaker 1 Simon Jenkins: And when can we expect that to start?
Well, if it was a case that the parents were forcing the child Isabel Knox: Erm, well, we don’t have a definite date.
to study reading and science as a baby, then I’d be against It’s still in the planning stages.
it, of course. But anyone who’s got kids knows that with Simon Jenkins: Hmm, I see. What about any other ideas?
your average child there’s no way that would work – they’d Isabel Knox: We are going to run a science competition
just take no notice or run off. You can’t make a small child for schools, but the details haven’t been
concentrate if they’re not interested, so I say good luck to finalised.

152 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Simon Jenkins: Well, I’d like that to be confirmed soon. Activities 4a and 4b
Isabel Knox: Oh, and we are having a series of science
27
open days, uh ... free food, tours of the
Emma: How was the meal last night?
university for teenagers, etc.
Alex: It was great, thanks. A really good evening apart
Simon Jenkins: Erm... Good, when do they start?
from one thing.
Isabel Knox: Next month on the 12th. It should be really...
Emma: Which was?
Alex: We had all agreed to split the bill but then Matt had
UNIT 4. EVERY LITTLE BIT HELPS to rush off. I’m annoyed at his forgetting to pay.
LANGUAGE STUDY (pages 42-43) Emma: Well, yes, I can imagine you would be annoyed at
him forgetting to pay! Has that happened before?
Activities 2a and 2b
Alex: Yes, once or twice. That’s why I’m upset. It’s not fair.
26 Emma: Hm... Do you mind me making a suggestion?
Conversation 1 Alex: Why on earth would I mind your making a
Nick: Hi, you must be Mandy. How’s it going? I’m Nick suggestion? Of course, I don’t.
Lomas. Emma: Why not ask everyone to give some cash to you at
Mandy: Hi there, Nick. I’m good, thanks. the start of the meal?
Nick: Well, Mandy, as you know, I’m a lifestyle coach Alex: Yes, that’s a good idea.
and trainer, and I want to help you get back on Activities 6a, 6b and 6c
track with fitness. So, can I just take a few details?
28
OK, so tell me about your lifestyle at the moment.
Conversation 1
Mandy: Well, I like to think I’m really quite healthy, you
A: Excuse me, would you mind lifting my suitcase down?
know, I just need a little help in a few areas.
B: Not at all. There you are.
Nick: I see. OK, well, let’s start with diet. Tell me about
that. Conversation 2
Mandy: I’m really into healthy eating, five fruit and veg a day, A: Could you lend a hand with moving these books?
and I love to cook every day from fresh ingredients. B: Yes, of course.
Nick: Great – so you cook fresh food yourself every day. Conversation 3
Mandy: Well, to be honest, it’s not every day, or even every A: Give me a hand with this box, would you?
week at the moment – I’m a bit busy right now. B: Sure, no problem.
Nick: Right, so, what do you actually eat? Conversation 4
Mandy: If you must know, I love eating Mexican food – just A: Could you possibly post this letter for me?
can’t get enough of it from that takeaway in town. B: Certainly.
Nick: Uhuh. Well, I regret to inform you that’s not very Conversation 5
healthy! Can I ask about exercise?
A: Will you please tidy up?
Mandy: Well, that’s the problem you see. It’s not really B: All right, OK.
happening. I tried joining the gym, but it was soooo
boring. So, I stopped going. I regret stopping now, Conversation 6
though. A: Don’t forget to bring some milk on your way home, will
Nick: I see. What about swimming? you?
B: Don’t worry, I won’t forget.
Mandy: Yeah, well I tried to learn to swim, but I gave up.
Nick: Right. We need to try and find something you SKILLS WORK (page 45)
really enjoy. Activities 1a and 1b
Conversation 2
29
Jo: Come on, Callum. Hurry up – we’re going to miss Interviewer: Next up is the issue of food waste and helping
the plane if we don’t catch this bus. those in food poverty. Leo Jarvis is here to tell us
Callum: OK, OK. Uh... Look, can we just check we’ve got about an exciting new initiative that’s sweeping
everything on the way to the bus stop? the country – The Real Junk Food Café. 47 such
Jo: Right... , yeah... . I remembered to bring the cafés have opened up in the last year. But, Leo,
passports – they’re in my bag. I’ll never forget surely eating junk food isn’t such a good idea?
leaving my passport behind that time I went to Leo Jarvis: That’s right, but The Real Junk Food Café
volunteer at that peace camp in Africa! has nothing to do with junk food like burgers
Callum: Cheers. You’ve got the tickets, right? I remember and fries – that’s just a joke. The junk food in
seeing them on the table. question is waste food from supermarkets
which is destined for the rubbish bin.
Jo: Yes, that’s fine. Oh! What about the travel money?
Interviewer: Hang on, isn’t that a bit dangerous?
Callum: I’ve got it, though I nearly forgot to pick it up
Leo Jarvis: No, not at all because the first Real Junk Food
yesterday.
Café in Leeds has fed over 10,000 people and
Jo: Have you got the travel insurance? no one has ever been ill. The thing is the food
Callum: No, I thought you had it. they use in the café – over 20 tonnes of it – is
Jo: I thought you had it. Oh, let’s stop to check. Oh still perfectly fresh and it hasn’t reached its ‘use
brilliant, it’s here after all. by’ date. Supermarkets are just too cautious.
Callum: Hey, we’d better stop talking and start running. Interviewer: I see. So, how does it work?
Here comes the bus! Leo Jarvis: Well, the café owners are passionate about

THAT’S ENGLISH! 153


Audio Scripts
reducing food waste and helping those for them when in fact, they aren’t really helping
in need, so they have a ‘pay what you can’ with anything vital. It’s a misuse of funds.
policy. They serve soup, casseroles and cakes Laura: Um... Could I just say something here? Are
all made from the donated ingredients. If you you accusing the arts theatre of wasting public
can’t pay, you can do the washing-up! money? That’s a very serious accusation.
Interviewer: Surely they don’t make much money then? Mervyn: Sorry, I think you’ve misunderstood me. I was
Leo Jarvis: Surprisingly, they made a profit of £30,000 just making the point that we need to make sure
last year, and of course, they don’t pay for the we donate the money to organisations that are
raw materials. addressing real social issues. The arts theatre
Interviewer: How did it all begin? may be doing a good job, but I don’t want to give
Leo Jarvis: A number of chefs wanted to bring communities it our support.
together and stop the million tonnes of food Richard: All the same, that is just your individual point of
being wasted each year, which is happening view, Mervyn. Wouldn’t you agree all age groups
alongside the huge growth in food banks. are entitled to help?
There are now 272 in the UK. Mervyn: Possibly, but we can’t help everyone. We must
Interviewer: Why has there been such a rise in food poverty? prioritise.
Leo Jarvis: Well, food prices have risen by 47% since Activities 5a and 5b
2003, so buying food takes up a larger part
33
of the household budget. And changes to
welfare benefits have affected many people Richard: Let’s move on then. So Laura, any more
negatively. The Real Junk Food Café aims to thoughts?
help some of those affected as well as raise Laura: How about dividing the money three ways?
awareness. Then each charity would get at least a thousand
pounds.
Interviewer: It certainly sounds like a great idea. Thank
you, Leo, and... Richard: That’s a good idea.
Laura: And as Mervyn is so keen on serious issues, we’d
SPEAKING (pages 46-47) better forget helping the animal rescue centre or
Activities 2a, 2b and 3 the old people’s lunch club.
Mervyn: I have no problem with the lunch club. It’s very
31 popular.
Richard: Right everyone, I’d like to start by addressing the Richard: What about supporting the anti-gang scheme?
first item on the agenda which is how to allocate
Laura: That sounds reasonable to me.
the money raised from the society’s annual
dinner and dance. The profits this year were a Richard: So, we’re offering help to teenagers and the
splendid three thousand and eighty pounds, so elderly. I propose our third charity should be
well done to all those who worked so hard. connected with children – perhaps anti-bullying?
Does everyone agree?
Laura: Well, we might consider giving it to the local
children’s theatre project as I believe they do a Laura: Good plan.
very good job. Mervyn: Fine by me.
Richard: Mmm... Do you have any thoughts, Mervyn? Richard: Good, so on to the next item on the agenda…
Mervyn: As far as I’m concerned, that’s not really a high
SELF TEST (page 115)
priority. Helping people with serious diseases
appeals to me more than wasting money on Activity 5
children having fun. 34
Richard: How do you feel about that Laura? Rachel: Hey Steve, did I tell you I’m planning to climb
Laura: To be honest, that’s not how I see it at all. It’s not Mount Kilimanjaro to raise money for a health
just having fun as you call it. The theatre project project in Africa?
gives a lot of help to children with emotional Steve: Wow! Really? That’s quite a challenge, Rachel.
problems and builds their confidence. I think it’s Rachel: So, I was wondering if you’d sponsor me.
marvellous. Steve: Of course, put me down for £20.
Mervyn: I couldn’t disagree more. That’s what schools Rachel: Aw, cheers. Have you ever thought of doing
are for – to build children’s confidence and something like that?
teach them creative subjects. There are far more
Steve: Me? No, it’s not my kind of thing really. There are
serious needs in the community. How about
a lot of people in need near at hand.
tackling gang culture in the inner city? That’s far
more important. Rachel: That’s true. But people here might get
embarrassed if you give them a handout.
Richard: Sorry, can I come in here? We decided at the
last meeting that we should divide the money Steve: Yes, being sensitive goes hand in hand with
between at least two organisations. offering help.
Rachel: So, are you involved in any projects?
Activities 4a and 4b Steve: Yes, I am actually. I’m a volunteer at the food
32 bank in the city centre. It’s terrible that so many
Richard: Sorry, can I come in here? We decided at the people are living hand-to-mouth and need food.
last meeting that we should divide the money Rachel: That’s right. Why can’t they get help from the
between at least two organisations. government?
Mervyn: Fair enough, but I can’t agree to give it to some Steve: Well, they can but it can take several weeks
ridiculous arts project. Nowadays, people think and the social security people can’t speed the
up all sorts of crazy ideas and get charitable status process up. Their hands are tied.

154 THAT’S ENGLISH!


Rachel: Oh, that’s terrible. I feel guilty that it’s happening go wrong, I was horrified at first. Still, when you see the
right here. photos of that night, it’s clear that everything turned out
Steve: Well, don’t just sit there wringing your hands – get for the best despite the best man breaking his arm and the
involved. I’m going to the food bank tomorrow. groom losing his keys. We have all been friends for such a
Rachel: OK. I’ll come along and lend a hand. long time that nothing is really embarrassing, and they all
Steve: Brilliant. congratulated me in the end. I was so glad when they got
safely married the next day!
REVISION 1 UNIT 5. AS EASY AS 1, 2, 3
LANGUAGE REVISION (page 49)
LANGUAGE STUDY (page 56)
Activity 9
Activity 2
35
40
1 He was wearing a red cape.
2 They used a kind of tap to solve the problem. 1
3 The floor was a carpet of pine needles. A: He has a fortune of fifty-five billion dollars.
4 You’ve got the chance to win a couple of bottles. B: No, he can’t have! Nobody could have that much money
surely?
5 Why would you spend so much on Pete?
A: Well maybe it was fifty-five million, I can’t remember.
SKILLS WORK (page 50) 2
Activities 3a and 3b A: So the answer is 0.0085.
B: It says 0.058 here.
37
A: Oh yes, sorry, I was looking at the wrong question.
Speaker 1
It was just one of those days when nothing seemed to go 3
right. I was so nervous about the interview that I wasn’t A: She’s written 666,666 here but that doesn’t make sense.
thinking straight, and I hadn’t left myself enough time B: Let me have a look. Oh, I see. In a lot of European countries,
to get organised. I got to the building OK and went into they write a comma for decimal points. Weird, isn’t it?
the room trembling. It wasn’t until I took my coat off that A: Oh I see, so this is 666. 666 (point).
everyone began to look at me in astonishment. I looked B: That’s right.
down and realised I was still wearing my pyjama trousers
4
with my smart jacket. I could have died! I wish I had
noticed it before. Then I wouldn’t have been standing there A: Can you give me your number and I’ll put it on my phone?
blushing in front of everyone! B: 0150021 (oh-one-five-oh-oh-two-one).
Speaker 2 A: 0150021 (oh-one-five-oh-oh-two-one).That’s strange. It’s
almost like my sister’s number. Hers is 0105021 (oh-one-
I couldn’t believe it when I was elected. Admittedly, I had
oh-five-oh-two-one).
been campaigning, and obviously I thought my ideas
were worthwhile and I had a genuine desire to help the 5
community, but I was very young and in many ways too A: And the city now has 750,000 inhabitants.
inexperienced. I soon found out when I went to the first B: I thought it was much bigger than that.
council meeting! Everyone argued with everyone else, and I A: Sorry, I meant 7,500,000.
ended up totally demoralised by the whole business. It was
impossible to reach an agreement between us, so nothing 6
got done. It was inevitable that I would leave, and the rest of A: The first one is 0.032 and the second one 0.023 and that’s
them certainly tried hard to make my life miserable. all we know at the moment.
Speaker 3 Activities 4a and 4b
I’ve always been a hands-on sort of person, so when 42
I had the chance to lead the team and make decisions I Rolando: So, what are these strange ways of measuring
was delighted. I’m really in control of what’s happening you have in Britain and America?
and feel we have made tremendous progress over the past Alyson: It’s called the imperial measurement system. The
few weeks. I think if you are given responsibility, it’s very standards were set by the British weights and
motivating and I certainly have been putting in the hours measures act of 1824, and it was used across the
to make all this work. The exhibition is next week, and I’m British Empire – that’s where the name comes
sure it’s going to be a runaway success. from.
Speaker 4 Rolando: And what about the measurements themselves?
I can’t help it, when I see him, I feel so uncomfortable. It’s Alyson: Well, they were systemised in the nineteenth
just he gives me the creeps with his pale face and sweaty century, but some of them are very old and date
hands. I really do object to him sniffing constantly and back to medieval times. They were originally
burping whenever he drinks anything. I can’t stand it if he based on specific things to do with the human
gets too close to me, and I’m always relieved if he misses body. For example, an inch, which is 2.54
work for a day. It’s not easy having to sit next to someone centimetres, was the length of a thumb. A foot,
like that all week. There’s supposed to be an office party which is 12 inches, is about 30 centimetres – or
next Friday, but I don’t think I’ll go in case he turns up. to be exact 0.3048 metres – was based on the
Speaker 5 length of a human foot; the yard...
In many ways the situation was hilarious. In fact, it was Rolando: The what?
like something out of a comedy film. However, I was Alyson: The yard – in imperial measurements, 12 inches
the one who had set it all up so when things started to make a foot, three feet make a yard and 1,760

THAT’S ENGLISH! 155


Audio Scripts
yards make a mile. The yard was the distance By monitoring all the body’s vital signs – uh,
from the end of a man’s nose to his hand if he heartbeat, blood pressure, respiration, etc. –
stretches his arm out. A yard is 0.9144 metres – they can identify a connection between very
about 10 centimetres less than a metre – and a minor changes and more serious problems. And
mile is 1.6093 – a bit more than one and a half this helps doctors to act earlier and save lives!
kilometres. Kara: That’s great, but it still won’t necessarily
Rolando: Right. All very logical, then. help doctors to understand the causes of the
Alyson: Natural rather than logical. Imperial problem, will it? I mean it’ll tell the doctors that
measurements were mostly in units of 12 or 16 this baby is more likely to develop an infection,
because these are very flexible numbers which but there might be nothing the doctors can do
can divide into different fractions. In the imperial about it.
weight system, for example, there are 16 ounces Antoine: But all the extra data is helping doctors to
to the pound and 14 pounds to the stone. increase their understanding of how infections
Rolando: Which must have been based on the weight of develop and so eventually they’ll be able to do
some large stone somewhere? something about them.
Alyson: I guess so. An ounce is 28.35g, a pound is 0.4536 Kara: OK. I can see it’s a useful tool. I just don’t think
kilograms, about half a kilogram, and a stone is it’s anything to get excited about.
6.3503 kilos.
WRITING (pages 60-61)
Rolando: 6.3503 kilos, eh? There’s no way I’m going to
remember that! But just why do you still use Activity 1a
these ridiculous measurements when the rest of 46
the world uses the metric system? Chris: So, thanks everyone for coming. As you know,
Alyson: Actually, officially both countries switched to there is a government grant of £180,000 but we
the metric system in the 1970s. But the reason have to compete with other schools for it. We need
why the change is so slow is money. Apparently, to show that we need the money the most, and
changing all the British road signs from miles we have to prepare a proposal for what we would
to kilometres would cost millions and the spend the money on. There have been lots of great
Americans say that, for example, converting the ideas, but we’ve managed to get it down to a final
whole NASA space programme to the metric three, so I’d like the people who suggested them to
system would cost billions. present them to the rest of the staff. Umm, Taslim,
perhaps you’d like to start?
SKILLS WORK (page 59) Activity 1b
Activities 2a and 2b
47
45 Taslim: Thanks Chris, my personal recommendation is that
Kara: I don’t see why just having more data and we invest the money in IT equipment. Obviously,
numbers should make a difference. Surely it’s computing skills are essential in the modern world
what you do with them that’s important? and if our students leave St Anne’s with strong
Antoine: Of course. On its own the data isn’t anything IT skills, this will be a big advantage for them in
special. It has to be analysed so that we can get the job market. At the moment, as we all know,
information from it. our IT facilities are completely inadequate. If we
Kara: Exactly! So what’s new? got to the £180,000, it would pay for a brand new
Antoine: Well, it’s the fact that we can learn things if we fully-equipped computer-science lab as well as
have more information that we couldn’t have 30 new laptops. Additionally, if the school invests
found out if we had less information. this much in new hardware, we would qualify
for an extra grant for up to £100,000 to spend on
Kara: Yeah, well, that’s obvious I suppose. interactive whiteboards for the classrooms and
Antoine: Exactly! Take the Obama elections. Say you other technical equipment. The whole school and
wanted to know which candidate single women curriculum would benefit from this, so this is why I
under 30 would be likely to vote for? Or, which strongly recommend this option.
candidate university-educated single Asian- Chris: Thank you, Taslim. Stuart, would you like to go next?
American women under 30 would vote for. In the
Stuart: What I would like to propose is spending the
past, we had to rely on samples of the population,
money on redecorating our school buildings and
and there would probably have been only a couple
refurbishing them, especially the gym, the canteen
of people with those characterist