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In the name of Allah, the Beneficient (Rahman), the Merciful (Raheem).

A study of the Qur'an
The Universal Guidance for Mankind.

By Mohammed Abdul Malek.


This book makes the following claim: the Qur'an is a book of universal guidance for the
whole of mankind. This statement will appear dogmatic to many people – particularly to non-
Muslims. This study is an attempt to justify this claim through presenting the teachings of the
Qur'an afresh and in the context of the claims it makes both for itself, and with regard to our
human lives, both as individuals and as a collective entity.

Any serious study of the Qur'an must include knowledge of Arabic since it is only by this
means that we can approach an understanding of those verses which have been mistranslated
due to tradition, prejudice, or lack of knowledge of established scientific facts. In approaching
this book, therefore, it is crucial to have a mind prepared to judge the facts on their own

While the treatment of the topics covered in A Study of the Qur'an is by no means exhaustive,
it is hoped that this book will be a valued starting point for the genuine student who wishes
sincerely to consider the Holy Qur'an as a source of guidance for his or her life. Email:


Copyright, Author and Publisher

Four verses from the Qur'an

1. Introduction

2. Knowledge of Arabic and its importance

3. Basic rules to be followed in the study of the Qur'an

3.1 Verses which are clear and not subject to interpretation

3.2 Verses which are allegorical

4. Explanation of the Qur'an by the Qur'an

5. Understanding the first sura: Al-Fatiha. The key to the Qur'an

6. Basic Teachings of the Qur'an

7. The prophets and their revelations

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Adam (Adam)

7.3 Prophets named in the Qur'an

7.4 Noah (Nuh)

7.5 Abraham (Ibrahim)

7.6 Moses (Musa)

7.7 Jesus (Isa)

7.8 Muhammad (Muhammad)

8. Topics apparently controversial

8.1 Punishment for stealing

8.2 Adultery (see sec. 10.3 selection no. 1)

8.3 Does the Qur'an sanction the beating of women?

8.4 Women's rights

8.5 Divorce

8.6 Polygamy

8.7 The veil (Hijab)

8.8 Jihad

8.8 Intoxicating liquors

8.10 Gambling

8.11 Interest (riba/Usury. see sec. 12.1)

8.12 Intercession (see sec. 10.3 selection no. 8).

8:13 The "Moon Sighting" controversy

9. Latter day saints

10. The Implications of Hadith for Islam

10.1 The meaning of Hadith and Sunnah

10.2 Historical background of Hadiths

10.3 Ways the the Hadith contradicts the Qur'an

4 The legal system of the Shi'ites 13.3 Influence of Hadiths as a source of law 13.1 Declaration of faith 11.3 Zakat (see sec. Economic system of the Qur'an 13.2 At the collective level (Unfus) 15.10. 12. The Purpose of Mankind 15.4 Usefulness of Hadith literature 11.4 Fasting 11.33) 11.6 Application of Shariat Laws in modern times 14. The Jewish scriptures and the Bible 19. Islam and human rights 18. The five pillars 11. The Islamic state 17.2 Salat (prayer) 11. Human evolution .2 The Development of jurisprudence (Ahle-fiqh) 13.5 The Qur'an as a source of law 13.4 Return to Allah (Most important of all) 16.1 At the individual level (Nafs) 15. Qur'an and Science 15.3 Function of Nature (The external world Af'aque) 15.1 Introduction 13. Law making in Islam 13.5 (Hajj) pilgrimage 12.

Appendices (A1. and for this I am truly grateful. Conclusion. and provided valuable suggestions most of which I have adopted. Sam Gerrans. A6) Bibliography Book reviews Availability Back to Synopsis Acknowledgements The inspiration for writing this book originated in a Qur'anic study group which at present does not exist. I must offer my sincere thanks and deep appreciation particularly to one of my close friends and relatives who wants to remain anonymous. all of which I have found extremely useful. All quotations are identified by superscripts and referenced at the end of the chapter. I have also included two reviews of the 2nd edition of the book. and throughout my work she has provided valuable suggestions and much useful assistance. but I am sincerely and deeply grateful to him for all his contribution. liked the book and offered to edit the book voluntarily. She has spent many days and hours in editing the first two editions. Copyright Author and Publisher Copyright: There is no copyright but permission must be obtained from the publisher for reproduction of any text from this publication. particularly chapter 8. He has provided most of my sources and many valuable suggestions and comments. and without their help and understanding it would not have been possible to write this book. 18 and the Appendix. I am indebted to many authors. 11. I count this as a great blessing from Allah. A few of them also provided additional help through valuable suggestions on the very first draft. who as a Muslim and a linguist.20. With this new edition I have managed to revise certain chapters. A5. To my wife I am indebted beyond words. . He spent numerous hours editing the text. A3. I do not think that I can thank him enough. A4. He then kindly re-checked the revised text and the result is this third edition which could not have been realised without his effort and dedication. It so happened that one Mr. from whose writings I have taken quotations and without whom my sources of knowledge and understanding would have been far more restricted. There is no doubt that many of the thoughts included in the book came from people in the study group. A2. With regard to this third edition. 10. as the stimulus and the help came suddenly and unexpectedly. I owe him much.

Sutton. Surrey. are messages indeed for people who think! (45:13) These are Allah's revelations that we recite to you truthfully. But they flung it behind their backs and bought thereby a little gain. (95:4-6) . Malek 69 Prince of Wales Road. SM1 3PE United Kingdom First edition: June 1997 Second revised edition: December 1997 Third revised Edition: January 2000 verses from the Qur'an And He has made subservient to you.Published by: M. all that is in the heavens and the earth: in this. Verily. evil is that which they have gained thereby. A. Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low. from Himself. and theirs is a reward unfailing. save those who believe and do good works. (3:187) Surely We created man of the best stature. In which Hadith other than Allah and His revelations do you believe? (45:6) And (remember) when Allah laid a charge on those who had received the Scripture (He said): Ye are to expound it to mankind and not to hide it. behold.

The Qur’an is not a book of religion in the conventional sense of the word ‘religion’. neither did so.i. had the prophet been so keen on the importance of his own sayings he would have arranged to have these written down during his lifetime. is full of contradictions with the Qur’an and that in itself is the proof that it has nothing to do with the prophet. and the last prophet named is Prophet Muhammad. in his own words. called the Hadiths. and the book of that name claims to be a universal book of guidance for the whole of mankind. have no sectarian connotation and will always remain universal in their implications. the book of ‘Nature’ to guide mankind to the way we must live on this planet with the least possible conflict. The Qur’an was sent down as a revelation to the Prophet Muhammad (AS. that it is the Word of Allah (see notes 4. in this case only. The words ‘Islam’ and ‘Muslim’.1. The Qur’an consists of 114 chapters (suras). in reality. However. see note 1). The Qur’an claims. who came after Ibrahim (Abraham). This is why Allah says in the Qur’an “follow the prophet”: in order that we should follow the Qur’an and practice the teachings of the Qur’an. The first sura has seven verses and is the key to the Qur’an. To prove this point I have outlined some of the major contradictions of the Hadith literature with the Qur’an in a separate chapter of this book.e. It was written down and compiled in the form of a book by the prophet during his lifetime without any alteration and the book (Al-Kitab) remains unspoilt since that time. So. in effect the Qur’an becomes the utterance or ‘the sayings’ of the prophet. This literature. 6 & 7) and not the word of the prophet. The Qur’an names many other prophets.see notes 2 & 3 at the end of this section) through GabrielA1 (Jibreel). At the very least his immediate companions would have done so had they been aware of such an intention. We should never overlook the fact that. i. living in full harmony with people of the world and also with the environment. Therefore. We must clearly understand that to follow the prophet. the Qur’an warns us that if the prophet were to utter anything of his own. as stated in the Qur’an. The Qur’an declares that those who follow and practice the guidance given in the Qur’an will be called ‘Muslims’. This does not mean following what has been written regarding his sayings and practices by fallible people some 250 years later. and their way of life is called ‘Islam’ meaning ‘peace’. and primarily collected by word of mouth. . ‘the Word of Allah’ and ‘the sayings of the prophet’ – since they are one and the same. including Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus). with balance and harmony. It is. therefore. or pbuh. However. which means those who submit to the Will of Allah. -. as given in the Qur’an. INTRODUCTION The word Qur’an means ‘reading’. implies to follow what was inspired in him through revelations. It has 286 verses and can be regarded as the summary of the Qur’an. and incorporate it into the Qur’an then he would be severely punished and no one would be able to save him. i. one cannot make a distinction in this regard between the two . The longest sura is the second sura. he is also known as the Seal of the Prophets. and as there would be no other prophet after him. The prophet’s position vis-à-vis the Qur’an is that the Word of Allah was uttered by the prophet when he was inspired with the revelation. very clearly.e. The Qur’an says very clearly that the names Islam and Muslim originated from the time of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) who was given the title of the Leader of Mankind. As an additional safeguard it was also memorised by many people during the prophet’s lifetime. not only with the people of the world but also with the natural world. 5. Each chapter (sura) is divided into a number of verses (ayats.e.

Yet it does not mean that the latter are condemned. due to slight variations in methods of numbering of verses by certain translators. etc. whereas the word ‘prophet’ implies the capacity to foretell future events.The universal message given by Allah is the Qur’an. Other relevant topics are arranged in such a way as to give an overall picture of the Qur’an. 18:54. The Qur’an also claims very strongly that the revelation that was given to Prophet Muhammad is nothing new as the same book (Al-Kitab) was given to all the prophets.e. This is why the Qur’an classifies people into two groups: (i) ‘The believers’ (mumins) who submit to the guidance given in the Qur’an. in conformity with their context. the Qur’an. and acceptance or rejection of the Qur’an must be based on free will. I sincerely hope that it will be read with an open mind and without bias. . the final revelation of Allah for the guidance of mankind. ‘Kafir’ is therefore not a derogatory word. with direct reference to the Arabic words. 17:89. But because of human interference. After all Allah says. and as far as the believers are concerned it is their duty to pass the message i.A. either way. as there is no truly equivalent word in English. The reader is requested to keep this in mind. in many verses. and that it will lead to a further study of the Qur’an. Note 2: It is customary for Muslims to utter the phrase ‘Alayhe-Sal-lamm’ which you may see as (AS) in some publications. and (ii) ‘the non-believers’ (kafirs) who do not regard the Qur’an as the Word of Allah and hence do not follow its guidance. The reader is requested to bear this distinction in mind. that the best explanation is given by Allah (re: 75:19. One point must be clearly understood: the beauty (and unique reliability) of the Qur’an lies in the fact that in the case of any conflict or confusion arising from a translation of the Qur’an. I. 39:27. Note 1: The verse (ayat) numbers given for some chapters (suras) can vary by 1 or 2. Parwez. and this is why The Qur’an came as the last revelation. intact with the Word of Allah alone. culminating finally in the study of the Qur’an. The main teachings given to the previous prophets are fully preserved in the Qur’an as the Qur’an claims that the same universal message was given to all the prophets. in order to clarify their importance with reference to the Qur’an. one can always go back to the original Arabic words to check the validity of the translation. I have used a chapter on this to point out some of these. 41:3.from Allah. therefore. Regrettably. to others (3:187). This is not possible with any other book of “religion” as the ‘originals’ of these books do not exist. as the door is always open to become a believer. A nabi receives wahi . BUT THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS CAN BE READ INDEPENDENTLY. The Qur’an states however that there must be no compulsion in its implementation. so that if one is interested one can follow it up with further studies.) THIS STUDY IS ARRANGED IN A SEQUENTIAL MANNER. there have been many mistranslations of Qur’anic verses. In this study I have included a chapter on the Jewish scriptures and the Bible. hope that Muslims will do so when any prophet’s name is read in this book. all other existing books containing the Word of Allah got mixed up with the words of the prophets and of others. 30:58. particularly in consulting the translations by Yusuf Ali and G. 17:41. 6:65.or revelation . and which means ‘peace be upon him’ (also abbreviated to ‘pbuh’ in places) after the name of any prophet. Note3: I have used the word ‘prophet’ as the English translation for the Arabic ‘nabi’.

KNOWLEDGE OF ARABIC AND ITS IMPORTANCE As the Qur'an was revealed in Arabic. a Hafez (one who has memorised the whole Qur'an) was asked to recite some verses from the Qur'an. which he duely did. from the root salima. ‘peace’. Islam and Muslim have been written in italics. ‘to surrender’. children are able to learn three or four languages without difficulty. For those who are interested in a deeper understanding of the Qur'an. As in the case of royalty. Our. and secondly by the addition of prefixes. it would be useful to have a concordance of the Qur'an. ‘a Muslim’. and. This is because the word ‘Allah’ is uniquely defined in the Qur’an and association of any partners with Him is strictly forbidden. Note 7: The reader is asked to bear in mind that in many verses of the Qur’an the ‘royal we’ is used. Ours).1 It is an unfortunate fact that . particularly in countries in which the substantial majority is Muslim. are done by the author to make important points stand out. that is.Note 4: I have used the Arabic word Allah instead of God. All-knowing. There is no reason why this cannot be done in Muslim countries. etc. aslama. What the Muslim countries do is to teach the script in order to read the Qur'an parrot fashion - without really understanding it. As Europe has demonstrated. the usual English translation. ‘he was safe’) we derive sallama. Thus. Note 6: All underlining.only when one has a grasp of the structure of the language. conventional sense. istalama. Note 5: All Arabic words except Allah. muslimun. As a matter of fact the Muslim countries have created an entire class of people who can read and recite the Qur'an in Arabic . ‘to receive’. when one knows the various derived forms of the verbs. So those who have some grounding in Arabic can easily find the meaning of an Arabic word from its roots by consulting an Arabic- English dictionary or lexicon. ‘safety. sura. salamatun. Even if one does not know or understand Arabic it is useful to know a few facts about the Arabic language. but with added dignity befitting royal personages. for the Sustainer of the whole universe. However. this usage carries a singular sense. both strong and weak . Allah refers to Himself in the plural (We. In the Qur’anic context its usage also indicates that Allah is not a person in our accepted. but has many attributes like All-pervading. Qur’an. Merciful. in which the meaning of a word is based on its roots. suffixes and in-fixes. 2. to be safe (literally. ‘Variations in shades of meaning are obtained. Arabic is a very scientific language. Beneficent. He is One. ‘to deliver’. istaslama. well-being’. There is no doubt that for a deeper understanding of the Qur'an a knowledge of the Arabic language is absolutely essential. when he was asked to give the meaning he was not able to do so. In this connection I cannot help mentioning an incident in a big gathering where. and words in bold or italics. Such knowledge can be achieved easily if the language is taught in the early stages of schooling. ‘to submit’ (also. which usually consist of three letters. first by vowelling the simple root. salamun. at the opening ceremony. the importance of the knowledge of Arabic cannot be over emphasised. to become a Muslim). in particular. which lists all the verses in which a particular word appears. together with its root. as all Arabic dictionaries enter words under their roots and only the roots are in alphabetical one able to use an Arabic dictionary with ease.

This is why there are so many different sects in mazhab. Kafir. We get a further idea of Allah from the root concepts. obedience to Whom is obligatory. which means a code of life. dominion. Keeping in view the above meanings/attributes. (The Unity). A. in the literal sense. I am discussing the concepts behind ‘Allah’ and ‘deen’ in some detail. The Qur'an is only recited parrot fashion to invoke the blessings of Allah. As examples. riba. protection in a state of anxiety or bewilderment. A very good example is the word deen which is usually translated as ‘religion’ or mazhab-a conceptwhich in no way conveys the significance of Deen. It is. incorrect to define Islam as a religion or mazhab. law or system which comes from Allah alone. constitution. salat. Muslim. As G. Deen revealed by Allah is universal in nature and there is no room for any sectarianism in it. definite outcome. Thus. Raheem. Allah: This is the proper name of the Sustainer of the Universe. the root meaning behind deen carries various concepts. would mean a Being Who is supreme but remains hidden from human eyes. Mazhab.but who are totally illiterate as far as the actual guidance given in the Qur'an. law. but none in deen. a social system. Sects are made by man. One Who remains out of sight and One Who possesses exalted status. decision. A list of useful words to check would be as follows: Allah. sovereignty. not by Allah. Allah the independent. as it appears in the Qur'an. Some of the other words above will be discussed briefly as part of the text. the result is the creation of a priesthood which is indoctrinated in the Hadiths in order to carry out the rituals and associated ceremonial functions. and to get a sensible meaning. taqwa. Mushrik. He does not give birth and nothing gave birth to him and there is nothing like Him at all. whereas deen is that code. before Whose dignity and grandeur human perceptions/wisdom become dazed. Islam. one needs to look at the context in which the word appears in the verse. By accepting Him. ‘Ahad’. therefore. lordship. The word is also used . hamd. the name Allah. ‘Samad’. means a passage or path made by man. deen. Often Arabic words have many different meanings. Mumin.2 Deen: Deen (Islam) is usually wrongly translated as religion or mazhab. One from Whose grandeur one becomes dazed and perplexed. sadaqat. a great revelation is now used mainly as a part of rituals! For people without any knowledge of Arabic it is extremely vital to understand the concepts behind important Arabic words which cannot be translated into a single English word. government. The word mazhab has not been used anywhere in the Qur'an. Although Islam does not officially recognise priesthood. supremacy. All other names denote His various attributes. reward and punishment. such as: ‘power. Rabb. Rah'man. The root of the word ‘Allah’ is ‘alif- lam-ha’ which has the following meaning and qualities: One from Whom someone seeks refuge. According to the Qur'an Islam is deen. The list can be increased as one acquires the confidence in their use and connotation. Whose sovereignty extends over the entire universe. one must accept His sovereignty and obey His laws as given in the Qur'an. and is as follows: Say Allah is One. realm. mastery. anfiqu. Parwez remarks. One Whose overall sovereignty must be accepted and to Whom all subservience is due. The Qur'an gives some idea of Allah in sura 112 named Al-Tauhid. ascendancy.

1. these are laws. it is also necessary to follow a very important rule for the study of the Qur'an. p. Allah guideth whom He will unto a straight path.12. Pakistan. Haywood and H. . And this is only possible under a true Islamic state. and Allah sent (unto them) prophets as bearers of good tidings and as warners. In the Qur'an this word is used in almost all the above meanings in as many as 79 verses. But those in whose hearts is perversity. 2. why do we need deen? Allah says: (2:213) Mankind was one community. p. based on the fundamental guidance of the Qur’an. The second kind is allegorical (mutashabihat). some of which can only be implemented in a real Islamic the sense of obedience. 3. References: 1. Ibid. Publisher Lund Humphries. And only those unto whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it. Sadly. they follow the part of it which is allegorical.1 Verses which are clear and not subject to interpretation This refers to the verses which are very easy to understand and not subject to any interpretation. allegiance. and revealed therewith the Scripture with the truth that it might judge between mankind concerning that wherein they differed. particularly the moral codes. but only men of understanding really heed. seeking to mislead and seeking to give it their own interpretation. This is given in the following sura: (3:7) Allah has sent down this Book to you. submission. while others. can be used for the development of further laws as well as for personal codes. The first consists of those verses which have definite meaning (mohkamat) and constitute the foundation of Allah's Laws. A New Arabic Grammar. But those well grounded in knowledge (ilm) say: "We believe in it. Tolu-E-Islam Trust (Regd) 25B Gulberg.1 3. at present there is no such state in existence. BASIC RULES TO BE FOLLOWED IN THE STUDY OF THE QUR'AN Apart from the concepts behind crucial Arabic words. after clear proofs had come to them. (O Prophet!) which includes verses of two kinds. p. by J.A. London.M. What today purport to be Islamic states are merely nation states with national interests and ideologies. And Allah by His will guided those who believed unto the truth of that concerning which they differed. Here are some examples: . Nahmud. Exposition of the Qur'an. The above verse makes the purpose of deen very clear: it is to unite human beings into one united nation. Basically.. by Gulam Ahmed Parwez. it is all from our Sustainer". Lahore11.’3 So. through hatred of one another.

What it means is that. Give full measure and full weight. Dr. accept their own limitations and say that.or hidden - forever. even though it be (against) a kinsman. Let me give a few examples from his book: He translates verse 55:33 as: "O assembly of Jinns and Men. What is needed. However. . are given in sections 6. The verse also talks of the exploration of the depth of the earth. because if that were so. The traditional interpretation of this verse is a purely mystic one that some people have postulated quite wrongly. whether the case be of a rich man or a poor man. has become a reality now because of the powers of intelligence and ingenuity given to man. till he reach maturity. to explain them. I am not suggesting for a moment that everybody should start studying all the various branches of science in order to understand the Qur'an. The Qur'an and Science quotes many examples of verses which had been previously mistranslated due to lack of scientific knowledge. more and more verses will be understood in their true light.2 of chapter 6. The word 'allegorical' means describing one subject under the guise of another. covering different areas in life. witnesses for Allah. In the present context this word applies to subjects of which we have no knowledge at present and therefore cannot explain their real meaning. is a highly diversified knowledge of science.3 The verse is talking about the conquest of space. then penetrate them! You will not penetrate them save with power".1 and 6. A large number of such verses.2 To understand these verses from the Qur'an a thorough linguistic knowledge.2 Verses which are allegorical Let us now look at the verses which are allegorical. with the state of knowledge as it exists today. in itself. This He commandeth you that haply ye may remember. it does not mean that the verses will remain allegorical forever. if you can penetrate regions of the heavens and the earth. There are many examples to support this point. (4:135) O ye who believe! Be ye staunch in justice. The above verses are self-explanatory and do not require the help of any other source like the Hadith. do justice thereunto. What I am saying is that with the progress of science nothing in the Qur'an will remain allegorical . The guidance in them is truly universal. as our knowledge of the universe expands through scientific research. in justice. is not sufficient. is people trying to mislead by seeking to force their own interpretations. And if ye give your word. in his book The Bible. which although at its infancy. (6:152) And approach not the wealth of the orphan save with that which is better. Basic Teachings of the Qur'an. People who have knowledge. We task not any soul beyond its scope. Maurice Bucaille. then lo! Allah is ever informed of what ye do. for Allah is nearer to both than ye are. it is not possible to explain such verses. even though it be against yourselves or your parents or your kindred. along with such a linguistic grounding. and fulfil the covenant of Allah. So follow not passion lest ye lapse from truth and if ye lapse or fall away. 3. there would be no point in their revelation. but it will require a high degree of courage and moral conviction for anyone to practise them in real life. The only thing we should be wary of.

and the feeling of being bewitched. Lahore-11.2 As discussed in the previous chapter there are many verses in the Qur'an which are easy to understand and which should form the basis for our lives (for examples see sections 6. However.2). 2. it will be for Us to explain it. (by-ya-nahu) (41:3) A Book. the signs which have been explained in detail as a Qur'an in Arabic for people of knowledge to be a herald of glad tidings as well as a warning.and this is exactly what astronauts have experienced. . by Dr. p. 4. The Bible The Qur'an and Science. 134-234. so that strife and division in human beings can be eliminated. the benefits can only be obtained through hard work.15) Even if We opened unto them a gate to Heaven and they were to continue ascending therein. Ibid.4 A very good example of allegorical verses is the verses which give the description of Paradise and Hell. 3. encourages research into Nature. the allegorical verses will only open up their real meaning with the progress of scientific research as it continues to help us unravel the mysteries of Allah's creation.. have memorised the whole of the Qur'an. p. 174. Pakistan.-. 6 Place Saint-Sulpice 75006 Paris.warns us that they are to be taken as analogies and parables.. and this is proved by the fact that countless people in the past. Exposition of the Qur'an. Maurice Bucaille. Nay we are people bewitched. The translation of the verses is as follows: (15:14. 175. When looking to understand the Qur'an further we should bear in mind that Allah says in many verses that He will explain the Qur'an. Finally. and we suffer as a consequence. Tolu-E-Islam Trust (Regd) 25B Gulberg.1 and 6. as well as at present. in many of its verses. they are easy to understand. The Qur'an. and these are the verses which should guide one's life in the real world. EXPLANATION OF THE QUR'AN BY THE QUR'AN1. A few of these verses are quoted below: (75:19) And that behold. As far as the fundamental verses are concerned. The Qur'an -. they would say: our sight is confused as in drunkenness.Two other verses describe the peculiar human reaction to space travel: confused sight as in drunkenness. Ibid. Sadly our ways of living do not reflect these teachings. One must remember that whereas the straightforward verses constitute a code to be practised in actual life. it is essential to note that Allah says in several verses that He has made the Qur'an easy to remember. 4. p. Verse (3:7). References: 1. by Gulam Ahmed Parwez. in which there are great benefits for mankind.notwithstanding very vivid physical imagery -. Publisher Seghers.

We have propounded for mankind in this Qur'an. and thereby acquire knowledge with Allah's help. Inayat Ullah Khan El..] (18:54) We have explained in detail in this Qur'an... has explained its signs in detail.. must receive it as Allah's word. in this Qur'an. on our part.?] (2:219) [. Abdul Wadud.] Verily in all this are signs (ayats) for people who will be convinced.] clearly..] (6: 65) Behold how many facets We give to these signs. has displayed its signs in various forms. Therefore. for the benefit of mankind. in order that they may receive admonition. that perhaps you may reflect. Mohammed Asad... have We spelled out these signs unto people of knowledge. yet the greater part of mankind refuse (to receive it) except with ingratitude [. but it only increases their flight from the truth. indeed. We. we must have the desire to understand the Qur'an by studying it. have We spelled out these signs unto people who can grasp the truth. such as Mohammed Abduh of Egypt. every kind of parable [. fully explained [.] clearly. (17:89) And We have explained to mankind.There are a number of points here: it is a Book which has been explained in detail and Allah is explaining it. (6:97) [. (6:99) [. (17:41) We have explained (things) in various (ways) in the Qur'an.] Thus Allah makes clear His revelations unto you that perhaps you may be guided. Another important point is that it is for people of knowledge.. This point has been echoed by other famous scholars. (6:114) Shall I seek other than Allah for judge when it is He who has revealed unto you (this) Book. and do our best to study and understand it.e. a translator of the Qur'an.. (30:58) Verily. but man is in most things contentious.. so that they might understand the truth [. A. .] (39:27) And verily We have coined for mankind in this Qur'an all kinds of similitudes. (3:103) [.] For indeed We did convey unto them a Book which We expounded with knowledge (ilm) -... Dr. that perhaps they might reflect [. has stated that the Qur'an is self-explanatory. and that it is based on knowledge and is for people of knowledge who reflect and think.a guidance (huda) and a grace (rahmat) for people who believe.. Since the Qur'an itself states that it has propounded all and every kind of similitude. indeed. the only conclusion we can reasonably come to is that the Qur'an explains itself.. every kind of similitude.] Thus Allah makes plain to you (His) revelations.Mashriqi and Allama G.. the Qur'an is self-explanatory. (6:98) [... every kind of similitude...] (7:52) [. i. it needs nothing else...

(4) The Qur'an indicates very clearly that it does its own tafsir (explanation). 2. The word rabb cannot be translated as Lord as this word does not convey the full concept. The word Hamd means 'absolute praise' and 'absolute feeling of amazement'. To summarise: (1) The Qur'an is the only source of true and comprehensive guidance. 5. References: 1. Here we cannot use God for Allah. The third verse is a repetition of part of the first verse. The Book should be interpreted as it says. The Opening. who is the Nourisher and Sustainer of the entire Universe. THE KEY TO THE QUR'AN1 Let us see why this first sura. Who is One and Unique. Praise usually involves spontaneous appreciation of something which can be perceived through our senses. (3) To study it. through itself. as the word God means different things to different faiths (see chapter 2 for the Qur'anic use of the word Allah). we must have an open mind. (2) The Qur'an is in Arabic. Section based on the handout supplied." (1:3) The Beneficent (Rahman). In fact it is one of the . Translations of the quoted Qur'anic verses are based on M. water. the Merciful (Raheem). In the above verse Allah is followed by two principal attributes: Rahman and Raheem. This is the correct method. Simply praying for Allah's mercy will not give these benefits. The first verse is usually translated as: (1:1) In the name of Allah. the method which the Qur'an specifies. It should be translated as the Nourisher and the Sustainer.Pickthall and Yusuf Ali. energy from the sun in the form of heat and light without which sustenance is impossible. It begins with the name of Allah. The word RahmanA5 in Arabic implies giver of benefits which are freely given such as air. absolute feeling of amazement all directed towards Allah. the Sustainer (Rabb) of the whole universe (alamin). all directed towards Allah.Parwez. no pre-conceived notions. that is. As far as Allah is concerned we can only appreciate the feeling of hamd by reflecting on the marvels of His Creation. Thus the real translation should be: "Absolute praise. and a desire for knowledge. UNDERSTANDING THE FIRST SURA: AL-FATIHA. The translation of the second verse is as follows: (1:2) Praise (hamd) be to Allah. the Beneficent (Rahman). and the word RaheemA5 implies the bestower of mercy or benefits which can only be acquired by hard work and good deeds. Tafsir Al-Qur'an Bil Qur'an (Explanation of the Qur'an by the Qur'an): Lecture by Syed Mustafa Ali. the Merciful (Raheem). of the glorification of the two very important attributes of Allah. containing only seven verses is the key to the Qur'an. reminding us once again.

This sura forms the principal part of our prayer as it contains all the main components of prayer. When one utters this Ayat. We must study this Book carefully and with an open mind. Thee alone we ask for help. It is important to remember that this sura gives a number of key words like Allah. as it is to Him alone that we turn for help. rahman. those who have not incurred His displeasure. associating partners with Allah) which is strictly forbidden in Islam. nor of those who go astray. We earnestly hope that the path we tread should prove to be the path trodden by those on whom He hast bestowed His favours. raheem. and Youmed- deen. deen etc. as our supplication to the Almighty.e. The usual translation of the fourth verse is: (please see also the corresponding explanation below) (1:4) Lord (Malek) of the Day of Judgement (Youmed-deen). Malek. rabb. It also implies that no one can intercede with Allah on our behalf. We are anxious that at the end of the journey we should find favour with Allah. 'that age in which no power or individual will be able to oppress another human being'. We must not be biased by . 'the One Who is in control of all things'. he or she promises Allah that he or she will obey only Allah and ask for help from Him alone -. and it is only You we return for help". The last verse is usually translated as: (1:7) The path of those Thou hast favoured. the implications of which need to be clearly understood individually as well as in the context of the verses themselves. "Only You we obey and are subservient to You. The fifth verse is translated as: (1:5) Thee alone we obey. For this reason the sura is also recited on many other occasions. to praise and thank Allah and to plead for His Mercy. Obedience to Allah in reality means compliance with the laws contained in the Qur'an.e. The sixth verse is as follows: (1:6) Guide us on the straight path The 'straight path' (sira-tul-musta-qeem) is given in the Qur'an but treading on the right path or following Allah's guidance will require our own effort. and those who have not gone astray. The sura Fatiha is taken as the key to the Qur'an which opens up the whole of Allah's Deen and guidance in the rest of the 'pir' or 'faqir' (see chapter 9) is to be invoked after this commitment to Allah. 'the Sovereign'. 'the Authority'. 'the age of the Deen'. not (the path) of those who earn Thy anger. as well as Allah's help and blessing. i. After this commitment asking for help from others than Allah becomes Shirk (i.characteristics of the Qur'an to repeat and reinforce our understanding so that we do not forget.

but we can win by patience and perseverance. In order of frequency the following divisions can be made: (i) Belief and good deeds (ii) Prayer and good deeds (iii) Prayer only Two important conclusions can be drawn from the above. and is steadfast in prayer and invests in zakat. Prayer is important. Unto each Allah hath promised good. and observe your duty to Allah. As a matter of fact every good deed is an act of obedience to Allah (ibadat. out do all others in endurance. Such are the Allah-fearing (muttaqeen). Allah hath conferred on those who strive with their wealth and lives a rank above the sedentary. and in this sense we must also believe in Allah's revelations. but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the prophets. and set slaves free. and good deeds. Numerous verses confirm this. Tafseer Al-Qur'an Bil Qur'an (Explanation of the Qur'an by the Qur'an): Lecture by Syed Mustafa Ali. but He hath bestowed on those who strive a great reward above the sedentary. Section based on the introductory part of the lecture. Such are they who are sincere. 1. (2:177) It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards East and West. and of course with Allah's help -. but has little value on its own without the good deeds. other than those who have a (disabling) hurt are not on an equality with those who strive in the way of Allah with their wealth and lives. prayer.2) and even the work we do to earn our living. as long it is done honestly. see Section 11. We must concentrate on what Allah has to say. be ready. to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and those who ask. . The verses which contain the above themes are among the most frequent in the Qur'an. 'Belief' and 'good deeds' are absolutely the basic requirement in Islam. The following verses give weight to the above assertions: (4:95) Those of the believers who sit still. And those who keep their treaty when they make one and are patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. 2. To believe in Allah is the primary requirement. in order that ye may the first sura signifies most accurately. and giveth his wealth. for the love of Him. BASIC TEACHINGS OF THE QUR'AN The most fundamental messages in the Qur'an which apply to all mankind are: belief. (3:200) O ye who believe! Endure. is ibadat. 6. References: 1. and we will find that the Book will reveal itself to us as Allah Himself has promised. Like all worthwhile tasks it will be a slow process.our own opinion or by what others say. His messengers and the Day of Judgement.

then you . 17:9. (49:9) If two parties among the believers fall into a quarrel. 20:75. 30:15.122. (4:94) Say not to anyone who offers you a salutation.2 gives a selection of verses on human rights. 5:9. but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other. Note: The Qur'an has many similar verses as above. 24:55. such will enter paradise and not the least injustice will be done to them. gender. without any ambiguity. by seeking to explain it.23. Haq are summarised. as well as instructing us on our mode of living. (25:63) Or even if an ignorant man addresses you. conduct and attitude (4:86) When a (courteous) greetings is offered to you. The Qur'an is the first charter of liberty ever given to mankind. 22:14. Also. friends.1 takes a selection from the Qur'an which instructs us how to behave with family. colour. by Dr. Mahar Abdul Haq. and he (or she) is a believer. meet it with a greeting still more courteous. "You are not a believer". Note Allah's Word on this: (3:7) He it is who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations -. occupation or any other arbitrary differentiation. The verses quoted from Dr. acquaintances. 6. or (at least) of equal courtesy. neighbours. and foreigners. instead of using the full verses.112. 7:153. Section 6.93. It enjoins the Islamic Order (Deen) to protect these rights irrespective of cast. And those who are of sound instruction say: We believe therein. but only men of understanding really heed. (4:124) And whoso does good works. 25:70.1 Basic teachings on behaviour and conduct1 Mutual contacts.and others (which are) allegorical.30. the verses with similar implications have been classed together.58.56. (24:61) Do it even if you enter your own houses.45.124. But those in whose hearts is doubt. relatives. the whole is from our Sustainer. 19:96. and yet we concern ourselves more with the allegorical verses which we have no knowledge of. 18:2. whether male or female. make peace between them.9. creed. For them is a pardon and a rich provision. All the verses used in these sections are absolutely clear. (24:27) Or you enter other houses. 4:57. including: 2:227.They are the substance of the Book -. Section 6. as he has done. (34:4) That He may reward those who believe and do good works. they pursue that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension. 29:7. None knows its explanation save Allah. The following two sections are taken from chapter seventeen of the book entitled Educational Philosophy of the Holy Qur'an.173.

(6:152) Whenever you give words. nor conceal the Truth when you know what it is. and walk not in the earth exultantly. (24:27) Enter not anyone's house without permission. whether open or secret. do justice even though it be against a kinsman. false accusation. make peace between them with justice. (31:19) Speak fair to the people. If you have to pass by futility. jealousy. (33:70) Always say what is directed to the Right (in a straightforward manner). for you cannot rend the earth asunder. (22:30) Shun the word that is false. pass by it with honourable avoidance. (25:63) Walk on earth in humility. Back-biting. (49:10) All believers are brothers to each other. (2:42) Cover not Truth with falsehood. . (7:33) Avoid shameful deeds. (31:18) Turn not thy cheek away from men in scorn. (25:72) Witness no falsehood. (17:37) Walk not on earth with insolence. (6:151) Come not near shameful deeds. (24:19) Do not spread scandal. should fight against the party that transgresses until the other party complies with commands of Allah. (17:53) Say those things that are best. But if the other party complies. (4:148) Evil must not be noised abroad in public speech except where injustice has been done. (31:19) Lower your voice and be moderate in your bearing. (23:3) Avoid vain talk and (28:55) Do not listen to vain talk. (49:12) Avoid suspicion as far as possible and spy not on each other. nor speak ill of each other behind their backs. Allah loves not any man proud and boastful. (49:11) Let not a folk deride a folk who may be better than they are. nor reach the mountains in height. (9:79) No slandering and ridiculing. etc. and be fair.

parents. 24) Do not rebuke your parents in their old age. ascertain the truth. (49:11) Do not defame or be sarcastic to each other. (2:168) Eat of what is on earth. and the needy. friends and neighbours (30:31) "He created for you mates from among yourselves. (4:43 & 5:6) Cleanliness. relatives. 5:3. (2:83) Treat with kindness your parents and kindred. (25:74) "Wives and offspring be the comfort of our eyes". 91) Strong drinks and wine prohibited. (2:187) Husband and wife should be like garments of each other. seek cure in Allah's laws (9:108) Purity in body. 6:145. he carries on himself both falsehood and a flagrant sin. lawful and good. mind and heart. (5:90. cleanliness. and the wayfarer. Health. Husband-wife. (6:151) Be good to your parents. (24:12. (17:26) Give the kinsman his due. (4:36) Do good to neighbours whether relatives or not. that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them. Call not each other by offensive nicknames. eating and drinking (2:247) Wisdom and health are better than abundant riches. and squander not (thy wealth) in wantonness. (16:69 & 26:80) If you fall ill. (49:6) If a wicked person comes to you with any news. (4:54) Envy not mankind for what Allah has given them of His bounty.16) Think of everybody as innocent till guilt is proved against him. (4:112) If anyone earns a sin or a fault and throws it on to one who is innocent.23) Slander not chaste women. Orphan and needy . 16:115) Certain things such as pork and dead meat prohibited. (2:173. and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts)". (4:36) Do good to the companions by your side.15. (7:31) Eat and drink but waste not by excess. (24:4. (17: 23. children.

(6:70) Leave alone those who take their Deen to be mere play and amusement and are deceived by the life of this world. But if you remit it by way of charity. (2:273) (Charity) is for those in need. grant him time till it is easy for him to repay. but not in sin and rancour. . (2:282) Put in writing transactions involving future obligations.27. that is the best for you. 3:84. (5:1. seeking. (5:2) Help one another in acts of righteousness and piety. (16:125) Invite all to the way of your Sustainer with wisdom and beautiful preaching: and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious. Miscellaneous (6:141. (6:152) Come not nigh to the property of the orphan except to improve it until he attains the age of full strength. that they are free from want.285. who in Allah's cause.29 & 25:67) Tie not your hand (like a niggard's) to your neck. nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach. (42:38) Dispose of your affairs by mutual consultation. (2:44) Do not enjoin right conduct on the people and forget to practise it yourself. (2:263-264) Kind words and the covering of faults are better than charity followed by injury. 4:150. (4:140) When you hear the Signs of Allah held in defiance and ridicule.152) Make no distinctions between the prophets. (2:136. (2:280) If a debtor is in difficulty. Loans (2:275) Usury is forbidden. 17:26. Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury. (18:29 & 2:256) No compulsion in your Deen (code of life). are restricted and cannot move about in the land. (2:83) Treat with kindness those in need. 62:5) Keep your promises and fulfil obligations. The ignorant men think because of their modesty. (93:9) Treat not the orphan with harshness. You shall know them by their mark: they do not beg of men with importunity. you are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different theme.

To every soul will be paid. even though it be (against) a kinsman. every living being) has a right to claim essential necessities of life from the social order. 45:12. (2:85) No one can be banished from his home. 6. 17:35 & 6:152) Give full measure and weight. saying with lips what is not in the heart.2 Human rights2 (33:35) Equality of sexes. 16:106. in full. (2:188. (3:167) Never be hypocritical. (2:286) The burden of one cannot be placed upon the shoulders of another. (5:100) Not equal are things that are bad and things that are good. (6:152) And if ye give your word. (3:79) No one can enslave another human being in any form of slavery. (4:58. 9:6. do justice thereunto. (4:148) Protection against malevolent scandal and libel. 125 & 18:29) Religious Freedom. 5:32. (4:148) The right of complaint for the oppressed to seek redress of his grievances. no burden can be placed upon a soul greater than it can bear.13) Conquests of the universe for the welfare of mankind. 6:152) Protection of life and property. (6:152 & 17:31) Each individual (rather. (Also many other verses where men and women are both mentioned) (46: 13. (7:85. 5:8) Judge between mankind justly. even though the abundance of the bad may dazzle you. in justice. (39:70) No one's fruits of labour will be denied or usurped or misappropriated. 10:99.4 & 33:59) Protection of chastity. Also. Aesthetic taste. the earning of his "deeds" (16:90) Justice must be done to everyone. (31:20. 19) Honour and respect is due only to that individual whose "deeds" qualify him for the distinction. (2: 256. (16:90) Equity is not enough. . (7:32) Appreciation of beauty. (6:152) Each individual (rather every living being) has a right to claim essential necessities of life from the social order. (24:2. It must be supplemented by charitable kindness also.

Thus. (30:22) Differences in colours and languages are signs of Allah. p. and through this Tauheed unite the whole world.110008. 194-201. Flats..1 and 6. New Delhi . This shows that creation of conflict over God's Law by disputing over rituals means abdicating the straight path and Religion. 3:99) No one can be obstructed from the path of Allah. Most of the material in this section is taken from the chapter of the 'Unity of Divine Message' in Tazkirah. Tazkirah is a higher commentary on the Qur'an. Verily. in fact. It demonstrates beyond a shadow of doubt that the fundamental message preached by all the prophets was the same in spite of variations in customs and rituals throughout the different world communities. but the Fundamental Law is the same for everybody (and it is unity). on the reality of Religion. New Ranjit Nagar.1 Introduction The following paragraph is a brief extract of a translation from Urdu of Tazkirah (Man's Destiny) by Allama Mashriqi. (17:20) Allah's free bounties must not be withheld or closed to anyone.193. You assemble the entire mankind on one point by inviting them to One God. They must not be exploited for the disunity of mankind. by declaring that customs and rituals are one thing but the FUNDAMENTAL REALITY another.A. which it is following. (22:67). Educational Philosophy of the Holy Qur'an.Published by Naushaba Publications.D.2 is not exhaustive. 192. which the author describes as the 'last message of God to Man'. 'O ye human beings! We have appointed for each people an outward semblance of its worship of God and obedience to His Law. in establishing this unity between world communities you are on the Right Course'. References: 1. by Dr. D. (17:34) Fulfilment of all promises. Mahar Abdul Haq. engagement and obligations. and an exhaustive exposition of the Divine Law or what he calls the 'Religion of Nature'. Ibid. (2:217. p. (6:165) Personal responsibility. THE PROPHETS AND THEIR REVELATIONS 7. The rest of this section deals with some of the well-known prophets in Qur'an. the people should not dispute with you on the Fundamental Law. 7. Note: The list in 6. (24:12) The accused to be considered innocent unless proved guilty. 2.1 . I quote Mashriqi: The last of the Revealed books (the Holy Qur'an) gave a straight verdict on humanity's present disintegrated form. (2: 205) Protection of crops and progeny.

the angels (Malaika) for the forces of nature. This. we have to look for an allegorical interpretation. is the supreme knowledge and information. and this is the essence of true prophethood. Each came with essentially one message. is untenable for biological and other reasons. and the whole of humanity is supposed to have descended from them. This was the substance of the great news which the prophets received from the Almighty. a new Faith or a different religion. They explained what the individual's conduct should be. In this story. Instead of believing and submitting to the will of God and thereby becoming true Muslims they became Mosesites. This traditional interpretation. as we see today. the greatest of revelations and disclosures. Iblees or Shaitan (Devil) for baser human desires. The Prophets taught Man the proper way to live on the earth. Adam stands for Man and his wife for Woman. the Divine Law and taking this Law as the true source of knowledge. Thus. it is Man's correct course of conduct in the world which.according to the Scriptures . attaching increasing importance to the commandments of their own liking. through the prophets. This was the Deen they brought. thus becoming partisan. descended from Adam and his wife. and it was the Deen (course of action) which God wanted mankind to adopt. Religion came to denote only a few useless rituals and baseless customs.2 Adam The first man created by God . . The knowledge of this alone constitutes the science of religions and it is this course which is everybody's most urgent need. In this way. they put their people on the right path and ensured their stability and survival for centuries to come. Christians and Mohammedans. Then. and it is his bounden duty to comprehend the Immutable Law which governs the rise and fall of nations. God also created a wife for Adam. Therefore. Humanity's failure to follow that Law resulted in their periodic destruction. Adam is also regarded as the first prophet as he received guidance in the form of revelation from God after he and his wife were evicted from Paradise for disobedience to His command. and hence ensure our survival and stability. They demonstrated the Divine Administration's complete sense of justice. they showed him the path to collective survival and stated the principles determining the rise and fall of nations. they accepted subsidiaries as the fundamental code and ignored the basic reality. that humanity. No prophet carved out a contrary course. Buddhists. and evaluated punishment in this world and recompense in the Hereafter. its significance completely Adam. People unduly exaggerated in the display of personal devotion and deference to their leaders. Subsequent generations mistook the exteriors and procedures which were only devices – or method – for following the Divine Law. The one used by Parwez 3 appears to fit very well with the story described in the Qur'an in verses 2:30-39. they lined up on sectarian grounds behind the various prophets. instead of following.Thus. They considered it part-and-parcel of the Deen merely to heap praises on the prophets and idolise them in their activities. along with guidance on how human beings should live in this world in order to bring peace and security. the basic message of all the prophets from Allah was to further the unity of mankind. and they demonstrated how non-believers would meet their end. is his 'religion'. in fact. They considered it a slant against their traditions and honour to give up the rituals of one prophet and enter the fold of a new one. as the fundamentals of the Deen.2 7. That message was the Divine Law. too. becoming entirely concerned with the superficial and the conventional.

Sura 71 which bears Noah's name. Ishaq (Isaac). but when Allah's commandment cometh (the cause) is judged aright. they lost their blissful life. and I shall bring him blind to the assembly on the Day of Resurrection. Alyasa (Elisha). The most complete account of this is in Sura 11. describes above all Noah's preaching. Ayyub (Job).3 Prophets named in the Qur'an The Qur'an mentions the following prophets (messengers) by name: Adam (Adam). verses 25 to 49. therefore. have to be subservient to Allah. Ishmael (Ishmael). The Qur'an gives a general version which is different from that contained in the Bible and does not give rise to any criticisms from a historical point of view […] It does not provide a continuous narration of the Flood. and some of them We have not told thee. who narrate unto you My revelations. among them those of whom We have told thee. Allah sent many other prophets whose names are not mentioned in the Qur'an. Yunus (Johana). and the followers of vanity will then be lost. Yahya (John).4. Lut (Lot). […] Whereas the Bible describes a universal Flood intended to . Zakariya (Zackaray). The Qur'an also states that apart from the prophets mentioned above. Humanity was split into different races. When Man was made to settle on earth at first his needs were very limited and the means of subsistence plentiful. 7. Idris (Enoch). Luqman and Muhammad (Muhammad). Numerous Suras talk of the punishment inflicted upon Noah's people. with enmity amongst them. (20:124) But he who turneth away from remembrance of Me. Yusuf (Joseph). tribes and nations. Nuh (Noah). Sulaiman (Soloman). human beings began to live according to their own self-made systems. The Bible The Qur'an and Science. as do verses 105 to 115. Salih. Isa (Jesus). (40: 78) Verily we sent messengers before thee. Ibrahim (Abraham). then whosoever refraineth from evil and amendeth . Before going into the actual course taken by the events. Yakub (Jacob). Noah Noah follows Adam in the line of the prophets mentioned in the Qur'an. However. Maurice Bucaille's book. Musa (Moses). his will be a narrow life. The most important event that took place during the time of Noah is the Flood. we must consider the Flood as described in the Qur'an by relating it to the general context of punishment God inflicted on communities guilty of gravely infringing His commandments. and it was not given to any messenger that he should bring a portent save by Allah's leave. The following comments on 'the Flood' are from Dr. the baser instincts of Man eventually got the better of him. Dhul Kifl (Ezekiel). Shuaib. Although nothing in 'nature' obeys Man. Harun (Arron).Man was given autonomy and free will. When man lost his blissful life. 7. Sura 26. unlike the forces of nature which do not have any independent will and. Dawud (David). he was told: (7:35) O children of Adam! If messengers of your own come unto you. Illyas (Elijah). he can obviously learn to channel its workings to his advantage. Driven by selfishness. As a result. Hud.there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.

the Knower. Thus. Lo! Thou. only Thou. thou shalt find me of the steadfast. Unfortunately. the Qur'an. they will come from every deep ravine. punish ungodly humanity as a whole. (22:27) And proclaim unto mankind the Pilgrimage. (saying): Purify My House for those who go round and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship). (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). (Abraham said): And of my offspring (will there be leaders)? He said: My covenant includeth not wrong-doers. The following two verses state clearly the duty or the responsibility which both Abraham and Ishmael were to undertake. Lo! that verily was a clear test. And when (his son) was old enough to walk with him. and I start with a few: (2:124) And (remember) when his Sustainer tried Abraham with (His) commands. And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael. (2:125) And when We made the House (at Mecca) a resort for mankind and a sanctuary. only Thou. Muslims believe the Biblical story. and he fulfilled them. I have seen a dream that I must sacrifice thee. in view of their total submission to the Will of Allah. steadfastly.5 Abraham The Qur'an contains a large number of verses on Abraham.128) And Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House. Lo! Thou. what thinkest thou? He said: O my father! Do that which thou art commanded. Peace be unto Abraham. the Merciful. Then We redeemed him with a tremendous (azim) sacrifice. They will come unto thee on foot and on every lean camel. art the Hearer. He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind. (37:100-110) O my Sustainer! Vouchsafe me of the righteous. and think that they will be able to redeem themselves by sacrificing millions of animals at the end of Hajj (pilgrimage). . and show us our ways of worship. (2:127. and he had put his forehead down. We called unto him: O Abraham! Thou hast already fulfilled the vision. Thus do we reward the good. mentions several punishments inflicted on certain specifically defined communities. (Abraham said) O my dear son. in contrast. So We gave him tidings of a gentle son. Our Sustainer! make us submissive unto Thee and our seed a nation submissive unto Thee. Lo! thus do We reward the good. involving a ram. also chapter 18 below). Then when they had both surrendered (to Allah). Allah willing. (Abraham prayed): Our Sustainer! Accept from us (this duty). art the Relenting. and relent towards us. The word 'azim' means 'tremendous' or 'mighty'. they fail to realise that the real sacrifice required by Allah from the believers is to work for the cause of Allah. and left him thus to be remembered among later generations. By ignoring the Qur'an. it is highly improbable that this sacrifice refers to the ram which Abraham found and slaughtered in place of Isaac (Ishaq) (see Genesis 22:13. So look. The tremendous sacrifice asked for by Allah is that both should work for the cause of Allah.4 7.

Who has no partner. To fulfil his obligations Abraham settled some of his family near the Kaba. remained the primary condition of Faith. (22:78) And strive for Allah with the endeavour which is His right. Lo! he was a keeper of his promise.131) And who forsaketh the religion of Abraham save him who befooleth himself? Verily. We also see from the Qur'an that with Abraham some important landmarks of 'Islam' took place. and he was not of the idolaters. and that ye may be a witness against Mankind.. A Muslim is one who surrenders himself to Allah. (14:37) O our Sustainer! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation. by the Sacred House in order. Abraham was further blessed by another son in his old age as shown in the following verse. and to introduce the religious practices such as Prayer (Salat). and pre- date Muhammad by many centuries. He is your Protecting Friend. Thus. A blessed Patron and a blessed Helper! It should be borne in mind that the traditional use of the terms 'Islam' and 'Muslim' for the followers of the Prophet Muhammad is a contradiction with the Qur'an.. and invest in Zakat. and hold fast to Allah. And of their seed are some who do good. the terms Islam and Muslim both originate from the very first contact of God with Man. And We blessed him and Isaac. and feed them with fruits in order that they may be thankful.] (3:67) Abraham was not a Jew. Pilgrimage (Hajj). and Zakat. We chose him in the world and lo! in the Hereafter he is among the righteous. but he was an upright man who had surrendered (to Allah). (2:130. The meaning of the word Islam is 'submission' and 'peace' . In fact all our main religious practices originated with Abraham. and some who plainly wrong themselves. (19:54) And make mention of Ishmael in this Scripture. that the messenger may be a witness against you. The belief in Allah alone. and he was a messenger (of Allah).113) And We gave him tidings of the birth of Isaac. a Prophet. He hath named you Muslims (those who have surrendered) of old time and in this (Scripture). He hath chosen you and hath not laid upon you in religion [this code of life] any hardship. O our Sustainer. and the code of life ('religion' in the comprehensive sense) to be practised by mankind was given the name Islam.'submission' in the positive sense of committing oneself 'to live in peace' by bringing one's likes and dislikes and behaviour in harmony with the Divine Will. Both these terms are universal in connotation and are meant for the whole of Mankind through all the ages of the . a prophet of the righteous. nor yet a Christian. When his Sustainer said unto him: Surrender! he said I have surrendered to the Sustainer of the Worlds. (37:112. the faith of your father Abraham (is yours). So establish worship. He was instructed to build the House of Allah (Kaba) with his son Ishmael. (3:19) With Allah the Deen is Al-Islam[. that they may establish regular prayer: So fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them. Fasting.

neither shall they grieve. and the tribes. From Abraham came a long line of prophets through his two sons. his reward is with his Sustainer. through His prophets. From Isaac came a number of prophets. And ye will not be asked of what they used to do. including his son Jacob (Yakub). Solomon (Sulaiman). as the Israelis think of themselves even to this day. These are their own desires. and Jacob. One God.6 Moses The Qur'an not only goes into great details about the life story of Moses but also about the history of the Jewish people. and there shall no fear come upon them. Thus according to the Qur'an. John the Baptist (Yahya) and Jesus (Isa). Say: bring your proof (of what you state) if ye are truthful. Ishmael (Ishmael) and Isaac (Ishaq). and that which Moses and Jesus received. Allah's reward is not reserved for any particular group or 'denomination' but is open to anyone who consciously accepts the oneness of Allah. All succeeding prophets preached the same code of life (deen). . We make no distinction between them. Or were ye present when death came to Jacob. the God of thy fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac. (2:111. Moses (Musa). Those are a people who have passed away.whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and do righteous deeds . David (Dawud). 7. and Isaac. (2:136) Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael. the historical content is not so much stating history chronologically as emphasising again and again to mankind that Allah favours only those who do not deviate from the guidance given by Allah. Islam. (saying): O my sons! Lo! Allah hath chosen for you the (true) religion [this code of life]. and by living righteously gives practical effect to this attitude. and yours is that which ye earn.their reward is with their Sustainer. (2:132-134) The same did Abraham enjoin upon his sons and also Jacob. therefore die not save as men who have surrendered (unto Him). is a continuation of original code of life (deen) as established by the first prophet. To gain Allah's favour it is absolutely essential to follow His guidance and live accordingly. Nay. and unto Him we have surrendered. therefore. Ishmael was the progenitor of the Arab peoples and Muhammad was among his descendants.history. However. (2:62) Those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee Muhammad) and those who are Jews. There is no such thing as a favoured nation. but whosoever surrendereth his purpose to Allah while doing good. and that which the prophets received from their Sustainer.112) And they say: None entereth Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. and Christians and Sabians -. and unto Him we have surrendered. and there shall no fear come upon them and neither shall they grieve The Sabians are a monotheistic religious group which to this day can be found in Iraq. his grandson Joseph (Yusuf). surrenders himself to his Will. Theirs is that which they earned. when he said to his sons: What will ye worship after me? They said: We will worship thy God.

which they then began to worship.through the Prophet Moses . Instead. but it is from the time of arrival of Joseph and his family in Egypt that we begin to see things more clearly. Cairo!'5 According to the Qur'an Moses received the Message from Allah directly. The story of Moses is a beautiful example of the way the Almighty carries out His plan in the face of overwhelming odds.The real history of the Jewish people starts with Isaac. he exclaimed: I believe that there is no God save Him in Whom the Children of Israel believe. and lost his life in the process. resisted his pleas. As stated clearly in the Qur'an: (10:90. I quote further from Dr. which gave a lowing sound. we verily . The major part of Sura 20 is an exchange between him and Allah. He chastised them for their lapse. of saffron hue. after (he had left them). Those who seek among modern data for the proof of the veracity of the Holy Scriptures will find a magnificent illustration of verses of the Qur'an dealing with the Pharaoh's body by visiting the Royal Mummies Room of the Egyptian Museum. as it is written in the Qur'an. 91) And we brought the Children of Israel across the sea. chose a calf (for worship). but the Qur'an does not elaborate on the period that elapses between the time of Joseph and the arrival of Moses. Saw they not that it spake not unto them nor guided them to any way? They chose it. but here we have something which goes beyond that: it is the material presence of the mummified body (discovered in 1898) of the man who knew Moses. pursued him as he took flight. and I am of those who surrender (unto Him). and were certainly being persecuted. making a golden calf by melting their jewellery. While Moses was away his people became bored. but they broke their Covenant with Allah several times and were eventually cursed. When Moses returned and found that his people had resorted to idolatry he became very angry. This time. destroying Pharaoh and his people at the same time. and Pharaoh with his hosts pursued them in rebellion and transgression till. as well as on many other occasions. This story has great similarity with the Biblical story of Exodus with one fundamental difference: that the body of the drowning Pharaoh was saved by the Will of Allah from destruction to become a sign for humanity.saved the Jewish people by taking them out of Egypt. The Qur'an also mentions that the Jews were originally the chosen people of Allah. They did this while ignoring all pleas from Aron (Harun). And when they feared the consequences thereof and saw that they had gone astray. it goes into great detail about the sort of persecution the Jewish people were undergoing and how Allah . they said: Unless our Sustainer have mercy on us. His earthly remains were saved by the Will of God from destruction to become a sign for man. when the (fate of) drowning overtook him. Maurice Bucaille: 'It is always desirable for man to apply himself to the preservation of relics of his history. and became wrong-doers. A good example of this is when Moses was called to the mountains for 40 days to receive the Tablets inscribed with commandments from Allah. What! Now! When hitherto thou hast rebelled and been of the wrong-doers? But this day We save thee in thy body that thou mayest be a sign for those after thee. Allah forgave them. The Qur'an is characteristically not concerned with dates but rather with the moral side of the story of Joseph (Yusuf) which is beautifully illustrated and occupies the whole of Sura 12. but eventually asked for forgiveness from Allah on their behalf. the brother of Moses. (7:148-150) And of the folk of Moses. Lo! most mankind are heedless of Our signs. At the time of Moses the Jewish people were obviously well established in Egypt. (made) out of their ornaments.

give the reasons for withdrawal of Allah's favour from the Jewish people. And when Moses returned unto his people. he said: O my Sustainer! If You had willed. surely I shall remit your sins. and lend unto Allah a goodly loan. and surely I shall bring you into gardens underneath which rivers flow. If ye establish worship and invest in Zakat. Oh. (4:161) And of their taking usury when they were forbidden it. and seized his brother by the head. (5:12. when the trembling came on them. Thou wilt not cease to discover treachery from all save a few of them. Merciful. You are the Best of all who show forgiveness. and My mercy embraces all things. (5:66) If they had observed the Torah and the Gospel (Injil) and that which was revealed unto them from their Sustainer. are the lost. and believe in My messengers and support them. Thus do we requite those who invent a lie. afterward. he took up the tablets. and those who believe in Our revelations. The following verses which are typical of the many similar verses. they would surely have been nourished from above them and from beneath their feet. You could have destroyed them long before. when the anger of Moses abated. You are our Protecting Friend. But those who do ill deeds and afterward repent and believe -. We have cursed them and made hard their hearts. And ordain for us in this world that which is good. Lo! Allah loveth the kindly. It was during the time of Solomon that the Jewish people attained their greatest prosperity after which they disintegrated. Would ye hasten on the judgement of your Sustainer? And he cast down the tablets.13) Allah made a Covenant of old with the Children of Israel and We raised among them twelve chieftains. Eventually Allah withdrew all favours from the Israelis because of the constant breaking of their Covenant with Allah. But bear with them and pardon them. You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. Allah said: My retribution befalls whomsoever I will and. Among them are people who are moderate. And Moses chose of his people seventy men for Our appointed meeting place and. Allah is Forgiving. And because of their breaking their covenant. therefore. and Allah said: Lo! I am with you. and in the Hereafter (that which is good). Will You destroy us for that which the ignorant among us did? It is but Your trial (of us). make not mine enemies to triumph over me and place not me among the evil doers! (7:152-156) Lo. and to this day they would have remained so but for the . and of their devouring people's wealth by false pretences. therefore I shall ordain it for those who ward off (evil) and invest in Zakat. Then. We have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a painful doom. those who chose the calf (for worship). forgive us and have mercy on us.lo! for them. dragging him toward him. He said: Son of my mother! the folk did judge me weak and almost killed me. he said: Evil is that (course) which ye took after I had left you. they change words from their context and forget a part of that whereof they were admonished. terror and humiliation from their Sustainer will come upon them in the life of the world. and in their inscription there was guidance and mercy for all those who fear their Sustainer. Whoso among you disbelieveth after this will go astray from a plain road. but many of them are of evil conduct. angry and grieved. We have repented to you. and me with them.

However. Luke and John are not the authors of the four Gospels but rather titles attributed to compilations of diverse materials already collected by others. she says that man had not touched her yet. And she was told in reply. whereas 'Mark' does not give any clue as to when this occurrence was supposed to have happened. 'Even so'. This is unlikely to happen if one looks at some of the Mosaic laws (see section 18. Allah sent the Gospel (Injil) through Jesus to put mankind back on the true path. Eventually. the birth of Jesus without his mother Mary having had any physical relationship with a man appears to be a miracle. Obviously. Below. the personal bias of each writer came into their writings. The casting of lots and the contention as to who would have her in his charge could not mean anything but her charge as a wife. given their distance in time from the real Jesus. the Torah. the child will be born by Allah bringing about the circumstances which result in the . Many works with many countless contradictions between them were in circulation.6 'Thus in verse (3:45) quoted below. I quote from The Holy Qur'an by Maulana Muhammad Ali. for simply going against the laws of Allah. Mark. Christian Era) onwards were based on oral traditions and were written by several people at different periods of time. 7. It was their firm belief that they were the favoured people of Allah and that their Scripture. 4th paragraph). the possibility clearly exists that in the process of compiling these doubtful works.e.creation of Israel with the tacit backing of the UK and the USA.i . The present conflict in Palestine is unlikely to be resolved unless there is some compromise from the Israeli side. From her very childhood she was living in a sanctuary under the guardianship of Zacharias (3:37). is driving the Palestinians into virtual slavery. which today are known as the Gospels. 'Luke' mentions the ascension with reference to time. backing. Hence. section 12. i. four works from this number were arbitrarily canonised. Considered literally.7 Jesus Jesus was sent not only to reform the Jewish people from their deviation from the path of Allah but also to bring back the universal message of the unity of mankind and this particular feature of his preaching made the Jewish people antagonistic to Jesus.5 iii). ideas directly repugnant to the preaching of Jesus entered the text (see chapter 18). Israel. These four works are certainly not the same Gospel (Injil) of Jesus as mentioned in the Qur'an. when she was given the good news of a son being born to her. By taking advantage of its strong position (see also chapter 12. Enevitably. she was perhaps not informed that her marriage had been decided. Lots were evidently cast because as a child she had been dedicated to the sanctuary (temple). with U. In the long run this will bring the Israelis down. and it is now by a lot only that she could be given away in marriage..E. Modern biblical scholars are also of the opinion that Matthew. The writings we have which appeared from 70 (C. who in his commentary on his translation. Neither 'Matthew' nor 'John' speak of Jesus' ascension. confirmed it. one prime example being the purported ascension of Jesus. says the following: 'Verse 3:45 clearly gives her news of the birth of a child and therefore the particular incident referred to in 3:44 is the incident of her marriage.2. to explain further we need to consider the circumstances in which Mary grew up.S. The so-called Gospels contain many contradictions.

birth of a child. The words do not show that she would conceive out of the ordinary
course of nature. Nor do the words that follow prove anything beyond the simple fact
that Mary must give birth to a son in accordance with the prophecy. The whole of
creation is brought about, we are told again and again, by the divine word Kun (Be),
yet no one supposes that creation is not brought about according to the laws of nature.7

(3:45-47) (And remember) when the angels said: O Mary! Lo! Allah giveth thee glad
tidings of a word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary,
illustrious in the world and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near (unto Allah).
He will speak unto mankind in his cradle and in his manhood, and he is of the
righteous. She said: O my Sustainer! How can I have a son when no man has ever
touched me? (The angel) answered: Thus it is: Allah creates what He wills: when He
wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, 'Be' -- and it is.

'It is remarkable that the Qur'an makes no mention at all of Mary's husband, and in this
respect, these circumstances bear a strong resemblance to those connected with Moses' birth,
for there, too, no mention at all is made of Moses' father. The mere fact, therefore, that there
is no mention of Jesus' father is not sufficient to show that Jesus had no father.'8

Note: 'Speak unto mankind from cradle' could be an allegorical way of saying that Jesus
would preach from an early age (see also 19:29-34). As far as his birth is concerned, the
verses remain allegorical as with our present state of knowledge we cannot fully explain
them. The following verses fall into the same category:

(3:48, 49) And He will teach him the Scripture and wisdom, and the Torah and the
Gospel (Injil). And will make him a messenger unto the children of Israel, (saying)
Lo! I come unto you with a sign from your Sustainer. Lo! I fashion for you out of clay
the likeness of a bird, and I breathe into it and it is a bird, by Allah's leave. I heal him
who was born blind, and the leper, and I raise the dead, by Allah's leave. And I
announce unto you what ye eat and what ye store up in your houses. Lo! herein verily
is a portent for you, if ye are to be believers.

Muhammad Asad in his translation of the Qur'an gives some explanation of these from which
I quote his footnote 38.

It is probable that the 'raising of the dead' by Jesus is a metaphorical description of his giving
new life to people who were spiritually dead; cf. (6:122) - 'Is then he who is dead [in spirit],
and whom We thereupon gave life, and for whom We set up a light whereby he can see his
way among men - [is he then] like unto one [who is lost] in darkness deep, out of which he
cannot emerge?' If this interpretation is -- as I believe -- correct, then the 'healing of the blind
and the leper' has a similar significance: namely, an inner regeneration of people who were
spiritually diseased and blind to the truth.9

The Qur'an contains many verses on the prophethood of Jesus.

(3:50,51) And (I come) confirming that which was before me of the Torah, and to
make lawful some of that which was forbidden unto you. I come unto you with a sign
from your Sustainer, so keep your duty to Allah and obey me. Lo! Allah is my
Sustainer and your Sustainer, so worship Him. That is a straight path.

(61:14) O ye who believe! Be Allah's helpers, even as Jesus, son of Mary, said unto
the disciples: Who are my helpers for Allah? They said: We are Allah's helpers. And a
party of the Children of Israel believed, while a party disbelieved. Then We
strengthened those who believed against their foe, and they became the uppermost.

(3:52) But when Jesus became conscious of their disbelief, he cried: Who will be my
helpers in the cause of Allah? The disciples said: We will be Allah's helpers. We
believe in Allah, and bear thou witness that we have surrendered (unto Him).

(3:54,55) And they (the disbelievers) schemed and Allah schemed (against them): and
Allah is the best of the schemers. Lo! Allah said: O Jesus! Verily, I shall cause thee to
die, and shall exalt thee unto Me, and cleanse thee of (the presence of) those who are
bent on denying the truth, and am setting those who follow thee above those who
disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. In the end, unto Me you all must return, and I
shall judge between you with regard to all on which you were wont to differ.

'The disbelievers schemed' -- here referring to those among the Jews who refused to
acknowledge Jesus as a prophet and secretly plotted to crucify him. Allah on the other hand,
devised the means to protect him. He assured Jesus that he would fulfil his mission and die a
natural death. His followers were weak, but eventually they were to overcome their enemies
and become victorious. In fact, verse 61:14 above confirms that Jesus completed his mission.
In other words he established the Deen and his followers were Muslims. But with time, the
message again became corrupted due to human interference, and the followers not only
deviated from the true path but became divided into sects.

(5:46) And We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, confirming that
which was (revealed) before him in the Torah, and We bestowed on him the Gospel
(Injil) wherein is guidance and a light, confirming that which was (revealed) before it
in the Torah - a guidance and an admonition unto those who ward off (evil).

(4:171) O People of the Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion nor utter aught
concerning Allah save the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was only a
messenger of Allah, and His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from
Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers, and say not 'Three' - Cease! (it is) better
for you! -- Allah is only One God. Far is it removed from His Transcendent Majesty
that He should have a son. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth.
And Allah is sufficient as Defender.

(5:72) They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary. The
Messiah (himself) said: O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Sustainer and your
Sustainer. Lo! whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah, for him Allah hath forbidden
paradise. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers.

(5:75) The Messiah, son of Mary, was none other than a messenger, messengers (the
like of whom) had passed away before him. And his mother was a saintly woman. And
they both used to eat (earthly) food. See how We make the revelations clear for them,
and see how they are turned away!

(5:116) And when Allah saith: O Jesus, son of Mary! Didst thou say unto mankind:
Take me and my mother for two gods beside Allah? he saith: Be glorified! It was not

mine to utter that to which I had no right. If I used to say it, then Thou knewest it.
Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I know not what is in Thy Mind. Lo! Thou,
only Thou, art the Knower of Things Hidden.

(61:6) And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Children of Israel! Lo! I am the
messenger of Allah unto you, confirming that which was (revealed) before me in the
Torah, and bringing good tidings of a messenger who cometh after me, whose name
shall be Ahmad (the Praised One). Yet when he hath come unto them with clear
proofs, they say: This is mere magic.

In the above verse the name Ahmad refers to the coming of Prophet Muhammad. I quote:
'This prediction is supported by several references in the Gospel of St. John to the Parakletos
(usually rendered as 'Comforter') who was to come after Jesus. This designation is almost
certainly a corruption of Periklytos (the much Praised, an exact Greek translation of the
Aramaic term or name Mawhamana [...]'10

Jesus' ministry lasted about three years. The end of his life on earth is as much a mystery as
his birth. The Qur'an (in verse 4: 157 given below) says categorically that Jesus was not
crucified nor killed by the Jews, in spite of certain apparent circumstances which produced
that illusion. The Christian Churches make it a cardinal point of their doctrine that Jesus died
on the Cross and was buried, but on the third day he rose in the body with his wounds intact,
and walked about and conversed, and ate with his disciples, and was afterwards taken up
bodily to heaven. Also, in the course of time a legend grew up that Jesus had died on the cross
in order to atone for the 'Original Sin' with which mankind is allegedly burdened. The Qur'an
does not agree with any of these points.

(4:157) And because of their (i.e. Jews') saying: We slew the Messiah Jesus son of
Mary, Allah's messenger - They slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto
them; and lo! those who disagree concerning it (i.e. Christians) are in doubt thereof;
they have no knowledge save pursuit of conjecture; they (i.e. Jews) slew him not for

7.8 Muhammad

After Jesus, there is a long gap before the arrival of Muhammad. He was sent as the last
prophet to deliver the guidance from Allah. The guidance Muhammad brought for Mankind is
given in the Qur'an. The Qur'an was written down and compiled as a book during the lifetime
of the Prophet. It was also memorised by many during the lifetime of the Prophet. Thus it is
the only Book of Revelation which has remained totally intact, whereas the Scriptures brought
by the previous prophets were not written down during their lifetime and were manifestly
corrupted by human interference. Moreover, the Qur'an was sent as a guidance for all
mankind and not for one section of people. The Qur'an is the last Revelation of Allah to
mankind, a Book which has remained intact, untainted by human interference, and the
Prophet Muhammad was the last messenger to receive revelation from Allah. The Qur'an
describes him as the 'seal of the prophets'.

(33:40) Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger
of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is aware of all things.

Yet.e. as a book. 26:92-194. The Qur'an refutes this concept. Gabriel) hath revealed it from thy Sustainer with truth. Please see Appendix 6 (A6) for explanation. confirming that which was (revealed) before it. Warn mankind that there is no God save Me. in this instance. and as guidance and good tidings for those who have surrendered (to Allah). (26:192-194) And lo! It is a revelation of the Sustainer of the Universe. and that the Qur'an was written down and compiled as a book (kitab) during the life time of the Prophet just as it – the Qur'an – claims. that he could neither read nor write. that it may confirm (the faith of) those who believe. (saying). for good. that thou mayest be (one) of the warners. and many professional writers (scribes).e. we are left in no doubt that the revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad was brought through Gabriel (Jibreel).A1 Further. over the time period of 23 years it took for the Qur'an to be fully revealed. as the Hadith literature would have it! Another misconception about the Prophet is that he was illiterate.102. and the Arabs were a trading nation. Is it feasible that he would have omitted to take basic measures for the preservation of the text! How much more plausible than the hearsay assertion (through many tellers) that it took Othman to collate the text out of a motley collection of pages from here and there. and a guidance and glad tidings to believers. though before this you were totally unaware. Such thinking is a reflection of the total inability of a large number of Muslims to think beyond what is written in the Hadith literature i. in verse 12:3 above . To understand how the Qur'an was transmitted to Muhammad we need to look at the following verses: (2: 97) Say (O Muhammad.The Hadith literature creates doubt about the authenticity of the Qur'an by stating that the Qur'an. there is a compelling body of evidence to draw one to the view that the Arabs had literate members of their society just like other countries in the region. was a man renowned for his fear of God and faithfulness to his duty. (16: 2) He sendeth down the angels with the Spirit of His command unto whom He will of His bondsmen. which the True Spirit has brought down upon thy heart. was compiled during the time of Caliph Othman by collecting all the Qur'anic sheets which were with different people. We know for certain that at the time of Jesus the Mediterranean world already had great libraries. it is impossible to believe that the Prophet did not manage to compile the Qur'an as a book. (12:3) We narrate unto thee (Muhammad) the best of narratives in that We have inspired in thee this Qur'an. bookshops. This argument becomes unassailable when one recalls that this Messenger. 16:2. (16: 102) The Holy Spirit (i. From verses 2:97. so keep your duty unto Me. sound economic reasons if nothing else. when Allah constantly refers to the Qur'an as a book (Al-Kitab) which was set down in writing as it was revealed. Leaving aside the claims which the Qur'an itself makes of itself as a book we can turn to the purely historical perspective. that is. sent as he was some 600 years after Jesus. As Arabia was a trading route. that the Qur'an was compiled during the time of Othman. to mankind): Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who hath revealed (this Scripture) to thy heart by Allah's leave.

20:13. We assuredly had taken him by the right hand and then severed his life-artery of you could have held Us off from him. 73. 41: 6.109. constitute another point against the Hadith literature. saying: choose thou habitations in the hills and in the trees and in that which they thatch. 33:2. (16: 68) And thy Sustainer inspired the bee. It is like the transmission of a message. (69:40-52) That is indeed the speech of an illustrious messenger. 13:30. to the disbelievers): I say not unto you (that) I possess the treasures of Allah. 11:49. 35:31.7. 16:2. 42:3.15. 17:39. and not onAnd if he had invented false sayings concerning Us. Lo! If I disobey my Sustainer I fear the retribution of an awful day. The angels simply carry Allah's message and obey His command but they have no power to think on their own. According to my understanding the angels or spirits appear similar to radio waves which carry the messages (Wahi or revelation) which is then received by the person or being to whom Allah sends His revelation. as We inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes. And lo! It is a warrant unto those who ward off (evil). he had no power to change any message.102. or change it. (10:15) And when Our clear revelations are recited unto them. 43:43. incidentally. I follow only that which is inspired in me.and in verses 3:44.little is it that ye believe! Nor diviner's speech .108. 6:19. He was instructed to follow the Qur'an with the warning that he would be punished if he deviated from the guidance given in the Qur'an. I only follow that which is inspired in me. nor that I have knowledge of the Unseen.53:4. The following verses are clear indication of this and. they who look not for the meeting with Us say: Bring a Lecture other than this.123. And lo! We know that some among you will deny (it). 18:110. (6: 50) Say (O Muhammad. 12:3. (7: 117) And We inspired Moses (saying): "Throw thy staff!" And lo! It swallowed up their lying show. 10:2.85. 28:86. provided we know the address of the recipient As far as the revelations to Muhammad were concerned. the Internet or email. 29:45.13. 21:45. 4:163.little is it that ye remember! It is a revelation from the Sustainer of the Universe. Say (O Muhammad): It is not for me to change it on my own accord. 46:9. And lo! It is indeed an anguish for the disbelievers. 7:203. and inspiration (Wahi) is the way in which Allah deals with mankind as shown by the following verses: (4: 163) Lo! We inspire thee as We inspired Noah and the Prophets after him. . and as We inspired unto David the Psalms. and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon. It is not poet's speech . So glorify the name of thy Tremendous Sustainer. Thus Allah sends His revelation to whomsoever He chooses.50. Say: Are the blind man and the seer equal? Will ye then not take thought? .52. we can send to any person via radio telephone. And lo! It is absolute truth. I say not unto you: Lo! I am an angel.106. and the method used by Him is selective and instantaneous such as in verse 7:117 where Moses is inspired to throw the staff. Allah states that the Qur'an was sent as an inspiration (Wahi) to Muhammad.

and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter. is the utterance or the sayings of the Prophet. 51.1). This is explained clearly in sura 69 verses 40-52. The real meaning of the word Sunnah according to the Qur'an (48:23) is '[. He will make him enter gardens underneath which rivers flow. (4:13) These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. by following it we automatically follow the Prophet. the Prophet is dead. 64:12. in the whole of the Qur'an the word Sunnah has not been used even once in connection with the Prophet. The only truthful way that we can obey or follow him is by obeying the guidance given in the Qur'an. lo! Allah loveth not the disbelievers (in His guidance). he cannot function as a messenger now. 56. 49:7. The result of those inspirations is the Qur'an over which he had no power to change anything. know for sure that the only thing he taught and practised must be what is in the Qur'an. One must note that all the above verses relate to the time when the Prophet was alive and therefore was not only Allah's messenger but also the political leader of his people. and therefore. Allah also warned the Prophet that if he said or practised anything which was against the teachings of the Qur'an he would be punished and that no one would be able to save him. It is vital in this connection to understand the actual meaning of the word sunnah in the context of the Qur'an. A point is often raised that the Qur'an specifically says in a number of verses to 'obey the Prophet'. that ye may find mercy. which ask people to obey the Prophet are given in: 4:69. therefore.All the verses I have quoted so far show clearly that the revelation that came to Muhammad was inspired in him by Allah. the Sustainer of the universe. As far as we are concerned.. But if they turn away. 5:92. Also. 58:13. In fact verse 4:59 asks us to obey other leaders as well. (4: 59) O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority. One does not have to wait very long as a Muslim before one hears the expression 'Sunnah of the Prophet'. Examples of such verses are as follows: (3: 32) Say: obey Allah and the messenger.e. when not under Divine Inspiration) he was simply a human being. That will be the great success. They are one and the same thing. In this case. as already . 20. 9:71. 33:33. the Holy Book of Islam (more details in section 10. That is better and more seemly in the end. in the case where he is physically present and leading the community of believers. We. albeit a human being with excellent qualities and conduct. it seems clear that 'obedience to the Prophet' must be understood in that context i. that the Qur'an. where such will dwell forever. Outside this (i. as given above. the Word of Allah. That being the case. In fact.14. In these verses Allah explains.54.e.. 8:1. Whoso obeyeth Allah and His messenger. 46. 47. 24: 42. there is no difference between the Word of Allah and the sayings of the Prophet. Verses similar to above. 24. refer it to Allah and the messenger if ye are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. 47:33. (3:132) And obey Allah and the messenger. As the Qur'an is a complete code of guidance for mankind. or practise what he taught during the 23 years of his prophetic life.]Law and Practice of Allah which is immutable or unchangeable'.

We are asked to honour and bless him all the more because he took upon himself to suffer the sorrows and afflictions of this life in order to guide us to God's Mercy and the highest inner life. Unfortunately. O ye who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation. about 250 years after the death of the Prophet. what the Prophet practised is in the Qur'an and so any Sunnat attributed to the Prophet must also emanate from the Qur'an. in a quest to obey the Prophet. Through misinterpretation and ignorance this verse causes millions of Muslims to glorify the Prophet against his will. could not have been uttered by the Prophet.3 there are many Hadiths which contradict the Qur'an and. These were written nearly 250 years later. in the main. and without much conscious effort or sacrifice. to lead a life according to the Qur'an requires honesty and sincerity since our natural selfishness hinders us from following the straight path it sets us. It simply cannot refer to the Hadiths. has the original message remained unaltered. bless him and give yourselves up [to his guidance] in utter self- surrender! (M. instead of glorifying Allah.established. to have no internal contradiction or fault. particularly as this has happened with the prophets who came before him. A few translations of this verse together with comments are given below: (33: 56) God and His Angels send blessings on the Prophet: O ye who believe! Send ye blessings on him. One can understand the weakness of people in idolising the Prophet. (33: 56) Verily. as such. The only sure document which fits this description is the Qur'an. Allah has made the Message clear for us in the form of verses which are applicable to our day-to-day lives. And yet. being handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. (M. (at least. and both in spirit and in substance greatly contradict the Qur'an – a Book which claims to be sent and protected by Allah (15:9) and. (33: 56) Lo! Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. As shown in section 10. Pickthall) M. These Hadiths are taken as the reported sayings and practices of the Prophet. God and His angels bless the Prophet: [hence] O you who have attained to faith. There is one verse in the Qur'an which is often used wrongly by many people. people became interested in what the Prophet is reported to have said and practised. Asad) . not if one genuinely regards of the Qur'an as true) since he would have been punished (see verses 10:15 and 69:44-47). regrettably. Here. Pickthall has no comments on this verse. in the Qur'an alone. They are made absolutely clear so that there is no difficulty in following them. we get busy with our rituals. The main function of all the prophets was to convey the Message of Allah but. The simple answer to the phrase 'Obey the Prophet' is to obey what came out directly from the Prophet's mouth. To this end a vast amount of literature known as the Hadiths were written. often performing them mechanically. collected in written form after a long existence in the oral tradition. and salute him with all respect. However. (Yusuf Ali) Comment by Yusuf Ali: God and His angels honour and bless the holy Prophet as the greatest of men. as such.

Their words also include sayings such as "Allah would not have created the world if Muhammad were not created" thereby implying all other Prophets are less significant. it was possible when he was alive. as do His angels. through the misinterpretation of verse (33:56) we constantly commemorate Muhammad. therefore. Thus. 3: 84. Considering the above verses. we find that Allah and His angels send blessings to all the believers: (33:41-43) O ye who believe! Celebrate the praises of Allah. Yet. (4:150-152) Those who deny Allah and His messengers. For verse 33:56 any other explanation based on the Hadiths is not credible. and wish to separate Allah from His messengers. stand up and sing "O Prophet we salute you. However in the same sura. unto them Allah will give their wages.]and pray for them: behold. saying: 'We believe in some but reject others and wish to choose a way in between'.. as enjoined in the following verses: (33: 41. and the Prophet. is asked to do the same on all the believers: (9:103) [.. instead of commemorating Allah. Similarly we who believe. Allah is ever Forgiving. This means that we are discriminating against the other prophets in favour of Muhammad. Asad has no comments on this verse. we become even more aware that to solicit peace for all (Sallam) and to lead a life according to Allah's guidance with a view to establishing peace. and glorify Him morning and evening. and for disbelievers We have prepared a shameful doom. is one of the fundamental principles of Islam. we need to consider that whenever we mention the Prophet or utter his name we say "Sal-lallaahu-alayhe-wa-sal-lamm = The blessings of Allah and peace be upon him". are therefore asked to shower blessings on the Prophet.. Merciful. most Muslims ignore this simple fact and assume that the Prophet's spirit appears during some ceremonial functions. thy prayer will be (a source of comfort) to them .42) O ye who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance. The Qur'an is very clear on this issue as shown in verses 2:136. Allah and his angels not only shower blessings on the Prophet but also on all the believers.M. However. and do this often. He it is Who sends blessings on you. a practice which is forbidden by the Qur'an. Similarly.for Allah is All-Hearing All-Knowing. and glorify Him early and late.". therefore. They emphasise the fact that if we make a distinction between the prophets then we become 'disbelievers' and we will be subjected to a 'shameful doom'. of which the last three are quoted below. But those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between them. Without question. whereas in the case of other prophets we say "Alayhe-sal-lamm = Peace be upon him". They. Also. but 13 verses ahead of the above verse. . unacceptable.. that He may bring you out from the depths of Darkness into Light: And He is Full of Mercy to the believers. 4:150-152. Thus. Such are disbelievers in truth. Yusuf Ali's comment on verse 33: 56 that the Prophet is the greatest of men is at variance with the Qur'an and is. too. 285. we cannot salute the Prophet now as he is dead.

therefore take the straight path unto Him and seek forgiveness of Him. 8). the Qur'an informs us that. Man's Destiny (Tazkira). There. Rawalpindi. by Allama Inayat Ullah Khan Al. 8). Man and Universe. selection no. the Hadith literature succeeded in duping many people into believing in the concept of intercession. . the Prophet will disown them for not taking the guidance of the Qur'an seriously. 57. 26-35. Despite the Qur'an's assertion that the Prophet possesses no power to benefit anyone or harm anyone (7:188. and no harm would have afflicted me.Mashriqi. I hope the preceding discussion on Prophet Muhammad will clear up some of the misconceptions that Muslims hold about him generally. Muhammad was a man entrusted with the mission of transmitting the message of Allah to mankind and he fulfilled this mission admirably. Rawalpindi. 46:9). (41:6) Say (unto them O Muhammad): I am only a mortal like you. My Sustainer inspireth in me that your God is only One God. save that which Allah willeth. Translated and edited from Urdu by Shabbir Hussain.3. let him do righteous work. (41:9) Say (unto them O Muhammad): I am no new thing among the messengers (of Allah). Pakistan. Had I knowledge of the Unseen. It is inspired in me that your God is One God. Bukhari and Muslim state categorically that the Prophet has been given the right of intercession (section 10. The Qur'an is self-explanatory as far as the basic rules of guidance are concerned and does not require any other source or model in order to be understood. nor power to hurt. (25:30) And the messenger saith: O my Sustainer! Lo! mine own people made this Qur'an of no account. God. Akhuwat Publications. 56. selection no. They forget that the Qur'an is Allah's Book of guidance for the whole of mankind and that the Prophet's role as a messenger was simply to pass on this message. 2. and I am but a plain warner. And whoever hopeth for the meeting with His Sustainer. And woe unto the idolaters. and bearer of good tidings unto folk who believe. Publisher: Mujahid Publications. p. just as the role of any other messenger before him was to pass on a message. I do but follow that which is inspired in me. instead of interceding on behalf of his followers before Allah. References: 1. Extract from Unity of Divine Message p. by Inayat Ullah Khan El-Mashriqi. I should have abundance of good fortune. I am but a warner. nor know I what will be done with me or you. that is. and make none sharer of the worship due unto his Sustainer. Contrary to this spurious hearsay. (7:188) Say: for myself I have no power to benefit.The glorification of Muhammad has reached such a high level that most Muslims believe that Muhammad has been given the power of intercession (see section 10. never ascribing to himself any importance greater than this.3. if one takes what the Qur'an has to say on the subject seriously: (18:110) Say (O Muhammad): I am only a mortal like you. on the Last Day. Pakistan.

note 427. The Bible The Qur'an and Science. note 424. and the tooth for the tooth. primarily to create fear and to hold on to power. by Gulam Ahmed Parwez. 4. Footnote 38 10. Ibid. simply due to the fact that most people in the countries in question have no solid grounding in the Qur'anic injunctions regarding these issues. such are wrong-doers.. by Muhammad Asad. 8. The Law regarding this punishment is given . Footnote 6. Gibralter.3. and the ear for the ear. by Dr.1 Punishment for stealing The last few years have seen the introduction of 'Islamic Law' (Shariah or Shariat) in some countries which call themselves Islamic States. Exposition of the Qur'an. Chicago.. Sadly. Publisher Seghers. Maurice Bucaille. and for wounds of retaliation. p142-143. and the eye for the eye. we have to look very carefully at the verses which deal with this issue. is the severing of a hand for theft.. the Muslim states have never presented a believable case to the contrary. p. 6 Place Saint-Sulpice 75006 Paris. and the nose for the nose. One law in particular. 143. The so-called Islamic States which carry out these punishments do so for various political reasons. p. p. The Holy Qur'an by Maulana Muhammad Ali. But whoso forgoeth it (in the way of charity) it shall be expiation (atonement for past sins) for him. 6. The Qur'an says: (5:45) And We prescribed for them therein: The life for the life.. p. Inc. note 422. Rather. Pakistan. 8. rather. TOPICS APPARENTLY CONTROVERSIAL This chapter covers some very important topics mentioned in the Qur'an but which are often misrepresented in the Western press in order to label Islam barbarous or out-dated. If we are to follow the Qur'anic guidance that the punishment should fit the crime. quite often labelled by the West as barbaric. 5. 256. Ibid. preferring to misuse the following concepts in order to underpin and enhance their temporal authority. 861. Published in USA by Specialty Promotions Co. Illinois. they go unquestioned. Lahore-11. According to the Qur'an. 7. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed. 9. The Message of the Quran. Unfortunately. p. 141. any punishment should fit the crime. Published by Dar Al-Andalus. Ibid. then we cannot cut off the hand of a person who has stolen wealth as such a punishment would be utterly inconsistent with the nature of the original offence. 8. 11. p. p. 74. 233. Tolu-E-Islam Trust (Regd) 25B Gulberg. Ibid.

The thief should be given a punishment where he is made to give up his wealth to make good the loss of the person he has robbed. Muslim 4190. then verse 5:39 cannot be sustained logically. 'power'.2 The above translation also makes clear sense of the verse that follows it. Abu Daud 4367. and 'support'.. and make their hands and strength work (for the person whom they have robbed till the price of the stolen goods and some fine is recovered). 'property'. take away their wealth and what they have hoarded.39.. There would be social justice and the State would act as trustee for the entire population. cut off their means of support and favours. Here the context is stealing (i.3 Does the Qur'an sanction the beating of women? Even in the best of marriages there are bound to be occasional discord or ill-will. (5:39) But if the thief has repented and returned all the stolen goods and has mended himself.]whoso is forced by hunger. as the wealth would be used for the benefit of the people. 'obligation'. Most Merciful. So how can these verses ever be construed to advocate the cutting off of a hand? In tracking down the cause. as stated in the following verse (5:3) [. . besides 'hand' the word yad also means 'strength of hands'. 4396).e.597.e. poverty. in a truly Islamic State the question of cutting off a hand would not arise at all. injustice and poverty would be eliminated. an exemplary punishment from Allah for their serious crime and Allah is Mighty. we are told that if the thief returns the stolen goods and repents and reforms then he should be forgiven. In extreme and unjust circumstances this can sometimes result in the wife being beaten by the husband. Hence the following translation of the verse. In verse 38 the word yad is translated in its literal sense as 'hand'. Many Arabic words contain such multiple meanings and it is important to note that the appropriate meaning will always depend on the context in which it is used. is accurate:1 (5:38) As for the thieves. However. male or female. In fact. Merciful. since such an action is irreversible. Hunger. It would be ridiculous to suggest that Allah turns to a repentant thief who is now minus a hand! How is forgiveness appropriate after such a heavy penalty! However. hunger etc. the Qur'an states quite clearly that any such crime must be forgiven if there are mitigating circumstances i. 8. surely Allah is Oft-forgiving. 'blessings'. not by will. for the mistranslation of verse 5:38 we need look no further than the prolific Hadith compilers who 'report' this un-Qur'anic retribution for theft (Bukhari 5. 'wealth'. then truly Allah turns to him in forgiveness. This facility is directly at odds with any thought of cutting off a limb as a means of retribution. of wealth) and therefore for the punishment to fit the crime wealth should be recompensed for wealth and not 'hand' for 'wealth'. verses 5:38. On the other hand if verse 5:38 is translated literally to mean cutting off the physical hand. to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is forgiving.. as given by the late Ahmed Ali Khan Jullundri in his translation and commentary of the Qur'an.2 Adultery (see 10. Over-powering and the Possessor of great knowledge and He is the best disposer.3) 8.

The key to the problem is the mistranslation of the two key words nushuz and adriboo. Then. The separation could be temporary or permanent depending on the reconciliation procedure. to hit.]as for those women on whose part ye fear rebellion (nushuz). and then separate. Again.5). Otherwise. ill-treatment.. and such settlement is best[. Therefore. seek not a way against them. and for adriboo is 'to separate' or 'to part'. Here.4:34 – which. the seemingly justification for this outrage which is attributed to a particular Qur'anic verse stems from the misinterpretation of the verse in question . it is inviting the likelihood of a divorce without any reconciliation procedure. Some of the possible meanings for both the words. Added weight to the meanings outlined above is given by verse 4:128 quoted below. to part. hostility.. If they desire amendment Allah will make them of one mind. the appropriate meaning will depend on the context of the verse. discord. Such a step would blatently contravene the Qur'anic guidance shown in verse 4:35 below. a process of reconciliation is here to be encouraged! (4:128) If a wife fears ill-treatment (nushuz) or desertion on her husband's part. However.. construed through a particular prism is made to seem to allow this. appoint an arbiter from his folk and an arbiter from her folk. Nushuz: Animosity. do not seek a way against them. animosity etc). (4:34) [. One find oneself asking whether since the ill-treatment is on the part of the husband. in the case of a man.]as for those women whose animosity or ill-will you have reason to fear.This is beyond question a lamentable fact. then leave them alone in bed. Such as construction is legitimate within the terms of the language and fits in very well with the divorce procedure outlined in the Qur'an (see 8. and if thereupon they pay you heed.. but it is rendered as 'ill-treatment' as against 'rebellion' in the case of a woman as shown earlier in the traditional translation of verse 4:34. (and last) beat (adriboo) them. Let me quote the traditional translation of the verse and then explain why it is wrong. Aware.. violation of marital duties on the part of either husband or wife. the same word nushuz is used. according to the lexicon. (4:35) And if ye fear a breach between them twain (the man and the wife). to separate. admonish them and banish them to beds apart. there is no blame on them if they arrange an amicable settlement between themselves.] . a more accurate and consistent translation of the above verse would be: (4:34) [. Adriboo (root: daraba): to beat. The verse following the above verse gives further weight to the above translation. to strike.3 are given below. In the context of the above verse the most appropriate meaning for nushuz is 'marital discord' (ill-will.. Lo! Allah is ever Knower. if they obey you. rebellion.

Labour Market Trends. In addition to which. Social trends (28. Even in comparable jobs.Ps. given the overall context of the verse.4 8. 3. manual men received £328 and manual women £221. p. 2. The commercial exploitation of sex is widespread and the sexual abuse that goes with it is often hushed up in the name of 'freedom'. is insignificant. In this connection I would like to refer the reader to an excellent article by Rachael Tibbet from which I quote: (a) Qur'anic commentators and translators experience problems with the term Adribu in the Qur'an not just in this verse but in others. This is hardly surprising when you consider the widespread ignorance of what the Qur'an actually teaches. Although women outnumber men they occupy very few high-ranking jobs.4 Women's rights There is a great deal of misconception in the West about women's rights in Islam. according to the Qur'an. in April 1998. . women are more sexually exploited than men. they are not paid the same rate as men. was £506 for non-manual men and £330 for non-manual women. both among Muslims and non-Muslims. Given a total of over six hundred M. sexually provocative images of women being used to sell everything from fizzy drinks to cars. in Parliament the number of women M. (ii) The prejudices and environment of the early commentators of the Qur'an which led them to assume that 'to strike'. obviously.This. (December 1998. p. 'Daraba' can be translated in more than a hundred different ways. It is important to examine this claim and to find out what happens in reality. 1998.Ps. was the most likely interpretation of the many possible interpretations of adribu. Added to this is also the fact that the Western democracies quite often pride themselves on the freedom and equal rights given to the women in the West. (b) The translation of adribu as 'to strike' in this particular verse (4:34) is founded upon nothing more than: (i) The authority of hadiths (Abu Daud 2141 and Mishkat Al-Masabih 0276) that this is what Adribu means in this context. in the contexts they are being used. is to accept the meaning of adriboo as: 'to separate' or to 'part'. Taking Great Britain as an example the following facts emerge: 1. is a double standard and the only way to reconcile the meanings of the two verses. 626) shows that adult average gross weekly pay of full-time employees in Great Britain. 229) shows that at the end of November 1997 women MPs in Parliament were only 18% of the total. and the same can be said for the House of Lords. Perhaps it would be easier to understand the real position of women in Western society by outlining some of the facts and then show how Islam treats women. as it is used in different contexts in ways which appear ambiguous and open to widely different translations into English.

.] (2:282) O ye who believe! When ye contract a debt for a fixed term. p. including blue video films. My reason for making the above points is to show that the West's claim of freedom and equality for women is simply a myth. 41:12 and many others.]the rights of the wives (with regard to their husbands) are equal to their (husbands') rights with regard to them. The Qur'an deals with the reality of human existence as it is and protects the rights of women in that context. a figure which had tripled since 1971. and because they spend of their property (for support of women)[. The following are some of the statistics from Social Trends (28. The verses often quoted in support of this view are as follows: (2:228) [. 16:68. 5. And if two men are not (at hand) then a man and two women.] Regarding the first two verses. record it in writing. And call to witness. Households: The number of households in Great Britain comprising a married couple with dependent children has fallen over the last 35 years.. These are widely available in the name of 'freedom of choice'. of which 20:50 is quoted below. (20: 50) [.. 6:38.].4.. . and further gave (it) guidance. from among your men. Wise. (see note on page 96) (4:34) Men are the maintainers of women. It is difficult to calculate the price women pay for being conned into the use of their body by unscrupulous men. 41). of such as ye approve as witnesses. Cohabitation: Around a quarter men and women who had ever been married had cohabited before their first marriage.. the accusation is often made against the Qur'an that men and women are not regarded as equal.. although men have a degree (of advantage) over them. so that if the one erreth the other will remember[. 24:41... from 38% in 1971 to 25% in 1996-97. while 69% had cohabited before a second marriage. Allah is Almighty.]Our Rabb is He who gave to each (created) thing its form and nature. The Qur'an provides clarification on this point in verses: 20:50. The philosophy being that all is well so long as one does not get into trouble.. two witnesses.. it is necessary to examine Allah's role in human affairs. Last but not least is the commercial exploitation of pornographic materials. Families: Lone parents headed around 21% of all families with dependent children in Great Britain in 1996. The unlimited sexual freedom that goes on in social life results in very high divorce rates. Let a scribe record it in writing between you in (terms of) equity[. It is not hypocritical like some 'religious' persons who try to insist that these realities do not exist. The moral side of sex is completely ignored. Despite this. because Allah hath made one of them to excel the other. 1998. If we examine women's rights in the Qur'an then we can see a fundamental difference in approach.

Man has been given a form and nature by Allah which is distinct from that of Woman. the other can make it up - . (4:32) [. plays a dominant role as maintainers (but not as rulers as has been portrayed in some translations of the Qur'an). and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty). (16:97) Whosoever doeth right. and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a reward.. This is not to say that women will never occupy the highest jobs in the country but. and men who are humble and women who are humble. and unto women a fortune from that which they have earned.5 . why two women witnesses are required to replace one man) there are a number of logically sustainable answers of which I give two below: Even for men the Qur'an has prescribed the condition of TWO men to appear as witnesses in a court of law. and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth.Thus. as quoted later). and is a believer. this does not mean that the women are intellectually or . and men who fast and women who fast. statistically speaking.e. and women who surrender.hand in society in view of the control they exercise in almost all spheres of life. and men who persevere (in righteousness) and women who persevere. and men who believe and women who believe. Similar is the case of two women as witnesses.]unto men a fortune from that which they have earned. As for the criticism with reference to verse (2:282) quoted before (i.that is to make good a probable deficiency. Thus the woman has been given the same capacity in Islam -. Lo! Allah is ever Knower of all things. Shyness is a specific feature of women as compared to men. (envy not one another) but ask of Allah His bounty. statistically. However. If some deficiency remains in one witness's statement. this distinction in form and nature must not be equated with an intellectual pre-eminence on the part of the man and certainly no suggestion is made in the Qur'an to the contrary (see verse 33:35. men will always occupy the highest proportion of important jobs in most societies and therefore will exercise their economic and financial control over women. In reality men tend to have. to stand by her side and corroborate the evidence. according to verse 20:50. speaking statistically. However. To counter the dominant role of the man the Qur'an has encouraged economic independence of the woman in the sense that a woman's earnings are entirely her own and need not be mixed with family expenses. The Qur'an makes this abundantly clear in the following verses: (33:35) Lo! Men who surrender unto Allah. him verily We shall quicken with good be or to do what the man can. and men who remember Allah much and women who remember -. It is a sort of confirmation of one statement by the other.spiritually inferior. and a respect of each other in this matter is the best possible compromise for a balanced and happy life together. One of the forms given to the man is physical strength. Under this circumstance she certainly needs another woman whom she knows. and men who give alms and women who give alms. the upper. whether male or female. It is plain both from the Qur'an and plain common sense that the form and nature of Man and Woman is complementary.. and men who obey and women who obey. by virtue of which he.come to that .

the Qur'an has cautioned believers to be very careful with regard to it. The main point to consider is that.6) That He may bring the believing men and the believing women into gardens underneath which rivers flow. These should give us a clear guidance for our own behaviour. To protect a woman's business interest. Since men are traditionally the breadwinners and are legally responsible for the maintenance of the family. verses similar to the above are met often in the Qur'an. This is mainly due to mistranslation and misinterpretation of the the following verses: . and the idolatrous men and the idolatrous women. As far as the women's share is concerned. it is logical to assume that they would be (statistically speaking) more familiar with commercial transactions.8 we see that woman alone can be a witness). The principle of equality is observed even in the case of reward and punishment. the procedure for divorce in Islam is such as to encourage reconciliation (see 8. in all cases. we must remember that the woman is allowed to keep her whole share for herself alone.. Yet a point is often made by the Qur'an's detractors (as a supposed instance of male chauvinism) that it contains verses which state that believing men in heaven are granted companions with wide lovely eyes (houri). women must be treated equally in terms of all humane considerations. (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child.] In fact. applies only after the deceased's will has been executed and his debts have been paid. No one should be charged beyond one's capacity.. Verse 4:34 (already quoted in this section) confirms this. it is recommended that she have a co-witness. although men have more power and influence in society. is the Supreme Triumph and women are treated equally.5). who think an evil thought concerning Allah[. In order to understand more fully.That in the sight of Allah. Many other verses indicate that in Allah's eyes -. in cases of serious discord between them.6). It should be noted that the same recommendation is made for a man. and may remit from them their evil deeds -. whereas the man must maintain his family from out of his portion. In fact. Note also the following verse: (2:233) Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years. The fact is that the Qur'an encourages monogamy and regards polygamy as an exception (see 8. However. wherein they will abide. it is important to note that the inheritance. On the question of marriage there is usually a misconception that in Islam a man can marry four wives at the same time. The Qur'an gives strong guidance on our everyday behaviour and strong warnings if we choose to ignore them. This misconception comes from the Hadith literature. and has pointed out the steps that the spouses have to take for reconciliation.And may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women.6 The Qur'an disapproves of divorce but accepts it is necessary when all other measures have failed. This seems unfair only when viewed superficially and out of the context of other Qur'anic directives. In this connection.The verse 2:282 refers only to the financial or business transactions (whereas in verse 24. in general they are entitled to half the share of that given to men. as stated below: (48:5. Verses 7-13 of sura 4 deal with laws and rules of inheritance.

] There for them are pure companions (zauj ). This is followed by a long period before a second pronouncement can be made. The very length of this procedure leads to reconciliation in most cases. The reality – as described by the Qur'an – is as follows: It is true that there should be three pronouncements. (52:20) Reclining on ranged couches. (2:25) [. . And we wed them unto companions (zauj ) with wide lovely eyes (hur-ayyin). and the parents and their children. only one pronouncement can be given on the very first occasion. Hence the references made to the above verses are for the righteous believers where no specific distinction is made for male or female. there forever they abide.7).. The word zauj means "one of a pair". Muslim social life excludes having boyfriends and girlfriends. reward for what they used to do. The loving relationship between the grandparents and the children. we must clarify quite strongly that women occupy a very important position in the family by caring for and holding the family together. In fact. Regarding veiling of women in public life there is no mention in the Qur'an that women must completely cover themselves in the presence of others. and a further delay before any third pronouncement can be made. Finally. lovely eyes (hur-ayyin). This is a gross distortion of the facts. modesty is for both men and women. Therefore the nearest translation of hur-ayyin can be "with wide lovely eyes".give thanks unto Me and unto thy parents.his mother beareth him in weakness upon weakness. (44:54) Even so (it will be). the word hur is a plural word and can apply to both male and female. Therefore. However. Further. Unto Me is the journeying.. dancing between men and women. with more emphasis being placed on women owing to their vulnerable position in society (see 8. 8. and in all these women hold a most prominent position.5 Divorce and reconciliation procedure7 It is sometimes said that divorce is easily obtained in Islam. (56:22-24) And (there are) companions (zauj ) with wide. Its feminine is haura and masculine is ahwar. and that it consists of pronouncing the intention to divorce three times at one and the same time. free sexual mixing. gives lasting stability to the children in their later life. (31:14) And we have enjoined upon man concerning his parents -. like unto hidden pearls. either male or female. And We shall wed them unto companions (zauj ) with wide lovely eyes (hur-ayyin). and can apply to either of the two sexes. The accurate translation of the word hur means "marked contrast between the white of the cornea and and the black of the iris". and his weaning is two years -. The third pronouncement makes the divorce final. instead of translating this word as "one of a pair" it would be better to use the word "companions" which can apply to both. taking alcohol and such other things from which pre-marital and extra-marital sexual relationships frequently develop.

in accordance with your means. note the following verse: (65:6. And if they happen to be with child. the rights of the wives (with regard to their husbands) are equal to their (husbands') rights with regard to them. Otherwise 'equal' or 'similar rights' according to (2:228) has no meaning. and take counsel with one another in a fair manner (about the child's future). the husband has the primary responsibility of maintaining the family. a Dispenser of grace. without remarrying. (4: 35) And if ye fear breach between them twain (the man and wife). In all other aspects husbands and wives have similar rights to one another. Lo! Allah is ever Knower.. (4:34) [. But if they are resolved on divorce -.behold God is All-Hearing. If he sees something in her of which he disapproves or simply dislikes. has the right to divorce the husband. Wise. Note: the husband has relative advantage over his wife in the sense that the wife has to wait because of the possibility of pregnancy.7) (Hence) let the women (who are undergoing a waiting period) live in the same manner as you live yourselves. and then separate. if they desire reconciliation. If all these approaches fail. Moreover. (In all these respects) let him who has ample means spend according . And if you both find it difficult (that the mother should nurse the child). And if all these measures fail then the husband may resort to divorce.]and consort with your wives in a goodly manner. although men have a degree (of advantage) over them.3). too.. (2:226. spend freely on them until they deliver their burden. Also. and if they go back (on their oath) -. but he must follow the procedure laid down by the Qur'an. but. and this implies that the wife. Aware. and if they nurse your offspring (after the divorce has become final). in accordance with justice. and if thereupon they pay you heed. 227) Those who take an oath that they will not approach their wives shall have four months of grace. then he should try to balance her good qualities with her faults in his own mind. (4:19) [. a waiting-period of three monthly courses: for it is not lawful for them to conceal what God has created in their wombs.. And during this period the husbands are fully entitled to take them back. and the rift between the husband and wife deepens then resort should be made to arbitration by appointing two persons (one from the wife's side and one from the husband's side) of good will and sound judgement. and do not harass them with a view to making their lives a misery. do not seek a way against them (see 8. it may be that you dislike something which God might yet make a source of abundant good. If they desire amendment Allah will make them of one mind.Before any pronouncement of divorce is made the husband should first have been patient with his wife.] As for those women whose animosity and or ill will you have reason to fear. give them their (due) recompense.. let another woman nurse it on her behalf.God is Much-Forgiving. And God is Almighty. appoint an arbiter from his folk and arbiter from her folk. All-Knowing. if they believe in God and the Last Day. (2:228) And the divorced woman shall undergo. if you dislike them. then leave them alone in bed.

. Wise. It is not lawful for you. or that he might turn away from her. She can initiate the divorce if she fears ill-treatment or desertion by her husband. then if the latter divorces her. then as stated before in verse 4:35. and do yourselves bear true witness before God[. If ye do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. before separation.. Also in such cases. If amicable settlement is not possible. there shall be no sin upon either of the two if they return to one another -. and let him whose means of subsistence are scant spend in accordance with what God has given him: God does not burden any human being with more than He has given him -. either retain them in a fair manner or part with them in a fair manner. (4:128) And if a woman has reason to fear ill-treatment from her husband. 8. God is indeed aware of all that you do.6 Polygamy in Islam . Self-interest is the main hurdle to such a settlement..provided that both of them think that they will be able to keep within the bounds set by God. But if you do good and are conscious of Him -. or separate with kindness. the two should try to settle the differences amicably. there is no blame on either of them if she gives something for her freedom. free herself by sacrificing part of her dowry or marriage gifts (see verse 2:229 above). when they are about to reach the end of their waiting-period. Other verses on divorce procedures are as follows: (2:229) A divorce is only permissible twice: after that. God will provide for each of them out of His abundance: for God is indeed Infinite. and selfishness is ever-present in human souls. after hardship. she shall thereafter not be lawful unto him unless she takes another husband. ease. These are the limits ordained by Allah[.] (65:2) And so. However.] (2:230) And if he divorces her finally (the third time). the parties should either hold together on equitable terms. if possible. to keep the limits ordained by Allah a woman can.behold. they should resort to arbitration by appointing two persons (one from the wife's side and one from the husband's side) of good will and sound judgement. to take back any of your gifts (from your wives)..(and it may well be that) God will grant. it shall not be wrong for the two to set things peacefully to rights between themselves: for peace is best. the wife also has the right to seek divorce. And let two persons of (known) probity from among your own community witness (what they have decided). And if these fail then the only course left is to separate as the following verse states: (4:130) And if the husband and wife do separate. except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. if necessary. As stated in the note above. to his means.

therefore. If ye do good and keep from evil. Lo! That would be a great sin. but nor is it right in all circumstances. One has only to recall the figures of the dead in the first and second world wars to be aware that literally millions of women and girls lost their husbands and fiancees and were left alone without any income or care or protection for themselves or their children. can only be justified under particular circumstances. marry of the women who seem good to you. an Englishwoman. there is no escaping the fact that a man has ultimately to justify all his actions before Allah. exchange not the good for the bad (in your management thereof) nor absorb their wealth. And there is no doubt that it is easier to share a husband when it is an established and publicly recognised practice than when it is carried on secretly along with attempts to deceive the first wife. 1976. two or three or four. Also. is for women under these circumstances to face the fact that if given the alternative many of them would rather share a husband than have none at all. To find the true position we need to dig a little deeper than hearsay or a superficial reading. In practice. Merciful. The compromise. remembering that Allah knows what is in his heart. But turn not altogether away (from one). but fulfil all the outward duties that are obligatory on him in respect of her. From the last verse it must be emphasised that the Qur'anic position is that – unless one is able to treat his wives with just equality – one must not consider taking more than one wife. If it is still maintained that under these circumstances a man may marry only one wife. or becoming somebody's mistress. This view is not entirely wrong. what options are left to the millions of other women who have no hope of getting a husband? Their choice bluntly stated. And if ye fear that ye will not deal fairly by the orphans. If one does put himself in that situation. from 3rd to 12th April. Most women would not welcome either of these since most women have always wanted and still do want the security of a legal husband and family. (4: 129) Ye will not be able to deal equally between (your) wives. In any case. and if ye fear that ye cannot do justice (to so many) then one (only) or (the captives) that your right hand possess. .The idea is widely put about that the Qur'an supports or condones polygamy. this condition is most difficult to fulfil and so it must be understood that the general recommendation is towards monogamy. The verses which are often used to support the idea of polygamy are: (4:2.3) Give unto orphans their wealth. lo! Allah is ever Forgiving. Thus it is more likely that ye will not do injustice. embraced Islam about fifteen years prior to this conference. In seeking to understand more of reasons for the introduction of polygamy in Islam we might consider the following quotation from a paper submitted by Aisha Lemu at the International Islamic Conference held in London. is between a chaste and childless old maidenhood. it is only right to insist that one should not ignore the first wife. Lemu. leaving her in suspense. however much ye wish (to do so). polygamy. that is an unofficial second wife with no legal rights for herself or for her children. as the verse suggests. Mrs. The following verse emphasises the fact that it would be extremely difficult to deal justly between more than one wife.

Merciful. in order that ye may succeed. or their sons or their husbands' sons. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. is given as the limit. some husbands who can manage this situation. 8.for example where the first wife is chronically sick or disabled. The Qur'an does not subscribe polygamy for any other reason than what is in verses 4:2-3. In verse 33:59 below Allah is guiding the Prophet's female relatives and other believing women to use a cloak or outer garment when they go out – 'so that they may be recognised'. and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent. The difference is that while the Western man has no legal obligations to his second. A second marriage in some cases could be a solution to all three parties'. This is why drawing the veil on the bosom. 31) Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. within which one must operate. where marriage to more than one wife may be preferable to other available alternatives -. (33:59) O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks round them (when they go abroad). or their women. third or fourth mistresses and their children.involving the spouses and their families. It should not really matter whether the head is covered or not as the Qur'an does not specify that the head should be covered. or children who know naught of the women's nakedness. so that they may be recognised and not annoyed. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest. (24:30. (24:31) And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest. and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands' fathers. or male attendants who lack vigour. it is implied that she should wear clothes in public which are primarily a modest dress but which does not act as an impediment to her activities. or their brothers or their brothers' sons or sisters' sons. third or fourth wife and their children8 She says further: 'There may be other circumstances unrelated to war -.individual circumstances. of course. And it is no secret that polygamy of a sort is widely carried on in Europe and America. not as a possible solution to some of the problems of Western society itself' 9 According to the Qur'an. marital problems and discord need to be tackled by proper consultation and conciliation -.] For the woman in particular. the Muslim husband has complete legal obligations towards his second. She goes on to conclude: 'I have mentioned some of these examples because to the majority of the Westerners polygamy is only thought in the context of a harem of glamorous young girls. That will be better. . That is purer for them. however. Allah is ever Forgiving.. and to display their adornment only that which is apparent[. but no one would deny its potential hazards. And turn unto Allah together. There are.7 The Veil (Hijab) On the much-contested question of the hijab the important point to keep in mind is that the Qur'an enjoins modesty for both men and women.. or their slaves. O believers. and to draw their veils over their bosoms.

Allah is less concerned with our rituals and far more with our behaviour and deeds. USA.Sc. the Qur'an is insistent on the full participation of women in society and in religious practices. and that reaffirmation of their identity as Muslims requires the kind of visible sign that conservative clothing implies. Imposing the veil on women is the ultimate proof that men suspect their mothers. wives and sisters of being potential traitors to them. Ibrahim B. there is no blame on them if they lay aside their (outer) garments. he modified his position and agreed that while the chador is not obligatory. How can Muslim men meet non-Muslim women who are not veiled and treat them respectfully. For these women the issue is not that they have to dress conservatively. It is an innovation (bid'ah) of men suffering from a piety complex who are so weak spiritually that they cannot trust themselves! Muslim women remained in mixed company with men until the late sixth century (A. On the contrary. It is part of the growing feeling on the part of Muslim men and women that they no longer wish to identify with the West. daughters.In this connection I would like to quote a short article by Dr.10 Studying the Qur'an it is clear that the Qur'an does not try to give specific laws for all occasions but it gives fundamental principles which enable us to establish the basic guidance for our behaviour in all aspects of our life. 'Such elderly women as are past the prospect of marriage. provided they make not wanton display of their beauty: but it is best for them to be modest: and Allah is One Who sees and knows all things' (24:60). Syed Phd. The Qur'an does not suggest that women should be veiled or they should be kept apart from the world of men. Older women who are past the prospect of marriage are not required to wear 'the outer garment'. It is a question of using common sense and reason on the basis of guiding principles (see section 13. who is president of the Islamic Research Foundation. MODEST dress is. held meetings and went to wars to help their brothers and husbands.). The purpose of this verse was not to confine women to their homes. In fact. No goodness can come from pretence. Kentucky. the reason why Muslim women should wear an outer garment when going out of their homes is that they may be recognised as 'believing' women and differentiated from street-walkers for whom sexual harassment is an occupational hazard. According to the Qur'an. . and they defended their castles and bastions.E. but in response to large demonstrations by women. Louisville. but not accord the same respect to Muslim women? To wear the hijab is certainly not an Islamic obligation on women.) or 11th century (C. but to make it safe for them to go about their daily business without attracting unsavoury attention. They received guests. but they choose to. and yet we consider exactly the opposite to be the case.H. D. In Iran Imam Khomeini first insisted that women must wear the veil and chador.5). Morality of the self and cleanness of conscience are far better than the morality of the purdah.

are all examples of jihad in daily life. for Allah is altogether Independent of (His) creatures.moral. without resorting to war. the media have corrupted the meaning so that they can apply its new meaning to 'fundamentalist Muslims'. can only be judged in the context of the Qur'anic verses in which it is used. going to a halal butcher rather than the closest or most convenient one. It is certainly in the name of Allah but. studying ayat (signs). The jihad implies that one should exert oneself to one's utmost ability (i. and the addition of fi-na (for Us) indicates that jihad.'11 In fact. usually in an Islamic context. setting other Muslims a good example and showing non-Muslims the true way of Muslims. Below we quote Haji Ibrahim Golightly's response to a question on jihad. basically any Muslim who does not subscribe totally to the Western way of life. including most of the translations are based on Chapter 5 of Maulana Muhammad Ali's book The Religion of Islam. he strives (yujahidu) only for his own soul. The material below.]. We will certainly guide them in Our ways. Examples of such words are harb (war) and ma'araka (battle). is the spiritual striving to attain nearness to Allah. and the result of this jihad is stated to be Allah's guidance for those striving in His ways. so that anything which requires an effort to be made is jihad and the person doing it is a mujahid. with appropriate comments. There are other words in Arabic which are more appropriate to use in a war. (29:6) And whoever strives hard (jahada). The phrase 'holy war' was coined by the West in its struggle against the Muslims in the time of the Crusades (a war instigated by the Church for 'religious' gain). In reality jihad is a duty upon all Muslims to commit themselves to a struggle on all fronts -. as usual. with regard to the meaning of the word jihad in Islam. The media would have us believe that it is fighting and killing in the name of Allah.12 (22:78) And strive hard (jahidu) for Allah with the endeavour which is right[. And these words would surely have been applied had the idea of war been at the core of the concept described in the Qur'an by the word jihad.. Making time in a busy schedule to study the Qur'an. discussing Islam with both Muslims and non-Muslims and helping them to understand it better. but also to live at peace with oneself and one's community (Muslim and non-Muslim). (29:69) And those who strive hard (jahadu) for Us. and Allah is surely with the doers of good. The Arabic word jahadu is derived from jihad. The following are some typical verses. He concludes by saying: 'simply explaining the true meaning of jihad to those who do not know. both of Qur'an and in nature and science.a 'holy war' against the non-believers. like all other words. not just against internal and external evils. the implication of the word jihad. to indicate what the Qur'an conveys by jihad. It is not . is jihad in itself. . or knowledge.8 Jihad A great deal of misconception exists. in this case. Jihad means to strive or make an effort.. particularly in the West.8.e moral. to establish Allah's Deen. spiritual or political) for the cause of create a just and decent society. that is for his own benefit. in order to increase ' is commonly understood . Jihad is the effort made. spiritual and political -.

For them is pardon. They sometimes fought along with the Muslims against the unbelievers.9 Intoxicating liquors The drink prohibited in the Qur'an is described under the name khamar meaning any intoxicating thing that clouds or obscures the intellect. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.. morally. till ye know that which ye utter[. It is a struggle (jihad) to win over the unbelievers. They came to the mosque and prayed with the Muslims. (8:74) Those who believed and left their homes and strove hard (jahadu) for the cause of Allah. (4:43) O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken. and those who emigrate (to escape the persecution) and strive hard (jahadu) in the way of Allah. The Qur'anic verses reveal that prohibition of alcohol was not introduced overnight. not with the sword but with the Qur'an. Say in both of them is great sin and some advantages for men. and those who took them in and helped them -. In the first stage it was pointed out that its harm outweighed the benefits. It was a jihad in the same sense in which the word is used in the above verses. and in our day-to-day life. (2:219) They ask thee about strong drink and games of chance.. It does not imply war. (3:142) Or deemed ye that ye would enter Paradise while yet Allah knoweth not those of you who strive hard (jahadu).] Here the Prophet is asked to carry on a jihad against both unbelievers and hypocrites. the injunction to carry on a jihad against both the unbelievers and hypocrites could not mean the waging of war against them.] . Therefore. as the context will show.these are the believers in truth. a striving hard to win them over to Islam. without resorting to war.. and were treated like Muslims in all respects. The next stage was when the Muslims were prohibited from coming to the mosque while drunk. In all cases jihad implies a struggle in Allah's ways to achieve an objective. The hypocrites were those who were outwardly Muslims and lived among Muslims. nor knoweth those (of you) who are steadfast? In all these verses jihad is used in the general sense of striving hard. and their sin is greater than their advantage. and a bountiful provision. The personal pronoun 'it' refers clearly to the Qur'an. A war against them was unthinkable and none was ever undertaken. 8. and be stern with them[. (66:9) O Prophet! Strive (jahade) against the disbelievers and the hypocrites. (2:218) Lo! Those who believe. spiritually. a jihad carried on by means of the Holy Qur'an as expressly stated in 25:52. (25:52) So do not follow the unbelievers. and strive hard (jahid) against them a mighty striving (jihad-un) with it.. these have hope of Allah's mercy. Jihad in both 25:52 and 66:9 is used in the moral and political sense.

It forbids the use. it does not leave judgement. or violent crimes in which alcohol plays a part. as to how much is acceptable. And. almost a third of the males living in Britain consume alcohol above sensible limits (consumption above sensible limits is lower in women with 11% of the total). And according to 'social trends' (HMSO 1994).Finally intoxicating liquors were prohibited as the handiwork of the devil. therefore. from domestic violence (including child battering) to serious vandalism or grievous bodily harm. It values the moral and spiritual health of a nation as much as its physical well being. (5:90) O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of devil's handiwork. Besides clear convictions for drunkenness or drink driving. recognising that different people react quite differently to the same stimulant. and it starts at an early age. including alcohol. Islam. to them. Will you then refrain? In this connection I would like to quote the following extract from a handout titled The Islamic View on the Prohibition of Alcohol. Government representatives lament the state of the nation's health and drinking habits. not just the abuse of these substances. or clouds our perception as harmful (this includes alcohol as well as other drugs altering our mind). and to turn you from rememberence of Allah and from (His) worship. by S. but don't do much more. Islam takes a different view. yet ended up having 'one glass too many'. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed. Islam categorically states that if a substance can destroy the clarity of the mind in large quantities. It considers anything that interferes with the normal working of the mind. numbs our senses.13 8. and 89% by the age of 15. The Government's Health and Safety Executive jointly with the Health Department and Department of Employment had to publish policies on the 'problem drinker at work'. it is harmful even in minute quantities. for example. advocates a total prohibition of narcotic drugs. Let's take a hard look at the facts: Alcohol is a bigger problem than we tend to admit. Everybody would admit that there are problems with alcohol: drink driving. and the National Heath Service spends large amounts of scarce resources on illness caused or exacerbated by alcohol. thereby reducing our level of shame or responsibility. 12% (more than one tenth!) of 11 to 15 year olds are regular drinkers. courts are kept busy with numerous offences committed under the influence of alcohol.10 Gambling . There is a great deal of tax revenue in the sale of alcoholic beverages.M Bleher. Yet most agree that the moderate consumption of alcohol as is customary in western society does not do much harm. (5:91) The devil only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance. Every Christmas there is a nation-wide campaign against drink driving. According to government publications on the state of public health (1993) 20% of 9 to 15 year olds have had their first alcoholic drink by the age of 8. Too many people thought they had control over their drinking habit.

upheaval and imbalance to the many while rewarding only a handful of people. and what damage it is doing to society.Gambling is prohibited as being a dishonest means of acquiring money at the cost of ordinary people who gamble without realising how heavily the odds are weighted against them. The real winners are the people who run the National Lottery. The full damage to society can only be worked out if a proper survey is done on what proportion of the family budget is spent on the Lottery by people living on the borderline – or close to it – and how it is affecting their families. we can see who the winners are. But the 'good causes' in most cases are projects which are used and enjoyed by the rich. too. These. The statistics should include all age ranges. gambling causes the mind to be preoccupied with future winnings (or recouping losses) . have a high degree of similarity with gambling. the first sighting of the new crescent moon by the unaided human eye marks the beginning of the month.91) quoted above in section 8. Sadly. Yet they spend a significant amount of the family budget on the Lottery. The pressure to escape the reality of their lives is massive.iii The 'moon sighting' controversy14 In the Islamic calendar. those who buy the lottery tickets) we find that they include a very high percentage of people who have difficulty in maintaining their families as it is. 8) 8.ii Intercession (see section 10. the Government promotes gambling because of the large amount of tax revenue. if we analyse who the contributors are (i.3 selection no. their shareholders and the Government. it causes untold damages.see section 12. in effect. can cause a great deal of harm. but also to a great disunity among the Muslim communities throughout the world.1.1.i Interest (Riba/Usury . the theatre. (5:90. such sightings are considered essential with regard to the start of Ramadan and the two Eid festivals. as some of the newspaper reports suggest that children as young as 10 are playing scratch cards. Alcohol destroys clarity of mind. One reason for this must surely be because both are addictive. national heritage. On the other hand. sports. Note: Financial speculative activities. traditionally.9. They do not realise that for the many who get addicted to it. Thus. The Government's justification is that part of the money is spent on 'good causes'.e. the unreliability of the dependence on physical visibility of the moon has led not only to wide variations in the three important dates within the same country. such as the arts. hoping that the next time will bring them better luck and draw them out of the poor situation in which they find themselves. But the people who really win are the promoters who run big businesses. and examine its implications. we find that gambling or games of chance is grouped together with the intoxicant liquors. especially they have images of untold wealth paraded before them – just a lottery ticket away! The unfortunate dupes do not realise that there is actually a far greater probability of getting killed on the road than winning a million pounds on the National Lottery. both materially and mentally. In the three verses (2:219). etc. 8. the Government is extracting money from the poor and giving the benefits to the rich in the form of this 'voluntary tax'.always hoping the next time will bring better luck! Most people think that a little 'flutter' is good for amusement. However. If we take the National Lottery as an example. such as dealing in futures. In particular.1) 8. options and derivatives.1. The problem can be easily solved if .

It also opens the debate on how sunset and moonset should be defined and whether allowance should be made for atmospheric refraction (as is done. most likely. If the actual refraction is less or greater than that assumed in the formal computation of the Nautical Almanac Office.. in a formalised but not in actual way in the Astronomical Almanac). Some people use this condition to define the start of the lunar month. and for pilgrimage [.] (10:5) It is He who has made the sun the source of light and the moon a reflected light and measured out the stages for her that you may know the number of years and the count (of time). for example. (9:36) Lo! The number of months with Allah is twelve months by Allah's ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth [.. if the conjunction takes place in the very early hours of the morning it might be possible to sight the crescent moon on the same day. Before outlining the scientific method. but if it is nearer the time of the sunset then the sighting..15 Thus the problem of the visual sighting of the crescent moon is caused by several factors depending on the interval between the conjunction and the next sunset. Relevant Qur'anic guidance: (6:96) It is He who cleaveth the daybreak (from the dark).] (2:189) They ask thee concerning the new moons.] (55:5) The sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed.e. sunset may not occur precisely at the tabulated time. One can then decide whether the scientific approach is at odds with what is stated in the Qur'an. although its visibility may at times require it to be more than 30 hours old'.. This is nothing but a part of His constructive design [.. i..the traditional method is abandoned in favour of a purely scientific method. There is no way of judging the point of demarcation which would indicate whether the crescent moon will . this method rests on one's position on the earth and is therefore prone to divergence on the degree of accuracy. Say: they are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in the affairs of men.] Before discussing the implications of these verses I would like to outline the problems with the visual method. and the ways that a scientific method might overcome them. Unfortunately.. He made the night for rest and tranquillity. the actual position of the crescent moon with respect to the horizon. will be on the following day.. There is another very important factor which has to be taken into account for the lunar crescent to be visible. I will examine what the Qur'an has to say on this matter. the age of the moon from the instant the conjunction (defined below) starts. no matter how small the time interval between the two settings. and the sun and the moon for the reckoning (of time) [. the clarity of the atmosphere and the visual acuity of the observer. Problems with the visual method: For the moon to be visible to the naked eye the former must set after the sun has set. For example. 'This age-criteria has been studied by various people by taking random observations and is usually stated in the form of general rules such as the sightings of the moon younger than 20 hours are rare and the sightings of the moon older than 24 hours are not uncommon.

Therefore. Let us examine this further: The scientific or the astronomical method: The scientific method is based on the physical conditions when the earth. though the time interval between the conjunction and the crescent phase of the moon is very small it can be calculated accurately. Fortunately. the day after conjunction. just after conjunction. the moon is not completely shadowed as viewed from the earth. Thus. Hence. irrespective of whether the crescent moon is visible to the naked eye or not. is totally incongruous and needs to be replaced by something which does not violate the principles outlined by the Qur'an. . Outside the UK one need only convert the same conjunction time to the appropriate local times. the moon begins to reflect light towards the earth. However. so long as the scientific method guarantees the presence of the crescent moon. and the moon is between the earth and the sun. the conjunction times for a number of years can be obtained from the Royal Astronomical Observatory.m. This means that the crescent moon can then appear any time between visible on the day of the conjunction or on the following day. it is so accurate that it is possible to use the conjunction to calculate the lunar calendar for hundreds of years ahead. The maximum time taken by the moon to move away from the sun is 19 minutes and therefore. although the crescent moon is not visible to the naked eye. In the UK.m. Allah desires for us ease. After all. not hardship (2:185). Although the conjunction is independent of any terrestrial location. there is no doubt that it is present in the sky. simply because of the time gaps that exist between countries. 19 minutes after the moment of conjunction the Islamic New Moon appears. In scientific or astronomical terms. in this day and age. 19 minutes after the moment of conjunction. the crescent phase of the moon starts 19 minutes after the moment of conjunction. The visual method. scientifically speaking.00 a. by adding or subtracting the time difference applicable. being independent of any terrestrial locations.e. In fact. Thus. If we assume that the day changes at 12 p. scientifically. the degree of illumination is so low that for us it is completely invisible. Ramadan or any other important event can take place on the following day i. of the following day. In other words.m. are in the same vertical plane but not necessarily in the same line.m. we can regard the crescent moon as physically present and the only thing we need to know is the exact time when it appears. The apparent eastward motion of the moon then produces changes. This condition is known as the 'conjunction'. the international time variations will still apply. The implications of the scientific method: First of all. and the sun. then the conjunction can take place any time between 00. What is more the moment of its occurrence can be calculated precisely. the 'conjunction' is defined as the condition when the sun and the moon has the same 'right ascension'. to 12 p..m. as a result of the changing geometry of the moon with respect to the sun and the earth. Such a method would allow for the easy publication of the dates well in advance so that people would not be unduly inconvenienced. At conjunction. although the light may not become visible until 20 to 30 hours after conjunction. in the shape of an illuminated disk. of that day to 00. one must accept the fact that the required condition of identifying a lunar month will be met. as is done for any other international activities. this condition is the mark of the start of the lunar month. on any particular day.19 a. These are called the 'phases of the moon' and the Islamic New Moon is the instant of the start of the crescent phase. the moon.19 a.16 In effect.

3. References: is not acceptable to use 12 p. to explore and to gain knowledge. Box 1925. all that is in the heavens and on earth: in this behold. The use of the exact instant of conjunction is doing just that. The True Translation of the Glorious Qur'an.O. Ibid. Sayed Abdul Wadud. by Edward William Lane. He makes the signs manifest for people who have knowledge. 3. Pakistan. Box 783.O.. Masson Road. The second condition that the new moon is to mark fixed periods of time is also met as the crescent phase starts 19 minutes after the conjunction. for the change of a day. 18-K Gulberg 2.. Refer to notes on verse 5:38. nowhere says that the moon has to be observed with the naked eye. Most of the Qur'anic verses are taken from: The Message of the Qur'an. the principle remains the same. Published by World Islamic Mission. Box 1925.]Allah created not this but with truth. Inc. from Himself. Ithaca. Published by Islamic book centre. The Qur'an. ( some people suggest -. (ii) Arabic-English Dictionary: The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic.O. Nov/Dec 1996 issue. Does the Qur'an Sanction the Hitting of Women? by Rachael Tibbet. (i) Arabic English Lexicon. 25-B. South Africa by Dr. as the conjunction starts at the instant when the sun and the moon have the same right ascension. 2. There are numerous verses in the Qur'an encouraging us to think. Pakistan). Lensia1820. However. Box 1625.m. (45:13) And He has made subservient to you. P. Published by Spoken Language Services. if -.e.m. P. by Late Ali Ahmad Khan Jullundri. P. 4. 7.1. (10:5) [. Edited by J. to ponder. so long as it be internationally for all other activities. Lahore-3. Gibralter. to use the conjunction as the start of a lunar month. Letter to Al-Balaagh. by Muhammad Asad. Pakistan. New York. 5. Letter to Al-Balaagh. then one need only establish an agreed reference time other than 12 p. Published by Dar Al-Andalus. rather it tends toward the scientific or the astronomical method. Cowan. M. Nov/Dec 1996 issue. South Africa by Basheer Ahmed Vania. (8 parts).Finally. 6. Lahore. there are messages indeed for people who think! (3:190) Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are signs for men of understanding. The Qur'anic guidance advocates the use of both the sun and the moon for the reckoning of time. p. South Africa). verse 5:38.. Lensia 1820. . i. and the moon-sighting should not be the exception.O. P. (Lahore..

by S. Birmingham B8 3DT.28. Ibrahim B. Haji Ibrahim Golightly: A question .O. p.. Syed Phd. by Maulana Muhammad Ali M. never desiring that their graves become shrines for misguided people to pray at.M. 29. Published by National Publication and Printing House U. Kuala Lumpur. 1995. Jihad. 10.. Based on chapter 5. 223 London Road. 10. As their graves become shrines.Sc. People go to their graves to ask for favours which no one can grant but Allah. P. A. 14. D. The unscrupulous people who control these shrines invariably use the shrines as a source of income. South Africa. Mohammed Ilyas. one must become their disciple by paying them appropriate homage and fees. Aisha Lemu and Fatima Heeren.answer printed in the Message. 401-403 Alum Rock Road.September issue. Berita Publishing Sdn. The Islamic Tradition of "Moon Sighting" and its Implications. A pamphlet entitled The Islamic View on the Prohibition of Alcohol.8. p. These are the sharks of the Islamic world and almost invariably the ruling politicians will have close connections with these people. Vol. LL. Bhd. Malek. Is Hijab Compulsory? Article by Professor Dr. Ibid. Women in Islam. Box 1925. Leicester LE2 1ZE. Published by The Islamic foundation. 12. 16. Feb/March 1997. LATTER-DAY SAINTS (PIRS)1 A large number of men in the Muslim world have captured the hearts and minds of ordinary people to such a degree that they have come to be regarded as saints (pirs). by B. Published in Al-Balaagh. Published by UK Islamic Mission Dawah Centre.R.have claimed the status of saints.A. who have attained greatness on their own order to become rich and powerful -.1. 22. p. These people use paid hirelings to propagate stories of their 'miraculous' powers. Times & Qibla. by M. They hold annual gatherings in order to increase their membership. . A Modern Guide to Astronomical Calculations of Islamic Calendar. Lensia. with the vain intention of obtaining requests. these 'saints' also continue to exert influence even after their death. 28. Thus.B. the UIA magazine of July . The saints can be divided into two categories: (i) People who have studied and understood the Islamic faith in the Qur'anic sense. Through these gatherings they advertise their 'miraculous' powers by using paid people who are ready to swear to the genuineness of these powers. 11. 13. Malaysia. 545-595. pp. to assure one's place in Heaven. Bleher. The Religion of Islam. and have worked for the service of humanity. Ibid.A. 9. 15. by Dr. 9. The standard practice of these people is to put it about that they have the capacity to plead with Allah on our behalf in order to get us a place in Heaven. No. (ii) People who -. a ploy to which most human weaknesses fall prey.

(35:22) Nor are the living equal with dead. verily. as a man by nature upright. unto that which cannot profit thee nor hurt thee. on the Day of Resurrection they will disown any association with any disciple. People must understand that even the saints have no power to plead on anyone else's behalf to Allah. they could not rescue it from him. once dead. in fact. He is the Forgiving. the graves of the genuine saints are also used by people who control them in order to make money. and lo! The frailest of all houses is the spider's house. where people go in their thousands. These controllers hold annual gatherings and collect subscriptions in the name of maintaining the graves. so pay ye heed to it: Lo! Those on whom ye call beside Allah will never create a fly though they combine together for the purpose. They also impress upon people that donating money for their maintenance makes the saint plead on their behalf to Allah for a place in Heaven. but only to pay one's respects and pray for the dead person's salvation on the Day of Resurrection. One must remember that in Islam there is no intermediary between man and Allah. (46:5) And who is further astray than those who. if they but knew. will illustrate my points. And if the fly took something from them. There are many more similar verses which make it clear that no one but Allah has the power to grant our prayers. As far as a Muslim is concerned there is no harm in visiting the graves of anyone. and if they heard they could not grant it to you.Unfortunately. nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call[. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought! (29:41) The likeness of those who choose other patrons than Allah is as the likeness of the spider when she taketh unto herself a house. instead of Allah. The following verses I hope. Note the force of the following verse: . (35:14) If ye pray unto them they hear not your prayer. A shining example of this is the shrine in Ajmeer. (10:106) And cry not beside Allah. On the Day of Resurrection they will disown association with you. (10:107) If Allah afflicteth thee with some hurt there is none who can remove it save Him. Lo! Allah maketh whom He will to hear. Also. and be not of those who ascribe partners to (Allah). India. there is none who can repel His bounty. (30:52) For. they will remain dead until the Day of Resurrection and. He striketh with it whom He will of his bondsmen. thou canst not make the dead to hear. praying and crying for days to gain favours from the dead saint. the Merciful. None can inform you like Him Who is Aware. pray unto such as hear not their prayer until the Day of Resurrection.]. (22:73) O Mankind! A similitude is coined.. and if He desireth good for thee. and are unconscious of their prayer. Thou canst not reach those who are in the graves. for if thou didst so then wert thou of the wrong-doers. (10:105) And (O Muhammad) set thy purpose resolutely for religion..

let them hear My call and put their trust in Me.]never will you find any change in Allah's way [sunnah]! 35:43) [. Therefore. Malek.. 3. 28. A Restoration of Faith. (33:62) [. hadith means 'story'... by M. in effect.]no change will you ever find in Allah's way [sunnah].' (48:23) "Wa lun tajida li sunnat illah tabdila". What the Prophet said. the Qur'an is the . Thus. then can we seriously claim to be 'rightly guided'? References: 1. 27. 'report' or 'narration' and it is used in the Qur'an a number of times in these senses. It is unforgivable that. means the reported sayings and practices of the Prophet. The Hadiths – as the Hadith literature is commonly called – can be classified roughly in four categories: 1.e. about 250 years after the death of the Prophet. What the Prophet silently approved of. How. The Hadith literature was collected by word of mouth. A. Thee (alone) we ask for help' (1:4)). 4. tell them that I am always near. THE IMPLICATIONS OF HADITH FOR ISLAM 10. that they may be rightly guided. On the question of sunnah: Sunnah according to the Hadith means the laws that have been derived from the Hadith literature based on the reported teachings and practices of the Prophet. pp. by reciting in Sura Fatiha: 'Thee (alone) we obey. yes no deviation will you ever find in Allah's way [sunnah] This contradiction between the Qur'an and the Hadith regarding the question of sunnah can be resolved easily if we understand the position of the Prophet vis-à-vis the Qur'an. (2:186) When my servants ask you concerning Me. 10.1 The meaning of Hadith and Sunnah According to the Qur'an. Hadiths which give descriptions of what the Prophet was like. The operative word here is 'reported'. 'news'. the word hadith. in others. I hear the prayer of the suppliant whenever he calls out to Me. we turn aside to seek others' help to plead on our behalf.. A few other verses in which the word Sunnah appears are given below. The Qur'an is 'the Word of Allah' which was uttered by the Prophet as it was conveyed by him to the world under the inspiration of the Revelation. In total contrast. In practice. in spite of repeatedly committing ourselves to Allah every day (i. 2. What the Prophet did. according to the Qur'an Sunnah means the 'The Law and Practice of Allah which is immutable or unchangeable. to most people calling themselves Muslim.

the Qur'an. is the point where they (the Word of Allah and the utterance of the Prophet) beyond doubt. we are equipped to receive the only logically sustainable explanation of the call in the Qur'an 'to follow the Prophet'. between the word of Allah and the sayings of the Prophet) is impossible. It is impossible. Given this. and primarily collected by word of mouth. as stated in the Qur'an is an imperative to follow what was inspired in him through revelation. He makes references to two small collections but these were more or less at the beginning of the second century and there is no trace of them except for his reference. the Prophet and his companions who ruled for about thirty years after him. 179 A. both. The second is that people would have concentrated on 'the Hadith' – i. The thing one may say for certain however is that during the time of the Prophet and his companions the policy was not to write down hadiths (i. 10. He collected hadiths mainly for legal purposes as he was only interested in the application of Hadith in law. during the first century of the Prophet's era no hadiths were written down whatsoever. The problem is that there are many conflicting historical accounts about what was happening at that time. what the Prophet said – and therefore ignored the Qur'an. The Hadiths frequently contradict the Qur'an. From the sheer mass of contradictory stories one must assume that the real history of Islam for that period is lost. and that in itself is proof enough that they have nothing to do with the Prophet.e. Hence. hearsay accounts of what the Prophet said and did). since the Qur'an is. which was about 41 Hijra) hadiths as such were not written down.'utterance' or 'the sayings of the Prophet' in a way which nothing else can claim to be. the first well-known collection that appeared was by Malik Ibn Anas (d. . This exhortation has no connection whatever with the sayings and practices (the Hadiths) which were attributed to Muhammad by people some 250 years later.e. Stories circulated by word of mouth but they were never written down because the view was well known that the Prophet and the companions did not want anything of the kind to be done.e. We must understand that 'to follow the Prophet'. From this understanding. This was during the first part of the second century of the Prophet's era. His work is known as the Muwatta. That is. and on this basis. after Hazrat Ali's period. i. In addition – and to the surprise of many Muslims who use the term frequently and unthinkingly – the only sunnah that is mentioned in the Qur'an is Allah's sunnah. converge. It. There are two reasons for this. Looking at the written hadiths. made sure that nothing was written down as far as the Prophet's sayings and practices were concerned. the Qur'an and the teachings it conveys. Such is Allah's sunnah.e. The surprising thing is that even after the companions (i.). and we are told that it never changes. we are being asked to follow that which the Prophet is giving us. fought alongside him. and upheld his honour.e. The picture one gets is more of Muslim political history than the real history of Islam. by common consent. The first is that such human scribblings would have found their way into and thus corrupted the Qur'anic scriptures. In fact.H.2 Historical background of Hadiths1 To understand the background to the development of Hadith literature one must sift through the history of Islam from about 250 years after the time of our Prophet for it is towards the end of this period that the Hadith literature was produced. any attempt to distinguish between the two (i. and so there was a very strong feeling against the writing of any sort of 'Hadith' literature. Allah's sunnah – or way – is fixed and encompasses His Laws and Practices which apply to all His creation. The Qur'an was written down during the lifetime of the Prophet but 'the Hadith' was never written down and any attempt to do so was addressed by those who knew the Prophet.

Continuity of the chain (Isnad) of transmitters. His collections are also known as Sahih Hadith. with what is permitted and what is forbidden). 5. in other words he put stress more on the purity rather than collecting a large quantity of hadiths. during which there was a tremendous number of hadiths in circulation. It had to be verified through the biographical sciences of Hadith that each transmitter had a sound memory. The absence of defects in the hadith. 4.e.000 which he is supposed to have gathered. It was important that the hadith conform with similar hadiths on the same topic. Soundness of memory of the transmitters.e.H. So the question arose: how to distinguish the good hadiths from the bad? Ahmed bin Hanbal resolved this to his own satisfaction by apparently tracing each hadith right up to the source (i. and so do not give information on religious or theological subjects. theological. He was the first to arrange hadiths in chapters.000. among which there had accrued many clearly false ones. There is a gap between his writings and those of Malik's. 1. ethical. the other four occupying second place. Ibn Maja (d. of which Bukhari and Muslim are regarded as most important. His intention was to purify the hadiths that were available. Al-Tirmidi (d. A defect is defined as a hidden defect in the hadith which can only be detected after thorough investigation. Conformity of the hadith with other hadith. The Hadith collection went through a selection procedure in which the following conditions were used for the acceptance of a hadith. The integrity of transmitters was established in terms of their outward observance of Islam. 303). The integrity of the transmitters.The next important collection is by Hanbal in the third century. Correct Hadith. His writings are known as the Masnad of Ahmad bin Hanbal.H. it means . His hadiths are not arranged in the same way as Bukhari's. His work contains material on historical. He collected 7275 hadiths out of some 600. only by word of mouth. He collected 4348 hadiths out of some 300. by Bukhari.000 hadiths but they are not arranged in any proper order. 279). He collected about 30. who died in 257 A. These six collections together are known as Sahih Satta or the six correct hadiths. 3. not in writing. right up to the period when the Prophet was alive) and each hadith accordingly was called a Masnad (i.e. and the chapters were divided according to the subject matter. a Tradition which is traceable). 275). They deal almost entirely with legal traditions (i. and Al-Nasai (d.e. His collection is also known as Sahih Hadith i. There are four other collections which were written more-or-less towards the end of the third century Hijra and these are by Abu Daud (d. legal and various other aspects.e. there is no mention of the rejection of a hadith on the basis of its contradiction with the Qur'an. 303). Considering the five points in turn one can see a glaring omission i. Effectively. It must be stressed that many Muslims regard these two Hadiths (Bukhari and Muslim) so highly that in a case of contradiction with the Qur'an the Hadith overrides the Qur'an in their judgement. 2. A contemporary of Bukhari was Muslim who died in 261 A. The next important collection was in the third century. The chain of transmitters had to be unbroken in order for a hadith to be acceptable.

however. The logical conclusion given these findings is that the 'links' which spread over the eight generations succeeding the death of Muhammad were concocted. I'm sure you will agree! The fourth criterion is overall agreement within Hadith as a whole. we should assume that the story is. the so-called 'science of isnad' – the touchstone of a hadith's authenticity – has the tremendous flaws in it.that the Hadith can override the Qur'an. They almost unanimously find that one can recover some history of the second and the third century but almost nothing of the first. It means that any one hadith should comply with similar hadiths which give the same sort of story and that this should be seen as a basis for accepting it as authentic. "O Allah's Apostle! I hear many narrations from you but I forget them. the Prophet) by establishing all the links in a chain which cannot possibly have been genuinely reconstructed! The second and the third criteria to which Bukhari decided to subject his work sought to establish that the transmitters were honest persons in terms of their outward observance of Islam. How. and since then I have never forgotten a single hadith. In the first case. true." I wrapped it round my body. But how did the links come about when no hadiths were committed to writing during the first century! A lot of research has been done on the Hadiths." He said. This he did by apparently collecting the biography of each of the transmitters.e. and simultaneously establishing not only biographical data but also a compelling analysis of the mental faculties of his subjects defies belief! An example is called for: in a large number of hadiths Abu Huraira is taken as the last link in the chain of narration. In modern parlance. then. Let me now examine the above five criteria. "Spread your covering sheet. . and if there is no conflict. or in other words the Hadith is more important than the Qur'an. therefore. and that each had a sound memory. Bukhari is supposed to have travelled widely to establish the names of the various persons in the chain. can we go on giving credence to something that was not written down and yet which. But even this unnecessary inconvenience was not a problem for Bukhari who found an explanation: Bukhari (4:841) Narated Abu Huraira: I said. He was not – even according to Bukhari's extraordinary method of compilation – assigned a good memory. How he managed to do this without written records. The intelligent and attentive reader who takes the time to read a moderate number of even so-called sahih hadith on any subject will not need to go far before he finds a distinct failing on even this count. Therefore. some 250 years after the fact. "Wrap it. especially by Western historians (orientalists) in an attempt to recover history from the Hadiths. that one account should not conflict with another. right up to the Prophet's time. bridging a gap of about eight generations. If a hadith was to be good then the chain of transmitters had to be unbroken and one had to be able to find all the links." I spread my sheet and he moved both his hands as if scooping something and emptied it in the sheet and said. Bukhari supposedly managed to trace back to its source (i. Most ingenious. it means that the various stories should 'hang together'.

This clause is often misused. and not judging cases according to the Qur'anic law. Our human courts cannot punish them. The fact that you fail to perceive any of this only testifies to your own ignorance. Also. It was the Abbasids who encouraged the writing of Hadiths – especially those which were favourable to their plans and rule. The Qura'nic law on this is absolutely clear. The Arabic word for adultery or fornication is zina. They – the clergy – are learned. to 132 A.H. Ways the Hadith contradicts the Qur'an2 One can quote several hundred hadiths which not only contradict the Qur'an but also clearly do damage to the Prophet's good name. In such a case. The Qur'an actually makes this law very clear. most of us do not know what the Qur'an has to say on this matter. they do not see contradictions. the Qur'anic law gives the opportunity to the man or the woman to deny the crime in the name of Allah. They bury the woman up to the neck and then kill her by stoning her on her head. and they had embraced Islam after the Prophet conquered Mecca. the court must leave the punishment to Allah. they have to take an oath in the name of Allah that they are not guilty.The Islamic clergy expends great energy trying to account for these inconsistencies and contradictions. makes a distinction between the two. yet the thrust can broadly be summarised thus: in order to understand the Hadith you have to be very learned. Until you are as learned as they you cannot contend with them on this (or any) subject. Their answers to your common-sense observations may involve various choices of words. Sadly. Here is a . according to the English dictionary. That is. English law. Unfortunately. in order not to punish the innocent. and it was under their regime that the Hadiths were written and the various schools of law established. whereas fornication is when the persons concerned are not married. because the fact remains that it would be almost impossible to find four witnesses unless. The first item selected is on stoning for adultery or fornication. 10. four witnesses are required before the case can be adjudged proven. Their rule lasted from 41 A. And yet we find the so-called Islamic states stoning people to death on the strength of a ruling drawn from what the Hadith has to say. for example. Qur'anic law does not. The Qur'an makes no distinction between adultery and fornication. thus. or so-called authentic Hadith. It should be noted that we have been discussing the sahih. someone in power. The Abbasids who are descended from the Prophet's uncle came to power after the Ummayads. Adultery. When you are learned like them you. The man is buried up to the waist and then stoned. We do not trouble ourselves with them here for obvious reasons. Finally. Bukhari has a large number of hadiths to support this act and the ruling shows the Prophet in a very bad light. It is a barbarous practice and the West gives it a lot of publicity to denigrate Islam. The punishment for proven cases is 100 lashes. in the case of married people. There seem to be contradictions in the Hadith to you because you are not learned. There are other grades of hadith which are viewed with varying degrees of suspicion even by those who accept the 'sahih'. It is interesting to note that practically no Hadiths were written down during the reign of the Ummayads. The Qur'an is very clear on this. too. Therefore. will not see contradictions. is sex outside marriage.H. From Bukhari there is a selection below of some typical hadiths on various topics in order to give an overall impression of what we mean. The Qur'anic verses are given alongside so that the reader can judge for himself whether or not the Hadiths contradict the Qur'anic verses as is claimed here. bribed people to stand as witnesses.3. for personal reasons.H. Their rule lasted up to 656 A.

we should mention the well-known historian Tabari who died in 311A. And yet we ignore the Qur'an completely and accept the Hadith unquestioningly. The Quranic verses: (24: 2) The adulterer and the adulteress. Why are we not. have been accepted as factual accounts of the Prophet's utterances. Ibn Maja. is drawn through the prism of the hadiths. as does his history. But how to make people deviate from the Qur'an? The answer: by creating another. all his books derive their credentials from the Qur'an. Today. and then persuading people that following this body of writing amounts to a Muslim life. . explores this question. The Qur'an. later body of work. no-one dares challenge Tabari in any of his views. and as long as we follow the Qur'an there is no problem. he wrote a history of Islam in 13 volumes based on his tafsir derived from the same Hadith. in the minds of the simple Muslims. Therefore. He gives the following explanation: the Arabs defeated the Persians completely in war but the Persians were far more advanced in knowledge and writing than the Arabs. They are based on the Hadith – a spurious. based on the Hadith.H. Tabari wrote 30 volumes of tafsir (commentary) on the Qur'an. They were all born within the Persian Empire. 1: punishment for adultery The punishment of stoning to death for adultery has its origin in the Old Testament. followed by its contradiction in Bukhari. In addition to these. true Islam cannot be corrupted because the Qur'an is there. a period very close to when the Hadith were written. and Al-Nasai they all have one vital feature in common. scourge ye each of them (with) a hundred stripes. to show how the Hadiths clearly contradict the Qur'an. Thus. We find this approach has been most effective. if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day. Dr. Tabari's work has become one of the main reference works used by Muslims who use it without ever questioning its authenticity. Below are listed some important issues.. we will first look at what the Qur'an has to say. So where is our support for the claim of conspiracy? The circumstantial evidence – either not known or simply ignored by the mass of Muslims – is compelling. And let a party of believers witness their punishment. they used their superiority in writing to corrupt Islam from the inside. In fact. This law has been copied by all the six collectors of hadith who stress their claims that the Prophet practiced it. too. Later on. If we take the writers of the six main collections of hadith: Bukhari. then.straightforward case where the Qur'anic law is absolutely clear. when one reads these hadiths. Abu Daud. following the Qur'an? In fact. To counter this argument. Muslim. with the relevant Qur'anic verses. Obviously. which ascribes un-Qur'anic acts to the Prophet. one gets the feeling that there must have been some kind of concerted plan at work. Abdul Wadud. Al-Tirmidi. his tafsir rests on hadith. Therefore. additional body of writing. in his book Conspiracies against the Qur'an. And let not pity for the twain withhold you from obedience to Allah. since that would amount to challenging the Hadith which. but they are not based on the Qur'an. Selection no. we see that once the name of the Prophet is invoked we just accept as the truth whatever is said and follow it blindly.

You. said. They totally contradict his character. "I am afraid that after a long time has passed.301) narrated AbuSa 'id Al-Kudri: . As for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves: let the testimony of one of them be four testimonies. scourge them with eighty stripes and never (afterward) accept their testimony – they indeed are evil-doers. Allah's Messenger ordered that she be stoned to death." Unais went to the woman next morning and she confessed. 2 The following hadiths are some of the examples of the extremely adverse comments supposedly made by the Prophet against women. And a fifth." Bukhari (Ref: 3. and allow me to speak. Selection no." He said. Unais go to the wife of this man and if she confesses her guilt. "Yes." Allah's Messenger said. "Speak. (swearing) by Allah that he is of those who speak the truth. The slave-girl and the sheep are to be returned to you. as well as the spirit of the Qur'an. people may say.885) Narrated Abu Huraira and Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani: A Bedouin came to Allah's messenger and said. and be exiled for one year. "I have memorised this narration in this way". Both of these hadiths disregard the Qur'anic verses altogether. stone her to death. Save those who afterward repent and make amends (For such) lo! Allah is Forgiving.' and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. so in lieu of that I ransomed my son by paying one hundred sheep and a slave-girl. Bukhari (ref: 1. His opponent. and so did we after him. (24:5-9) Those who accuse honourable women but bring not four witnesses. And a fifth time that the wrath of Allah be upon her if he speaketh the truth. "My son was working as a labourer for this man and he committed illegal sexual intercourse with his wife." Sufyan added. And it shall avert punishment from her if she bear witness before Allah four times that the thing he saith is indeed false. "By Him in whose hands my soul is. Umar added "Surely Allah's messenger carried out the penalty of Rajam. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal intercourse if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession. judge between us according to Allah's Laws. your son is to receive a hundred lashes and be exiled for one year. I shall judge between you according to Allah's Laws." Allah's Messenger said. The Qur'anic judgement also makes it possible for the innocent to escape punishment despite the contrary testimony of others. The verses I quoted from the Qur'an show how in the eyes of true Islamic Law the treatment given to women is absolutely equal to that for men. 'We do not find the verse of rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book. Merciful. Then I asked the religious scholars about it. invoking the curse of Allah on him if he is of those who lie. and the wife of this (man) must be stoned to death.816) Narrated Ibn Abbas: Umar said. "O Allah's Messenger! I ask you by Allah to judge my case according to Allah's Laws". Bukhari (ref: 8. The people told me that it was obligatory that my son should be stoned to death. who was more learned than he. They informed me that my son must be lashed one hundred times.

narrated Aisha: The Prophet and I used to take a bath from a single pot while we were junub [the unclean state after sexual intercourse].6. Say: It is a vulnerable condition. "O Allah's Messenger! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said. so let women alone at such times and go not unto them till they . Bukhari (ref: 1. Once. but the Hadith literature contains woman-degrading hadiths which portray the woman as naturally crooked and beyond reform. more evil than man. The Qur'an does not denigrate women in any way.490. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during the menses?" The women replied in the affirmative. "Why is it so. and a hindrance to prayers – grouped together with dogs and asses – (ref: Bukhari 1. has been able to unearth the most intimate private affairs of the Prophet." Bukhari (7. "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. 16:97." The women asked. 3 To approach women during their menses. While in itikaf (see note below) he used to bring his head near me and I would wash it while I used to be in periods (menses). he used to order me to put on an izar (dress worn below the waist) and used to fondle me. "O women! Give alms. of lower intelligence. 1034. Examples are: 2:223. Allah's Messenger went out of the Musalla (to offer prayer) of Id-al-Adha. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. Selection no. "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. During the menses. Note: itikaf is seclusion in a mosque for the purpose of worshipping Allah. Bukhari (Ref: 1. is forbidden in the Qur'an. Abu Daud 703). "This is the deficiency in her religion. He said. Muslim 1032. "This is the deficiency in her intelligence.030) narrated Abdullah bin Umar: Allah's Apostle said. He claims the authority of Hazrat Aisha in order to make it look authentic. it appears.298). the house and the horse. He said. It is impossible to imagine that the Prophet was unaware of this injunction in the Qur'an and yet Bukhari." They asked. "Evil omen is in the woman. for sexual purposes. Then he passed by the women and said. 4:19. as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women). 33:35 and 48:5. he used to order her to put on an izar and start fondling her. O Allah's Messenger?" He replied." One can quote many verses from the Qur'an to refute the above statements." Aisha added "None of you could control his sexual desires as the Prophet.299) Narrated Abdur Rahman bin Al-Aswad: Aisha said: "Whenever Allah's Messenger wanted to fondle anyone during her periods (menses)." Contrast this with specific Qur'anic injunction: (2:222) They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation.

4 Here are a few typical examples of hadiths which show aspects of character ascribed to the Prophet that are totally irrational. "[. are cleansed. Selection No.. but he said. One day the Prophet visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head.]nay.e.e.. his camels. and drank their milk and urine till their bodies became healthy.] It is difficult to imagine anyone capable of such rank treachery and stupidity that depicted in the first two hadiths – let alone ascribe such a cruel nature to our Prophet! It is difficult. 5 One of the commonest beliefs is that Hadith (particularly Vol.252/253/254) narrated Um Salama and Um Atiyya: A woman was bereaved of her husband and her relatives worried about her eyes (which were diseased).130) Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Messenger used to visit Um Haram bint Milhan and she was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit. how then would we ." Bukhari (Ref: 9. Selection no. So they proceded along with the shepherd i. Firstly. Then Allah's Messenger slept and afterwards woke up smiling[. 6 of Bukhari – which give various information on when and under what circumstances parts of the Qur'an were supposed to have been revealed) is essential in order to understand the Qur'an. the number of verses covered by Bukhari are insignificant compared to the total number of Qur'anic verses. Bukhari (ref: 7. Therefore. They came to Allah's Messenger and asked him to allow them to treat her eyes with kohl (antimony eye powder). to imagine a situation where someone else's wife would be looking for lice on the Prophet's head on one if his supposed regular trips to see her. if this assertion were correct. and drink their milk and urine (as medicine). so the Prophet ordered them to proceed along with his shepherd. This is misleading on many grounds. narrated Anas: The climate of Medina did not suit some people. then go unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. she cannot use kohl till four months and ten days have elapsed. also.. And when they have purified themselves.590). i. Then they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels.. the camels. Bukhari (ref: 7. When they were brought. particularly as the Qur'an enjoins believing men and women to lower their gaze and be modest. When the news reached the Prophet (pbuh) he sent some people in their pursuit. as all the irrefutable historical evidence on the Prophet's nature contradict the spirit of such narrations. These also strengthen the above-mentioned conspiracy theory. he cut their hands and feet and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron. an injunction which would seem to preclude such a suggestive intimacy.

Bukhari (ref: 6. The Qur'an gives an end to the sun's evolution and a destination place." and asked him about its explanation. The man said.209).understand and follow the other verses not explained by Bukhari? Secondly. The application of this precept brought with it the prodigious strides in science during the great era of Islamic civilisation. "Is this information for me only?" The Prophet said. than to the Will of Allah. The following Qur'anic verses and their hadith 'explanation' illustrate this point. great progress has been made in the interpretation of many previously misunderstood verses in the Qur'an. Note that the words 'settled place' is the translation of the Arabic mustaqarr. and in some hours of the night. so the above revelation was sent down regarding them. An incident or a story is narrated around an occurrence which – Bukhari would have it – resulted in the selected Qur'anic verse being revealed. benefited hugely – although its literature almost entirely ignores the fact. . Lo! Good deeds annul ill deeds. too. owing more to mere accident and whim. narrated Ibn Masud: A man kissed a woman and then came to Allah's Messenger and told him that. In most cases the incident or story is absurd and one often gets the impression that the revelation of verses was a haphazard affair. Modern astronomy has been able to locate it exactly and has called it the Solar Apex. So this Divine Inspiration was revealed to the Prophet: (11:114) And offer prayers perfectly at the two ends of the day. and also when they had sexual relations with their wives in an open space lest they be exposed to the sky. He said "Some people used to hide themselves while answering the call of nature in an open space lest they be exposed to the sky. This is the decree of the Almighty. Verily the good deeds remove the evil deeds (small sins). thanks to scientific knowledge. the explanations put forward are generally absurd. the Full of Knowledge.203) Narrated Muhammad bin 'Abbad bin Ja'far that he heard Ibn 'Abbas reciting from the Qur'an: (11:5) "No doubt! They fold up their breasts. The verse translated by Dr Bucaille is as follows:3 (36:38) The Sun runs its course to a settled place. Verse 36 of Sura 38 is a prime example. "It is for all those of my followers who encounter a similar situation. This is reminder for the mindful." Selection no. from the very beginning directed people to cultivate science. (11:114) Establish worship at the two ends of the day and in some watches of the night. 6 Islam. This is a reminder for the mindful." Bukhari (Ref: 6. Today. from which the West.

on the other hand. Bukhari (ref: 4. And that is the interpretation of the statement of Allah. and it is permitted and then (a time will come when) it will be about to prostrate itself but its prostration will not be accepted. (8:63) And he has put affection between their hearts. apprehended danger and did not like that . Clearly. In support of this I quote the following verses from the Qur'an. they liberally pepper the Hadith literature. narrated Abu Dhar: The Prophet asked me at sunset. but it will not be permitted.421). 7 There could be no evidence greater than the Qur'an to show that the companions of the Prophet were men of firm belief in Allah and men of most exalted position. And those with him are hard against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves. and takes the permission to rise again. the All-Knowing. There are several hadiths which describe a conflict between Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Ali." (36:38) And the sun runs its fixed course for a term (decreed). When she died Hazrat Ali quietly buried her during the night time and did not inform Hazrat Abu Bakr about her death. That is the Decree of (Allah) the Exalted in Might. However. asking him to come to see him personally but not accompanied by Hazrat Omar. Thus. "Do you know where the sun goes (at the time of sunset)?" I replied.Contrast this with the supposedly reported interpretation of the verse by the Prophet as quoted by Bukhari. As long as Hazrat Fatima lived. "Allah and His Apostle know better. The reader will note that the hadiths which follow the verses directly contradict the Qur'an. Hazrat Omar. (48:29) Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.e. Hazrat Ali was greatly respected. you could not have produced that affection." He said. "It goes (i. Now let us see what Hadith tells about the companions of the Prophet. Selection no. narrated Aisha: Hazrat Fatima (daughter of Prophet and wife of Hazrat Ali) remained alive for 6 months after the death of the Prophet. If you had spent all that is on the earth. travels) till it prostrates itself underneath the Throne. whose characters were above reproach. such an interpretation is laughable given even a rudimentary knowledge of the movements of the sun and earth. and it will ask permission to go on its course. he sent a message to Hazrat Abu Bakr. but Allah has done it. but after her death Hazrat Ali felt a change in the behaviour of the people around him. one of which is as follows. Such unscientific assertions are nowhere to be found in the Qur'an. as His Power and Wisdom are boundless. Bukhari (ref 5: 546). but it will be ordered to return whence it has come and so it will rise in the west. Then he resolved to accept succession to the Caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr.

and therefore acceptable to God. 43:86. The Qur'an acknowledges that in spite of the categorical statements that there will be no intercession on the Day of Judgement. We are not jealous of the greatness which Allah has given you. Here man is in the accusative case governed by tanfa'u. To believe that anyone can intercede on our behalf or have our sins forgiven or our wishes fulfilled. and whose word (of repentance) is true and sincere. Note also the section of verse 40:18 which specifically says "no intimate friend nor intercessor will the wrong-doers have.70. for those whose own "beliefs and good deeds" are to receive benefit and reward from Allah anyway. I should have abundance of wealth. 30:13. Yusuf Ali comments in his note (no. and a bearer of good tidings unto folk who believe. For example. who could be listened to". and whose word (of intercession) is acceptable to God. Muhammad could not intercede on behalf of his uncle (111:1-3). The Qur'anic verses 2:255.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr should go alone. Examples of verses which corroborate this are as follows: 2:48. The Qur'an also asserts in verses 7:188 and 46:9 that the Prophet possesses no power to benefit or harm anyone. could not intercede on behalf of his father (9:114). 40:18.94.4 Taking further important examples from the Qur'an we learn that Abraham. Noah could not intercede on behalf of his son (11:46). Others construe: no intercession will avail. save that which Allah willeth. our human weakness will prompt us to seek the help of living or dead saints and prophets. ii 255 in the verse of the Throne. 7:53. . 21:100. 2:123. intercession will benefit no one except those for whom God has granted permission. 36:23. 74:48. In the above meeting Hazrat Ali said. "We realise your personal superiority and all that Allah has bestowed upon you.e. we are rightful successors to Khil'afat and our right has been usurped by tyranny and oppression. But we do feel that that being near relatives of the Rasool. or others (9:80)." Selection no. This is polytheism. nor power to hurt. except by those whom God has granted permission. and it is better to construe it as I have done. Had I knowledge of the unseen. The implication of these verses is that intercession will only be effective in cases already approved by Allah i. When reading translations of some of the verses one must be careful of relying on the translations which misinterpret the verses to mean that intercession will be of no value except by those to whom (i. Hazrat Abu Bakr was bent upon meeting Hazrat Ali and thus he went to see him without company. 20:109. 8 Here we look at the question of intercession. Allah's beloved servant. 6:51. to intercede on behalf of our loved ones. implies belief that Allah has partners. the Prophet) Allah has granted permission and whose word (of intercession) is acceptable to Allah. as given in the verses above. and that there will be "no intercession on the Day of Judgement" (2:254). 2634) to verse 20:109 as follows: Cf. (7:188) Say: For myself I have no power to benefit. 10:3. The Qur'an proclaims that "All intercession belongs to Allah" (39:44). However. 19:87. I am but a warner. 21:28 and 34:23 throw some light on this. That is. and adversity would not touch me.

0747. 8. 3. rather.098). Muslim: 0389. What is there. and if they heard they could not grant it to you. narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah: The Prophet said.098. Allah made me victorious by awe. therefore. the Hadith literature has succeeded in duping many people into accepting the concept of intercession. took no guidance from the Qur'an. 8. Bukhari and Muslim state categorically that the Prophet has been given the right of intercession. 2516).242. 5.331). therefore.331.571. 6. In contrast. and I am but a plain warner. narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri: . 5. 2071. (Note the following hadiths: Bukhari: 1. any one of my followers can pray wherever the time of prayer is due. (46:9) Say: I am no new thing among the messengers (of Allah). I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection).224. the verse 25:30 says that Muhammad's plea to Allah on the Day of Judgement will be: "O my Sustainer! Mine own people make this Qur'an of no account"-. who will gain your intercession on the Day of Resurrection?" Allah's Apostle said: "O Abu Huraira! I have thought that none would ask me about it before you as I know your longing for the (learning of) hadiths. narrated Abu Huraira: I said: "O Allah's Apostle! Who will be the luckiest person. On the Day of Resurrection they will disown association with you. to make one think that a prophet or a saint will be able to intercede on our behalf? They will.563. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform tayammum. The booty has been made halal (lawful) for me yet it was not lawful for any one else before me." Bukhari (ref: 1. (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey. Bukhari (ref: 1. disown us than intercede on our behalf: (35:14) If ye pray unto them they hear not your prayer. "I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me: 1. Bukhari (ref: 5:224). Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind. Similarly. None can inform you like Him Who is aware. nor know I what will be done with me or you. The luckiest person who will have my intercession on the Day of Resurrection will be the one who said sincerely from the bottom of his heart "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. 4. the people. 2. I do but follow that which is inspired in me. 1.meaning that we.

571). "O so-and-so! Intercede (for us with Allah)." till (the right to) intercession will be given to the Prophet (Muhammad) and that will be the day when Allah will raise him to a station of praise and glory. narrated Abdullah Ibn Umar: On the Day of Resurrection the people will fall on their knees and every nation will follow their prophet and they will say. however.e. Muslim (0747) narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As: Allah's messenger said: When you hear the Mu'adhdhin. all of them interceding for him." Muslim (ref: 0389). their intercession for him will be accepted.242).4 Usefulness of Hadith literature The two points quite often raised in support of the Hadiths are: (1) The Qur'an specifically says in a number of verses to 'follow the Prophet' and hence the rejection of the Hadiths will make it impossible to do so. for everyone who invokes a blessing on me will receive ten blessings from Allah: then beg from Allah al-Wasila for me. narrated Abu Huraira The Prophet of Allah said: "There is for every apostle a prayer which is granted. in case of everyone amongst my ummah provided he dies without associating anything with Allah. If anyone who asks that I be given the Wasila. "Some people will be taken out of the Fire through the intercession of Muhammad: they will enter Paradise and will be called Al-Jahannamiyin (The Hell Fire people). if Allah so willed. I heard the Prophet when somebody mentioned his uncle (i. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. saying. Bukhari (ref: 8. . and it would be granted. and so how could the Prophet possibly have said such things? 10. which is a rank in Paradise fitting for only one of Allah's Servants. repeat what he says. and I hope that I may be that one. "Perhaps my intercession will be helpful to him on the Day of Resurrection so that he may be put in a shallow fire reaching only up to his ankles. then invoke a blessing on me. all these hadiths contradict the Qur'an. he will be assured of my intercession." Bukhari (ref: 6. Muslim (ref: 2071). Without doubt. narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said: If a company of Muslims numbering one hundred pray over a dead person. narrated Imran Bin Hossain: The Prophet said. His brain will boil from it. Abu Talib). I have. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my ummah on the Day of Resurrection.

and this was. This shows that Allah's request for us to "follow the Prophet" directs us to follow the Qur'an and practise the teachings of the Qur'an. as the Qur'an does not give any details of the prayers? The second question will be answered in section 11. The Hadiths attributed to the Prophet are highly questionable. This (Qur'an) is insight from your Lord. as discussed before. (6:50) Say (O Muhammad. and therefore do not merit entry into any sensible discussion on following the Prophet. or change it Say (O Muhammad): It is not for me to change it of my own accord. . and turn away from the idolaters. Therefore. it is not the saying of a poet: Little is ye believe! Nor is it the saying of a soothsayer: little is it that ye remember! It is a revelation (Allah's words). to the disbelievers): I say not unto you (that) I possess the treasures of Allah. the Qur'an)'. according to the Qur'an. And yet the Hadiths.2 The answer for the first question is quite clear: 'Follow the Prophet' means. And if he had invented false sayings concerning Us. I only follow that which is inspired in me. in any case. the Qur'an.(2) How is one to pray.e. The Qur'an makes this point very clear in Sura 69. We assuredly had taken him by the right hand and then severed his life-artery. (33:2) And follow that which is inspired in thee from thy Lord. But verily this is a Message for those who ward off evil. following the Hadiths would in reality imply 'to disobey the Prophet instead of obeying him'. Lo! Allah is aware of what ye do. and forbear until Allah give judgement. Allah clearly instructs the Prophet to 'Follow what is inspired in him (i. Lo! If I disobey my Lord I fear the retribution of an awful Day. And He is the best of judges. verses 40 to 48: (69:40-48) That this is verily the saying of an honoured Messenger. there is no god save Him. (10:109) And (O Muhammed) follow that which is inspired in thee. are full of contradictions against the Qur'an and. nor that I have knowledge of the Unseen. the Prophet could not possibly have uttered them. therefore. and a guidance and mercy for people that believe. We must also remember that the Prophet is warned in the Qur'an that he will be punished if he says anything against the Qur'an (see verse above and 10:15 given later in this section). I follow only that which is inspired in me. from the Lord of the Worlds. they who look not for the meeting with Us say: Bring a Lecture other than this. to 'follow what came out of the Prophet's mouth'. Say: Are the blind man and the seer equal? Will ye not then take thought? (6:106) Follow that which is inspired in thee from thy Lord. and I say not unto you: Lo! I am an angel. and not one of you could have held Us off from him. of course. (7:203) And when thou bringest not a verse for them they say: Why hast thou not chosen it? Say: I follow only that which is inspired in me from my Lord. as we have already established. And this is shown clearly in the following verses: (10:15) And when our clear revelations are recited unto them. as discussed before.

as well as the Prophet. Nothing of the sort can be claimed for the Hadiths which are ascribed to him by people (of the most dubious intentions) who collected them and attributed them to him some 250 years later. without checking against the Qur'an. What Allah inspires through any prophet is His revelation. nor know I what will be done with me or you. obeyeth Allah. I do but follow that which is inspired in me. The Prophet is now no longer alive and so we cannot obey him directly as people obeyed him when he was alive. in the same breath. he was within his rights to formulate subsidiary laws within the permanent principles laid down by the Qur'an. Unfortunately. The verses above do not support the following of further interpolations. They are simply a collection of 'reported' sayings and practices of the Prophet in which there is unquestionably some truth. The Qur'an is the only book of revelation which has remained intact. because the Prophet was delivering Allah's message to the people. If we now say in one breath that we cannot accept the previous revelations because they have been corrupted by human interference. many of which contradict the Qur'an? The Hadiths can never be classed as a revelation. In fact. It must also be fully understood. that the Hadiths are acceptable even though they are the results of human endeavour and. just as any true Islamic State would be able to do in order to make the laws reflect the relevant period. To esteem such books equal with the Qur'an and to take their teachings as 'the sunnah of the Prophet' is to falsify and debase the true meaning of Islam. Muhammad was both the religious and the political leader of the growing Muslim community. because the Qur'an as a revelation came out of the Prophet's mouth. Their importance however is no more than any book of doubtful historical origin. The following verses are used often in support of the Hadiths. But if they turn away. They refer to the period when the Prophet was alive and the question of obedience to him was also obedience to Allah. . and I am but a plain warner. that during the lifetime of the Prophet. For Prophet Muhammad this revelation is undoubtedly contained in the Qur'an. how can we then say. Our main weakness is that in order to show our reverence and obedience to the Prophet we blindly follow anything that has been quoted as his sayings and practices. lo! Allah loveth not the disbelievers (in His guidance) (4:80) Whoso obeyeth the messenger. Let us examine: (3:32) Say: Obey Allah and the messenger. our so-called political and religious leaders have taken full advantage of this weakness by fabricating suitable hadiths to keep their own control and influence over us. But by following the Qur'an we in effect obey Allah. and whoso turneth away: We have not sent thee as a warder over them. or hearsay utterances (even if genuine) in any way. without doubt. and should be regarded as such. (46:9) Say: I am no new thing among the messengers (of Allah). One must look at these verses in context. Allah asks us in sura 4:49 to "obey also those who are in authority". As such. We must remember that the Qur'an was revealed as a final revelation because the previous revelations were corrupted by human interference. and only by following its teachings can we establish Allah's Deen and bring about peace and unity for mankind.

Vol. THE FIVE PILLARS The Hadith literature has condensed Islam into five principles. Note 2634. and it is the books of Hadiths that tell us the methods of practising Islam in real life. 300 and a few others. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan. 2. by Yusuf Ali. No. Pilgrimage to Mecca). To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly. Summary of p.O. p. The few who understand dare not say anything openly because of the social pressure . therefore. Publisher Seghers.e. To perform Hajj (i. The Bible The Qur'an and Science. Box 6089. and 5. Translated by Dr. India. Published by Kitab Bhaban. known as the Five Pillars of Islam. Muslims have isolated themselves from the Qur'an.Volumes 1 to 9.References: 1. Pakistan. and Abu Daud). by Dr. 172. 5. 3. New Delhi. The five principles are also repeated in Bukhari Vol. P. The foundation of Islam according to the Hadiths comprises of: 1.e. Lahore. 813. 4. Beirut. I quote below from Bukhari Vol. Zakat (compulsory charity). p. since it is believed that the Hadiths give everything that is required to perform the five pillars. 50. 87-117.1. the result is that the vast majority of us have no knowledge of the guidance given in the Qur'an. Maurice Bucaille.1 hadith no 7: Narrated Ibn Umar: Allah's Messenger said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles): 1. except for a few. Lebanon. the vast majority have no clue as to what is recited in the prayers. Sahih Al-Bukhari . To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Messenger. No. Published by Dar Al Arabia. Under this misapprehension. Fasting. Muhammad Muhsin Khan. Published by Premier Book House 4/5 Katchery Road. To pay Zakat (i. 6. 4. No. 11. Belief (Faith). Prayer. 3. Sadly. 3. 2. 2. Development of Muslim Theology Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory by Duncan B. 2. Vol. The Holy Qur'an. There is a general misconception among Muslims that the Qur'an is a theoretical Book as it does not give the details. All hadiths are taken from Bukhari except a few taken from others (Muslim. 480. Hajj (pilgrimage). Muslim children are made to read the Qur'an parrot fashion without understanding the meaning and. 4. Macdonald. obligatory charity). 6 Place Saint-Sulpice 75006 Paris.

20:8. nowhere is the phrase: "There is no God but Him (Allah)" linked with the phrase "and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah". Such are disbelievers in truth. In fact.and so do the angels. unto them Allah will give their wages. the Wise. 11:14. In doing so we become disbelievers and face severe penalties. and that which Moses and Jesus received. 64:13.6.e. That is. The relevant verses are: 2:136.upholding conform. 47:19. 21:25. 28:70. Further examples can be found in the following verses: 2:163. 7:158. but also fundamentally distort its real meaning as far as the Qur'an is concerned. 40:3. 9:31. and Isaac. and the tribes. 106. 44:8. 11. 3:2.98. and that which the prophets received from their Sustainer. while the political leaders find it easier to control people as long as the majority remain ignorant of the teachings of the Qur'an. Allah is ever Forgiving. the declaration of faith/belief) is given by the Qur'an itself in the following verse: (2:136) Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael. the Almighty. We need look no further for the cause of our downfall in all spheres.g. so much so. 3:84 and 2:177). Let's look at Qur'anic examples: (3:18) Allah bears witness that there is no God but Him (la-ilaha-illa-hu) -. 27:26. 73:9. 62. Merciful. the Shahadah for the Muslims (i. of which I quote the following: (4:150-152) Those who deny Allah and His messengers. verses 2:285. In fact. 35:3. 4:87. and men possessed of knowledge -. we must emphasise that these five subdivisions not only do not give a full picture of Islam. 6:102. there is no God but Him (la-ilaha-illa-hu). . 88. The second way this 'formula' contravenes the Qur'an can be seen by the fact that Allah states as many as five times that we must not make any distinction between any of His prophets. A fact about which all but the most unusually informed Muslim is totally ignorant. 285.129. 152. 4:150. Yet this seems to defy the central concept of "Tawhid" or the "Oneness of Allah" as stressed in the Qur'an.14.65.87. saying: 'We believe in some and reject others. that all the practical teachings of the Qur'an are totally ignored. and wish to separate Allah from His messengers. 39:6. Nowhere in the Qur'an are these two concepts linked together. 3:84. 16:2. 13:30.255. they have become rituals in the extreme. and for disbelievers We have prepared a shameful doom. But those who believe in Allah and His messengers and make no distinction between them. 23:116. Other verses confirm this declaration (e.1 Declaration of Faith/Belief The Muslim declaration of faith is: "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah". and unto Him we have surrendered. and wish to choose a way in between'. Before analysing the five principles. and Jacob. We make no distinction between any of them.

Abraham (see section 7. This. In fact the only way that we can be true to our belief in Allah's Majesty and Oneness is by making sure of our understanding of His Words in the Qur'an. Similarly. and mercy. we believe. There is also the word ibadat (pl. We should note that the word ibadat is derived from the root word 'abada' which means to serve... The word salat can be regarded as one of the duties contained by the word ibadat. is not a problem for us since the messages given to the other prophets are all contained in what the Qur'an teaches. and thus. Such are the rightly guided. Muhammad underwent severe tests as the following verse suggests. Such are they on whom are blessings from their Sustainer. which has remained intact in its original form. 11. nor knoweth those (of you) who are steadfast? (2:155-157) And surely We will try you with something of fear and hunger. to worship. so that we can follow these as our guidance in everyday life.2 Salat (Prayer) Salat is translated mostly as 'prayer' by Yusuf Ali and as 'worship' by Pickthal. the Book. however. it has a much wider significance than salat. Who say. and loss of wealth and lives and crops. but give glad tidings to the steadfast. the word ibadat means obedience to the laws of Allah as contained in the Qur'an. In the Qur'anic context.) which means acts of devotion or religious observances. The following verses illustrate this: (29:2) Do men imagine that they will be left (at ease) because they say. they were shaken as with earthquake. The prophets themselves were subjected to very rigorous tests before they were confirmed in their prophethood. a term which itself includes all the duties. when a misfortune striketh them: Lo! we are Allah's and lo! unto Him we are returning. . to devote to the service of Allah etc.Note: Except for the Qur'an. The Qur'an states very clearly that nothing was said to the Prophet (Muhammad) that was not said to other messengers before him.5) was subjected to tests before he was made the leader of mankind. It is also not enough simply to make a verbal declaration of belief. (41:43) Nothing is said unto thee (Muhammad) save that which was said unto messengers before thee[. to the best of our ability.]. the revelations given to all other prophets do not exist in their original forms due to loss and human interference. till the messenger (of Allah) and those who believed with him said: When cometh Allah's help? Now surely Allah's help is nigh. (2:214) Or think ye that ye will enter Paradise while yet there hath not come unto you the like of (that which came to) those who passed away before you? Affliction and adversity befell them. We will invariably be tested as to whether we are steadfast in our belief or not. and will not be tested with affliction? (3:142) Or deemed ye that ye would enter Paradise while yet Allah knoweth not those of you who really strive. This has often been used synonymously with the word 'salat'.

hasten earnestly to the remembrance of Allah. 108) [. The word salat occurs 67 times in the Qur'an and in the context of the verses which contains the word salat. Lo! The doom thereof is anguish. (Salat-ul-Isha)[. and who say: Our Sustainer! Avert from us the doom of hell.. And magnify Him with all magnificence. and leave business.. The Qur'an however has used the plural sense for salat. and if ye are unclean purify yourselves[.. nor hath He any protecting friend through dependence.] fall down prostrate on their faces. and who hath no partner in Sovereignty.] (17:78) Establish worship at the going down of the sun (sunset) until the dark of night. 111) [. 65) And who spend the night before their Sustainer. (24:58) O ye who believe! Let your slaves. (4:43) O ye who believe! approach not prayers with a mind befogged. and after the prayer at night. and those of you who have not come to puberty... nor when ye are polluted. except when journeying upon the road.] (17:107. We need to examine further what the Qur'an has to say regarding the practice of salat in the sense of prayer and worship. (5:6) O ye who believe. There are as many as 94 verses in the Qur'an in which a derived form of the root abada is used. and your hands up to elbows. (17: 110. Who hath not taken unto Himself a son. indicating that this function.. Lo! (the recital of) the Qur'an at dawn is ever witnessed..] (11:114) Establish worship at the two ends of the day and some watches of the night[. ask leave of you at three times: Before the prayer of dawn (Salat-ul-Fajr). until ye can understand all that ye say. wash your faces.In the Qur'an the very first occurrence of a derived word from the root abada is found in the fifth verse of the first sura Al-Fatiha. the nearest English word that can be used for salat is either prayer or worship. adoring.]and bow down your heads with those who bow in worship. prostrate and standing.]turn thy face towards the inviolable place of worship... till ye have bathed[. and (the recital of) the Qur'an at dawn. and when ye lay aside your raiment for the heat of the afternoon. And say: Praise be to Allah.] (62:9) O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the day of the Assembly). in nabudu.. but seek a middle course between. when ye rise up for prayer. .. nor speak it in a low tone.. and wash your feet up to ankles. is meant to be carried out collectively. (2:149) [. and lightly rub your heads. and saying: Glory to our Sustainer! Verily the promise of our Sustainer must be fulfilled.]Neither speak thy prayer aloud... We can then look at the position of the Hadiths on this issue in the light of what the Qur'an has to say.. A few of the relevant Qur'anic verses are quoted below: (2:43) [. in its entirety.. (25:64.

]' implies the Magrib and Isha prayers and not the Zuhr. Asad translates it 'as the time when the sun has passed the zenith'. are the Fajr and the Magrib prayers.e. followed by the prayer. Yusuf Ali and M.It may be noted that verse 24:58 mentions Salat-ul-Fajr and Salat-ul-Isha by name.e. The exception for this is Friday.g. . prayer is not to be said silently (this obviously implies salat as used in the Qur'an. that He knows what is in our heart... direction. For the day it says: "Lo! Thou hast by the day a chain of business" (73:7). In contravention of this clear directive. evening and at night i. As far as the ritual part of the prayer is concerned the Qur'an mentions the standing. The confusion arises in the translation of the phrase duluk-as-shams in the verse. 5:7. in a congregational prayer. immediately after the sun begins to decline in the afternoon. viz. There is difference of opinion as to the meaning of particular words and phrases. three times. which is usually accompanied by a reading of the holy Qur'an. This again indicates the Magrib and Isha prayers. which has no relevance to present-day society. Allah says in many verses (e. not the traditional sermon to which we have sadly become accustomed. to go down (sun). and the glorification of Allah in the state of prostration. The Arabic-English Dictionary by Hans Wehr states duluk as: to set. that salat is to be performed at the two ends of the day which. mentioned 'as the day of the Assembly'. the verse 17:78 has been interpreted to mean that it confirms the practice of five daily prayers. and Isha after the glow of sunset has disappeared and the full darkness of night has set in. This is further confirmed in verse 4:43 which states that we must understand what we say in our prayer. Muslims perform Zuhr and Asr prayers silently. Dawood as 'sunset'. then the verse 17: 78 'Establish worship (salat) at the going down of the sun (or sunset) until the dark of night[. and the early morning prayer. Yusuf Ali translates this as 'sun's decline'. It is also interesting to note that in verse 24:58 when one lays aside one's clothes for the heat of the afternoon. prostration. M. i. there is no mention of the Zuhr prayer. Asad obviously want to interpret this phrase in a way that confirms what is stated in the Hadiths (i. the daily five times prayer). Also verse 17:78 states that salat is to be performed at the going down of the sun (or sunset) until the dark of night. Futher. in the afternoon. However Yusuf Ali carefully avoids naming the word or phrase in which there are differences of opinion. but none as to the general effect of the passage. bowing. Magrib immediately after sunset. However. Asr. particularly by Yusuf Ali and M. If the real meaning is accepted from the Arabic. M. important issues and topics should become part of the sermon. Pickthall translates the phrase as 'going down of the sun' and N. On this occasion. we find that the Qur'an clearly indicates establishing salat in the morning. or salat in the plural sense).e. when one must lay aside all business and rush to the mosque. and this implies that the method or the ritual part of the prayer is not of primary importance to Him. It also defines the whole phrase duluk-as-shams as 'sunset'. logically speaking. Asr. as it would then have been difficult for him to interpret the verse without coming into conflict with the tradition of five daily prayers. Fajr.J. Yusuf Ali in note 2275 states: The commentators understand here the command for the five daily canonical prayers. The four afternoon prayers are: Zuhr. Concluding from the verses quoted above. according to verse 17:110. In some translations of the Qur'an. the four from the declination of the sun from the zenith to the fullest darkness of the night. Asad. Verse 11:114 on the other hand states. 11:5).

1. (which did not exist at the time). as the Final Revelation is complete and has remained intact. in which the Prophet Moses acted as an adviser to the Prophet. According to him. However. The question then arises as to how these methods or rituals originated. the times and the number of prayers. Yusuf Ali also misinterprets verse 20:130 in his note 2655. According to him. 500 and Vol.e. as a direct revelation from Allah). and 50:39 in his note 4978. it is maintained that Gabriel (Jibreel)A1 demonstrated to the Prophet the method of praying at stated times by leading each of the prayers himself (Bukhari Vol. No. 345. Gabriel (Jibreel)A1 did not demonstrate to the Prophet the method of the prayers.ii). whereas it mentions historical incidents of much lesser importance. Bukhari gives us an example of the kind of narration we are expected to swallow regarding this issue in Vol. the matter was so important that the Prophet was taken by Gabriel (Jibreel) to see Allah to settle this issue. In other words. According to the Hadiths the method and the times of prayer were revealed to the Prophet in the same way as the Qur'an was revealed (that is. 9 No. What is most surprising is that the Qur'an does not mention such an important journey whatsoever. we must remember that any statement by the Hadiths on this issue must not contradict the Qur'an. 608. that We might show him some of Our Signs! There seem to be four different interpretations on this verse: (i) The majority of commentators take this night to mean that the Prophet was transported by Gabriel (Jibreel)A1 from the nearest mosque (Masjid-Al-Haram) in Mecca to the farthest mosque (Masjid-Al-Aqsa) in Jerusalem. All we can do is to try to keep to the words as used in the Qur'an within the bounds of the Arabic language – rather than stretching the sense to meet our own expectations. word for word. However. it is claimed. 444). The one Qur'anic verse which. and that Allah has taken it upon Himself to protect it. No. . so presumably they mean the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem or whatever existed there at that time. the method. 1. why was it not. No. 4. This immediately raises the question: if the method or the ritual part of the prayer was a revelation. it would be useful to discuss the question of the five daily prayers. refers to this journey is in Sura 17:1 given below: (17:1) Glorified be He Who carried His servant by night from the nearest mosque (The Kaba) to the farthest mosque. after a lot of bargaining. 4 No.2.i The Hadiths on prayer (salat) and on the origin of prayer Hadith literature is often concerned with the ritual part of our prayers i. 11. instead of its correct meaning as 'praise'. Vol. included in the Qur'an? Do we then accept that the Qur'an is incomplete? On the other hand.Magrib and Isha prayers as has been suggested.2. Before answering this question (section 11. 429 and Vol. the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed. as stated in the Hadiths. if we accept the view that the Qur'an. where the word Hamd has been interpreted to mean salat. Allah initially ordained fifty prayers a day. Allah relented and reduced the burden to five times a day. Moreover. then. then the above Hadiths must be false.

The only similarity between Bukhari and Muslim is in the set of postures from standing to bending and then the prostration and pronouncements in these positions. In fact.1 No. the latter is not . 4 rakats for Asr. One has to go through a lot of his quoted hadiths to form some sensible idea. 566) Allah's messenger never missed 2 rakats before Fajr prayer and 2 rakats after Asr prayer. The last interpretation seems the most logical since Medina was more conducive to his mission. it was two rakatsA4 in every prayer. It is only after searching through a large number of hadiths that we can find what perhaps we are meant to say while performing the set of postures from standing to bending and then in prostration but only.2 Bukhari does not give the methods of prayer in a coherent form. after a wide search. Some indication of this can be found in in the following verses: (93:4. the darud we recite after at-tahiyatu is not. (iv) That it refers to the flight of the Prophet (Hijra) with Abu Bakr from Mecca (where the nearest mosque – the Kaba – was) to Medina. therefore. For example in Hadith (Vol. 3 rakats for Magrib and 4 rakats for Isha. but the rakats of the prayers for non-travellers were increased. (iii) The whole journey was spiritual.(ii) The Hadith literature goes further by stating that the Prophet was taken to see Allah from Jerusalem by GabrielA1. In Hadith (Vol.e. both when at home or on a journey.ii Format or method of prayer in the Hadiths1. must have built the mosque before the arrival of the Prophet. the number of rakats of the compulsory prayers i.2. and the darud. According to Bukhari (Vol. and not without variations and contradictions. it should be emphasised. where a mosque (the farthest mosque i.5) And verily the latter portion will be better for thee than the former. This is an interesting point when you consider how easy it would be for any even moderately educated Muslim to give a precise list of the mechanics of all the daily prayers as prescribed by the 'scholars'. Another important point that comes out is that although at-tahiyatu in the sitting position is mentioned in Bukhari. Masjid-Al-Aqsa) was established before Muhammad's arrival there. And the same applies for the sunnat prayers that we perform today. The number of rakats of the compulsory prayer is not given in the format as performed at the present time. 518) the Prophet prayed 8 rakats for the Zuhr and Asr and 7 rakats for Magrib and Isha in Medina. The hadiths in Muslim do not give any clear indication of the methods of prayer either. Then the prayers offered on journey remained the same. 474). The Medinans. However.e. 1. No. and that at that meeting the five daily prayers were sealed. No. 4 rakats for the Zuhr. 346) when Allah enjoined prayer. 1. the Prophet leads the prayer with 2 rakats for Zuhr and 2 rakats for Asr. Muslim mentions at-tahiyatu in the sitting position. and was thus a neighbourhood blessed by Allah to be used for the later part of the Prophet's mission. In Hadith (Vol. No. 11. 2 rakats for the Fajr. In support of this there is historical evidence that a delegation of 73 people from Medina came to see the Prophet while he was at Mecca and that the Prophet sent Musab-bin- Umair with the delegation to conduct prayers and help the people in Medina to enter the brotherhood of Islam. and verily thy Sustainer will give unto thee so that thou will be content. 1. possibly in a dream. are not specified in Bukhari at all. So one can quite clearly see that Hadith does not give any organised or co- ordinated methods of prayer that can be followed universally.

mentioned by Bukhari at all. Concerning the sunnat prayers. etc. night prayers (Tahajjud) after Isha leading to the morning prayer (no. the Prophet appears to be wholly occupied with prayers – day and night – as if that were the only thing Allah required of us. plus his many other duties.). and three rakats respectively. and if the Prophet had not done so. a proper Islamic State would have. The prayers mentioned include his forenoon prayer of four to eight rakats (no. a standard question is always raised: as the Hadith gives the method of prayer how could we learn to pray if we ignored the Hadith? We have already shown that Bukhari does not give the format of the prayers that we perform today and that the format of all our prayers underwent substantial changes before it was finally . particularly for the compulsory prayers. hadith 1017 states that the Prophet performed two rakats for Zuhr and two for Asr prayer. including the compilation of the Qur'an. hadith 1579 states that a house will be built in Paradise for anyone who prays twelve rakats in a day and a night. 1604. not to speak of his personal and family life. and that he would sometimes recite loud enough to make the verses audible. the main confusion lies in the number of rakats. It is a disturbing fact that. Regarding the Witr prayer. Otherwise they become just forms without any substance or value. 1602. These are prayers which according to 'traditional Islam' are recommended over and above the compulsory prayers. state activities. and that most of these changes took place well after the death of the Prophet. which mention one. There is nothing wrong in this as long as we accept that the ritual part of the prayer did not require any revelation. It was purely a common sense way of developing the rules within the boundary conditions (see verses on the salat) specified in the Qur'an. The point that can be taken from all this is that the format of all our prayers underwent substantial changes before it was finally established in its present form. the guidance of the people. Hadith nos. and 1607. One begins to wonder how the Prophet managed to carry out all his other duties. The point we must remember is that rituals are only important when we place them in the context of many important duties which Allah has asked us to perform. For example. This appears to contradict hadith 911: (911) Abu Said al-Khudri reported: The Apostle of Allah used to recite in every rakat of the first two rakat of the noon (Zuhr) prayer about 30 verses and in the last two about fifteen verses. This is at variance with the present-day practice whereby Zuhr and Asr are performed silently.iii Conclusion It has already been stated that the method or the ritual part of the prayer cannot possibly a revelation as it is not in the Qur'an. and in every rakat of the Asr prayer of the first two rakats about fifteen verses and in the last two half of the first ones. we see a clear contradiction between hadiths nos. there seems to be no clear indication. additional prayers at home after leading the compulsory prayers in the mosque. The above hadith seems to contradict hadith 909 also which states that in the last two rakats the Prophet would recite sura Al-Fatiha only. Yet. 1584. For example.2. 927 and 928 state that the Prophet used to recite 60 to 100 verses in the morning prayer. according to the Hadith. five. 11. Muslim is very clear about the recitation of Al-Fatiha in every rakat. 1549).

During the Abbaside period. the contention that without the Hadith the practice of salat could not be carried out does not hold water..]' In other words we are telling Allah: 'Say: He is Allah. Besides.1 for discussion on Hadith).2. Prayer is a supplication of the believer to Allah. The utterances we use in the position of bowing and prostration conform to sura 17:107. 11. We have concentrated here on the general meaning of 'prayer' in order to bring out some of our confusion and preoccupation. However there are words in both at-tahiyatu . We need to choose what we say – that is.]' – a scenario which is ridiculous. We can only infer from this that he realised that this would have created confusion between the recordings of his own sayings and practices. Further changes. apart from the first sura (Al- Fatiha).5). even though it was not written down. We also observe that in the Qur'an the word salat is used in the plural number. So how did the people pray during this time? Obviously. i.e.iv Conflicts between the present-day prayer and the Qur'an – a personal view The verses recited must be relevant to the prayer. would have continued to survive simply by virtue of its regular practice – passed from generation to generation. it would be better to perform the bowing and prostration immediately after the recitation of the first sura.. a ritual once established. that is. and that most of these changes took place well after the death of the Prophet. and the recordings of the Qur'an. there is a gap of about 250 years before the Hadith literature appears (see section 10. Thus. must have taken place over time due to human interference. Failing this. There is no difference in this matter than in establishing any subsidiary laws within the bounds of the fundamental principles (see Section 13. some changes came in the methods and practices of prayer. regarding this everyday practice. The Qur'an uses the word salat in a much wider sense than that of simple prayer.e. the One![. The truth is that a practice which survived for 250 years without the influence of the Hadith. or his own sayings and practices. Importantly. It is a curious fact that. Maliki and Hanbali. and so verses which do not fulfil this purpose are inappropriate. the rapid expansion of Islam within a few decades. many of the verses we recite have no relevance to our prayer. the One![. the Glorification of Allah in those positions. the Prophet did not record either the method of prayer. caused by the four schools of law i. by means of the simple and yet effective contention that without his investigations and writings on salat the practice today would have been impossible – which is evident nonsense. Moreover. and practised regularly by the Muslim communities of that time was unlikely to have fallen apart. in reciting sura 112 in our prayers we say: 'Say: He is Allah.. the Prophet must have established a method. Some changes also came due to cultural differences in various parts of the world and one doesn't have to travel too far to see these variations. Hanafi. gave the added resilience to the practice of salat. we do not know what we are saying or whether it is meaningful for the purpose. 108. How do we explain these? And where is the common consensus regarding our methods of prayer? Note: In this study we have restricted salat to its most commonly understood sense of 'the ritual prayer'. However.established in its overall present form. At present. Bukhari has successfully avoided people's outrage on the many denigrating hadiths he quoted regarding the Prophet. particularly in the number of rakats to be performed during each prayer time. by taking into account the principles in the Qur'an and by consulting his companions. Shafi.. choose verses and doas of which there are many – which convey the sense of our supplication to Him. For example.

Peace be on you O Prophet! and the Mercy of Allah and His blessings. all sanctity are due to Allah. recited in the sitting position.]O our Sustainer! condemn us not if we forget. and show us our ways of Prayer. the Merciful. ( A general prayer verse) (2:127. art the Relenting. Lo! Thou. both them and me: wouldst Thou destroy us . The appropriate phrase would be 'Peace be on all the Prophets' as this would conform with the Qur'an (37:181). (72:20) Say (unto them. The following verses give further relevant points on prayer. O our Sustainer! Lay not on us such a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear! Pardon us. that the mosque be open for community and social functions beneficial to the society. and ascribe unto Him no partner.. only Thou. O Muhammad): I pray unto Allah only..' see section 11. although this ritual performed in congregation is important as it helps to bring people together. I have selected a few.19) And the places of worship are only for Allah.and the darud. the words in at-tahiyatu translate as: All reverence. all worship. they crowded on him. (72:18. art the Hearer.2. O Prophet' addresses the Prophet in the second person vocative . The inclusion of 'peace be on you. For explanation on the final part of 'I bear witness. when they were seized with violent quaking. and doubly so since the Qur'an forbids us to make any distinction between the Prophets. It is important.a grammatical construction which assumes the person addressed is still alive. Our Sustainer! and make us submissive unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee.. This is completely wrong.1.v). (Abraham prayed): Our Sustainer! Accept from us (this duty). He prayed: O my Sustainer if it had been Thy Will Thou couldst have destroyed. so grant us succour against those who reject Thee. For example. only Thou. So invoke not anyone along with Allah: And when the slave of Allah (the Prophet) stood up in prayer to Him. including some from the verses of prayer which the Prophets performed during their lifetimes. But the function of the mosque must be more than just a place for performing the congregational prayer. Peace be on us and the righteous sevants of Allah. instead of being kept empty except at prayer times (see section 11. absolve us and have mercy on us! Thou art our Protector. and relent towards us. (2:286) [. which go against Qur'anic guidance. We need to understand that the form of prayer we use is a ritual. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. the Knower. or fall into error. almost stifling. (7:155) And Moses chose seventy of his people for Our place of meeting. long before. There are many Qur'anic verses relevant to prayer. Lo! Thou. The Imam or the person who leads the prayer should be a scholar well versed in the Qur'an so he can use it meaningfully and be able to arrange lectures or seminars on the Qur'an. too. 128) And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House..

and if Thou forgive them (lo! they are Thy slaves) Lo! Thou. . the Muslims have established over 700 mosques. Imams who have been brought up in this country.112. only Thou. Other instances of verses of in the Quran which we can use in our supplication to Allah are: 2:127.84. 26:83.2. instead of glorifying Him and praying for our guidance.all of which involves good deeds. The only sermon that one gets from the Imam is before the Friday prayer and in that the topics are mostly based on the Hadiths and are hardly understood by the younger generation. let them hear My call and put their trust in Me. 3:8. we must remember that Allah is always near (2:186). provided we are following 'the straight path'.97. Finally.128. The result is that these mosques are totally underused. unless we are able to put well-educated Imams in the mosques. we tell Him what is in the Qur'an by reciting verses which have no relevance to our prayers. Enormous sums have been spent in their construction.201. Hence. 14:40. and Thou leadest whom thou wilt into the right path.41. We can reach Him.192. Moreover.61. (2:186) When My servants ask you concerning Me.29. unless our views are in conformity with those of the governors and the Imam. for the deeds of the foolish ones amongst us? This is no more than Thy trial: by it Thou causest whom Thou wilt to stray. 21:83. 23:28. for Thou art the Best of those who forgive. I hear the prayer of the suppliant whenever he calls out to Me.84. continual in- fighting for the control of the mosque is so common that people are moving away in disgust. but the Muslims can hardly use them except for prayers. (Prayer of Muhammad).2.e. If.126. but only by hearing His call and His guidance . People who are interested in organising lectures or education for the benefit of the community are not able to use these mosques.93. 4:75. tell them that I am always near. art the Mighty.38.114. 5:83.89. 37:100. He will listen to us and help us if we pray to Him. 25:74.28.194. they have to use a church hall or some other rented hall and thereby incur unnecessary expenses. 98) O our Sustainer! I seek Thy protection against the incitements of the rebellious ones and I seek Thy protection. 7:23.16.53. the Wise.94.27. 12:101. Therefore.87.they will either remain empty or become bingo halls. who can communicate with the younger generation. Thou art our Protector: so forgive us and give us Thy mercy. (5:118) If Thou punish them. that they may be rightly guided. lo! they are Thy slaves.v The role of the mosque: At present we have magnified the importance of the five daily prayers out of all proportion to our other duties specified in the Qur'an. Let me explain this by means of an example: in the U. 11:45. 11. 98. It is impossible to use these mosques for any sensible discussion on the Qur'an or for issues which face Muslims in this country. almost exclusively for the purpose of prayers. then I cannot see how He can benefit us.85. 27:19.26. 24:65. the future looks extremely bleak for Muslims in this country.K. 20:25.27.193. (Prayer of Jesus) (23:97.29. who are able to organise seminars on important issues and are able to organise some sensible teaching of the Qur'an for the younger generation. lest they should approach me. Instead.118.191. So little is invested in the education of the younger generation that with the demise of the older generation the mosques will suffer the same fate as the churches in this country i.286.

They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Then strictly observe fast till nightfall and touch them not. These are the limits imposed by Allah. . if one is ill or travelling. This is supported by verse 2:185 above. i. and the Criterion (of right and wrong). let him fast the month. Allah desireth for you ease. it is better for him. and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need -. (2:185) The month of Ramadan in which was revealed The Qur'an. and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you. so approach them not. and that peradventure ye may be thankful. and clear proofs of the guidance.4. and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey. And whosoever of you is present. The point is clarified by looking at additional prayers (taraveeh) that are performed by Muslims during the month of Ramadan. (2: 187) It is made lawful for you to go unto your wives on the night of the fast. the Middle-Eastern countries. the duration of the fasting should be based on logic and reason. He desireth not hardship for you.11.4. and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of dawn. Surely Allah would not want anyone in such places to bear more hardship than others living in the Middle East.e. even as it was prescribed for those before you. but retreat to the mosque [see section 11.i Traditionally. The following verses clarify this principle further. (2:183) O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you. where the average duration of the day is about 12 hours. 11. and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelations to mankind that they may ward off evil. but as far as (iii) is concerned. But fasting is better for you if you only knew.3.i]. prevalent understanding is wrong. as it goes against the very concept of what the Qur'an is trying to teach us.but if one volunteers (more righteous works). that ye may ward off (evil). a guidance for mankind. (iii) The devotion of the month in prayer and meditation in the mosque. (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah is aware that ye are deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. The traditional thinking of (i) and (ii) above are valid. Note: In places where the duration of the day is very long compared to the middle nations.iii) 11. the fast is understood to serve the following purposes: (i) Submission to the Will of Allah according to the Qur'anic injunction. (2:184) (Fast) a certain number of days (designated for fasting). (ii) Promotion of a sense of compassion for those currently suffering economic hardship. an equal number of other days may be substituted.3 Zakat (see section 12.4 Fasting In the month of Ramadan Muslims are to fast from dawn to sunset (see note at the end of this section).

Note the instruction and the warning in the following verse: (3:187) And (remember) when Allah laid a charge on those who had received the Scripture: Ye are to expound it to mankind and not to hide it.2). In fact. and thereby propagate the deen to mankind. which is therefore a holy month. all the mosques should publish their program in advance so that people can attend lectures and seminars according to what suits them best. The Arabic root akfa means 'to retire'. descend on the earth with all the decrees (97:1-5). The person or persons who lead the prayers are supposed to complete the recitation of the whole Qur'an at least once during this month. Effectively. 'to withdraw'. there is no point simply following a ritual which has no meaning.ii Taraveeh prayers during Ramadan (2:187) [. The Hadith literature states that the taraveeh prayer was not introduced during the time of the Prophet but later during the Caliphate of Omar. What He wants is for the believers to understand the Qur'an so that they can be guided by its teachings. but the main point is that we must try and understand its message. the Qur'an is there to recite from.] and recite the Qur'an in slow. prayers to thank and praise Allah and to ask for His mercy and forgiveness. there would still be times allocated for prayers. by permission of their Sustainer. The recitation is carried out at very fast speed in spite of the Qur'anic instruction: "[. Those who attend the prayers stand in devotion listening to this very fast recitation without understanding a word of it.. This is because this particular night is taken as the 'Night of Power' which is 'better than a thousand months'.11. However. But they flung it behind .] then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not. Obviously. and what better time than the month of Ramadan to renew our understanding of the Qur'an! What needs to be done is for people who look after the mosques to organise lectures and seminars by inviting scholars who are well-versed in the Qur'an. One would not be required to attend every day or night but only at those times that would help him or her enhance their knowledge of the Qur'an.. 'to devote' or 'to be busy'. most Muslims follow blindly what is in the Hadith instead of getting their guidance from the Qur'an. and as is usual. to enhance their knowledge of the Qur'an. They attend because they are under the impression that Allah will shower them with His blessing for this devotion. by following this message and by discussion and implementation of the structure of the deen in everyday life. as the Qur'an was first revealed on this night. During the month of Ramadan Allah expects us to spend some time in the mosque. Of course.. In fact.4. we could propagate a social order to the world which would be both exemplary and beneficial. But Allah already knows what is in the Qur'an. and also section 11. Let us now see if there is any logic in this method of reciting the whole Qur'an without understanding what is being recited (see verse 73:4 above. Muslims have interpreted this time in the mosque to be spent in additional prayers varying from eight to twenty rakats every night during the whole of Ramadan. However the date 27th Ramadan is based on tradition as the exact date or night is not specified in the Qur'an. On this night the angels. People also attend the mosque in vast numbers on the 27th day of Ramadan hoping to secure additional blessings. what the Muslims are doing is telling Allah what is in the Qur'an. Usually a hafez (one who has memorised the whole Qur'an) leads the prayer. He does not require this reminder. but retreat (akfa) to the mosques. measured rhythmic tones" (73:4). The question is: what does Allah mean by this? We know that the Qur'an was first revealed during the month of Ramadan..

And overeating is one cause of this accumulation. the way of life beneficial to mankind. During fasting there is an increase in the amount of energy available for the eliminative process. The sooner these unpleasant symptoms appear.e. Usually. muscular aches. means to argue against each other. canned or refined and treated with all manner of toxic pesticides. a person will once again experience a further improvement in health and vigour. Fasting should always be terminated with extreme care.ii. to debate or to reason. and this will only be possible when deen.from flu-like symptoms to skin eruptions or other eliminative processes. bad breath. A derived word. one may find eliminations are much reduced. headaches. Hajja. This period lasts until about the tenth day when a healing crisis may occur. Ramadan thus provides an ideal opportunity for initiating this necessary change through self- discipline and purification. These symptoms are due to the increase of toxins in the blood stream and their passing out via the channels of elimination. Verily. wholesome. a little fruit is ideal. evil is that which they have gained thereby. the more toxic the system. The fact that Hajj is addressed to mankind implies among other things. that the ultimate aim of the Almighty is to unite human now frozen. During the first three days of fasting.4. both of which require energy. The word Hajj appears in the Qur'an ten times and every time the command is directed to all mankind and not to Muslims alone. greater clarity of mind and abundant energy. interspersed with periods of a lack of energy. 11. During this process the body is able to eliminate a large number of deep-seated toxins and waste matter. the elimination activity is manifested by the appearance of a coated tongue. After this.iii Physical benefits of fasting3 Over the past 100-150 years. This greater purpose is outlined at the end in section 11. Fasting may well be the key to purifying our bodies.5. The word Hajja indicates a greater and a more comprehensive purpose for Hajj than what is implied by the procedural part. fatigue and difficulty in concentration as more toxins are eliminated. diarrhoea/constipation and general debility.5 Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) The Arabic word Hajj is also its own root i. their backs and bought thereby a little gain. the diet of mankind has changed dramatically. The accumulation of waste matter or toxins in our body is a major cause of disease. preservatives. Our food -. 11. since the body will be building tissues from this material. The body is able to redirect this increased energy towards the elimination of the obstructions to the vital life force i. It means to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca.e. is established. colourings and other chemicals. due to the absence of large amounts of food requiring digestion and assimilation. This condition lasts in degrees of varying intensity. Main meals should be moderate in quantity and consist of best quality natural food (no junk). unrefined and unsprayed -. This is usually accompanied by a feeling of well-being. This manifests itself in various ways -. the toxins. .once fresh. By the fourth day. is not derived from any other word.

Muslims have come to regard the Hajj as a system. the place where Abraham stood up to pray. a guidance to the peoples. (let him know that) lo! Allah is Independent of (all) creatures. Aware. and shave not your heads until the gifts have reached their destination. There is a huge volume of Hadith literature on Hajj (which may or may not be true) and it is by following this that we have ceased striving to extract the true point from Hajj. Wherein are plain memorials (of Allah's guidance). They will come unto thee on foot and on every lean camel. Finally. (2:158) Lo! (the mountains) As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the indications of Allah. The Qur'an gives brief indications but no details of what the rituals should consist of. One must also remember that the ritual part has been going on for the last 1400 years. And whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or any other act of worship. and so whatever form of practice that existed during that period must have been continued. (2:125) And when We made the House (at Mecca) a resort for mankind and a sanctuary. a blessed place. and whosoever entereth it is safe. lo! Allah is Responsive. and as a result of following these slavishly we have lost the main meaning of Hajj. This is perhaps one of the reasons why people who can afford to perform the Hajj frequently. Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor unfortunate. with references to the verses listed. (3: 96. It is therefore no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House (of God) or visiteth it. They are followed by a brief outline of the Hajj procedure. (22:27-29) And proclaim unto mankind the Pilgrimage. the Hadith gives us exacting details.At present. This forces us to acknowledge the issue about whether one performs the Hajj in the simple way given in the Qur'an or in a more complicated way as given by the Hadith literature. And if you are prevented. As for him who disbelieveth. The result of all this is the loss of significance of Hajj. And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ismael (saying): Purify my House for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship). In contrast. the Hajj. (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And if you are in safety. consists basically of prayer and associated rituals.5). Then let them make an end to their unkemptness (self- denial) and let them fulfil the vows which they (may) have made. all of which we perform meticulously. then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease. 97) Lo! The first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Becca (Makka). and a way to wipe out all past sins. and that there was no Hadith literature to guide people during the first few hundred years of this period. As far as the ritual part is concerned the details are not drawn from revelation but come under the domain of subsidiary laws (see section 13. as performed. And Pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto Allah for mankind for him who is able to undertake it. And he who doeth good of his own accord. and let them go (once again) around the ancient House. they will come from every deep ravine. and mention the name of Allah on appointed days over the beast of cattle that He hath bestowed on them. then whosoever contenteth himself with the visit for . The verses which give the fundamentals of Hajj are listed below. that they may witness things that are of benefit to them. (2:196) Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Makka) for Allah. the real implication of Hajj is discussed. to go around them. to be followed meticulously.

Their flesh and their blood reach not Allah. it is no sin for him. therefore surrender unto Him. 199) It is no sin for you that ye seek the bounty of your Lord. (2:200-202) And when you have completed your devotions. and your God is one God. that haply you may give thanks. So make provision for yourselves (Hereafter). although before ye were of those astray. Then whoso hasten (his departure) by two days. that is for him who wards off (evil). Therein you have much good. Observe your duty to Allah. And of them (also) is he who saith: "Our Lord! Give unto us in the world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good.the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts as can be had with ease. 37) And the camels! We have appointed them among the ceremonies of Allah. then remember Allah as you remember your fathers or with a more lively remembrance. O men of understanding. unto Whom you will be gathered. and whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein (let him remember that) there is (to be) no lewdness nor abuse nor angry conversation on the pilgrimage. That is for him whose folk are not present at the Inviolable Place of Worship. And whosoever cannot find (such gifts). Lo! Allah is Forgiving. game being unlawful when ye are on the pilgrimage. Merciful. So mention the name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines. (2:197) The pilgrimage is (in) the well-known months. then a fast of three days while on the pilgrimage. but the devotion from you reaches . ten in all. Be mindful of your duty to Allah. Therefore keep your duty unto Me. and whoso delay. Thus have We made them subject unto you. remember Allah by the sacred monument. Be careful of your duty to Allah. But. and ask forgiveness of Allah. (2:203) Remember Allah through the appointed days. it is no sin for him. Then when their flanks fall (dead). Remember Him as He hath guided you. for the best provision is to ward off evil. and of seven when ye have returned. But of mankind is he who saith: "Our Lord! Give unto us in the world. and know that unto Him you will be gathered. that is. (22:34) And for every nation We have appointed a ritual. The beast of cattle is made lawful unto you (for food) except that which is announced unto you (herein). when ye press on in the multitude from 'Arafat. And whatsoever good you do Allah knoweth it." and he hath no portion in the Hereafter. a provision for you and for seafarers. and guard us from the doom of Fire". (2:198. and know that Allah is severe in punishment. And give good tidings (O Muhammad) to the good. (5:1) O ye who believe! Fulfil your undertakings. that they may mention the name of Allah over the beast of the cattle that He has given them for food. (5:96) To hunt and to eat the fish of the sea is made lawful for you. Allah is swift in reckoning. (22:36. but to hunt on land is forbidden you so long as ye are on the pilgrimage. For them there is in store a goodly portion out of that which they have earned. Lo! Allah ordaineth that which pleaseth Him. eat thereof and feed the beggar and the suppliant. Then hasten onward from the place whence the multitude hasteneth onward.

one can only walk between the hills. I have responded to You). 11. it seems that the Muslims are more interested in what the Hadiths have to say than the guidance given in the Qur'an. Throughout Hajj.5. . the sacrifice of animals should only be for food (22: 28. The Hajj as practiced now begins with a bath or shower.5). The meaning of this word. avoid shaving and cutting of hair and the use of bad language (2:197).i Hajj procedure Hajj and Umrah are ordained for those who can afford it (3:97). This completes the Umrah portion of the Pilgrimage.5. Allah says that if at any time you are prevented from going there you should send whatever you can as a gift (hadiya) to be used by those who have assembled there. which is a very big field. After sunset. the pilgrim goes to Mina to spend two or three days (2:203). and I proclaim that there is no other God beside You. the Pilgrim needs to abstain from sexual intercourse. Moreover the Qur'an does not require the sacrifice of animals throughout the world in that specific period. that Isaac was redeemed through the sacrifice of a lamb. The slaughter of millions of animals throughout the world at this time to commemorate an incident which did not really take place. According to the Qur'an. And give good tidings (O Muhammad) to the good. (man or woman) walks round the Kaba seven times. as stated before.5. 34 and 36) since a tremendous number of people have to be fed during this period. Also at Mina the customary practice of sacrificing an animal is supposed to commemorate the incident when Abraham almost sacrificed Ishmael. and of working for the cause of Allah (see section 7. Again. It simply allows for the slaughter of animals in the place of Hajj for the purpose of food. has no basis in the Qur'anic revelation. meditation and glorification of Allah (2:198) from dawn to sunset. Note: The reason for the sacrifice of an animal is found in the Hadith literature which assumes. the pilgrim goes to Muzdalifah where the night prayer is observed. Allah says categorically that the blood and the meat of animals slaughtered do not reach Him. like the Biblical story. The next step. 22:29).ii The real significance of Hajj The real significance of Hajj becomes more obvious as we consider the meaning of the word Hajja which is derived from the root word Hajj. The pilgrim then goes to Arafat. From Muzdalifah. In verse 2:196. Him. including the feeding of the poor. The Qur'an nowhere mentions Abraham sacrificing a lamb. Ishmael was redeemed by Allah imposing on Abraham and him a far greater duty: that of building and purifying the House of Allah for mankind. Instead of a blood sacrifice. Thus have We made them subject unto you that you may magnify Allah that He has guided you. followed by a state of sanctity called Ihraam where the man wears two white seamless sheets of cloth and the woman a modest dress. "Labbayka Laa Shareeka Laka Labbayk" (I have responded to You. as quoted in verse 22:37. On arrival at the Mosque (Kaba) the pilgrim. This completes the traditional Hajj. For Qur'anic references on this see section 7. while glorifying and praising Allah (2:125. Umrah can be described as a shortened version of Hajj and can be observed any time. The pilgrim then returns to Mecca and observes a farewell rotation of the Kaba seven times. However. The usual utterance is: "Labbayka Allahumma Labayk" (O Allah I have responded to You). the present construction by the Saudis does not allow this. Hajj is observed during a few days of the month of Zul-Hijjah. is to go round the two small hills nearby called As-Safa and Al-Marwah seven times (2:158). Also. 21 pebbles are picked up for the symbolic stoning of Satan (Devil) at Mina. the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. 11. to spend a day of prayer.

then ye have your principal (without interest). Ramadan -. 12. Published by Kitab Bhaban. Sahih Muslim . Therefore.iii summarised from lecture notes. Translated by Dr. References: 1. Volume 1.7 (Pakistan). Sahih Al-Bukhari . to argue. and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury.4.A Time for Change: Lecture by David Stokes. 3. then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger.1 Introduction The Qur'an prohibits interest (riba) in the strongest terms. If this is the key to the meaning of the Muslim Pilgrimage. but that which ye invest as zakat. within a matter of years. And if ye repent. the question is: how can this be achieved? We know that the annual Pilgrimage draws Muslims together from the whole of the Islamic world. the deen will permeate the entire world community and thus fulfil the basic requirement of Hajj which is meant for the whole of mankind.Volumes 1 to 9. 7 Aibak Road (New Anarkali) Lahore . We have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a painful doom. discussion and examination of schemes and projects which are thought to be beneficial.Translated by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi. if ye are (in truth) believers. New Delhi. The following verses give some indication of the Qur'anic requirements: (2:278) O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah. This can be achieved by using the week before the Hajj or the week after the Hajj. hath increase manifold. 2. (3:130) O ye who believe! Devour not usury. seeking Allah's countenance. an ideal opportunity to strengthen the unity and understanding of mankind and to create fellowship in the world. doubling and quadrupling (the sum lent). It is. Muhammad Muhsin Khan. that ye may be successful. and ye shall not be wronged. or to consult. Section 11. therefore. India. with the ultimate object of implementing the structure of the deen in everyday life (see chapter 16: The Islamic State). The period of the Pilgrimage could. (2:279) And if ye do not. Wrong to debate. (4:61) And of their taking usury when they were forbidden it. become an effective instrument for the promotion of knowledge and co-operation between peoples. . (and if necessary over a longer period) for consultation. By practising what the Qur'an teaches. ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF THE QUR'AN1 12. (30:39) That which ye give in usury in order that it may increase on (other) people's property hath no increase with Allah. the pillar of an economic system based on the Qur'an must be fundamentally opposed – not only to the total rejection of interest in all forms – but also to whatever that bears any resemblance to it. and of their devouring people's wealth by false pretences. Observe your duty to Allah. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers and Booksellers.

and Modern Philosophy stresses the relativity of everything. the first few hundred years) when the Qur'an was the only source of guidance for the Muslims. but as yet no viable system has been developed. if only the Muslims had not deviated from the Qur'an.2. 12. this order is continuously being disturbed. As in most things. The section following (12. This principle can be applied to all spheres of human experience.2. everything was in its right place. Many Muslims have attempted to resolve this contradiction between what the Qur'an demands and the principles of a modern economy. and humanity returned onto the right. at no stage of their experience should human beings transgress the fundamental limits set up by the Creator. Section 12.iii gives the reasons for this. preceded by my own comments. In all these examples the visible imbalance can be equated with the injustice of some towards others. The underlying philosophical notion of Islam is balance. When Allah created the world.i) is taken from an article named. an economic system based on the Qur'an was well established. The basis of the ideal economic system is in the Qur'an. However.2 The present day's global economic control The following section (12. Clairmonte and J. most modern economies are based on interest to such an extent that it is difficult to imagine any economic activity where interest was not involved directly or indirectly. The conclusion one comes to after such a long and singular failure on the part of such countries is that any suggested economic system cannot be implemented and tested without the prior establishment of a true Islamic State (see chapter 16).ii) includes part of an article published in The Guardian of 9th Jan. unless and until this imbalance is redressed. Communism equates the value of man with his productive capacity.e. 12. straight and even path.Note: In verse 30:39. The so- called Islamic countries which shook off the yoke of colonialism have remained intellectually and economically controlled from outside. The over-rating of material advancement has stifled spiritual advancement. Through the subsequent interaction of numerous entities and forces in the world. Cavanagh. '87. The vacuum which resulted from the Muslims' neglect of the Qur'an and subsequent decline was filled by the West which. and without doubt this would have flourished even further with time. Today.3. as a consequence. To restore the balance inevitably . the Qur'an gives the fundamental principles and leaves the details to be filled in by human beings according to the need of the society.2. uncontrolled pollution has disturbed ecological equilibrium. and thereby lost their status as a major world power. greed has produced a world of contrasts through an unfair distribution of resources. by F. the world's leading societies' careless comfort has brought war to the doorsteps of countless nations. the phrase 'invest in zakat' has been used in place of the traditional translation 'give in charity'. Islam: Taking root in Europe. by Sahib Mustaqim Bleher. as we see today. During the early years of Islam (i. The balance will be lost.i Every ideology has its basic underlying philosophy: Capitalism emphasises the individual 'free will'. on the unprecedented debt crisis facing the Third World. has an economy largely based on interest.

the result was the creation of countries which got rid of a foreign political elite. Its media propaganda machine turns falsehood into truth by effectively filtering all available information to a permitted norm as well as twisting the perception of events through classic double-speak. and bankers now control all significant enterprises including governments. means fighting injustice. for they did not address the question of political and media control. plastic cards and electronic money transfers. and they could safely lend the remainder of people's money against interest. They soon started to realise that none of the depositors ever asked for all the money/or monies back. Muslim attempts at economic reforms were limited to minor issues. and still is. as the recipient of a promissory note would not normally exchange it back into coin. this business has taken on gigantic proportions. Its political institutions provide justification of the most perverse deeds of injustice by an elaborate process of "decision-making" which effectively rubber stamps any action the elite wishes to take. the goldsmiths became the first bankers and gradually. and the fight against oppression will remain unsuccessful. can never be a mere private religion practised in homes and monasteries. but remained intellectually and economically controlled from outside. defrauded more and more people out of their hard-earned property. the Muslim movements over the last few centuries have been fooled by Western divide-and-rule-policy in that they adopted a dialectically and analytically fragmented approach in their effort. . Present-day global economic control is a marvellous example of how the mind can be made to believe things that are not real. if not all. As. it is not Islam. or should be. unable to relate. religion and media-propaganda (represented by Haman). This is what has happened in the past. therefore. The Islamic revival of various Muslim movements around the world concentrated exclusively on the spiritual aspects of Islam. as long as they kept enough to meet day-to-day demands. historically. Its ever growing drugs and narcotic industry sedates people to a point where they become indifferent to the suffering of others. If it is not political. political and military sphere (represented by Pharaoh). by way of deception. the money-lending profession was forbidden to Christians. and the ideological sphere of education. It started with the early goldsmiths who took people's valuables for safe keeping in their vaults. rather than the holistic approach that Islam demands. Islam. but be happy with a title deed to coinage he thought was kept safely in the goldsmith's vaults. Its economic system clearly uses the instrument of interest for continuing re-distribution of wealth away from its producers to a small clique of monopolists who have mortgaged the life of almost every individual on earth. they could often get away with lending more than they had. The Qur'an's account of Pharonic society tells us that human society rests on three pillars: The social. The three are inter-related. With the wide-spread use of paper money. and turn all their potential energies for change inwardly against themselves. It seems that most. unmotivated. the need for the refinement of the individual's character. Jewish families were the first to establish themselves in this business and to date control it almost exclusively. forbidden to Muslims. Thus. Its rejection of divine law and emphasis of individualism renders the individual isolated and helpless against bureaucratic human regulation. cheques. and was consequently unable to free anybody from political and economic bondage. Modern materialistic society has such refined mechanisms of control in place that its injustice can be passed off as a just cause. if directed against one without the other two. When various bands of nationalism within the Muslim world shook off the yoke of colonialism. the economic sphere (represented by Qaroon/Corah). but withdrew small portions of it at a time. More than that.

No individual should suffer a loss of money through depreciation of inflated currency or bankruptcy.' These words need no updating over a hundred years later. In America this power is exercised by the Federal Reserve which issues the nation's money instead of the government. For good reason. that Zionism almost always gets its way with governments who find themselves in ever-increasing debt.. In 1865 Abraham Lincoln stated his monetary policy: 'Money is the creature of law.ii Unprecedented debt crisis facing the Third World We now turn our attention to some of the Western nations who pride themselves on their 'democracy' and 'freedom'. John F. got assassinated.] Government should stand behind its currency and credit and the bank deposits of the nation.] need not and should not borrow capital at interest as a means of financing governmental work and public should be the most important issue on the Muslim's agenda. and money-lenders stayed in power. this usurpation of wealth by crooked means is almost taking the shape of playing god - a sign of the Dajjal. Kennedy was about to take this right away from them. and the creation of the original issue of money should be maintained as the exclusive monopoly of national government. interest has been forbidden in Islam. Government possessing the power to create and issue currency and credit as money [. The political leaders can do very little to resist. huge debts are built up under pressure. but then he.Little surprise.2. which cost them nothing. Instead of offering a real alternative. Fertile. Only the interest income goes on to the lenders. to succeed. Very often these Third World leaders are pressurised to hand out contracts to the foreign countries by accepting huge bribes as well as by taking an undisclosed share of the profits. This has made it impossible for any genuine Third World leader. Yet.. Considering that this creation of money out of nothing.war. yet whose attitudes and behaviour towards other nations often lack both of these virtues in the extreme. social disorder -. pollution.2 12. Most of these rich nations behave like money sharks. which in most cases is achieved by robbing the Third World. starvation. . too. self-sufficient countries were plunged into debt and made dependent on outside aid. But Lincoln was assassinated. the false Messiah -. Considering that this evil money-power is at the root of some of the worst injustice troubling our planet -..Muslims should be amongst the first to fight it. Yet Muslims happily pray in mosques built with interest money. Money possesses no value to the State other than given to it by circulation[. They corrupt the people who rule the Third World countries by giving huge loans for imports which in most cases the country does not need but accepts under political coercion. Thus. since they correctly surmise that they would be liquidated and then replaced by people who would again be subservient to the rich nations. therefore. they simply change the labels and shamelessly call it fair partnership. This money-power has upset the balance more than any other means of control. when they get half the profits of an entrepreneur's hard labour after lending him some money. whereas the aid bill is footed by the people and their governments. the West's income from interest payments is a multiple of Third World Aid dispatched by the West. The reason for this is that the people who govern these countries can only stay in power by promising a constantly rising standard of living.. and the so-called Islamic banks happily contend themselves with trying to beat the others at the game. who wants to improve the well being of his countrymen.

If such leaders somehow survive, then they are branded as communist or undemocratic in the
press and every possible pressure is applied to get rid of them. I would be failing in my duty
not to mention this great exploitation and the tragic consequences that are bound to follow.
The money lending, and the huge interest that is collected, are crippling these countries. A
point has been reached where the cumulative interest payments outweigh the original loan and
the debt has become so big that it would be impossible to pay back the original debts, so that
the interest payments will go on forever. The loans are designed so that the money sharks can
go on making money out of the miseries of the Third World. The Church seems to have
nothing to say about this global problem. Below I quote from an article published in The
Guardian of 9th Jan '87 by F. Clairmonte and J. Cavanagh on the unprecedented debt crisis
facing the Third World. It is almost ten years since the article was published. The condition of
Third World countries since then has gone from bad to worse, and the only reason for this, is
the exploitation through the medium of interest payments, which the Qur'an forbids in no
uncertain terms.

The Third World is facing an unprecedented financial crisis, with its debts growing
exponentially whilst its export earnings are plummeting. Gigantic amounts of capital
are thus flowing from the poor to the rich countries. The upshot is that in 1981, for
the first time in post-war history, Third World countries have become net capital
exporters. In other words their debt service payments exceeded new borrowing and
rescheduling. Between 1981 and 1985 net capital export for Latin America moved
from US$0.2 to US$42.4 billion or an 85 fold increase; in Africa from US$5.3 billion
to US$21.5 billion, and Asia from US$1.7 billion to US$9.7 billion. These net capital
flows exclude profit repatriations by Third World based transitional companies and
capital flights, as well as Middle East exporters. If these additions were thrown into
the scale the aggregate outflows would not be far short of US$230-240 billion. This is
the sum four times larger than that of the Marshall Plan; and it must be emphasised,
the Marshall Plan aid was repaid with interest to the United States. In contrast, this
tribute from the poor to the rich countries will not be repaid. Aggravating this
terrifying configuration is the direction of the international bank lending which topped
US$216 billion in 1985. The industrial economies, as usual, absorbed almost the
totality: US$194 as compared with US$119 billion in 1984. The under-developed took
only US$3 billion (1984): a derisory sum amounting to around 2 per cent of their
global interest payments. Of vital importance is the role played by the commodity
price forecasts of the World Bank, which simply have no claim to scientific validity.
The World Bank's forecasts of commodity prices were generally higher than the actual
price movements of all the commodities since 1980. The fraudulent nature of these
World Bank forecasts -- designed to boost the over-supply of commodities and thus
lower prices -- is being recognised by a growing body of intelligent technocrats in the
Third World. The outcome, like a Greek tragedy, is ineluctable: Third World countries
are literally being driven to market fatter and fatter volumes of commodities at lower
and lower prices on the global market in return for higher priced goods and service
imports. In fact, neither can the principal nor the interest ever be repaid. Nor is it
desirable that the debt (interest and principal) should be repaid. Debt repudiation
stands out as the only ethically feasible and rational solution for the Third World.3

Similar exploitation is suffered by the ordinary people even within the rich countries. Rules,
similar to those used against the Third World are applied. The whole financial system is
geared in such a way that it disadvantages the people who needs money as against those who
already have the sources. Even the newspapers rarely publicise the enormous suffering that

common people undergo at the hands of money sharks. Sadly the Church, too, is entirely
silent on these issues.

No wonder Allah has forbidden usury and has clearly stated the need to use surplus wealth for
the benefit of humanity.

12.3 Some important economic concepts used in the Qur'an

12.3.i Charity

(Applicable until the time when Qur'anic Social Order is established).

12.3.ii Sadaqaat

Payments for fulfilment of certain obligation out of our income, such as out of a wage, a
dividend, a bill, etc. Sometimes sadaqaat is also used as a charity.

12.3.iii Zakat

Payments by way of investment, for the sake of economic development which essentially
aims at making economic gains for the benefit of the society.

12.3.iv Business dealing and trading.

12.3.i Charity

Once the Qur'anic social order is established the need for charity should disappear. However,
during the transitional period, there will always be the need for charity, but Allah likes the
affluent people to pay the charity voluntarily, and by way of expressing gratitude to their
Creator. The following verses explain the concept of charity in a God-fearing society:

(2:177) [...]And giveth his wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the
needy and the wayfarer and those who ask and to set slaves free.

(76:8) And feed with food the needy wretch, the orphan and the prisoner, for love of

(76:9) (Saying): We feed you, for the sake of Allah only. We wish for no reward nor
thanks from you.

A selfless act to help the needy breeds two obvious elements in the society: firstly, the needy
are helped in material terms which generates a feeling of cohesion in the society, and
secondly, the donor gains a spiritual benefit in that his desire for material effects gets blunted
which diverts him from obstructing the path of the society. Indeed, it causes a reversal in the
direction of people's greed when they come forward to give in charity as a matter of free will,
and as an expression of their gratitude to the Creator.

12.3.ii Sadaqaat

Please see the following verses to understand this concept.

(9:60) The sadaqaat are only for the poor and the needy, and those who collect them,
and those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and to free the captives and the debtors,
and for the cause of Allah, and (for) the wayfarer; a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is
Knower, Wise.

(9:103) Take alms of their wealth (sadaqaat), wherewith thou mayest purify them and
mayest make them grow, and pray for them. Lo! Thy prayer is an assuagement for
them. Allah is Hearer, Knower.

The scheme is simple to understand provided human beings believe that it is on account of the
resources made available by the Creator that the material gains are forthcoming in the first
place, and a share out of such gains belongs to Allah, and that this share is to be spent for the
general welfare of the society. As such, the payment as sadaqaat in verses 9:60 and 9:103 has
been termed as 'for the cause of Allah'. In simple terms sadaqaat means the tax paid by the
people and businesses of the state which must then be used for welfare spending. It must be
noted that, like many Arabic words having multiple meanings, sadaqaat can also have other
meanings including 'charity', and the meaning applicable in a particular case depends on the
context in which it is used.

(57:18) Lo! Those who give sadaqaat, both men and women, and lend unto Allah a
goodly loan, it will be doubled for them, and theirs will be a rich reward.

Verse 6:141 below explains when this Divine-share is supposed to be paid: on the day of
harvesting. In today's terms, it would mean the taxes that one must pay when one receives his

(6:141) He it is Who produceth gardens trellised and untrellised, and the date-palm,
and crops of divers flavour, and the olive and the pomegranate, like and unlike. Eat ye
of the fruit thereof when it fruiteth, and pay the due thereof upon the harvest day, and
be not prodigal. Lo! Allah loveth not the prodigals.

This Payment for Allah is a payment to the Islamic State for the common welfare. By the
same token payments to the Messenger in verses 58:12,13 means payments to the State for the
general welfare (as the Messenger was then the collector on behalf of the State).

(58: 12) O ye who believe! When ye hold conference with the Messenger, offer
sadaqaat before your conference. That is better and purer for you. But if ye cannot
find (the wherewithal) then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

(58:13) Fear ye to offer sadaqaat before your conference? Then when ye do it not and
Allah hath forgiven you, establish worship and invest in Zakat and obey Allah and His
messenger. And Allah is Aware of what ye do.

It is important to note that Allah enjoins on Muslim men to consider marriage payment to
their wives as a duty (4:24), and this payment has been named as sadaqaat (4:4). In this case
sadaqaat is not a charity but an obligation which must be paid.

(4:24) [...]And those of whom ye seek consent (by marrying them), give unto them
their portions as duty. And there is no sin for you in what ye do by mutual agreement
after the duty (hath been done). Lo! Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.

(4:4) And give unto the women (whom ye marry) free gift of their marriage portions
(sadaqaat); but if they of their own accord remit unto you a part thereof, then ye are
welcome to absorb it (in your wealth).

Mankind must understand the cardinal principle that a peaceful and a stable society will only
come into being when there prevails a just socio-economic system. In such a system, wealth is
like blood for the human body: blood must continuously circulate throughout the body, and
must reach each and every cell of the body. Only then will the body continue to stay healthy.
The hoarding of wealth is like thrombosis: an economic system will collapse if hoarding is
allowed to permeate society. This is why Allah forbids hoarding of wealth as the following
verses show.

(9:34) [...]Those who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah,
unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom.

(104:1-4) Woe unto every greedy, arrogant, one who hath gathered wealth (of this
world) and arranged it. He thinketh that his wealth will render him immortal. Nay, but
verily he will be flung into the Consuming One.

In a truly Islamic state there will be security for everybody, and hence any surplus wealth will
be invested, thus avoiding the effect of hoarding. Also, Allah lays great stress upon the
distribution of wealth of a deceased person, and the Qur'an contains extremely detailed laws
of inheritance. This is a vital scheme whereby the wealth of the nation stays well distributed,
and the formation of cartels is not possible. Unfortunately, Muslims devised ways and means
to circumvent these vital economic measures by defining sadaqaat as voluntary charity and
limiting Zakat to 2.5% of savings and accumulated assets so that the rich could hold on to
their wealth. In contrast, the woman's dowry (i.e. the marriage payment from their husband) in
most cases remain an unclaimed contract, whereas it should be invested for the woman, as the
maintenance of a family is the responsibility of the man. Further, women are often deprived of
their inheritance from their parents' side, in spite of the Qur'an's clear injunction on this.

12.3.iii Zakat

Literally, zakat means growth, purification and righteousness. Al-Shaukani gives the
following definition: 'Linguistically, zakah means growth: One says Zakahhaz-Zar meaning
the plant grew. It can also mean purification. In Shariah (Islamic law) it implies both
meanings. The first meaning is construed as to cause growth in wealth, or as to cause more
reward or as to pertain to increasing wealth, such as the case in commerce and agriculture.' 4

(30:39)The usury that is practised to increase some people's wealth, does not gain
anything with Allah. But if you invest in zakat, seeking Allah's countenance, these are
the ones who receive their reward manifold.

Both zakat and usury involve the investment of capital in order to seek material gains.
But whereas zakat is a method of investment approved by Allah, usury is condemned. The
above verse indicates the cardinal principle that the material gains resulting from the practice
of usury gain nothing with Allah, whereas the gains, resulting from the practice of zakat,
receive 'Allah's blessing'. Instead of following the straight interpretation, the Traditionalists
went in the direction of linking zakat with verses 9:60 and 9:103 which are related to
sadaqaat, and extracted an interpretation which led to charity collections being introduced by

the State. They went so far as to fix the yardsticks for such charity collections, and to attribute
the emergence of this practice to the Messenger of Allah. It is unimaginable that the
Messenger of Allah would have introduced an economic system, whereby extracting 2.5% of
the otherwise ill-gotten wealth would render it 'pure'! After having demonstrated that zakat is
something different from what had been ordained in verses 9:60 and 9:103, we come to verse
2:177 which indicates that even after spending in charity, out of own volition, there is
something called 'zakat' which will still be outstanding. Verse 22:41 ordains that the true
believers are those who, when allowed power and influence, establish a system of 'zakat' in
their way of life.

(22:41) Those who, if We give them power in the land, establish worship and invest in
zakat and enjoin kindness and forbid iniquity. And Allah's is the sequel of events.

Verse 22:78 further confirms this Ordinance.

(22:78) [...]So establish worship, invest in zakat, and hold fast to Allah. He is your
protecting Friend. A blessed Patron and a blessed Helper !

Here is a list of references which deal with zakat directly: 2:43,83,110,177,277; 4:162; 5:12;
7:156; 9:5,11,18,71; 21:73; 22:41,78; 24:37,56; 27:3; 31:4; 33:33; 41:7.

Zakat prevents hoarding of money and causes the wealth to grow so that people can
earn their living instead of depending on charity. Another way of looking at zakat is that if
the spare cash is simply given away in charity then, in the long run, the person may not be
able to give in charity but may himself become dependant on charity, due to his circumstances
changing. However, if zakat is used as an investment for growth then one can still live a
modest life, and help the society in creating employment, so that the people do not need to
depend on charity. At the same time the question of hoarding is removed. Zakat as an
investment therefore fulfils many of the Qur'anic requirements.

Note: There are verses in the Qur'an in which the word 'sabeelillah' appears. For example:

(2:261) The likeness of those who spend their wealth in Allah's way (sabeelillah) is as
the likeness of a grain which groweth seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allah
giveth manifold to whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.

(4:160-161) Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews We forbade them good things
which were (before) made lawful unto them, and because of their much hindering
from Allah's way (sabeelillah). And of their taking usury when they were forbidden it,
and of their devouring people's wealth by false pretences. We have prepared for those
of them who disbelieve a painful doom.

(47:38) Lo! Ye are those who are called to spend in the way of Allah (sabeelillah), yet
among you there are some who hoard. And as for him who hoardeth, he hoardeth only
for his soul. And Allah is Rich and ye are poor. And if ye turn away He will exchange
you for some other folk, and they will not be the likes of you.

The literal meaning of sabeelillah is 'Allah's Path'. Traditionalists consider this synonymous
with charity, even though in the whole of the Qur'an this word has never been used in that

The State would take by way of taxes from the society with the primary intention of removing excess and redistributing wealth for general welfare (see 12.3. where a commodity is exchanged for money. However. Usury in any form is not allowed.] 12. two witnesses[.] The nearest concept of baiy in this verse is business dealing which pertains to the dealings with money where the exchange of commodity is not involved. . Money to be invested freely.]They say baiy is just like usury: whereas Allah permitteth baiy and forbiddeth usury[. where money is lent at an agreed rate of interest. 5. a model of money lending based on baiy would be that profits and losses would be shared equitably.4 Qur'anic scheme of economics summarised5 1. which therefore. (2:282) O ye who believe! When ye contract a debt for a fixed term... it would look similar to the practice of usury..] As an example. Individuals pay in charity in the manner ordained in the Qur'an (see 12. licensing should be performed on the tariff to be approved by the government. it has a subtle and vital difference. either directly or through the intermediaries known as Bait-ul-Mals (banks). Lending or borrowing of money on fixed interest is forbidden. Effectively. Outwardly. In contrast.3. Usury to be replaced by zakat. the principle aim being the process of reversal of greed. 12...3. money lending based on usury. letter of credit. (2:275) [. 2.ii). from among your men. Verse 2:282 below clarifies baiy as essentially a practice of mutual agreement designed to last over a period of time..] And call to witness. 3. it means spending freely: money. must be signed and witnessed.. and must maintain the institution of free will and a free sum of money: the Qur'an has a depth of insight not to fix a precise percentage.iv Business dealings (baiy) and trading (tejarat) Business dealings and trading are two different practices as indicated in the following verses: (24:37) Such people as remember Allah while trading or making baiy[. wealth or anything. time. without involvement of commodities. It excludes the practice of money dealing. in the path of Allah. It should be different from person to person and from time to time. and to share profits and losses of the institution where money is lent.i). Other clerical services like transfers. Trading on the other hand may be long term or across the table. Free enterprise and right to personal holdings but in a rightful way. There could be no question of repaying in devalued money. 4. would be independent of whether the borrower makes a profit or loss out of the money lent. to repay the loan in such a way that it retained its original purchasing power... Alternatively.. record it in writing[. When we understand this. the wording of following verse becomes clear.meaning.

and make investments (see 12.3. 'Common Sense' dated Last Quarter 1992. Published by IPCI.87. Nawaz has dedicated his book for the service of mankind and as such there is no copyright restriction. (ii) Passages from the article Impossible Debt on Road to Global Ruin by F. An air of confidence would emerge so that people would come forward willingly. It gave rise to what is called ijtihad. 7. and orthodox or Sunni jurists agreed that . To this may be added the source of equity and custom which was the basis of the Hanafi and the Maliki schools. But after the fall of Baghdad in the 13th century. Islam: Taking root in Europe by Sahib Mustaqim Bleher. Freedom for Qur'an by Ahmad Nawaz and published by Ahmad Nawaz. 3. collapse of currencies. 5.87. dated 9. The Guardian: (i) News item on front page dated 7. 4. the effort or endeavour to interpret legal sources and to discover proper solutions for religious and legal cases. p. 10.iii). Zakah by Abdul Rehman Ansari. The first is drawn directly from the primary sources of the Qur'an and the Traditions. Freedom for Qur'an by Ahmad Nawaz and published by Ahmad Nawaz. Fresh money would only come into circulation when goods and services of the corresponding value had been inducted into the society. Clairmonte and J. Cavanagh.1. etc. The fortunes men make in the City of London by financial transactions which would be strictly forbidden by Islamic Law. p. that is.1 Introduction The sources of Islamic jurisprudence are of two kinds. i. 11. LAW-MAKING IN ISLAM 13. 13. Small Heath. Issue number 8. Islamic civilisation began to fade. Mr. and was one of the causes of the florescence of Islamic jurisprudence in the Abbasside period. Birmingham B10 0JS.3. Published by 'Islamic Party of Britain' in their official Part News report. 167-169. An economic system based on the Qur'anic principles of an equitable society and productive investment can effectively remove much of the chronic economic illnesses as suffered by the modern society. 2. p. in adapting rules to the need of civilisation. 481 Coventry Road. It would not be possible to speculate in 'futures' as is done in the West. Ijtihad was thus an important factor in Islamic legal history. The basic concepts are based on this book. inflation. Distribution of fresh money coming into circulation would be on mutually-agreed basis between the society members.e. 5. No one should be able to sell something he hadn't already bought or paid for. References: 1. The other is secondary and includes ijma or unanimous agreement of jurists by analogy drawn from precedent. This would effectively check price spirals. The study of these sources was the subject of a special science called Ilm Al-Usul.6. without ever actually owning the goods. 8.

182) and Muhammad Ibn-Hasan (d.1 The above four groups i. The Shias similarly had developed into separate sects i. was more interested in developing theoretical principles which could be used as a basis for the development of law. who converted his theoretical principles into codes of law.2 Malik ibn-Anas (d. but he must choose one. There is another school of thought. the conflict in the application of the law between the followers of the various schools has also caused sectarian division among the Sunnis. The Hanafi school has the largest following. since they supposedly contain fundamental and unchangeable law. and consequently unconsidered and slavish imitation (taqlid) became general.179 A. The study of traditions was on the other hand less essential and was more of a personal and private nature.) who died earlier than Malik. His school reduced the influence of agreement and analogy and tended towards literal interpretation. Zaidia. 189). Malik was a lawyer who gathered traditions not for their own sake but to use them in law. The liberty of variety in unity is again due to agreement. the Hanafi. 13.H. After his death his disciples drew together and established the fourth school.e. They thus agreed upon the closing of the door of ijtihad. commonly called the Traditionalists (Ahle-Hadith). Law and the treatises of law were a necessity for the public and thus were encouraged by the State.150 A. Maliki. As a result. Hadith occupies the same position and authority as the Qur'an. A later development of another Sunni group is the Ahle-hadith. His masnad is an immense collection of 30.H.2 The development of jurisprudence (ahle-fiqh) The books dealing with law-making (fiqh) were written before there was any such literature called Ahadith (plural of Hadith). A. Shafi and Hanbali were sufficient. All the schools have practically accepted Al-Shafi's classification of the sources for legitimate thought. Im'amia. They maintain that it is not Fiqh but the 'sayings' of the Prophet which should be enforced as they are. A.000 hadiths. the Hanafi. Ism'ailia and. analogy and 'agreement'.the four well-known Sunni schools. The cause of this was plain. His system was based on four sources: the Qur'an. It was two of his immediate pupils. new interpretations were prohibited. The believer may belong to any one of these.e. lastly.3 Influence of the Hadiths as a source of law (ahle. 241). The last of the four schools is that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 204). In Muslim eyes they are all equally valid and their decisions equally sacred.H. This school holds that after scrutiny. He was a theologian and made no claim as a lawyer. Ghali (now extinct). 13. Kais'ania. A.2 are generally classed together as Ahle-Fiqh.e. and a denial of Hadith affects one's faith and honesty in the same manner as the denial of the Qur'an itself will do – i.H. Shafi and Hanbali can be classed together as Ahle-fiqh. Quadi Abu Yusuf (d.hadith) The four schools of thought (law) as discussed in section 13.H. The next in order of size of following are the Shafi and the Maliki schools while the smallest is the Hanbali school which is followed by the Wahabite state of Saudi Arabia. A. beyond the pale of Islam. The third school is that of Al-Shafi (d.) was a forerunner of the four Sunni schools of law. Traditions. These were not arranged for legal purposes. However. i.H. Abu Hanifa (d.e.3 They also believe: . He suffered terribly for his orthodox faith under the Khalifa Mamun. He relied little upon tradition and preferred to take the Qur'anic texts and develop them in detail. Maliki.

called the Ghali. there is the Ism'ailia sub-sect. We do not approve of discrimination in Revelations and hold both the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah in concurrent authority. As far as the other sub- sects are concerned. when the time is right. They are a small community. Incidentally. which does not agree with this line. of which one group. The Shias regard the Imams as the representative of Allah. The (angel) GabrielA1 came with the Holy Qur'an as well as the Sunnah and conveyed Sunnah to Rasoolullah in the manner he conveyed to him the Holy Qur'an. start from Hazrat Ali. One sub-sect is from Hazrat Ali's other wife Hanfia who gave birth to a son named Muhammad bin Hanfia. he will reappear to save the world. Like the Sunnis the Shias are also divided into five groups. Finally.4 The legal system of the Shi'ites7 Among the Shi'ites the true legal authority lies with the doctors of religion and law called Mujtahids. they originate from the main sect. but here again his followers believe that in spite of his death he is going to come back to make sure that everything is put right. They thus represent the principle authority which is the governing concept of the Shia. as would appear from the following comment by Maudoodi: 'Ahadith has come down through a chain of narrators. Their main sect.'5 The above view is not shared by all those who consider Hadith the basis of Islamic Law (Shariat). Laws are then developed depending on what the Imam says. as well as the sub-sects. They believe up to the fourth Imam (Imam Jainal Abedeen) and after him they follow Imam Zaid. the school holds that: 'By consensus of opinion Muslims acknowledge that the agreed hadiths in the two anthologies are valid and their veracity absolute. The Shi'ites also utterly reject the idea of the various Sunni schools of law. There is another sub-sect which is called the Zaidia. The claim that the text of all the Ahadith in Bukhari should be accepted without critical appreciation is untenable'. The Imams are therefore infallible. The people who follow him are a sub-sect called Kais'ania. There were people who believed that Hazrat Ali should have been the rightful Khalifa after the death of the Prophet because he was the son-in-law of the Prophet. one person passing information verbally to another. and thereafter Imam Ismail.' He goes on to say: 'The material may be useful as a help in ascertaining the practice of Rasoolullah and the doings of his companions. he is supposedly being kept concealed by Allah.6 13. They are very secretive. Hazrat Ali is also highly regarded by the Sunni Muslims as he was the fourth Caliph. is now extinct.has 12 Imams. The last Imam of the Imamia sect (the12th Imam) disappeared without trace from a cave. It is unthinkable that Allah would leave believers in the matter of faith in a position in which they should determine their course of action on the basis of material passed on by word of mouth. That is the philosophy behind the disappearance of the Imam. and sometime later.4 In regard to the two anthologies Bukhari and Muslim. They seem to have in their hands the teaching power which strictly belongs to the Hidden Imam (see below). purely for political reasons. By its very nature the process can at best be viewed as conveying probability and not certainty. At present. but it is not a thing which could claim complete reliance. and the idea of unity in diversity The Shia sect originated from Hazrat Ali. but very wealthy. but recently a member of that . The Shias say that Allah has concealed him.the Imamia sect . They follow up to the 6th Imam (Imam Jafar Sadiq). The main sect . In our view Hadith is revealed and whatever it says was conveyed to Rasoolullah in the same way as the Holy Qur'an.

. when he dieth or is slain ye will turn back on your heels[. the Prophet determined subsidiary laws in consultation with the Ummat. do not believe in the Sunni Schools of Laws.. is answered by the direction given in the Qur'an to the Prophet -. the process of legislation evolved by it would have continued to develop normally. the first central authority being Allah's Rasool.. The question as to how subsidiary laws which have deliberately been left undetermined in the Qur'an. If the answer is that if a Khilafat in the pattern of the Prophet is impossible since personalities like Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Omar are no longer available to . of his own.] whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrong-doers' (5:45). when He it is who hath revealed unto you (this) scripture. making the law of Shariat a happy blending of permanence and change. It is true that for a time the various schools of Fiqh carried on the process. consult the Qur'an. was not to discontinue after the death of the Prophet [.5 The Qur'an as a source of law Parwez makes a poignant observation: In Islam obedience is essentially and basically due only to the Laws of Allah as embodied in the Qur'an...12 The all-important question confronting us now is that since the Khilafat on the pattern of our Prophet has long ceased to exist. interpret it for himself and act according to his individual interpretation.. About these fundamental principles or permanent values the Qur'an says: (6:115) The basic principle revealed by the Nourisher has been made complete in truth and justice... as such. Will it be that. It is a pity that the process came to a halt and with it ended the critical attitude with which subsidiary laws used to be formulated.]consult them (the believers) in the affairs of (the society)[..8 Obedience to Divine Laws is not a thing belonging to the individual person in the sense that one might.]11. messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. The obedience has to be disciplined and orderly under an organised system (called 'State' in present-day terminology) controlled by a central authority. 13.]' Baring a few exceptions. '[.. Had the institution of Khilafat on the pattern set by the Prophet continued.. (4:80) 'Whoso obeyeth the messenger. The Qur'an answers the question by saying: (3:144) 'Muhammad is but a messenger. fully explained[. There is none who can change His principles[ (3:159) '[. (5:49) '[. what lines an Islamic State should follow for legislation. The Shias. will be formulated in the light of the permanent values. 'Shall I (Rasoolullah) seek other than Allah for judge. and whoso turneth away: We have not sent thee as a warder over them'.]10 While he lived.that group published a book revealing some of their activities. but theirs was an effort on the individual plane which very soon became rigid and fossilised...]9..?]' It follows that the process of framing laws within the framework of Qur'anic principles.]so judge between them by that which Allah hath revealed. The question is as to what was to be done after his demise. and follow not the desires away from the truth which hath come unto thee[..?]' (6:114).. the Qur'an enunciates generally fundamental principles without touching on subsidiary laws. obeyeth Allah.

As a start. A good example is the punishment for theft (see section 8.]'.]'. ..3 selection no. no law of humans can organise a healthy society. and unless mandates of a general nature like these.]'. In fact.. Unless this is done under the auspices of those who read the Qur'an in its original spirit and know as well the practical administration of law in human society.. and concerning which the Qur'an emphatically says that their punishment is eternal Hell. But a change-over from the present to an ideal Islamic State cannot be brought about overnight.'14 Proper fiqh. and have put no emphasis on various other crimes and sins which the Qur'an emphasises as having led nations to ultimate destruction. is the main remedy for reviving Islam. in some cases. and (6:160) 'Those people who split up their programme (deen) and become divided into several sections. The Qur'an has been preserved by Allah so as to provide mankind with a code for practical living from age to age and from place to place. Islamic fiqh cannot produce miraculous results. all of you together. has its origin in the Hadiths and has nothing to do with the Qur'an (see section 10. taken from the pages of the Qur'an and put into actual practice by the force of the belief of those who run Islamic society politically. by stages. On the basis of Qur'anic principles an organisation (Islamic State) was set up once. This would be preposterous. are put into practice by the moral force of law and judicious legislation. The Qur'an has very little part to play in it. Mashriqi sums up the question well: '[. The well-known Qur'anic verses: (3:103) 'and hold fast. Individuals can only initiate changes in the thought process but the effective action depends on the co-operation of whole society.. The organisation will. thou (Oh Prophet) art not to include thyself in them in any respect [. It is thus the duty of the progressive Islamic fiqh to extend its domain of moulding the morals and actions of Muslims in such a way that the whole spirit of the law contained in the Qur'an is maintained.. such as the stoning to death for adultery. do the job then it would be tantamount to admitting that the Qur'an offered a code of life for a particular period of history only.6 Application of Shariat laws in modern times The point that must be emphasised is that the modern Shariat laws are basically laws derived from the Hadith literature. proceed towards its ultimate goal by normal process of evolution...1). In this respect the Qur'anic dictum (3:104) that 'there should be people among you who invite (people) to do good and order you to do the outstanding good (of remaining united) and prohibit you from doing the outstanding evil (of becoming dispersed into various sections)[. The law used in other cases. are used without proper research of the Arabic text or the context in which they are used.16 13. ridding itself of initial short-comings at every step113 It must be borne in mind that the right to introduce changes belongs to the Islamic State and not to individuals whatever their mental development may be. must be a portion of our progressive law15.1). the laws made with reference to the Qur'an.. to the cable of Allah.]the later exponents of Islam failed altogether to emphasise is that the jurists have taken up only that portion of the law from the Qur'an which has technical punishments or technical explanations attached to it. the Islamic Administrators of Law should take up those commandments of the Qur'an which will tend to construct the whole society on solid foundations. A similar organisation can be set up again now. are some examples of the way in which the Qur'an enjoins on its followers to keep the commandments of Allah under all circumstances. and do not separate[.

by Dr. 77. 5. 3. p. while its vast riches are enjoyed by only a handful of people who squander a lot of their wealth in many un- Islamic activities abroad. The jurists are swift to gloss this over by saying that one can belong to any of these schools and still be a Muslim. which is ruled by an autocratic kingship. Published by Premier Book House. The fact remains that it has created the very sectarian division of Islam which is strictly forbidden in the Qur'an. Pakistan .O. summary of an introductory address included in ref: no. References: 1. 6. Sudan has applied their interpretation of Shariat laws and failed. One aspect of such a Shariat is the conflict it creates between the various schools of law when judging cases involving people belonging to these different schools. Sobhi Mahmassani. Macdonald. Ibid. and this is why they practice such a barbarous law. They have therefore adopted a number of Western codes of law (civil code and criminal code) along with some 'Islamic' law.. p. Some of the other Muslim states have found that it is almost impossible to apply what they percieve to be Shariat Laws under the present conditions. because of its antiquated and extremely rigid nature. Pakistan. In practice.Development of Muslim Theology Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory by Duncan B. Ibid.A. Lahore. Pakistan is another example where so- called Shariat laws were imposed under army rule. Box 4190. 55.54600. 7. P. The Principles of Law-making in Islam. if we are to hope to produce a society which is both morally strong and beneficial to those who live in it. 7. 55. For instance. Modernisation of Legal System in Muslim Countries. including the Talibans in Afghanistan. This cannot be fully achieved without a true Islamic State. p. Parwez. The only way to overcome these problems is to base the Shariat laws on the Fundamental Principles of the Qur'an. by Dr. Conspiracies against the Qur'an. as already indicated. We have already stated that the Shariat law of the Saudis is based on the Hanbali School and as such the importance of the Qur'an in its legal system is minimal. 4. p. Saudi Arabia. S. second paragraph. Wadud. 2. p. by G. 77. And in the formulation of such laws we should always consider the Qur'anic Principles of fairness and justice first and foremost. It is not difficult to see that the Shariat law. 54. 54. the effect of a law can be judged by its application. 56. Ibid. p. In reality. Lahore . Lahore. p. maintains its grip by a strict interpretation and application of the Shariat laws for its ordinary people. Meezan Publications: 27-B Shahalam Market. Its political turmoil clearly shows that it too has failed.A. 4/5 Katchery Road. the Talibans are totally ignorant of the Qur'an and their teaching comes from the Hadiths. cannot be applied in the present situation with any degree of success. think that this law comes from the Qur'an... Pakistan.The sad irony is that many people. 9. Khalid Publishers. 55.

Thus. 66.. For example. the general facts are sufficiently well-established to be referred to without fear of future contradiction.13. Ibid. 63. and Science by Dr. Maurice Bucaille.8. 15. Pakistan.12. Rawalpindi. Lahore. Let us now quote a few passages from his book: The Qur'an follows on from the two Revelations that preceded it and is not only free from contradictions in its narrations. p. 16.77-79. 12. statements are to be found in it that are connected with science: yet it is unthinkable that a man of Muhammad's time could have been the author of them. a respected French surgeon who conducted an investigation into this subject. p. 62. Modern scientific knowledge therefore allows us to understand certain verses of the Qur'an which. p. p.. The Qur'an. 13. In discussing science with respect to the scriptures one must be careful to distinguish between scientific data of definitely established facts and explanatory theories which may be discarded with the march of scientific progress. or some other subtleties become more clearly defined. Ibid. 77. 63. What is more.. Our understanding of this fact is most unlikely to change dramatically. it has been impossible to interpret.. p.e. by G. 11..12. its complete agreement with modern scientific data. What Dr.1 . Ibid. 14. until now. and the Moon around the Earth. Akhuwat Publications.A.. Meezan Publications: 27-B Shahalam Market. The Principles of Law-making in Islam. Ibid. 14. this book is a must for anyone interested in a serious study of the topic of revealed scripture and modern science.61. 9. the sign of various human manipulations to be found in the Gospels. it is well known that the Earth revolves round the Sun. Ibid. Ibid. However. 10.. Ibid. 10. Quranic System of Law. even if science as yet provides incomplete data as far as the full picture is concern. Parwez. p. p. Bucaille discusses are incontrovertible facts which are firmly established. by Allama Enayatullah Mashriqi. Pakistan. Space permits us to quote only a few passages from his book and present a brief outline of the subjects covered in the book. but provides a quality all of its own for those who examine it objectively and in the light of science i. THE QUR'AN AND SCIENCE To get an understanding of the science in the Qur'an we refer the reader to the excellent book The Bible. p. What may happen in future is that the orbit may be defined more clearly.

Bucaille's book. The Qur'an is not. however. 2. It was not until much later. it has an absolutely religious objective. Ibid. for a truly clear understanding of the scientific concepts used in the Qur'an. and the other unacceptable. 130. 6 Place Saint-Sulpice 75006 Paris. 268. we need both scientific and linguistic knowledge. · The creation of the Heavens and the Earth · Astronomy · The Earth · The Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms · Human Reproduction To conclude: A conflict between science and religion is not found in the Qur'an. man could only distinguish an apparent meaning which led him to draw the wrong conclusions on account of the inadequacy of his knowledge at the time in question. p. p. . at a period not far from our own. His book also compares the Biblical narrations of the Flood and the Exodus with the narration given in the Qur'an. the variety of scientific knowledge essential to the understanding of certain verses of the Qur'an will become clear. by Dr.. a book that has the object of explaining certain laws governing the universe. The descriptions of Divine Omnipotence are what principally incite man to reflect on the works of creation. 129. This means that in former times. with particular reference to those differences that make one description scientifically acceptable in the present day. They are accompanied by references to facts accessible to human observation or to laws defined by God who presides over the organization of the universe both in the sciences of nature and as regards man. It is easy to see therefore how for centuries commentators of the Qur'an (including those writing at the height of Islamic culture) have inevitably made errors of interpretation in the case of certain verses whose exact meaning could not possibly have been grasped. One part of these assertions is easily understood.2 Given below are some of the scientific topics which are covered in the Qur'an the details of which are to be found in pages 139 to 220 of Dr. that it was possible to translate and interpret them correctly. What is needed along with this is a highly diversified knowledge of science. The Bible The Qur'an and Science. Publisher Seghers. A study such as the present one embraces many disciplines and is encyclopedic. This implies that a thorough linguistic knowledge is not in itself sufficient to understand these verses from the Qur'an. Maurice Bucaille. As the questions raised are discussed. however. References: 1. but the meaning of the other can only be grasped if one has the essential scientific knowledge it requires.

This requires the establishment of the Islamic State in which mankind will be able to establish Allah's laws.3 The external world: af'aque The Qur'an in many of its verses encourages mankind to study nature as it holds secrets which are beneficial to mankind and which can only be brought to light through research..]every nafs shall bear the consequences of its actions and no one can help him in any capacity[. Nature is the Book of Allah.] When nafs is used to promote the higher values of humanity according to the divine laws it becomes positive/good receiving nourishment as it does so. all that is in the Heavens and the Earth: in this.. The underlying purpose of all three identities i. either providing growth and development to the self (nafs) or causing its disintegration. and the Qur'an an extract of that Book. (45:13) And He has made subservient to you. 15.e.nafs .1 At the individual level: nafs (noon-fe-seen) The Qur'an uses this word 255 times.affects it.2 To understand the purpose of mankind we need to understand the role of human beings both at the individual level .15. there are messages indeed for people who think! 15. The purpose of mankind at the individual level i. 31:12. well as the level of the external world . at the level of the nafs is self-development. 15. is to return to Allah. that is.unfus .af'aque . 41:46. but when it is used for selfish ends. the unfus and the af'aque. behold. the nafs. which. 35:18. it is intrinsically bound up with the notion of Self. 17:7-15. (6:164) [. 15.e. Every human action - even thoughts . The purpose of mankind at the collective level i. from Himself.4 Return to Allah . if we were able to implement in real life. Some details on the concept of deen were given earlier in chapter 2.. 45:15 and 53:38. would enable us to unlock the secrets of Nature for the benefit of mankind. a comprehensive way of life beneficial to all of mankind. their deen. In the Qur'an it is referred to as roohona or 'divine energy'.41. For further explanation see verses: 10:108. which the Qur'an terms as hawa: the source of cunning. it becomes negative.. It is of utmost importance that there will be a return. What is nafs? This concept can neither be percieved nor explained empirically as it is not material.and the collective level . the level of the unfus is the consolidation of human beings into a single entity (umut ul wahada).2 At the collective level: unfus Unfus is the plural of nafs. 39:7. however. THE PURPOSE OF MANKIND 1. 30:44.e.since the Qur'an is very clear on these issues. The following verse is one of many which should lead us to study and understand nature.

he stated. 25:15.46) Seek help in patience and salat. and though often passed over lightly. let him perform righteous actions. by Gulam Ahmed Parwez.This fact is specified in many verses. p. which was specially revealed to Man by the Creator through His chosen messengers.the conquest of the universe. In this connection we would like to mention the thinking of Allama Mashriqi as quoted by Shabbir Hussain. 3:28. is governed by the laws different from what appears feasible in the case of other animal species and vegetation. and in the subservience of his Sustainer. and explained the inevitability of adopting both sciences for the fulfilment of man's assignment -. to make him imperishable. this is the final destination and ultimate purpose of Man. 2. Exposition of the Qur'an.First Principles: Lecture by Syed Mustafa Ali. save for the humble- minded.249. . Pakistan. He declared that Man's present form was not his final form.3 The human species. and truly it is hard. such have no hope of My Rahmat. 56. References: 1. make no one as partner.48. 24:42. by Allama Inayat Ullah Khan Al-Mashriqi. Translated and edited from Urdu by Shabbir Hussain. Lahore-11. 3. was enunciated in the Qur'an and writ large on the face of the universe as the sole purpose of Man's creation. 50:43. He propounded a far higher purpose of Man's creation than has ever been conceived by any evolutionist or physicist. described divine revelation as the highest form of science. Rawalpindi. 41:54. he argued. Publisher: Mujahid Publications. 56:60 and 64:3. to enrich him. Allama's main aim was to bring mankind together on the basis of unity of this science and its purposes. 53:42. Tolu-E-Islam Trust (Regd) 25B Gulberg. and unto Him they are returning. 55.. just as the scientist enforces unity of concept when he upholds physical realities. He demonstrated the deep harmony between the purposes of physical sciences and the science of religions.. who know that they will have to meet their Rabb. 13. The law of survival and destruction of human societies concerns the science of religions. (29:23) Those who disbelieve in the revelations of Allah and in their meeting with Him. 11:29. p. to educate and train him how to utilize and recreate it. Man's Destiny (Tazkira). 6:154. He held that Man was created to conquer the universe. Man's further evolution was inevitable for enabling him to inhabit every nook and cranny of the universe. 31:14. his Rabb.]Whoever expects to meet his Rabb. 14. (2:45. the universe was created to be available to Man. (18:110) [. There follow a few examples of the many reminders of this fact in the Qur'an: (53:42) To your Rabb is the final goal. For such there is a painful doom. Islamic State -. 5:18. 12:20. 40:3. Pakistan. This. Further evidence is given in 2:223.

Allah has revealed no sanction for them. Islam – the deen-il-haqq – is the true way of life which is beneficial to mankind. . Thus Allah coins the similitudes. however much those who ascribe partners to Allah are averse. Lam. it passes away as scum upon the banks. the Owner of Praise. because all other ways of life are detrimental to mankind. Allah coins the similitude of the truth (haqq) and the false (batil). And from the metals which they melt in the fire. and he will be a loser in the Hereafter. Islam is described as deen-il-haqq.] The role of the Qur'an as the source of the deen-il-haqq is clarified by the Qur'an itself: (14:1) Alif. It should be noted that. while that which is beneficial to mankind. The system of life which is deen-il-haqq will supersede all other systems: (61:8) Fain would they put out the light of Allah with their mouths.. unto the path of the Mighty. and unto Him they will be returned? The Qur'an informs us that no way of life other than the deen-il-haqq is acceptable to Allah: (12:40) Those whom you serve beside Him are but names which you have named. This is the right way of life (deen). The decision rests with Allah only. it is the way of life for which human beings are best suited. Why? It is so. to be regarded as an Islamic State.16. but most men know not. it remains in the earth. willingly or unwillingly. Hence. as for the foam. Thus. THE ISLAMIC STATE1 (61:9) He it is who has sent His messenger with the guidance and the concrete. (3:83) Seek they other than the Deen of Allah when unto Him submits whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth. This will involve both ideological and practical principles. and the brooks flow according to their respective measures and the flood bears along a swelling foam. seeking to cast ornaments and necessaries. that is. Then. never will it be accepted of him. arises a scum like unto it. Ra. however much the disbelievers are averse. Who has commanded you that you serve none but Him.. but what does it mean? The Qur'an clarifies the word haqq by means of a similitude: (13:17) He sends water from the sky. you and your fathers. (3:85) And whoso seeketh any way of life (deen) other than Islam. (This is) a Scripture which We have revealed unto thee (Muhammad) that thereby thou mayest bring forth mankind from darkness into light by the permission of their Sustainer (Rabb). the State must be founded on Allah's Deen or Deen-il-haqq. (3:19) Surely the way of life (deen) acceptable to Allah is Islam[. but Allah will perfect His light. constructive and purposeful way of life (deen-il-haqq) that he may cause it to prevail over other ways of life.

. from the fear in which they lived... there is also a warning: (47:38) [. Note the following verses: (29:2... (10:9) Lo! Those who believe and do good works.] As thought needs action.. nor knoweth those (of you) who are steadfast? (2:214) Or think ye that ye will enter Paradise while yet there hath not come unto you the like of (that which came to) those who passed away before you? Affliction and adversity befell them.1 Outline of a constitution2 . and will not be tested with affliction? Lo! We tested those who were before you. their Sustainer guideth them by their faith[. till the messenger (of Allah) and those who believed along with him said: When cometh Allah's help? Now surely Allah's help is nigh. and knoweth those who feign. they were shaken as with earthquake. to one of security and peace. 16. (3:142) Or deemed ye that ye would enter Paradise while Allah knoweth not those of you who really strive.. He will exchange you for some other people.Ideological transformation is necessary because: (8:53) [. so ideology will need practical manifestation...] (13:11) [.3) Do men imagine that they will be left (at ease) because they say.]Allah never changes the condition of a people until they first change what is within themselves[. (10:13) We destroyed the generations before you when they did wrong...]Allah never changes the condition of a nation until they first change what is within themselves[.] If you turn away..] (9:111) Allah has bought from the believers their lives and their wealth in return for paradise[. In fact. Thus do we reward the guilty folk.] However. the guarantee of success is given by Allah Himself: (24:55) Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good works that He will surely make them to succeed in the earth as He caused those who were before them to succeed. Thus.. Thus Allah knoweth those who are sincere. and their messengers (from Allah) came unto them with clear proofs (of His Sovereignty) but they would not believe. and He will surely establish for them their deen which He hath approved for them: and that He will change their state. and they will not be like you. 'We believe'.. if people are really sincere and steadfast then success is bound to come with Allah's help.

needs a constitution which defines the structure and powers of the state and the rights and duties of its citizens. is due to Allah alone. However. (6:115) Perfected is the Word of thy Sustainer in truth and justice. The sovereignty in practice shall be that of the Qur'an. and follow not the whims of those who know not. There is nothing that can change His Words[. and no part of the constitution should be contrary to the fundamental principles of the Qur'an... (45:18) And We have set thee (O Muhammad) on a clear road of commandment. (5:47) [. (51:56) I created the jinn and the humankind only that they might serve Me. and the manner in which this consultation should be carried out should also be decided by the community. they do but guess. which means that the government shall be obedient to the laws based on the fundamental principles of the Qur'an. so follow it. for He is One. (6:114) Shall I seek other than Allah for judge when it is He who has revealed unto you (this) Book. We now outline the six main concepts upon which the constitution of an Islamic State must be based: 1.Every state. 'Take not for subservience two authorities. fully explained? [. the constitution must be based on Qur'anic principles and guidelines.. which must be independent of the executive.] (5:44) [. The judiciary. in order to function properly... a truly Islamic state should declare that if anyone who calls himself a Muslim and at the same time calls . 'Be subservient to me instead of Allah. As far as the Islamic State is concerned. 3. They follow nothing but an opinion. Thus. The constitution must be decided by the community through a process of consultation. any constitution needs to be flexible in order to take account of the progress of the society.. therefore. The constitution can be defined either in a written document or based on traditions and practices in accordance with which the government is organised. Subservience.]Those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are disbelievers.' (3:79) It is not permitted for any human being unto whom Allah has given the Book and wisdom and the Divine Message that he should afterwards have said unto mankind. The Islamic State has no place for any sectarian division.] (6:116) If you obeyed most of those on earth they would mislead you far from Allah's way. should decide on matters where there is a violation of the constitution in private or public life.]Those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are wrong-doers. (16:51) Allah has said. Sovereignty in an Islamic State belongs only to Allah.' 2..

it gives no specifics about the form of government.] (3:104) And there may spring from you a nation who invite to goodness. was one of the many causes of its demise. it leaves considerable room for the development of laws and practices as long as the Fundamental Principles are not violated. follow that he or she will be punished on that basis since no one can be compelled to believe one way or the other. (5:2) [.. (42:38) [.] (6:159) Those who divide themselves into sects have nothing to do with you. (30:31. then put thy trust in Allah. in effect.. rather. himself Sunni or Shia. or specifies any sect with regard to his belief... and enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency. each sect rejoicing with what they have done. Who then will tell them what they used to do. (5:101) O ye who believe! Ask not of things which. (3:103) And hold fast. In such a state believers not only do good but also exhort one another to truth and duty: (103:3) Save those who believe and do good works.. and exhort one another to truth and exhort one another to endurance. For instance. 4. and establish worship.. Clement. It was then changed to kingship by later Khalifs a course which.. Indeed. then as far as the State is concerned he or she is a non-believer and shall be regarded in law as such. to the cable of Allah.. Allah has left them out. of course. Such are they who are successful.]Who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation[.. . would trouble you. Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust (in Him) The differences can be resolved by taking the Qur'an as the foundation of the Islamic State..]and consult them in the conduct of their affairs.. And when thou art resolved.. and be not of those who ascribe partners (unto Him).] A true Islamic State was certainly formed during the time of the Prophet and the four Khalifs and lasted for about thirty years. if it were made known unto you. It does not. but if ye ask about them in the light of the Qur'an then they will become obvious to you. and be careful of your duty unto Him.] (3:159) [.]but help ye one another unto righteousness and pious duty[. Their case will go to Allah. The Islamic State should be 'democracy by consultation' – allowing room for progress and flexibility..32) Turning unto Him (only). for Allah is Forgiving. (2:256) There is no compulsion in deen[. all of you together.. and do not separate [. the Qur'an warns against seeking the regulation of everything by Divine command. like those who divide their deen into sects.

and to set slaves free. In the initial stages it is to be based on what is best and beneficial for the people.. except through hatred of one another. Such are they who are sincere. class.]the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous amongst you[. momineen. The Qur'an does not provide instructions as to the form of government in an Islamic State. 5. the eventual aim being to unite mankind.. whereas in a truly Islamic state any immoral or corrupt person would be weeded out. and giveth his wealth. but fundamental good qualities will be the pre-requisite for anyone to be entrusted with the running of an Islamic State. and muttaqeen. and unto Whom I turn.] The Qur'an accepts the differences in personal qualities of Muslims on the basis of their commitment to the cause of Islam. Morality has no place in today's politics. and Allah sent messengers with glad tidings and warnings and with them He sent the Book in truth.. Justice favours only those who have the wealth and the power. but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the prophets. However. but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah. unto a straight path. Allah (by his grace) guided the believers to the truth. The eventual aim is to remove all barriers of a nationalist state so that freedom of movement of the individual be unrestricted. birth. (29:9) And as for those who believe and do good works. concerning that wherein they differed. (42:10) And in whatsoever ye differ. for the love of Him. Equality means that the privileges of wealth. and observeth proper worship and invests in zakat. as the politics involved in getting into power are based on promises which are never fulfilled in practice. this in no way compromises one's right to equal treatment. (2:213) Mankind was one single nation. once the party who wins the election by making such promises comes to power. saliheen. to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and those who ask.. after clear signs came to them. In the West the feeling that democracy works better in a multi-party system is in reality a myth. And those who keep their treaty when they make one and are patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. in Whom I put my trust. For Allah guides whom He wills. the verdict therein belongeth to Allah. But the people of the Book. (2:177) It is not righteousness that ye turn faces to the East and the West. The Qur'an specifies some good attributes about individuals belonging to a Muslim community: for example. did not differ among themselves. Such are the sincere. and discrimination in any shape or form is . We verily shall make them enter in among the righteous (saliheen). to judge between people and in matters wherein they differed. colour or race are abolished by law. Such is my Sustainer. (49:15) The believers (momineen) are those only who believe in Allah and His messenger and afterward doubt not. (49:13) [. irrespective of his position in the party. Such are the Allah-fearing (muttaqeen). The decision-makers and the administrators of an Islamic State should possess high standard of conduct and character.

witnesses for Allah. Islamic State -.A. the non-Muslims in an Islamic State should have all the rights which the Qur'an declares as basic human rights. enforced through an independent judiciary. Administration of justice: Justice is the key to the functioning of an Islamic State. was designed to achieve – by teaching and education – a common standard for the rights and freedoms for all people and all nations. ISLAM AND HUMAN RIGHTS 17. by Dr S. So follow not passion lest ye lapse (from truth) and if ye lapse or fall away. summarised from p. honour and places of worship must be protected. we must all. In fact. Lahore . even though it be against yourselves or (your) parents or (your) kindred. The Declaration of Human rights does not have the force of law. The verse below gives a comprehensive idea on the standards of justice: (4:135) O ye who believe! Be ye staunch in justice. The Qur'an contains strict standards of equality and administration of justice. the independence and integrity of judges. for Allah is nearer to both (than ye are). by Syed Mustafa Ali. and the duty of witnesses to come forward to bear true witness without any favour or partiality. 6.1 Introduction On 10th December 1948. 2. 17. Khalid Publishers P. legislative and judicial processes. The allocation of such posts should be according to the appropriate personal qualities. Undoubtedly.strictly prohibited. property. individually and . While it is necessary that our efforts should be directed towards securing such rights through executive. then lo! Allah is ever informed of what ye do. real enforcement of human rights can only be achieved by each state through appropriate legislative process. whether (the case be of) a rich man or a poor man.54600. consisting of thirty articles. Similarly. administrative.First Principles: Notes from Lecture and an unpublished article. and their life.Box 4109. The Declaration. the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. References: 1. See section 13. Wadud. Quranocracy. Pakistan.O.5 and also the chapter Islam and Human Rights which follows this. Justice has to be provided free of charge by the State irrespective of a person's position in society and the law should not make any distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims. 42-68. there should be absolutely no bars on non-Muslims participating in any public office or government service.

Should this happen. but while the Declaration is concerned to secure them at the material level. These latter are not the primary concern of the Declaration. His book attempts a comparative study of Islam and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. freedom and duties set out and expounded in it should be accepted and made effective everywhere in respect of everyone. and Islam are in accord. but unavoidably. strive continuously to fulfil the duties we owe to each other at the moral and spiritual levels. Nor does or can it concern itself with the Hereafter.2 Future Relationship between Islam and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights On the question of Islam vis-à-vis the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration certainly. like Islam. domestic. so far as it goes. and the conflict prove irreconcilable. administrative and judicial safeguards and action. is concerned to secure them at all levels. and indeed for all mankind. prosperity and happiness. Thus. except in so far as they are inevitably involved in all human conduct. It cannot avail itself of the means and methods necessary for achieving a more comprehensive and far-reaching revolution in the lives of individuals and peoples. there is a difference of approach. but pays due regard to the need of co-ordination between them.individual. For the Muslims. claims universality and seeks that the rights. President of the Seventeenth Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations and a Vice-President and a judge of the International Court of Justice at the Hague. The Declaration concerns itself with only certain aspects of human life and human relationships and must perforce seek to achieve its ideals through legislative. Islam spells out the necessary safeguards. In respect of certain specific details. the Islamic provision must have priority. then it is obvious that so far as Islamic society is concerned. published in 1967. Even subject to these limitations it constitutes an epoch-making formulation of human rights based upon the widest possible consensus so far achieved and recorded. Islam recognises the interplay and interaction of all values and neglects none. This divergence of approach leaves open the possibility of conflicting provisions for the regulation of specific detail. national and international. both here and Hereafter. It is concerned with the totality of life. 17. Islam and the Declaration are both concerned with human welfare. Occasionally. the Declaration. both here and the Hereafter. Religion (deen) must travel far beyond the Declaration both in its objectives and in its methods. are beyond its objective. which necessitates that a certain primacy must be assigned to and observed in respect of moral and spiritual values. The purely moral and spiritual aspects of life. through every available means. . through physical means and during this life only. Islam being a religion (deen).collectively. Islam seeks to achieve a society in which equity is fostered and iniquity eschewed in all spheres of life . we would like to quote a few paragraphs from Islam and Human Rights by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan. in spirit. The following passages are taken from pages 140-143 of his book. the Declaration employs language which is too general.

Muslim thought. Islam and Human Rights. Subject to this somewhat remote contingency. The contents of the Hebrew Bible is the same as Protestant Old Testament. These treasures will be preserved and safeguarded for future generations of mankind: Verily. surely the ocean would be exhausted before the words of my Lord (Sustainer) came to an end (18:109).1 Jewish Scriptures (Hebraic Bible) The Old Testament – or the Hebrew Bible – is a collection of works of differing lengths. 18. . and the effort is proving abundantly. 63 Melrose Road. and the ocean were ink. References: 1. but in a different order. They were written in several languages and. the revival and strengthening of true Islamic values would only help and further the achievement of the objectives of the Declaration. and most surely We will be its Guardian (15:9). p. has now been experiencing a healthy revival for close upon a century. London SW18. Wise (31:27). were based on materials collected from oral traditions. 140-143.1 See section 6. Thus the guidance set forth therein will continue to be available through all ages. Surely. As already indicated. Proclaim: 'If the ocean became ink for the words of my Lord (Sustainer). Allah is Mighty. like the Hadith literature. Published by The London Mosque. The Catholic Old Testament includes extra books ejected from what became the Protestant version. with seven oceans swelling it thereafter. And even more explicitly: If all the trees that are in the earth were to become pens. This is indeed in accord with the assurance contained in the Qur'an that its treasures of light and guidance are inexhaustible. in all its aspects. extravagantly fruitful and rewarding. richly. JEWISH SCRIPTURES AND THE BIBLE 18. the words of Allah would not be exhausted. by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan. The most hopeful feature of this revival is that attention is being directed more and more to the Qur'an in search of light and guidance in the fast-growing complexity of the conditions and values with which man is confronted today.2 for the references of Qur'anic verses on human rights and obligations. We Ourself have sent down this Exhortation. written over a period of more than nine-hundred years.

Judges. If all three forms of texts were available today a comparison would be possible and a decision could be reached as to what might have been the original text. The New Testament. which evolved from the original Israelite monotheism. the text used in part for the Greek translation. four are accounts of the career of Jesus called the Gospels (attributed to Matthew. Susannah.3 History of the texts There were at least three forms of Hebrew text around the third century B.1 The five books of the Torah convey what remains to us of the original monotheism of the Biblical Israelite communities such as the Samaritans. Proverbs. Joel. which does not even fully agree with the classical text – the oldest Hebrew text of the Bible which dates from the ninth century C. The additional books belonging to the Catholic Old Testament are: Tobit. Psalms. The latter is collectively known as the Talmud. what is available is the Dead Sea Scrolls (Cave of Qumran). the last two being incomplete. and one is a report of the activity and the preaching of the early followers of Jesus. Obadiah. and the Syriac version. 18. comprising twenty-seven books. It. Then there are twenty-one Epistles (correspondence of various apostles concerning religious instructions). The first Greek translation dates from the third century. Next come the twelve 'historical' books (Joshua.. These books are traditionally attributed to Moses and deal with events from the beginning of the world to the death of Moses. thirteen of which are attributed to Paul. Amos.E. Christianity does not accept any revelation subsequent to Jesus and his Apostles. Haggai. Baruch. Esther. Sirach. The Wisdom of Solomon. Ezekiel and Daniel) and twelve 'minor prophets' (Hosea.To get an overview of the contents. 2 Samuel. Of these twenty-seven books. precludes the Qur'an. precludes the part of the Bible called the New Testament. and a papyrus of the Ten Commandments of the second century C. and The Prayer of Azariah. Zephaniah. Unfortunately. as well as the Qur'an. 1 Samuel. which is called Acts of the Apostles (usually referred to as Acts). Finally. They were the Masoteric text.C. Habakkuk. These are the five primary elements of a collection of thirty-nine volumes that make up the Old Testament. . has been added to the Old Testament. Numbers and Deuteronomy. Leviticus. called the Torah in Hebrew and Pentateuch in English are: Genesis. Exodus. The specialists have used all these versions to piece together in a multitude of revisions and versions the texts that we know today. Lamentations..E. Jeremiah. however. Ecclesiastics and The Song of Solomon). Ruth. Judaism does not accept any revelation subsequent to its own. Micah. 1 Chronicles. dating from not much before the arrival of Jesus. These are followed by five recorded accounts of the 'major prophets' (Isaiah. and we can also mention the Latin version of the fourth century C. Mark. and the Samaritan Pentateuch.E. Jonah. 1 Kings. the Aramaic version. let us look at the contents of the Protestant version: the first five books. It therefore. there is the book of 'prophecy' called Revelations. 2 Chronicles) and the five 'poetical' books (Job. Judith. Zechariah and Malachi). not only accepts all the thirty-nine books but also other traditional Jewish teachings written down in the early centuries of the Christian era. Judaism. Luke and John).2 The Bible The Protestant version accepts the thirty-nine books of the Jewish Scriptures as the Old Testament. 18. therefore. or Ecclesiasticus. 2 Kings. who is the real founder of what we now call Christianity.

4 Authenticity of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures In the West. people were not aware that a collection of Gospel writings existed. the Gospel of Thomas. censorship. and the Gospel of Barnabas. quite aside from the contradictions in the Biblical texts. Only certain of the clergy has a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible. the Gospel had existed as an almost exclusive oral tradition. 367 Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria compiled the list of works which were to carry Church approval. Further. we have discussed Abraham for the reason that he provide the most obvious common link between the Qur'an and the Bible.D.D. However. We have listed the reference of a typical case at the end of this chapter to which the interested reader may refer for further information.In the early days of Christianity. In fact. It was not until 170 A. the Gospel of the Egyptians. Even today many people are content to accept the Bible – the Old and New Testaments – as it is.E. we have outlined the Qur'anic views in cases where a contrasting parallel exists. Mark. and creative translation. The 'Evangelists. the foremost authority was oral tradition and the teachings of the Apostles. before 140 A. without questioning its authenticity or veracity. Luke and John are not the authors of the four Gospels but rather titles attributed to compilations of diverse materials already collected by others. the New Testament even in the highly questionable form we know it. Mention can be made of the Gospel of the Nazarenes. In the Bible. These are a few of the many which were in circulation but later burned and banned by order of the Church. in particular. and incompatibilities with firmly established scientific data throughout. whereas the majority of the laity hears only selected readings as part of a sermon. Different versions of the same description can be found in the Old and the New Testament. has also been subjected to fairly drastic editing. the Gospel of the Hebrews. as well as point out some of the glaring inconsistencies within the text as a whole. there are other serious issues which also cannot be ignored. The first writings to circulate were Paul's letters. each according to his own outlook have collected and recorded in writing the material handed down by the prevailing tradition. a process which continues to this day. In C. to the blatant blackening of the character of the prophets. the critical study of the Scriptures is a recent development. We refer. This list was ratified by the Church Council of Hippo in 393. In particular. One only needs to read some of the specialist studies of the Bible to be aware of the improbabilities and contradictions that exist in the Biblical texts. Moreover. for . and again by the Council of Carthage four years later. as well as contradictions.1) which the New Testament has excluded. especially when some of the excluded books have a perfectly valid claim to historical authenticity. that the four Gospels acquired the status of canon. from whence their name – Apocrypha – or hidden is derived. For about thirty or forty years. The question can easily be raised as to what arbitrary process was used to select the four Gospels used today out of the many that were in circulation. Modern biblical scholars are agreed that Matthew. the human interference in both the Old and the New Testament is evidently considerable. immoral laws in warfare. In particular cases references are given. Thus. and the condoning of outrageous practices such as incest. revision. 18. historical errors. of barbaric social laws. There were also many writings on Jesus in the early days of Christianity (see Luke 1. In this chapter we discuss some of these questions. and other issues which conflict with our basic sense of morality and human values.

. After Isaac was weaned Sarah said to Abraham: Cast out this slave woman with her son. After all. As Sarah was barren. God also made him the father of a multitude of nations. Abraham went in to Hagar. God heard the voice . Abraham rose early in the morning. Ish'mael was thirteen years old. God then promised Abraham that he would return in the spring and Sarah would have a son and his name will be Isaac (Genesis Chapters 17 & 18). his descendants would be named through Isaac. he chastised Abraham for misleading him by declaring his wife to be his sister. As a favour. Abraham decided to go to Egypt with his wife. and the Lord did to Sarah as he had promised. since Sarah was a beautiful woman. a command which Abraham carried out without delay. However. When the water in the skin was finished Hagar cast her son under a bush. However. this constituted an incestuous marriage between brother and step-sister. he told his wife to declare that she was his sister.i Abraham The Biblical portrayal of Abraham takes the following form: Abraham married his sister Sarah who was the daughter of his father but not his mother. gave Hagar bread and a skin of water and sent her away with Ish'mael. Abraham uses the same ploy with King Abim'elech of Gerar who took Sarah into his household on the understanding that Sarah was Abraham's sister. he gave Abraham menservants and maidservants. and in the Qur'an Allah says that he (Abraham) had been given the title of 'the Leader of All Mankind'. When Pharaoh became aware of the true nature of things. And Sarah conceived. oxen and male and female slaves (Genesis 20:1-16).5. When Abraham was ninety-nine years old.. 18.5 Biblical character of some of the great Prophets2 18. When Pharaoh heard of Sarah's beauty he took Sarah into his household presumably taking her to be his wife. But by taking Sarah into his household he incurred the displeasure of God who inflicted his household with plague. When the land in which they were living was afflicted by famine. He then asked both of them to leave. and bore Abraham a son[. but in kindness he did not take back the wealth that he had showered on Abraham because of Sarah (Genesis 12:10-20). She departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. she tells Abraham to take Hagar the Egyptian maid as his wife.2) Abraham named him Isaac. (Genesis 21:10) The Lord advised Abraham to do as Sarah suggested. So.] (Genesis 21:1. So Abim'elech released Sarah and gave Abraham sheep. He also promised that he would make a nation of the son of the slave woman. The Lord visited Sarah as he had said.example. Sarah was very beautiful. Abraham was afraid that he would be killed if the Egyptians knew that Sarah was his wife. and many cattle. As such. the condition of which was that he and his household would have to be circumcised in the flesh of their foreskins. But before the king could touch Sarah God warned him in a dream that he would pay with his life for taking a man's wife into his household. and she conceived (Genesis 16:1-4). Abraham called his son Ish'mael. God says that He made him 'the Father of a Multitude of Nations'. for the son of this slave woman shall not be heir with my son Isaac. Abraham was now a rich man because of the gifts he got from Pharaoh and King Abim'elech. God made a covenant with him. At that time.

e. whom you love. why did not God give Sarah a child before Abraham had to have a child with Hagar? These points. the Lord promised to multiply his descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand on the seashore. According to the Qur'an both Ishmael and Issac were Abraham's sons and both became prophets in their own right. and took two of his young men. He was given the same book of guidance as were all other prophets who followed him. and because he passed all the tests he was made 'the Leader of Mankind'. Then Abraham took the knife to slay his son. and found behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horn. submitting from the heart to the laws of God. purify the House (the Kaba) for those who came to perform their rites. and offer him there as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I shall tell you. After these things God wanted to test Abraham. and she went. and to work for the cause of Allah. and according to the Qur'an: 'he was neither a Jew nor a Christian but a true Muslim' i. The sacrifice was not a ram (and this is not stated in the Qur'an) but a covenant between him and Allah. your only son Isaac. is Islam. The way of life prescribed for mankind through him. upon the wood. Abraham had an impeccable character and stories about deceptions. shows no such inconsistencies: all the prophets are shown to be persons of high moral conduct – genuinely true to their calling as messengers of Allah. as described in the Old Testament. (Genesis 22:2) So Abraham rose early in the morning.5 as to what the Qur'an has to say on Abraham. So Abraham took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son. and his son Isaac to the place of which God had told him. He said: Take your son. Moreover. As a further test. and go to the land of Mori'ah. seeing you have not withheld your son. An angel of the Lord called and asked Hagar to lift up the lad. impress themselves upon the careful reader of the Bible text. and all the followers of this path are to be called Muslims. are in direct contradiction to his respected place a great prophet of God. as through all the prophets. He built an altar and laid the wood in order. and his mother took a wife for him from the land of Egypt (Genesis 21:12-21). how could God say Abraham's 'only son Isaac' – since there was never a time at which Isaac was Abraham's only son? And again. So Abraham returned and dwelt in Beer-sheba (Genesis 22:13-19) . and many others.ii Examples of immorality in other Biblical Prophets and kings . your only son from me. Abraham was tested by Allah. (Genesis 22:12) Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked. They lived in the wilderness of Paran. saddled his ass. and laid him on the altar. But the angel of the Lord called to him from heaven and said: Do not lay your hand on the lad. The angel of the Lord called a second time and said that because of his obedience to the Lord's command. the House of Allah. Note: See section 7. And by his descendants all the nations of the earth should be blessed. Allah redeemed him with a 'momentous sacrifice'.of the lad. and bound Isaac his son. and filled the skin of water. which was to build the KABA. however. and gave the lad a drink. 18. he was asked to sacrifice his son (Ish'mael) and when he was at the point of carrying it out.5. God then opened Hagar's eyes and she saw a well of water. for now I know that you fear God. The Qur'an.

even with their buttocks uncovered. and lay down naked all day and all that night. that Moses was in fact the writer of the first five books of the Bible. to act treacherously against the Lord. the commanders of thousands and the commanders of hundreds. and took her (Bath-sheba).. and was drunken. and he lay naked within his tent. He murdered his own half-brother Adonijah with all his supporters because he had wanted to marry just one of Solomon's many women.. these caused the people of Israel. 'Have you let all the women live? Behold. to the shame of Egypt. and prophesied before Samuel in like manner.iii Examples of Mosaic Law Some of the Mosaic laws given below reflect badly on Moses. who uncovered (became naked) himself today in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants. naked and barefoot." (Numbers 31:14-18) When you draw near a city to fight against it. (Isaiah 20:3-4) 18. keep alive for yourself. who came from the service in the war..5. offer terms of peace to it.] (2 Samuel 11-4) David wickedly caused the death of Uriah.] young and old. and kill every woman who has known man by lying with him. is Saul also among the Prophets? (1 Samuel 19:24) David How glorious was the king of Israel (David) today. and she came in unto him. by the counsel of Balaam. and he lay with her[. kill every male among the little ones. But all the young girls who have not known man by lying with him. Now therefore. (1 Kings 2:13-25)) Isaiah And the Lord said.Noah And he (Noah) drank of the wine. ( 2 Samuel 11:6-25) Solomon Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines. And Moses was angry with the officers of the army. (11-3). against all reason and logic. (Genesis 9:21) Saul And he (Saul) stripped off his clothes also. the husband of Bath-sheba.. then all the people who are found in it shall . as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovered himself ! (2 Samuel 6:20) And David sent messengers. wherefore they say. And if its answer to you is peace and it opens to you. if one is to maintain. Moses said to them. like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years[.

] And if the thing is true that the token of virginity was not found in the young woman. (Deuteronomy 23:1. and. and when the Lord your God gives it into your hand you shall put all its males to the sword..] (Deuteronomy (22:28) He whose testicles are crushed or whose male member is cut off shall not enter the assembly of the Lord. the young woman because she did not cry for help though she was in the city.. and they are found.. because he has violated her[. but makes war against you.] (Deuteronomy 22:22) If there is a betrothed virgin. which the Lord your God has given you. who will not obey the voice of his father or mother.. though they chastise him. which are not cities of the nations here.] Then all the men of the city shall stone him to death with stones[. then the man who lay with her shall give to the father of the young woman fifty shekels of silver... do forced labour for you. all its spoil.. No bastard shall enter the assembly of the Lord. Following are a few references: Between father and daughters: (Genesis 19:33-35) Between mother and son: (Genesis 35:22) Between father-in-law and daughter-in-law: (Genesis 38:15-18) Incest and rape between brother and sister: (2 Samuel 13:14) ..] (Deuteronomy 21: 18. will not give heed to them[. you shall save alive nothing that breathes.. and you shall stone them to death with stones.2) 18..] (Deuteronomy 22:13.] (Deuteronomy 22:23) However. and the men of her city shall stone her to death with stones[. you shall take as a booty for yourself.. then they shall bring out the young woman to the door of her father's house. (Deuteronomy 21:10-16) If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son.. both of them shall die[. then you shall besiege it.iv Incest Incest is very common in the whole of the Old Testament often involving the characters of the prophets and their families.. but the women and the little ones. Thus you shall do to all the cities which are very far from you.5. and the man because he violated his neighbour's wife[. and goes in to her. even to the tenth generation none of his descendants shall enter the assembly of the Lord.. 20. and a man meets her in the city and lies with her. But if it makes no peace with you. 21) If a man is found lying with a wife of another man. and seizes her and lies with her..] because he did not find the tokens of virginity in her[. if a man meets a virgin who is not betrothed.. and she shall be his wife. then you shall bring both of them out to the gate of the city. 21) If a man takes a wife. But the cities of these people that the Lord your God gives you for an inheritance. the cattle and everything else in the city. and then spurns her[. and you shall enjoy the spoils of your enemies.

He answered. the Sublime. Lord. great is your faith! Be it done for you as you desire. 'Go nowhere among the Gentiles and enter no town of the Samaritans. And behold a Canaanite woman from the region came out and cried. (40:12) [. and He maketh none share in His command. and lo I am with you always.' (Matthew 28:18-20) The Qur'anic verse 3:49 when translated literally. cast out demons. 'Have mercy on me. (Matthew 10:5. such as power to heal the blind and the lepers. 'Send her away. this literalistic interpretation comes into direct contradiction with the following verses in which Allah claims the power of any command to be His alone. that Jesus was sent for the lost sheep of Israel only) […]baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. 'The kingdom of heaven is at hand. cleanse lepers. saying.' But she came and knelt before him. And preach as you go.6) However.' Heal the sick. and Jesus after all.. (18:26) [. therefore.v Jesus According to 'Matthew' Jesus was sent to the Jews: And Jesus went away from there and withdrew to the district of Tyre and Sidon..' And her daughter was healed instantly.Incest and rape between son and mothers: (2 Samuels 16:22) Other kinds of incest (Leviticus 18:8-18. raise the dead. saying. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations[…] (Here Matthew contradicts what he said earlier. appears to agree with the Bible that Jesus was given the powers to perform miracles. according to the Qur'an.. was a man and not a 'son' of God. charging them. help me. (Matthew: 15:21-28) These twelve [disciples] Jesus sent out. 'All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. And his disciples came and begged him.]They have no protecting friend beside Him. to the close of the age. 'I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel.' But he did not answer her a word. 'O woman. Son of David. seems to be allegorical where the most likely explanation of the 'raising of the dead' by Jesus . 'Yes. The verse 3:49. but go rather to the lost sheep of Israel. However.' She said..]But the command belongeth only to Allah. and bring the dead back to life. 'Matthew' appears to contradict himself when he goes on to say: And Jesus came and spoke to them.' And he answered. for she is crying after us'.' Then Jesus answered her. O Lord. There is no physical evidence that a human being can bring the dead back to life. teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. the Majestic.5. yet even dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their master's table. 'It is not fair to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. my daughter is severely possessed by a demon. 20:11-14 and 17-21) 18. saying 'Lord.

an inner regeneration of people who were spiritually diseased and blind to the truth. (John 5:30) But if it is by the finger of God that I cast out the demons. Christianity as preached – and largely invented – by Paul. and my judgement is just. The latter was what one might call Pauline Christianity that is.' The dead man came out. The Bible. and the form of worship practised in the Temple were henceforth old fashioned. According to 'Matthew'. the inference must be that anyone who became a disciple of Jesus automatically received powers similar to those Jesus himself received from God. that they may believe that thou didst send me. man-god creeds of modern Christology are by no means the founding blocks of the religion which has developed into what we today understand by the word 'Christianity'. (Luke 11:2 [. The former was that it is a metaphorical description of his giving new life to a people (the Jews) who were spiritually dead. Jesus. and it should be remembered that Pauline Christianity's eventual triumph over Judeo- Christianity came about for reasons of temporal political expediency only. Jesus said to them. Jesus was sent only to 'the lost sheep of Israel'. had said that the power to do such things was not his own. the circumcision. for Paul. then the kingdom of God has come upon you. as I hear. however. his hands and feet bound with bandages' and his face wrapped with a cloth. but I have said this on account of the people standing by. This point is explicitly made by the Bible too. Unfortunately. today. The book he received from Allah was the Injeel (Gospel). However. the Trinitarian.. which recognised Jesus as a messenger. The 'healing of the blind and the leper' has a similar significance: namely. even for the Jews.]Father I thank thee that thou hast heard me. because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me. I can do nothing on my own authority. the nation-specific and monotheistic nature of Jesus' mission is glossed over and concealed by the so-called 'evangelical Christian' movements of which there are many. The Qur'an does not refute this.3 It is important to note that the original teaching of Jesus does not exist and the Bible that exists today is based on oral traditions – corrupted ones at that.' (John 11: 41-44) It is interesting to note that Acts gives many examples of miracles performed in the name of Jesus. Sabbath. I judge. He confirmed the Taurah (law) and brought the . It was only slowly that the former was supplanted by the latter. The historical fact is that in the early part of 'Christianity' there was a struggle between two main factions. not only by the apostles but also by their later disciples. Bucaille notes that. 'Unbind him and let him go. but conveniently de-emphasised by many of today's churches. When he had said this. I knew that thou hearest me always.. Logically. According to the Qur'an Jesus was sent as a messenger to the Children of Israel. Christianity was to free itself from its political-cum-religious adherence to Judaism and open itself to Gentiles. come out. therefore. claims that Jesus did perform miracles in the simple sense of the word. he cried out with a loud voice. The master. sent by God. staunch monotheism of the kind recognised by both Jews and Muslims. but makes the point that whatever he did was performed only by the permission of God and not as the result of his own will. 'Lazarus.

Even after the narrative gospels became the rage.5 Further evidence of the sayings Gospel come from the discovery in 1946 of a cache of twelve Coptic codices and fragments near Nag Hammadi in upper Egypt. Thus the Gospel of Thomas is a sayings text i. There. This is a remarkable text that may tell us a great deal about the historical Jesus. It was this fortuitous coincidence that made it possible in recent times to recover the book. The Qur'an firmly rejects the proposition that Jesus was the 'son' of God. unlike the previous scriptures. The sayings gospel was quite sufficient for the Jesus movement as they understood it. these congregations quickly turned into a cult of the resurrected or transformed Jesus whom they now referred to as the Christ. It was this myth that made the narrative gospels possible.e.4 The first followers of Jesus could not have imagined. Jesus' death was first interpreted as a martyrdom and then embellished as a miraculous event of crucifixion and resurrection. before it was superseded by the 'narrative gospels'. The title at the beginning reads 'These are the sayings of Living Jesus'. away from the teachings of Jesus and toward the spirit of the Christ who had died and was raised from the dead. The collection. Mack is the 'lost gospel' as practised by the early Christians. But Matthew and Luke each had a copy of the sayings gospel. the law as revealed in the Taurah and the Injeel (Gospel) in its original form is preserved in the Qur'an which is the Word of Allah but. The quotations below refer to two types of gospels: 'narrative gospels' and 'sayings gospel'. Eventually. the sayings gospel of the first followers of Jesus would have disappeared without a trace in the transitions taking place. it is a gospel that has sayings . and the material each copied from it largely overlapped. what it means is that the book given to all the Prophets contained the same law. The congregations of the Christ. We never would have known about the Jesus movements that flourished prior to the Christian church.good news of a messenger to come after him whose name should be Ahmad (another name for Muhammad. and the sayings gospel finally lost to the historical memory of the Christian church. experienced a striking shift in orientation. Were it not for the fact that the two authors of narrative gospels incorporated sizeable portions of the sayings gospel into their stories of Jesus' life. Therefore. Amongst these important collections is the Gospel According to Thomas. such a mythology to sustain them in their efforts to live according to his teachings. documented most clearly in the letters of Paul from the 50s. the sayings gospel was still intact. It was still being copied and read with interest by ever-widening circles. derived from the same three root letters H-M-D). or the Lord. When the Qur'an states that the same book was given to all the prophets. nor did they need. One of the major contradictions in the narrative gospels is that out of the four gospels in the modern Bible only 'Matthew' and 'Luke' contain some semblance of the teachings and the sayings of Jesus. And it was available in slightly different versions in the several groups that continued to develop within the Jesus movement. This myth drew on Hellenistic mythologies that told about the destiny of a divine being (or son of God). contains approximately fifty works. These sayings and teachings of Jesus are referred to as the 'sayings gospel' which according to Burton L. free from all human interference. The mythology that is most familiar to Christians of today developed in groups that formed in northern Syria and Asia Minor. even though the sayings now sound like the pronouncements of the Son of God instead of the teachings of Jesus. the narrative gospels prevailed as the preferred portrayal for Christians. as well as the Son of God. Thus. which was deposited about 400 CE.

London SW18 4JJ 2.6 The distortion of Christianity from the original teachings of Jesus as contained in his sayings. Mack. 3. they based their writings totally on oral traditions. namely. Finally. Longman and Todd. Bukhari. Published by Darton. by Dr. by Burton L. Shaftesbury. 6 Place Saint-Sulpice 75006 Paris. . Making the Christian Bible by John Barton. p. A similar comparison can be made of Islam which. the reason here for bringing out some of the many anomalies found in the Old and the New Testaments is to prove the point which the Qur'an clearly indicates in many of its verses. Where modern scientific investigation has been able to contribute any light. it has consistently found in favour of the Qur'anic presentation. this is the only reference to a cross of any kind. as they exist today. is governed by the writings of Bukhari and Muslim which distort both the spirit and the letter of the Qur'an. let us not forget. The original manuscripts are kept in the Coptic museum in Egypt. Publisher Seghers. One reason for the revelation of the Qur'an is simply that the previous books do not exist in their original form. is based on oral traditions of comparable quality to the writings of Bukhari. The Bible.1952. is entirely due to Paul. that the Old and the New Testament. 140-142 Wandsworth High Street. are not the texts as originally revealed. Mark Tully in a recent television series called The Lives of Jesus. without any particular narrative context. forming a challenge to the imaginative mythology which has become orthodox Christianity. 1996) discussed the implication of this hidden gospel with some experts in the field. The Qur'an is free from all such anomalies. References: 1. Muslim and others. and contains a message completely consistent with all that the prophets received prior to the Qur'anic revalation. The only qualitative difference between the two groups is that the Qur'an has remained both intact and in its original form. 67. as taught by the prophets. p. Longmead. Published in Great Britain by Elements Book Ltd. which on the face appear to be similar and yet hold fundamental differences due simply to the human element in the Biblical texts. Ltd. there is only one reference to a cross. Maurice Bucaille. as practised today. 4. leaned heavily on their own imaginations. Instead. and found the Gospel according to Thomas to be an important collection of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus. 2. That humanity is so divided today is the result of the writings of the likes of Paul. and that is in the context of a proverb that 'you have to bear the cross' meaning that you have to bear your burden. All Biblical quotations are from "The Holy Bible": Revised Standard Version. The Qur'an claims this quite categorically when it reminds Muhammad that nothing has been given to him that was not given before (41:43). In fact. The Bible The Qur'an and Science. One can make an exhaustive comparison of the Biblical texts and the Qur'an with regard to points. (Dec. It is the Word of God without the influence of human interference. Spencer Court. 68. and Muslim who ignored the fundamental values of life. on the other hand. The Lost Gospel (The Book of Q and Christian Origins). We repeat. collected over a period of time and.of Jesus. Dorset. There is also no mention of the resurrection whatsoever.

the Qur'anic statements dealing with the subject have a bearing on the question of the transformations that have taken place in human morphology over the ages. there is not the slightest hint of a concept of the materialistic origin of man. 6. [. man's origin may be traced to the apes. This paragraph is a selection from the last programme of that series. whose view of reality could not possibly be in keeping with today's discoveries.. The material discussed is in effect a summary of pages 160 to 219 of his book with quotations taken from several pages of the text. The latter are indeed governed by the genetic code formed by the union of chromosomes received from the paternal and maternal reproductive cells. Bucaille warns that discrepancy exists between the translations of the verses quoted by him and the translatations of texts currently in use. it must mean that. A BBC television series presented in December 1996 by Mark Tully. The genetic inheritance thus brought together determines. Dr. and this has formally been proven by palaeontology. HUMAN EVOLUTION The analysis here is based on the book The Origin of Man by Dr. Dr. before the second month of pregnancy) and then in the foetus (i.1 In fact.e. after the second month of pregnancy) the possible appearance of morphological changes as compared with the father and mother. it devotes a great deal of space to the morphological transformations undergone by man. This excludes theories that are likely to change.5. The confusion between the two reaches a height when they are merged together – with the very flimsy arguments – under the banner of Evolution.2 One must clearly understand that in the verses quoted by Dr. This unfortunate confusion has caused certain people to wrongly imagine that since the word is used in reference to man. 19. One must understand that any comparison of the facts stated in the Qur'an must be based on facts of scientific data that are well established.e.] It is therefore the combined total changes that take place over successive generations which ultimately determine the morphological . In general. In actual fact. The Lives of Jesus. between a concept of Man's decent from the apes ( a theory that is totally untenable) and the idea of transformations of the human form in the course of time (which has been fully proven). Maurice Bucaille.. p. Ibid. first in the embryo. We likewise discover statements on human reproduction that are expressed in precise terms that lend themselves to comparison with secular knowledge we possess today on the subject. These modifications become definitive after the child is born and during its growth in childhood. (i. Bucaille. but excluding the Qur'anic verses he quotes. We begin with the Qur'an's description of the origins of life. however. 3.. repeatedly emphasising the fact that God fashioned him as he willed. This is particularly true in statements on man and science because of the tradition of translating verses based on the interpretations suggested by the early commentators. Bucaille has quoted many verses from the Qur'an in support of his view that their meanings are explained by the data of contemporary knowledge. some of the verses go beyond embryonic growth to include the transformations of human morphology which took place over the ages. ipso facto. There is obviously a very wide gap.

. p. 2. Those who are convinced of the veracity and value of such a program. an open mind is absolutely essential. Islam. a mind open to argument. 163. is not a religion in the conventional sense of the word. 6 Place Saint- Sulpice 75006 Paris. It also involves a method of study for the understanding of the Qur'an. the way of life beneficial to mankind. This point is made very clearly in chapter 16 and elsewhere. ability and integrity of personality which would never compromise fundamental Qur'anic principles. reflect it in their day- to-day actions. Maurice Bucaille. The people who would be entrusted to run an Islamic State must have the quality. as described in the Qur'an. On the contrary. 180. The most basic requirement for Muslims is to hold fast together and not to divide into sects. This is why the individual in an Islamic Community must be aware of his or her rights. p. 3. recent studies in genetics indicate that the process could not have taken place by any other method than the addition of new information governing the appearance of structures and functions specific to man. Ibid. In such a system the supreme authority belongs to Allah. the Sustainer of the Universe. What science has shown is that. CONCLUSION This book is an attempt at studying the Qur'an in a way that involves many aspects of our life. transformations that palaeontologists have noted in various human groups from past ages.3 There is absolutely no scientific proof to suggest that man was born of the evolved forms of present-day apes. From a scientific point of view. Such a religion is called deen. can be prevented by popular demand. both as individuals and as a collective entity. the crux of the problem is that we do not know what man evolved from: Was it from an autonomous lineage or from one that could be connected with another animal lineage? Whatever the answer. so that any untoward deviation by the ruling authority from the straight path. Ibid. human species appeared which gradually transformed itself into today's man. 20. 162. the way of life for mankind. What is The Origin of Man? by Dr. p. In this respect.. Publisher Seghers. it would be impossible to establish such a State without first bringing about the internal revolutionary changes in our own self or nafs. everything suggests against this outmoded theory. as suggested by the theory of creative evolution. rather than one closed by tradition and prejudice. p. at a certain point in time. It is a complete system in the sense that Religion and State are an integrated whole which cannot and should not be separated. Further to this. 4. These phenomena fit perfectly into the pattern of an expanding genetic code. Ibid.4 References: 1. .. 212. 170. This condition is so important that the Prophet was instructed to dissociate himself from those who divide their deen into sects.

but the initial momentum (of a creditable system) went a long way before the final collapse came in 1924 with the end of the Caliphate which signalled the final death knell for the corrupt corporate 'Islam' in any real political sense. Allah favours only those who follow His Laws. This list of degradation can be extended endlessly. colour. all the basic principles as enunciated in the Qur'an were violated.e.] (48:28) [. and He will change their state. Unimaginable internecine warfare destroyed the fabric of the society. The answer is simple: the rapid expansion that followed this period brought with it all the seeds of destruction. And for the believers there is a contract with Allah: (9:111) Lo! Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth in return for Jannah (Paradise)[.]Allah hath promised unto such of them as believe and do good works forgiveness and immense reward. still think that they are the favoured people of Allah and will one day get back lost glory. (6:159) Verily.. We still do not seem to understand clearly that Allah accepts prayers from only those who are on the right path. gender has no place in Islam. those who follow the laws of Allah. And we are talking about the transformation of a people who were renowned for burying their daughters in sand! Yet these people who had no knowledge. Doing all manner of misdeeds and then hoping to overcome one's problems by praying is a fool's paradise. why did it eventually collapse within a period of 30 years? (The 30 years refer to the period when a true Islamic state existed which ended with Caliph Hazrat Ali). As Islam by . The only distinction that Islam recognises is: 'What is your deen and do you believe in the system or not?' One may be under the impression that such a State is not possible within the time scale of an individual's lifetime and yet the historical evidence says otherwise. Sects. A thriving community that existed at that time expanded outwards to become a powerful world empire. were created. This is why race.. Those who came to power tried to maintain their grip on power on a family and tribal basis. to one of security and peace. which did not exist before. and He will surely establish for them their deen which He hath approved for them. as for those who have broken the unity of their faith and have become sects – thou hast nothing to do with them[... i. Sadly.] The objective of Islam is essentially to reconcile the differences between human beings in order to achieve the establishment of a true Islamic State. the question is that after such a State was established. with 'belief and good deeds') only then will Allah's favour descend on us. Once we fulfil our part of the contract (i. and were absolutely steeped in jahilia (ignorance). Thus. About 1400 years ago in Medina such a State did materialise within a period of 23 years... And this fact is independent of who we happen to be. The verse in which He promises to the believers that they will succeed can only be fulfilled if there is a community of believers who are prepared to carry out His program. Muslims. and will never solve our problems.e. from the fear in which they lived. (24:55) Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good works that He will surely make them to succeed in the earth as He caused those who were before them to succeed. like the Jews. technology and enterprise. were transformed into the world's custodians of science.

Muslim and their ilk have succeeded in duping the Muslims just as Paul succeeded in laying the foundation which brought the Christians to their lamentable present beliefs. independent of who we are. Sexual immorality. And it would require enormous dedication by the majority of the believers who would face enormous challenges. a system which breaks many of the fundamental principles outlined in the Qur'an. so long as it makes profit for its directors and shareholders. is nothing more than an utopian idea. as prescribed in the Qur'an. the banks and individuals which have access to money make even more money by charging interest that bears no resemblance to what can be regarded as legitimate. not otherwise. then success would come with Allah's help. but if they remained united and steadfast.definition is universal in character. The present success of the West in terms of material progress may lead one to think that its power and prosperity will remain uppermost for the foreseeable future. This is to be expected since the Qur'an guarantees the benefits of knowledge and exploration. And when a community of believers is established which is prepared to carry out Allah's deen then success will come. many of the present day calamities and diseases are caused simply because we have violated these laws and principles. the system has encouraged them to borrow large sums of money for which the countries ultimately become mortgaged. This system has impoverished many countries when. an intensive program of education for changing the attitude of the people to the system would be required. gambling – to name a few – are tolerated widely in the name of Freedom. Allah's laws do not discriminate. then the only answer is to test the system. There would be people who would have doubts as the experiment progresses. the principles of equity. If there is still doubt that the deen. It does not matter how a business is run. not only for the individual but for the people as a whole. provided the people of the State – and it can be any State – is committed to carrying out the program. One of the most important calamities that has the potential to destroy the society is the way the State. Rights under the law are only available for the rich. If the West thinks that its prosperity will be protected by its superior technological progress then it is sadly mistaken. In the initial stage. If this continues. the selfish rights of the individuals have become pre-eminent. There would also be interference by external powers. The Western countries have certainly achieved success by researching into science. such as. Muslims did the research and got the benefits. not before. drugs. instead of encouraging nations to depend on their own resources. This is a shortsighted view. fairness and justice. At one time. In fact. This would be cost-effective simply because of the enormous long- term benefits. Then the Hadith literature converted the Muslims to the ridiculous wishful thinking that in order to follow the Qur'anic guidance it was enough to perform the 'five pillars' and leave the rest to Allah! Bukhari. It should be possible to demonstrate to the world that such a system can be achieved within the lifetime of an individual. instead of the rights of the community. any community that conforms to the basic principles of deen is Muslim. We get the benefit if we do the work. One must remember that the Qur'an encourages us to achieve a good life in this world as well as in the hereafter as quoted by the oft-used Doa 'Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil- . Today. 'Truth' is what the media publicises and not what is true in the eyes of Allah. eventually the imbalance will be so great that the whole system will come crashing down. What the West does not see is that the seeds of destruction are imbedded in its Capitalist system. prostitution. technology and nature and attained benefits for doing so.

no matter how well organised.' Appendix 2 (A2) Angel (Malaika): We quote: 'The Qur'an also used Malaika as messengers in verse 22:75. if we continue to violate Allah's Religion of Truth (Deen) then He will continue to destroy us and raise other nations in our place. that He may cause it to prevail over all religion (ways of life). then rebellion. (45:13) And He has made subservient to you. all that is in the heavens and on earth: in this. 98 and once in sura 66:4. In fact. We cannot comprehend or conceive anything about this heavenly force.' Appendix 3 (A3) Devil (Iblees or Shaitan): We quote: 'The Qur'an has termed Iblees and Shaitan as the two faces of the same coin. we simply go on praying to Allah and performing our five pillars then nothing will be achieved. are messages indeed for people who think! APPENDICES Appendix 1 (A1) Gabriel (Jibreel): We quote. . every kind of similitude. independent power or discretion to do whatever they like – but they carry out the given task/responsibility as ordained by Allah. without much commitment. (17:89) And We have explained to mankind. If on the other hand. 'The word is from Hebrew. (9:33) He it is Who hath sent His messengers with the guidance and the religion of truth (deen). It has also been called Holy Spirit (Ruhul-Qudus) (16:102) and True Spirit (Ruhul-Ameen) (26:193). as only a Prophet would know. behold. This. is one aspect of its functions and duties: otherwise they are those who direct affairs by Command (79:5). These forces are not given any will. While narrating the story of Adam. Allah also promises in the following verse that the universal system of deen will prevail above all other systems. yet the greater part of mankind refuse (to receive it) except with ingratitude. twice in sura 2:97. and yet we hardly consider His messages and rarely study His Book seriously. And it is only by committing to Allah's deen wholeheartedly that we can achieve this. however much the disbelievers are averse.akhirati hasanataw wa quin a-azab-an-nar' which means. 'O our Sustainer give us good in this life as well as the Hereafter'. (47:38) If you turn away He will replace you with another kind of people who will not be like you. from Himself. because of their inherent contradictions will fail. of course. alteration or mixture. Allah has given us everything to make our life beneficial and peaceful. It has been used in the Qur'an three times. those who govern the events and disperse by Command (51:4). without any addition. This force used to bring the revelation exactly as ordained. It refers to that heavenly force which brought the Holy Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad (2:97). the refusal to bow. in this Qur'an. Any other man-made systems.

20. without any qualification. (21:26. 63). 42. The word Raheem appears 120 times. 33. (25:26. (78:37. 19. 59. the word Reham. Iblees and Shaitan or pride and rebellion are in fact obstacles which hinder the progress of human Self (Nafs). 52). (26:5). . 20:116-120). 92. 61. 91. (50:33). and energy from the sun. all these are attributed to Iblees. The word Rahamat is also from the same root. With this background to the root of the words Rahman and Raheem. 69. The qualification of Raheem with the attributes 'forgiving' or 'relenting' indicates that this type of mercy relates to our action and deeds.disobedience. (41:2). before sitting down to end the 4 rakats. 45. although Allah is prepared to forgive the mistakes in our deeds. 81). 44. This attribute clearly relates to the meaning of nourishment or sustenance. the word Rahman often appears on its own. For example: He gives air and water freely. according to its need'. 78. For example. and finally the challenge to mislead mankind. and when it mentions the story of Adam's fall. 20. 112). 58. On the other hand. 60. 75. means the mother's womb where a baby receives nourishment without any effort on the part of the baby. 96). (20:5. 26. mostly combined with the attribute Gafur (forgiving). As an attribute of Allah the word Rahman appears in the Qur'an 55 times without any other attribute. in the form of heat and light. 45. 7:11-20. Appendix 5 (A5) The words Rahman and Raheem originate from the same root (Ra-ha-meem). 36. And so. without which sustenance is impossible. 23. which comes from the same root. (67:3. (19:18. The words Rahman and Raheem come together six times outside of the formula which introduces all but one of the suras. and a number of times with the word Taw-wa-bur (relenting). If a prayer is composed of 4 rakats then one must sit down after two rakats and then stand up to complete two more rakats. The verse references are given below for further study and understanding from the Qur'an. 108. 85. in order to understand their real meaning. (17:110). (43:17. 93. (13:30). 109). 38).' Appendix 4 (A4) Rakat: A rakat is a complete set of postures from standing to bending and then prostration. (27:30). This shows that Iblees is the name used for a specific personality trait and the way this trait operates is called Shaitan. 36. 88. In other words Allah gives benefits which sustains everyone irrespective of whether he does good deeds or not. 15. In other words. the process of our development is according to our deeds. The Qur'an additionally states that the process of our development is according to our deeds. (36:11. simply praying for Allah's mercy without any good deeds can have no real effect. (55:1). we can now look at the verses which include these two very important attributes of Allah. meaning 'nourishment (manifest or hidden) provided to a person or to a thing. it is attributed to Shaitan (2:36. (59:22). 19. and to achieve this we cannot rely on Allah's grace alone but rather on what we do in our life by way of positive actions as well. 90. 29). Rahman (Beneficent): (2:163).

Raheem (Merciful): (2:37. and if they . For example. 226). 140. 43. (5:98). though before this they were indeed in manifest error. a literal translation would again imply that the whole Arab population was illiterate or ummi. he could neither read nor write. that is. at that time. that is. (27:11. 47. (44:42). 159. the Prophet who can neither read nor write (ummi)[. (9:5. This verse tells us that the Prophet was sent amongst the ummiyyeen 'from among themselves'. 192. 167). (52:28). 143. 128). 18. A typical translation of the opening of the verse is as follows: (7:157) Those who follow the messenger. 104. 110. (41:2). 90). that the Qur'an means something quite different than the literal translation of the word ummi as 'illiterate'. (25:6. There is a common belief. (46:8). 59. 70). (meaning the Jews and Christians) as well as the unlettered people (ummiyyeen) (meaning the Arabs). we cannot possibly say that the whole of the Arab population was illiterate. Alauddin Shabazz. (7:151. (11:41. 12. 28). (73:20). The Qur'an itself mentions scribes among them. 175. What is true is that people were in manifest error simply because they. 64. (66:1). Appendix 6 (A6) The following section is based on chapter 3 of the book Truth or Consequences. but also to the people in the West. (64:14). 32). 96. (10:107). (17:66). (4:16. 73). 152). (21:83). (57:9. 191. Rahman and Raheem: (Beneficent and Merciful) (1:1). 145. (6:54. (59:10. (15:49). 199. 23. (12:53. 54. 165). (41:2. (O Muhammad) say: I have surrendered my purpose to Allah and (so have) those who follow me. 119). 115. The word ummiyyeen here refers to the whole population of Mecca at that time. 12). 29. However. 117. And ask those who have received the Scripture aforetime. (36:5. not only among the vast majority of the Muslims.. (30:5). that the Prophet was illiterate. 118. 98). (48:14) (49:5. 122. (22:65). 128. 68. 24. as we know for certain that this was not the case. 110. 22). (24:5. (1:3). it would be unfair to draw this conclusion without looking at other relevant verses which show significantly. 30). For further clarification we look at verse 3:20 which states: (3:20) And if they argue with thee. to recite to them His revelations and to make them grow. 129. (58:2. (32:6).] The word ummi is thus usually translated as one who can neither read nor write. 22. 91. 129). (34:2). 153. 89. 33. 106. 163. and to teach them the Scripture and Wisdom. people who could both read and write. and this revelation was recorded by means of the written word. 20. 100. 62). 58). 'Have you (too) surrendered yourselves unto Him?' If they surrender. 27. 217). 70). then truly they are rightly guided. (16:7. (28:16). (26:9. by Dr. (42:5). 74). 173. (5:3. did not receive any revelation which instructed them to the way of life prescribed by Allah. 218. (27:30). (3:31. 182. (14:36).. 39. 92. 12). 25. (59:22). (60:7. Thus. 160. (33:5. Even if we accept the word ummi as meaning 'illiterate'. (8:69. 104. 50. (2:163). 14). 99. 102. Verse 7:157 is often quoted in support of this view. (39:53). verse 62:2 states: (62:2) He it is Who hath sent among the unlettered ones (ummiyyeen) a messenger of their own. 34. 64.

The Prophet. It does not follow that he was 'unlettered' in the general sense of the word. Woe unto them for what their hands have written.79). these two verses definitely establish the real meaning of ummi or ummiyyeen – as used in the Qur'an – as 'scripturally illiterate' and 'people with no knowledge of the Scripture' respectively The following two verses state that the Prophet. and. Further.' that they may purchase a small gain therewith. the reference to them becomes clear if we read the few verses that precede it. Now consider verses 2:78. This verse is very significant as Allah is taking it on Himself to impart scriptural knowledge to the Prophet by sending revelation to him. lacking Allah's guidance. Allah sees all that is in (the hearts of) His servants. had no scriptural . Hence the statement that the Prophet will not forget the revelations sent to him. Therefore woe unto those who write the scripture with their own hands and then say. Although the verses 2:28. by implication was scripturally unlettered. In this verse the Qur'an is stating quite clearly that the Prophet. they could not have been 'unlettered' in the conventional sense but only in the sense of not having knowledge of the scriptures. 'This is from Allah. In this verse the Qur'an gives clues into the usage of the terms ummi and ummiyyeen.e. who by this time had received the scripture. nor didst thou write it with thy right hand. and Allah was going to give him this knowledge. This does not mean to teach him how to read and write in the conventional sense.79 do not directly mentions Jews. therefore. therefore. is asking everybody including the Jews and Christians. Thus. since they had no knowledge of the scripture. Hence. prior to his receiving revelation. had not read any scripture nor written anything on the subject and. we find that some Jews during the time of Musa are termed ummiyyeen. The Prophet is referred to as ummi in the Qur'an because he had not read any scriptures prior to receiving revelation himself and. from the Arabs who are addressed as ummiyyeen. that is. had no knowledge of the scripture (hence he was a ummi). and woe unto them what they earn thereby. Here the Qur'an is making a distinction between the people who have received the book i. They but guess. one who had not previously read any scripture. then your duty is no more than to deliver the message. (29:48) And thou (O Muhammad) wast not a reader of any Scripture before it. turn away. therefore. 79) Among them are unlettered folk who know the scripture not except from hearsay.79: (2:78. the Jews and the Christians. the very same people pretended to know and are charged by Allah with 'writing a book' with their 'own hands'. for then might those have doubted who follow falsehood. He in turn has to impart that knowledge to his people. Thus. In these verses (2:78. (87:6) We shall make thee read (O Muhammad) so that thou shalt not forget. to submit to the guidance given by Allah. the Qur'an gives enough evidence to show that ummi signifies one who has no knowledge of the scripture. prior to the receipt of revelation himself.

The Meaning of the Glorious Qur'an. Lahore-11. The True Translation of the Glorious Qur'an. as we are unable to follow the guidance given in the Qur'an References: Exposition of the Qur'an. Turkman Gate. Beirut. 5. Publisher: New Mind Productions. Published by Dar Al-Andalus. by Late Ali Ahmad Khan Jullundri. Mahar Abdul Haq. leads to scriptural illiteracy. Pakistan. both the Prophet and the Arabs were 'scripturally illiterate'. by Gulam Ahmed Parwez. The Holy Qur'an by Maulana Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers and Booksellers. Muhammad Muhsin Khan. 8. Exposition of the Qur'an.110008. If we do not devote ourselves to the understanding of the Qur'an and to following its instructions then as far as the Qur'an is concerned we are ummi or 'scripturally illiterate'.A. The Holy Qur'an. Translated by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi. Gibralter. Chicago. Inc. 4. P. Volume 1. 3. New Delhi . Sahih Muslim. Translated by Dr. Published in USA by Specialty Promotions Co. Lebanon. 7. Chapter 3. Box 5185 Jersey City. Simply reciting the book without understanding what it means. Tolu-E-Islam Trust (Regd) 25B Gulberg. ---------------------------- BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. and therefore could not lead their life according to Allah's guidance. Published by Taj Company.7 (Pakistan). by Dr. Published by Dar Al Arabia. . Educational Philosophy of the Holy Qur'an. by Marmaduke Pickthall.knowledge. 7 Aibak Road (New Anarkali) Lahore . Similarly. by Gulam Ahmed Parwez Tolu-E-Islam Trust (Regd) 25B Gulberg.110006. 2. Published by Naushaba Publications. Lahore. 9. New Delhi. by Muhammad Asad. 6. 3151. Truth or Consequences. as a people. had not received any revelation prior to the Qur'an. P. Illinois. in effect. by Yusuf Ali. Box 6089. Lahore-11. the Arabs were called ummiyyeen because they. 18-K Gulberg 2. New Ranjit Nagar. D. The Message of the Qurán. but the Qur'an is there as Allah's book of guidance. Pakistan.p.Volumes 1 to 9. Inc.O. not illiterate in the general sense of the word.O. Published by Kitab Bhaban. pages 31-34. 11. by Dr. The Prophet is no longer among us. Alauddin Shabazz. NJ 07305. Published by World Islamic Mission. Sahih Al-Bukhari . Thus in using the words ummi and ummiyyeen the Qur'an is not referring to one's general illiteracy but to one's scriptural illiteracy.D. Flats. Delhi . In other words. Pakistan. India.

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42. in the darkness of the night. London. Islamic State -. Published by "Islamic Party of Britain" in their official Party News report.O. Bhd. Does the Qur'an Sanction the Hitting of Women? by Rachael Tibbett. The Islamic Tradition of "Moon Sighting" and its Implications. A Restoration of Faith. Letter to Al-Balaagh.3. The Qur'anic Punishment for Theft.25. Malek 30.A.A.Sept. Letter to Al-Balaagh. K. 26. A. New Delhi . 33. by Dr. Malek. Islam and Human Rights. Berita Publishing Sdn. Ibrahim Golightly died in Bosnia when he was carrying food for relief.B. by Saiyed Shahid Ali. 39. Malek. by Syed Amir Ali. A Modern Guide to Astronomical Calculations of Islamic Calendar. Published by Kitab Bhaban. 38. Published by M. July . by the United Muslim Association (U. The Qur'an: Basic Teachings. By Dr. and the van overturned killing both him and his collegue. Malek. Mohammad Ilyas.K). (Lensia. Question Time by Haji Ibrahim Golightly. P. Article published in Al-Balaagh Vol 21. 28. 223 London Road. Malaysia. (Lahore. Tafseer Al-Qur'an Bil Qur'an (Explanation of the Qur'an by the Qur'an): Lecture by Syed Mustafa Ali. London N22 6AG. by T. Issue number 8.O. A Short History of the Saracens. South Africa. 1995 issue.Times & Qibla. Kuala Lumpur. 41. Published in "The Message". By Basheer Ahmed Vania. P.Training with an Objective: Lecture by Syed Mustafa Ali. 37. London SW18. 40.M. Leicester LE2 1ZE. Sayed Abdul Wadud. Ramadan -. Irving. Nov/Dec 1996 issue. Ahmad and M. Implications of Ahadith for Islam: Lecture by Mohammed Abdul Malek 36. No.Published by M. Pakistan). Islam: Taking root in Europe by Sahib Mustaqim Bleher. Ramadan -. by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan. Nov/Dec 1996 issue. Lensia1820. 32. 35. A Simplified Approach to the Study of the Qurán: Lecture by M. 27. South Africa. Published by The Islamic Foundation. 34. 29.A Time for Change: Lecture by David Stokes. Ahsan.110002. Published by The London Mosque. Lensia1820. 63 Melrose Road. by M. 31 Crawley Road. "Common Sense" dated Last Quarter 1992. Box 1925. . South Africa).First Principles: Lecture by Syed Mustafa Ali. Box 1925. A. 31.

Box 783. A pamphlet on: The Islamic View on the Prohibition of Alcohol. Box 90005 Houston.O. R.A.O. Lensia 1820 South Africa. St. New York. M. The Lives of Jesus.1952. Inc. Cowan. Haywood and H. Lincoln. The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail. A Lion Handbook. Ithaca. Pakistan. Published by UK Islamic Mission Dawah Centre. Cavanagh. London. The History of Christianity. 401-403 Alum Rock Road. 140-142 Wandsworth High Street. 45. Clairmonte and J. A BBC television series presented at the end of 1996 by Mark Tully. 1997. by J. The Lost Gospel (The Book of Q and Christian Origins). Box 1925. 121 High Street. 47. 46. London. Al-Qur'an and Al-Hadith Databases. London SW18 4JJ BOOK REVIEWS Al-Balaagh: P.1. 1.M.B. Masson Road. Published by Corgi Books. England. by Kamal Salibi. 55. Published by Darton. Tauris & Co. Bleher. Arabic-English Lexicon. The author has adhered to the Qur'an from the beginning to end and in his inimitable style he has driven home the ineluctable point that Allah's Holy Word is a sine que non of a Muslim's . 48. Spencer Court.O.O. by Burton L. by The Islamic Computing Centre. Publishers I. Nahmud. Edited by J. 49. 51. Mack. (ii) Passages from the article "Impossible debt on road to global ruin" by F. (8 parts). Published in Great Britain by Elements Book Ltd. Berkhamsted. by M. dated 9.87. Baigent. The Guardian: (i) News item on front page dated 7. Making the Christian Bible by John Barton. Lahore-3. Texas.87. Herts. Leigh & H. by Edward William Lane. Conspiracy in Jerusalem (The hidden origins of Jesus). 50.3. P. by S. 54. Box 1625. 25-B. Published by Lion Publishing. 56. August-September Issue. Ltd. London N4 2QJ. P. The ISL Software Corporation. 73. 52. Arabic-English Dictionary: The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. 53. Birmingham B8 3DT. Longman and Todd. Published by Spoken Language Services. Published by Islamic Book Centre.43. Publisher Lund Humphries. 44. Ltd. A New Arabic Grammar.M. P. The Alim. The Holy Bible: Revised Standard Version. Thomas's Road.

January-March issue. The Qur'an has to be the primary source of Islamic theological study for all Muslims.00 plus postage of £1. London N22 6AG. The Message: 31 crawley Road. 1998.30 depending on the zone and (by sea) £1. it offers an incentive for profound study that few open minded Muslims will be able to resist. Surrey Post code: SM1 3PE U. and what Ahadith based theologians say it means. Malek 69 Prince of Wales Road Sutton. This book not only makes this point with great clarity but by giving the reader many examples of what the Qur'an actually says. The book can be obtained from: M. as distinct from what a lot of sincere and devout Muslims think it says. Price at cost £2. A.K Overseas (by air) £3.K. and that his salvation and solution to all his problems lies SOLELY with the Qur' or £4.80 . No Muslim should be without this invaluable book.10 in U.