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Supplementary Material

For students

Grammar & vocabulary:

Reference and practice 1

Grammar & vocabulary:

Worksheets 41
Grammar & vocabulary

Starter Gramática
Modals and semi-modals Past simple and present perfect
Utilizamos los verbos modales y semimodales, en combinación Past simple
con otros verbos, para expresar necesidad, obligación, I / You / He / She / It / We / They went.
capacidad, permiso, etc.
didn’t go.
Obligación Did I / you / he / she / it / we / they go?
Presente have to, need to, must Present perfect
Pasado had to, needed to I / You / We / They have
Ausencia de obligación He / She / It has
Presente don’t / doesn’t have to, don’t / doesn’t need to I / You / We / They haven’t
Pasado didn’t have to, didn’t need to He / She / It hasn’t
Capacidad y permiso Have I / you / we / they
Presente can, is / am / are allowed to Has he / she / it
Pasado could, was / were allowed to Uso
Futuro will be able to, will be allowed to
El past simple se utiliza para referirse a acciones o situaciones
Prohibición que sucedieron y se completaron en un momento
Presente mustn’t concreto del pasado. Las frases en past simple suelen incluir
Consejo expresiones temporales que especifican ese momento.
Presente should, ought to I went to London three years ago.
Can, could, must y should son verbos modales auténticos. Utilizamos el present perfect para describir acciones o
Sus características son las siguientes: situaciones que:
• – no tienen formas de infinitivo. • aún no se han completado.
I’ve studied English since 2013.
can (NO to can)
(I started studying English in the past and I still study English
• van seguidos del infinitivo sin to. now.)
We must go. (NO We must to go.) • se dieron en el pasado, pero no se sabe o no importa
• tienen una única forma, ya que no se les añade la -s de la cuándo.
tercera persona del singular. Daniel has been to London.
He should do more exercise. (NO He shoulds do more (We don’t know when Daniel went to London.)
Otros verbos cumplen una función similar a la de los verbos Present simple and present
modales, pero no cumplen todas las normas arriba citadas. continuous
Se conocen como verbos semimodales: need to, have to,
had to, ought to, be allowed to, be able to. Uso
El present simple se utiliza para referirse a:
• acciones que se repiten, hábitos y rutinas.
I play tennis.
Sally gets up at 7.30.
• situaciones y hechos que se consideran ciertos.
I enjoy trail biking.
Utilizamos el present continuous para:
• acciones que se están desarrollando ahora.
We’re watching a DVD at the moment.
I’m reading a great book.
Algunos verbos no se utilizan en present continuous: believe,
belong, hate, know, like, love, prefer, understand, want.
I want to go home.

Gramática Starter unit 97

Grammar & vocabulary

Starter Grammar practice

Modals and semi-modals 4 Complete the text with the correct past simple or
present perfect form of the verbs in bold.
1 Match sentences 1–6 to functions A–F.
1 You shouldn’t eat so much fast food. Wakeboarding (1) (not exist)
for a long time, but interest in the sport
2 They didn’t have to do PE.
(2) (grow) dramatically
3 We had to do exercise 6 for homework. in recent years. It isn’t clear who originally
4 I’m allowed to borrow my sister’s bike. (3) (invent) wakeboarding.
5 When will I be able to drive? However, it (4) (start) to become
6 I must go home now. a recognized sport in 1985 when a surfer from
San Diego called Tony Finn (5)
A obligation in the present
(invent) the ‘Skurfer’, a cross between water
B no obligation in the past skis and a surfboard. Not many people
C ability in the future (6) (know) about the sport until
D advice in the present the late 1980s, when a water ski manufacturer
(7) (improve) the design. In
E permission in the present
2000, the first Wakeboard World Championships
F obligation in the past
(8) (take) place in Montpellier,
France. Since then, wakeboarding competitions
2 Complete the sentences with one word.
1 We have to pay to visit the museum. (become) important
Admission was free. international events and
2 Do you think cars be able to fly one day? the popularity of the sport
3 The speaker had a very quiet voice and no one (10) (not stop)
hear what she was saying. growing.
4 We put on our seatbelts. It’s illegal not to
wear one.
Present simple and present
5 That dress looks great on you. You to buy it.
Past simple and present perfect 5 Are the sentences correct (✓) or incorrect (✗)?
3 Choose the correct option. Correct the incorrect sentences.

1 Have you done / did your homework yet? 1 I’m eating cereal every morning.
2 I didn’t / haven’t sleep well last night.
3 Joe’s mum hasn’t / didn’t seen his tattoo yet. 2 Who is this coat belonging to?
4 What did / have you have for lunch today?
5 He broke / broken the world record in 1996. 3 Are you listen to a lot of reggaeton at the
6 Anna has spoke / spoken to Fiona recently.

4 He doesn’t understand this exercise.

5 Sarah wears a lovely dress today.

6 I really love this song.

98 Starter unit Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Starter Vocabulario
Technology: instruction verbs Health and fitness
browse (v) / braʊz / accuracy (n) / ˈækjərəsi /
charge (v) / tʃɑːdʒ / balance (n) / ˈbæləns /
plug in (v) / ˌplʌɡ ˈɪn / beat (v) / biːt /
press (v) / pres / compete (v) / kəmˈpiːt /
scroll (v) / skrəʊl / coordination (n) / kəʊˌɔːdɪˈneɪʃn /
stream (v) / striːm / draw (v) / drɔː /
swipe (v) / swaɪp / flexibility (n) / ˌfleksəˈbɪləti /
switch on (v) / ˌswɪtʃ ˈɒn / improve (v) / ɪmˈpruːv /
tap (v) / tæp / speed (n) / spiːd /
text (v) / tekst / stamina (n) / ˈstæmɪnə /
update (v) / ˌʌpˈdeɪt / strength (n) / streŋθ /
take the lead (v) / ˌteɪk ðə ˈliːd /
Technology adjectives
automatic (adj) / ˌɔːtəˈmætɪk / Shopping verbs
convenient (adj) / kənˈviːniənt / afford (v) / əˈfɔːd /
efficient (adj) / ɪˈfɪʃnt / be worth (it) (v) / bi ˈwɜːθ ɪt /
heavy (adj) / ˈhevi / borrow (v) / ˈbɒrəʊ /
high quality (adj) / ˌhaɪ ˈkwɒləti / lend (v) / lend /
impractical (adj) / ɪmˈpræktɪkl / save up (v) / ˌseɪv ˈʌp /
inconvenient (adj) waste (v) / weɪst /
/ ˌɪnkənˈviːniənt /
inefficient (adj) / ˌɪnɪˈfɪʃnt / Functional language
light (adj) / laɪt /
Time expressions
low quality (adj) / ˌləʊ ˈkwɒləti /
manual (adj) / ˈmænjuəl /
practical (adj) / ˈpræktɪkl /
from … to
reliable (adj) / rɪˈlaɪəbl /
unreliable (adj) / ˌʌnrɪˈlaɪəbl /
useful (adj) / ˈjuːsfl /
useless (adj) / ˈjuːsləs /
Speaking strategy
Sports verbs and nouns Asking if someone has time to help
archery (n) / ˈɑːtʃəri / Are you busy?
athletics (n) / æθˈletɪks / Have you got a minute?
catch up (with) (v) / ˌkætʃ ˈʌp wɪð / Asking for help with a specific problem
kayaking (n) / ˈkaɪækɪŋ / Can you spell that for me?
miss out (on) (v) / ˌmɪs ˈaʊt ɒn / Could you tell me what … means?
pick up (v) / ˌpɪk ˈʌp / How do you pronounce it?
rock climbing (n) / ˈrɒk ˌklaɪmɪŋ / Would you mind translating that?
take up (v) / ˌteɪk ˈʌp /
trail biking (n) / ˈtreɪl ˌbaɪkɪŋ /
try out (v) / ˌtraɪ ˈaʊt /
wakeboarding (n) / ˈweɪkbɔːdɪŋ /

Vocabulario Starter unit 99

Grammar & vocabulary

Starter Vocabulary practice

1 Each word in the snake begins with the last letter 3 Complete the text with the words.
of the previous word. Complete the missing letters.
accuracy browse heavy high-quality
Then complete the definitions with the words.
improve press scroll take up unreliable useful
min f fo r
s ta ra
igh ex t
ca There was a time when people worried that as
as ra c t i


fficien a technology became more advanced, fewer people would


(1) sport. Fortunately, that hasn’t happened.

1 (adj): the opposite of heavy
In fact, you only need to (2) the apps
2 (v): have enough money for available online to see how technology is helping athletes
3 (adj): that makes good use of time or to (3) their performance. For example,
energy before smartphones, runners used pedometers to measure
4 (adj): useful or suitable distance. Early pedometers were (4) as they
5 (v): finish a game with the same score contained a metal pendulum which counted the steps
a person had taken. Even electronic pedometers weren’t
6 (v): not use in a sensible way
as (5) as the running apps we have now.
7 (n): the strength to do something (6) pedometers were expensive, while
difficult for a long period of time cheap ones were (7) . They had very limited
8 (v): send an SMS functions, too. They couldn’t tell you how much energy
9 (n): sports including running and you’d burned with any (8) and they definitely
jumping couldn’t show you a map of your route. Now that we can
10 (v): hit quickly and lightly simply (9) a button and (10)
down a screen to get all this information instantly, there’s no
2 Choose one word from each of the boxes to excuse not to get outside and start getting fit.
complete the sentences.
be miss plug rock save switch take trail
4 Translate the sentences.
1 I want to try out wakeboarding, but I don’t know if
biking climbing in on out my coordination is good enough.
the lead up worth
1 If you try out , you should
wear a helmet. 2 It’s very inconvenient that this software doesn’t
2 Now I know why my phone wasn’t charging: I forgot update itself automatically.
to it .
3 Billy is catching up with Chris … and I think he’s
going to ! 3 Gymnasts need exceptional balance and flexibility to
be able to compete in the Olympics.
4 How can those trainers possibly
5 I don’t enjoy at all. I’m
4 Kayaking is fun, but it’s impractical if you don’t live
afraid of falling.
near a river.
6 How was the party? What did I
7 How long will it take you to 5 Thanks to his extraordinary speed and strength, he
for a new phone? beat the other runners easily.
8 Can I my phone now,
please? I need to check my messages.

100 Starter unit Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 1 Gramática

Past simple, past continuous and Present perfect continuous

used to I / You / We / They have / haven’t
been working.
He / She / It has / hasn’t
Past simple
Have I / you / we / they
I / You / He / She / It / We / They arrived / didn’t arrive. been working?
Has he / she / it
Did I / you / he / she / it / we / they arrive?
Past continuous
El present perfect describe hechos que comenzaron en el
I / He / She / It was / wasn’t pasado pero tienen un efecto en el presente.
You / We / They were / weren’t
Utilizamos el present perfect simple para subrayar el
Was I / he / she / it resultado actual de una acción que se ha completado.
Were you / we / they He’s broken his arm.
used to El present perfect continuous sirve para subrayar el
used to / didn’t resultado actual de una acción que no se ha completado, y
I / You / He / She / It / We / They go
use to sigue en la actualidad.
Did I / you / he / she / it / we / they use to go?
It’s been raining for hours.
Utilizamos el past simple para describir una acción que se Present perfect with already, still
completó en el pasado.
I ate cereal for breakfast this morning.
and yet
El past continuous describe una acción que se estaba Uso
desarrollando en un momento concreto del pasado. Already, still y yet se utilizan con el present perfect.
At half past seven, I was having breakfast. Already aparece en frases afirmativas para subrayar que algo
El past simple y el past continuous se combinan cuando ha sucedido antes de lo esperado.
una acción interrumpe otra. While suele acompañar al past She’s only sixteen, but she’s already won a gold medal.
continuous, y when va con el past simple. Still y yet se incluyen en frases negativas para indicar que
While we were walking to school, it started to snow. algo no ha cambiado.
I was walking to school when it started to snow. He still hasn’t arrived. = He hasn’t arrived yet.
Utilizamos just when con el past continuous para subrayar También utilizamos yet en la forma interrogativa para
que ambos hechos sucedieron exactamente en el mismo preguntar si algo ha sucedido.
momento. Have you tidied your room yet?
Just when I was paying for my friend’s birthday present,
he came into the shop! Present perfect with just, ever and
Used to + infinitivo hace referencia a hábitos (acciones
que se repiten) o estados del pasado que ya no se dan en la
actualidad. Uso
I used to have blond hair. I didn’t use to eat fish. Just + la forma afirmativa del present perfect significa “hace
muy poco tiempo”.
Present perfect simple and present I’m not hungry, thanks. I’ve just eaten a sandwich.
perfect continuous Incluimos ever en preguntas relativas a experiencias.
Have you ever been to the USA?
Present perfect simple
Ever también se utiliza en frases afirmativas, generalmente
I / You / We / They have / haven’t
left. detrás de only o de un superlativo.
He / She / It has / hasn’t
He’s the most optimistic person I’ve ever met.
Have I / you / we / they
left? Utilizamos never + la forma afirmativa del present perfect
Has he / she / it para referirnos a experiencias que nunca hemos tenido.
I’ve never seen an elephant in the wild.

Gramática Unit 1 101

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 1 Grammar practice

Past simple, past continuous and 3 My dad loves The Rolling Stones. He (see)
used to them in concert seven times!
4 You should have a break now. You
1 Choose the correct option. (work) since this morning.
1 I was browsing online when / while I found this cool 5 This traffic is awful. We (drive) for
video. hours and we’ve only travelled twenty kilometres.
2 Just when we got / were getting into a taxi, our bus
finally arrived. Present perfect with already, still
3 She didn’t use / used to think teenagers could make and yet
a difference to society.
4 While he travelled / was travelling in South Africa, 4 Add already, still and yet to the underlined
he visited Kruger National Park. sentences and phrases. Sometimes there is more
than one possible answer.
5 How are / did charities use to organize events before
the internet? 1 I started collecting money this morning and I’ve
raised €100.
2 Complete the text with the past simple or past
continuous form of the verbs in brackets or an
2 You’ve been reading that book for weeks. Have you
appropriate word. Write one word in each gap.
finished it?
One morning, when Craig Kielburger was twelve, he was
(1) (look) at his parents’ newspaper when he 3 I told Adam to feed the dog, but he hasn’t done it.
(2) (see) a picture of a boy on the front page. The
boy (3) (be) the same age as Craig and a victim of
4 We started an online petition yesterday and over 500
child labour. Craig (4)  (discover) that over 215
people have signed it.
million children in the world (5) working as slaves
in terrible conditions. Craig (6) (decide) to take
action. He founded the charity Free the Children and several of 5 I think I’m going to start volunteering, but I haven’t
his classmates (7) (agree) to get involved, too. They decided.
used to (8) (meet) regularly to write letters, make
phone calls and sell lemonade. Adults often (9)
(tell) Craig that he was too young to make a difference, but Present perfect with just, ever and
he (10) use to listen. Free the Children is now an
international charity dedicated to showing people that no one is
too young to make a positive change to society. 5 Complete the sentences using just, ever or never
and the present perfect form of the bold verbs.
1 I don’t know New York. (visit)
Present perfect simple and present
perfect continuous
2 Simon got here a moment ago. (arrive)
3 Complete the sentences with the correct present Simon
perfect simple or continuous form of the verbs.
3 She doesn’t have experience of surfing. (try)
1 We (watch) this film for an hour She’s
and nothing interesting has happened yet.
4 Do you know what wasabi tastes like? (eat)
2 I can’t come to orchestra practice today.
Have you
I (forget) to bring my violin to
school. 5 I don’t know a kinder person than Tom. (meet)
Tom is the kindest person that
102 Unit 1 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 1 Vocabulario

1.1 Adjectives: personality 1.2 Learn it!

bitter (adj) / ˈbɪtə(r) / used to
cruel (adj) / ˈkruːəl / be used to
dedicated (adj) / ˈdedɪkeɪtɪd / get used to
dependable (adj)
/ dɪˈpendəbl / 1.2 Word builder
eager (adj) / ˈiːɡə(r) / (bring) change
enthusiastic (adj) / ˌbrɪŋ ˈtʃeɪndʒ /
/ ɪnˌθjuːziˈæstɪk / (cause) damage
optimistic (adj) / ˌɒptɪˈmɪstɪk / / ˌkɔːz ˈdæmɪdʒ /
outgoing (adj) / ˈaʊtɡəʊɪŋ / (record) information
supportive (adj) / səˈpɔːtɪv / / rɪˌkɔːd ɪnfə ˈmeɪʃn /
sympathetic (adj) (make) the decision
/ ˌsɪmpəˈθetɪk / / ˌmeɪk ðə dɪˈsɪʒn /
truthful (adj) / ˈtruːθfl /
1.3 Extra vocabulary
1.1 Extra vocabulary habitat (n) / ˈhæbɪtæt /
bully (n) / ˈbʊli / National Park (n)
/ ˌnæʃnəl ˈpɑːk /
founder (n) / ˈfaʊndə(r) /
shade (n) / ʃeɪd /
star (n) / stɑː(r) /
the wild (n) / ðə ˈwaɪld /
victims (n) / ˈvɪktɪmz /

1.2 Collocations: get and make

1.4 Functional language
get better Requesting information
get involved I’d like some information about … .
get permission Could / Can you explain what … involves?
get the feeling Can you explain which … ?
get things done How can we help … ?
get used to Is it possible to … ?
make a difference Could you tell us (a bit more) about … ?
make an effort Giving information
make an impression Would you like me to tell you how it works?
make the most of it Let me explain how it works.
What you do is … .
1.2 Functional language Have a look on our website to see … .
Good idea! If you adopt / sponsor … , we can buy / save … .
I’m impressed!
That really is brilliant!
That sounds great!
That’s incredible!

Vocabulario Unit 1 103

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 1 Vocabulary practice

1 Write the bold letters in the correct order to 2 Complete the text with the words.
complete the school reports. Then match them to
better bullies cruel dedicate
the missing sentences A–E.
difference sympathetic victims
She made hte omst of the school
trip to Paris to practise her French and it’s really made a
erdncfeife to her grades.

2 The world can seem like a (1) place when

He always makes an fteorf in
class and when he says he’ll get nsimtoheg neod you haven’t got anyone to talk to, especially if you’re a
, he always does it. child. But since 1986, the UK charity ChildLine has given
young people the opportunity to discuss their problems
3 with a (2) adult. Children can phone,
She’s the rats of the school hockey email or chat online with the charity’s (3)
team, but she’s always eraeg to help and volunteers, who can then put them in contact with the
encourage the other players, too. appropriate professionals if necessary. ChildLine has
helped young people facing all kinds of difficulties, from
(4) of drug abuse to those dealing with
He needs to get divoevln in discussions
and get eebttr at answering questions. school (5) . Many say that their situations
started to get (6) after they called
ChildLine and that the charity has made a tremendous
When she tells me that she’s got omrpiessin (7) to their lives.
to miss PE, I often get eht lfeeign
that she’s lying.

A Richard is hard-working and dependable. 4 Translate the sentences.

B Elena is an enthusiastic language learner. 1 I still haven’t got used to having dinner so early.
C Joe isn’t very outgoing in class.
D Priya is a talented and supportive team player.
2 While we were walking in the national park, we saw
E Natasha isn’t always truthful.
kangaroos in the wild.
3 Complete the words in the sentences.
1 You’ll definitely m an i at
the party if you wear that dress! 3 She’s a dedicated volunteer who has made a
difference to hundreds of people’s lives.
2 My uncle is the f of a medical charity.
He started it after working as a doctor in Africa.
3 We haven’t raised much money today, but I’m
4 Have you ever wanted to get involved in charity
o that we’ll raise more tomorrow.
4 We’ll get sunburnt if we sit here. Let’s sit under that
tree so we’re in the s .
5 We’re only in Rome for three days so we really need 5 Could you tell us a bit more about the animals and
to m the m of it. their habitats?
6 Instead of feeling b about the
argument, why don’t you go and talk to him?

104 Unit 1 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 2 Gramática

Past simple and past perfect simple Cantidades grandes

Past perfect Utilizamos lots of y plenty of para referirnos a cantidades
grandes. Estas expresiones son algo menos formales que
I / You / He / She / It / We / They had / hadn’t eaten
a lot of.
Had I / you / he / she / it / we / they eaten?
Plenty of hace referencia a cosas positivas.
El past perfect simple se construye con had + participio
pasado. La forma es la misma para todas las personas del Don’t worry! We’ve got plenty of time.
verbo. Lots of es una expresión neutral que puede describir cosas
buenas y malas.
El past perfect simple describe la relación entre dos acciones I got lots of great presents for my birthday.
del pasado, es decir, que la acción en past perfect se produjo There are lots of accidents on this road.
antes que la acción en past simple. Utilizamos a lot of en frases negativas para subrayar una
When I arrived at the station, the train had left. cantidad pequeña; en general, lots of y plenty no se utilizan
He bought the car because he’d seen an advert for it. de esta manera.
I don’t eat a lot of meat.
enough, (a) few, (a) little, lots of, Cantidades excesivas
plenty of, too much, too many Utilizamos too much y too many para describir cantidades
grandes de forma negativa, es decir, para indicar que son
Con sustantivos en plural Con sustantivos incontables excesivas. Too much acompaña a sustantivos incontables, y
We have / haven’t got enough
There is / isn’t enough water.
too many va con sustantivos contables en plural.
There’s too much salt in this soup. It tastes horrible.
There were few cars on the There was little traffic on the
I think there are too many advertisements on TV.
road. road.
I’ve got a few sweets. There’s a little ice cream.
Attitudinal adverbs
I met lots of / plenty of nice We’ve lots of / plenty of time
people. to relax. Utlizamos adverbios como certainly, maybe, obviously,
I’ve got too many things to do. I’ve got too much work. simply para expresar nuestra actitud hacia personas, cosas y
Uso acciones.
Cantidades suficientes e insuficientes I’d certainly recommend this hotel. (= I’m sure that I’d
Utilizamos enough en frases afirmativas para referirnos a recommend this hotel.)
una cantidad suficiente de algo. You can simply ask for a refund. (= I think it is simple to
ask for a refund.)
There are enough chairs for everyone.
There’s enough time.
Se utiliza enough en frases negativas para describir una Intensifiers
cantidad insuficiente. Los “adverbios intensificadores” refuerzan ciertos adjetivos
There aren’t enough chairs for everyone. que pueden tener un significado más fuerte o más suave,
There isn’t enough time. p. ej. big. Al añadir very, really o extremely, reforzamos dicho
Cantidades pequeñas significado.
Utilizamos few y little para referirnos a cantidades pequeñas It’s very big. He’s extremely funny.
de forma negativa. Few acompaña a sustantivos contables Otros adjetivos, p. ej. enormous, cuyo significado es fuerte
en plural; y little, a sustantivos incontables. de por sí, también se pueden intensificar utilizando really,
Few people shopped there so they made little money. absolutely, totally y completely.
El significado cambia al colocar el artículo indefinido It’s absolutely enormous. I’m totally exhausted.
a delante; así, utilizamos a few y a little para describir Really se emplea con ambos tipos de adjetivos.
cantidades pequeñas de forma positiva. I was really scared. I was really terrified.
We saw a few good bands at the festival.
There was a little sunshine at lunchtime.

Gramática Unit 2 105

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 2 Grammar practice

Past simple and past perfect simple Attitudinal adverbs

1 Underline the action which happened first. 4 Complete the mini-dialogues with the adverbs.
1 I saw the film that you’d recommended. certainly maybe obviously simply
2 We met a boy who had designed a really cool app.
1 A: Do you enjoy shopping?
3 He’d lost the receipt so he couldn’t get a refund.
B: Not really. I buy what I need and
4 I took the 9.07 train because I’d missed the 8.37.
then go home.
5 Because we hadn’t brought a map, we got lost.
2 A: What’s that poster advertising?
2 Write sentences. Use one past simple form and one B: I don’t know. A soft drink? Or it’s a
past perfect form in each sentence. perfume advert.
1 After / he / have / a shower / he / get / dressed. 3 A: Why did the shop close down?
B: A big supermarket opened. It was cheaper so,
, people started going there instead.
2 I / not try / croissants / until / I / go / to France.
4 A: Do you have any special offers on pay-as-you-go
3 By the time / I / arrive / at / the station / my train /
B: Yes, . What kind of phone are you
already / leave.
interested in?

4 I / forget / my camera / so / I / not take / any photos.
5 Choose the correct option to complete A–F.
Then match them to 1–6.
5 They / stop / broadcasting / the advert / because / A extremely / totally exhausted
people / complain / about it.
B very / really huge
C really / completely funny
D totally / very scared
enough, (a) few, (a) little, lots of, E really / absolutely pleased
F extremely / totally upset
plenty of, too much, too many
1 Don’t watch this horror film alone. I was !
3 Choose the correct option to complete the text. 2 It’s a twenty-hour flight. We’ll be when we arrive.
(1) Lots of / Enough people say that there are too 3 I’m with my new shoes. They’re so comfortable.
(2) much / many advertisements directed at children these 4 He thinks he’s , but I don’t. His jokes are awful.
days. They argue that advertisers have too (3) many / much 5 I was when my new laptop stopped working.
influence on children, who have (4) little / a little power to
6 São Paulo has a population of almost 20 million. It’s
resist their sophisticated techniques. Although this is a common
a(n) city.
opinion, (5) a few / a little education experts disagree.
Martyn Hopkins, a primary school head teacher, believes that
children need (6) a little / plenty of opportunities to see
advertisements and learn from them. ‘It’s the only way to discover
how they work,’ says Mr Hopkins. ‘If children have (7) few / little
contact with advertising, they won’t have (8) enough / lots of
experience to resist it successfully as adults.’

106 Unit 2 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 2 Vocabulario

2.1 Advertising 2.2 Functional language

advertise / ˈædvətaɪz / Expressing surprise and disappointment
appeal / əˈpiːl / That was a surprise.
appear / əˈpɪə(r) / That’s unbelievable!
broadcast / ˈbrɔːdkɑːst / Oh wow!
claim / kleɪm / That’s a shame.
convince / kənˈvɪns / I don’t believe it!
exaggerate / ɪɡˈzædʒəreɪt / You’re kidding!
inform / ɪnˈfɔːm /
promote / prəˈməʊt / 2.3 Extra vocabulary
recommend / ˌrekəˈmend / habitable / ˈhæbɪtəbl /
ordinary / ˈɔːdnri /
2.1 Extra vocabulary potential / pəˈtenʃl/
image (n) / ˈɪmɪdʒ / semi-detached
media (n) / ˈmiːdiə / / ˌsemi dɪˈtætʃt /
product (n) / ˈprɒdʌkt / stunning / ˈstʌnɪŋ /
slogan (n) / ˈsləʊɡən / terraced / ˈterəst /
slot (n) / slɒt /
2.3 Word builder
2.2 Shopping old-fashioned / ˌauld ˈfæʃənd /
bargain (n, v) / ˈbɑːɡən / semi-detached
bid (n, v) / bɪd / / ˌsemi dɪˈtætʃt /
browse (v) / braʊz / six-bedroomed
/ ˌsɪks ˈbedrʊmd /
browser (n) / ˈbraʊzə(r) /
charge (n, v) / tʃɑːdʒ / 2.4 Functional language
consume (v) / kənˈsjuːm /
consumer (n) / kənˈsjuːmə(r) / Describing your personal qualities
purchase (n, v) / ˈpɜːtʃəs / I do a lot of (+ -ing).
refund (n, v) / ˈriːfʌnd /, I like to think I’m (+ adjective).
/ rɪˈfʌnd / I consider myself to be (+ adjective).
select (v) / sɪˈlekt / I’m a dedicated (+ noun), and I absolutely love (+ noun).
selection (n) / sɪˈlekʃn / I’m really (+ adjective), so … .
supplier (n) / səˈplaɪə(r) / It’s my passion, so … really appeals to me.
supply (v) / səˈplaɪ / I’ve got a good head for (+ noun), so … shouldn’t be a
problem for me.
2.2 Say it! I’ve picked up really valuable experience.
discount (v) / dɪsˈkaʊnt / My managers have been impressed with how
(+ adjective) I am.
discount (n) / ˈdɪskaʊnt /
increase (v) / ɪnˈkriːs /
increase (n) / ˈɪŋkriːs /

Vocabulario Unit 2 107

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 2 Vocabulary practice

1 The same letters are missing from each pair of 3 Complete the missing words.
words. Can you complete them? Then choose one
word from each pair to complete the definitions. BUSINESS WEEKLY / SHOPPING
1 Shops have tried many strategies to
w er adca t
(1) con customers to hand over their
2 cash. However, few have been as successful
d g as the ‘buy one get one free’ offer, known as
‘BOGOF’ in the marketing industry. These
gan t offers obviously (2) app to shoppers,
who believe they’re getting a (3) gain,
4 but what are the benefits for businesses? Well,
v r
firstly, BOGOF promotions generate bigger
profits than selling fewer (4) ducts
m - e ch d
more cheaply. Secondly, they encourage
(5) con to make extra – often
c m potent unnecessary – (6) pur . And thirdly,
although shops (7) app to be selling
6 things for half price, this isn’t always true, as
inf p ote
they generally (8) cha more than the
usual price for one item.
1 : send out (TV or radio programmes)
2 : a picture P5
3 : a memorable word or phrase used to
advertise something 4 Translate the sentences.
4 : with a shared wall on one side 1 The flat wasn’t habitable when they bought it, but
5 : say that something is true (although now it’s absolutely stunning.
other people might not believe it)
6 : help to sell something
2 I do a lot of reading, so I can recommend plenty of
2 Complete the table. Then tick (✓) the nouns that good books.
refer to people.
Verb Noun A person
(1) bid 3 When you said this shop was expensive, you weren’t
(2) consumer exaggerating!
(3) browser
(4) selection
4 Before they won the lottery, they’d lived in an
(5) supplier
ordinary terraced house.

5 The shop didn’t give me a refund for the shoes

because I’d already worn them.

108 Unit 2 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 3 Gramática

The passive – past, present and En inglés, los pronombres reflexivos se utilizan menos que
future en las lenguas romances. En muchos casos, no incluimos
el pronombre reflexivo aunque la acción sea algo que nos
Present simple passive hacemos a nosotros mismos.
sujeto + am / is / are + participio pasado clean your teeth (NO clean yourself your teeth)
Energy is (isn’t) saved. get dressed (NO get yourself dressed)
Past simple passive Los pronombres enfáticos tienen la misma forma que los
sujeto + was / were + participio pasado reflexivos. Se utilizan para subrayar que esta persona o cosa
Energy was (wasn’t) saved. realiza la acción, y no ninguna otra. No funcionan como
Future passive objeto del verbo, sino que suelen aparecer detrás de él.
sujeto + will be + participio pasado He designed this app himself. (subject = he; object =
Energy will (won’t) be saved. this app)
am / is / are going Utilizamos by + un pronombre reflexivo con el significado
sujeto + + participio pasado de “solo, sin compañía” o “sin ayuda”.
to be
Energy is (isn’t) going to be saved. I went on holiday by myself. (= without company)
Uso We made this pizza by ourselves. (= without help)
La voz pasiva se suele utilizar cuando no está claro, o no es Each other y one another hacen referencia a acciones
importante, quién realiza la acción. recíprocas. A le hace algo a B, y B le hace lo mismo a A.
According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented in Pablo and Maite talk to each other / one another. =
around 3,500 BC. (We don’t know who invented it.) (Pablo talks to Maite, and Maite talks to Pablo.)
Electricity is generated using wind turbines. (It isn’t Each other y one another significan lo mismo.
important who generates it.)
Sin embargo, a veces incluimos el complemento agente (la have something done
cosa o persona que hace algo) precedido por by. sujeto + have + objeto + participio pasado
Solar-powered ovens will be used by people in She has her hair cut.
developing countries. (agente = people in developing Uso
countries) Utilizamos esta estructura (the causative) cuando le
Hormones are released by the brain. (agente = the brain) pedimos a otra persona que haga algo por nosotros.
We had our house painted. (= We asked someone to
Reflexive pronouns, emphatic paint our house. We didn’t paint it ourselves.)
pronouns, each other and one También describe algo desafortunado que nos ha ocurrido
another por culpa de otra persona.
I’ve had my car stolen. (= Someone stole my car.)
Pronombres reflexivos / enfáticos
Se puede utilizar en distintos tiempos verbales cambiando
Singular Plural la forma del verbo have.
I myself we ourselves
you yourself you yourselves It is said that …
he himself they themselves Uso
she herself Utilizamos It is + algunos verbos en la voz pasiva (accept,
it itself believe, know (well), say, think) para decir lo que la gente
Uso piensa, sabe o cree. Esta estructura permite expresar las
Utilizamos un pronombre reflexivo como objeto del verbo si ideas de forma neutra, sin decir quién piensa, sabe o cree
el sujeto y el objeto son la misma persona o cosa. esas cosas, o si estamos de acuerdo.
The body repairs itself. (subject = the body; It is said that the Earth’s climate is changing rapidly.
object = the body) It is well known that solar panels are very expensive.

Gramática Unit 3 109

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 3 Grammar practice

The passive – past, present and 2 Are you OK, Phil? Have you hurt ?
future 3 I’ve never been to the cinema by .
4 There are so many people here! We’ll never find
1 Write the agent (the person or thing responsible for if we get separated.
the action) in each sentence, or write X if the agent
5 I can’t believe your brother painted that picture
isn’t mentioned.
. It’s amazing!
1 Kinetic energy is converted into electricity by wind
6 The lights switch on when they
detect movement.
2 Alternative energy sources are going to be needed
very soon. have something done
3 The light bulb was invented by many different
scientists. 4 Write sentences using the have something done
structure. Use the bold verbs and tenses. Then
4 The first home computers were introduced in the
answer the question below.
5 What innovative devices will be developed before 1 I / my laptop / repair (present continuous)
the end of the century?
2 they / their eyes / test (going to)
2 Complete the text with the correct past, present or
future passive form of the verbs. 3 we / vandalize / our car / last night (past simple)

4 she / cut / her hair (present perfect continuous)

In which sentence didn’t the subject(s) ask another

We’ve all seen solar panels on houses, but did you know that
person to do something?
they (1) (find) in other places, too?
Here are just some of the innovative ways that solar panels
(2) (use) nowadays. It is said that …
The solar bikini: The iKini (3) (create) by 5 Rewrite the sentences using It is … and the correct
an American designer in 2011. Sunlight (4) passive form of the bold verbs.
(convert) to electricity by the bikini’s solar panels. This electricity
(5) (use) to charge phones and other 1 People say that too many chemicals are used in food
electronic devices that (6) (plug) into the production.
bikini via a USB cable. Men’s shorts (7) /
(develop) next. It’s an interesting idea, but
the iKini (8) /
(not find) in my suitcase this summer! 2 Everyone knows well that fossil fuels cause pollution.

3 Some people think that nuclear energy is unsafe.

Reflexive pronouns, emphatic
pronouns, each other and one another 4 Most people accept that Einstein was a genius.

3 Complete the sentences with the correct reflexive or

5 People believe that saturated fat is unhealthy.
emphatic pronoun, or each other / one another. Then
tick (✓) the sentences which contain reflexive verbs.
1 We looked at and
realized we were wearing the same dress.

110 Unit 3 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 3 Vocabulario
Right, let’s move on to …
3.1 Adjectives: technology Studies show that …
adaptable / əˈdæptəbl / OK, we’ve come to the end of our presentation.
alternative / ɔːlˈtɜːnətɪv /
chemical / ˈkemɪkl / 3.3 Extra vocabulary
computer-generated celebrate (v) / ˈselɪbreɪt /
/ kəmˌpjuːtə ˈdʒenəreɪtɪd /
develop (v) / dɪˈveləp /
electronic / ɪˌlekˈtrɒnɪk /
participate (v) / pɑːˈtɪsɪpeɪt /
support (v) / səˈpɔːt /
/ ˈenədʒi ˌseɪvɪŋ /
train (v) / treɪn /
high-tech / ˌhaɪ ˈtek /
/ ˈɪnəvətɪv /, / ˈɪnəveɪtɪv /
3.3 Word builder
mechanical / məˈkænɪkl / celebration (n) / ˌselɪˈbreɪʃn /
solar-powered celebrity (n) / səˈlebrəti /
/ ˈsəʊlə(r) ˌpaʊəd / developer (n) / dɪˈveləpə(r) /
sustainable / səˈsteɪnəbl / development (n)
wireless / ˈwaɪələs / / dɪˈveləpmənt /
participant (n) / pɑːˈtɪsɪpənt /
3.1 Extra vocabulary participation (n)
/ pɑːˌtɪsɪˈpeɪʃn /
convert (v) / kənˈvɜːt /
support (n) / səˈpɔːt /
generate (v) / ˈdʒenəreɪt /
supporter (n) / səˈpɔːtə(r) /
run (v) / rʌn /
trainer (n) / ˈtreɪnə(r) /
store (v) / stɔː(r) /
training (n) / ˈtreɪnɪŋ /
3.2 Verbs: functions
3.4 Functional language
absorb / əbˈsɔːb /, / əbˈzɔːb /
Expressing interest and lack of it
boost / buːst/
I’m quite / (not) really / not at all interested in … (+ -ing)
burn / bɜːn /
… really fascinates me.
crash / kræʃ/
… doesn’t appeal to me in the slightest.
perform / pəˈfɔːm /
… seems like a waste of time to me.
process / ˈprəʊses /
release / rɪˈliːs / Expressing satisfaction and disappointment
repair / rɪˈpeə(r) / I’m really / not very pleased with …
rest / rest / I could(n’t) have done better …
transport / trænˈspɔːt / I’m a bit disappointed with …
I’ve given up … (+ -ing)
3.2 Functional language Expressing hope
Giving presentations It’d be great if … you could / would …
I’d now like to discuss … I really hope …
Let me summarize …
Research has shown …
Today we’re going to talk to you about …

Vocabulario Unit 3 111

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 3 Vocabulary practice

1 Complete the adjectives with the suffixes. Then use 4 A boosted B transported C run
them to complete the sentences. 5 A train B develop C convert
6 A stored B repaired C processed
-able -al -ed -ic -ive -less 7 A generates B burns C participates
8 A runs B absorbs C stores
chemic alternat wire
solar-power electron sustain 9 A processing B developing C repairing
10 A crashes B boosts C converts
1 Is this printer or do I need a USB cable?
2 The bikini will charge your 3 Complete the sentences with a word related to the
phone while you sunbathe. bold word.
3 If you don’t eat meat, you’ll need 1 The world is changing very quickly so we need to be
sources of protein. . (adapt)
4 We need to find more ways of 2 My dad is a engineer. (mechanism)
generating electricity.
3 Why is my computer basic tasks so
5 When salt is mixed with vinegar, a(n) slowly at the moment? (performance)
reaction is produced.
4 Plants use photosynthesis to sunlight
6 This charger is compatible with many different into energy. (conversion)
phones, tablets and other devices.
5 Hundreds of students are expected to
2 Choose the correct option to complete the text. in the technology competition. (participation)

4 Translate the sentences.

Understanding sleep 1 It is accepted that energy-saving light bulbs are
environmentally friendly.
Sleep has a major impact on our quality of life. It is well
known that unless we (1) properly, we have less
energy and become less able to (2) everyday tasks.
So how does sleep work? 2 The car is at the garage because we’re having it
When we fall asleep, our bodies enter a cycle that repeats
itself every 90 minutes or so. First is NREM (non-rapid
eye movement) sleep. Our breathing becomes slower,
hormones are (3) and more blood is (4) to the 3 Many of the innovative high-tech devices that we
muscles. This allows our bodies to (5) and grow, and use today were developed by Apple.
any damage to be (6) .
However, it is REM (rapid eye movement) sleep that
(7) the energy we need and (8) it for use the 4 Computer-generated music doesn’t appeal to me in
next day. The brain is actively (9) information during the slightest.
REM sleep: it is in this phase that dreams occur. It is
believed that both kinds of sleep are crucial, but that the
REM phase really (10) the performance of the brain
as well as the body. 5 Good friends support each other and celebrate each
other’s achievements.

1 A rest B absorb C run

2 A crash B perform C process
3 A burned B rested C released

112 Unit 3 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 4 Gramática

The first and second conditional Uso

El condicional de tercer grado describe situaciones que eran
Condicional de primer grado
posibles en el pasado, pero no se llegaron a producir.
If / Unless + present simple, will / won’t + infinitivo
If I’d trained harder, I would have won the race.
If you do yoga, you’ll feel more relaxed.
(It was possible for me to train harder, but I didn’t, so I didn’t
will / won’t + infinitivo if / unless + present simple win the race.)
You’ll feel more relaxed if you do yoga. I would have bought that phone unless you’d
Condicional de segundo grado recommended this one.
If / Unless + past simple, would / wouldn’t + infinitivo (It was possible for me to buy the phone, but I bought this
Unless I was very hungry, I wouldn’t eat blue food. one because you recommended it.)
would / wouldn’t + infinitivo if / unless + past simple
I wouldn’t eat blue food unless I was very hungry. The zero conditional
Uso If / Unless / When / Until + present simple
La oraciones condicionales constan de una proposición present simple,
condicional (encabezada por if o unless) y una proposición If you mix blue and yellow, you get green.
principal que describe el resultado.
present simple if / unless + present simple
El orden de las proposiciones no es importante, ya que
You get green if you mix blue and yellow.
no altera el significado de la frase. Cuando la proposición
condicional encabeza la oración, solemos separarla de la Uso
proposición principal mediante una coma. Utilizamos el condicional de grado cero para referirnos a
situaciones que siempre dan el mismo resultado.
If you wore yellow, you’d feel more cheerful.
La coma no es necesaria cuando la proposición principal va Most plants die unless you water them regularly.
al comienzo de la frase. The computer doesn’t shut down until you close all the
You’d feel more cheerful if you wore yellow.
When light hits a solar panel, it is converted
“Unless + verbo en afirmativa” significa lo mismo que “If +
into electricity.
verbo en negativa”.
Unless you work out, you won’t have any energy. =
If you don’t work out, you won’t have any energy. If only and I wish
El condicional de primer grado se utiliza para hablar de Lamentarse sobre el presente (If only / I wish + past simple)
posibles situaciones del futuro. If only
If we lose our next match, we won’t win the cup. he had an umbrella.
I wish
(It’s possible that we’ll lose the match.)
Lamentarse sobre el pasado (If only / I wish + past perfect)
El condicional de segundo grado describe situaciones
If only I hadn’t left my umbrella at
imaginarias o hipotéticas.
I wish home this morning.
If you were an Olympic swimmer, what would you eat?
(You aren’t an Olympic swimmer so this is an imaginary Uso
situation.) Utilizamos If only … o I wish … para describir cosas de las que
no estamos satisfechos; y, si pudiéramos, las cambiaríamos.

The third conditional We use If only / I wish + past simple to talk about
present situations that we would like to be different.
If / Unless + past perfect would / wouldn’t + have + If only / I wish I was good at football. (= I’m not happy
participio pasado because I’m not a good footballer.)
If he’d worn trainers he’d have run faster. Empleamos If only / I wish + past perfect para hablar de
would / wouldn’t + have + if / unless + past perfect situaciones pasadas de las que nos arrepentimos.
participio pasado If only / I wish we’d started training earlier. (= I’m not
happy because we started training too late.)
He’d have run faster if he’d worn trainers.

Gramática Unit 4 113

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 4 Grammar practice

The first and second conditional 4 Write third conditional sentences.

1 If / you / walk / faster / we / catch / the train.
1 Are the sentences in the first or second conditional?
Write 1 or 2.
1 What would you do if you were the Prime Minister? 2 He / play / in the match / if / he / not hurt / his ankle.
2 He’ll be really happy if he finishes the race.
3 We won’t pass the exam unless we study hard.
4 If she broke her ankle, she wouldn’t be able to get to 3 They / die / unless / the firefighters / rescue / them.
5 If you were in my situation, what would you do?
4 She / travel abroad / if / she / have / the opportunity.
2 Match 1−5 to A−E and complete the sentences with
the correct form of the verbs in bold.
1 What (we / do)
2 He (not know) you’re upset The zero conditional
3 I (not live) in a city
4 (you / try) surfing 5 Complete the zero conditional sentences with the
verbs in the correct order and in the correct form.
5 I (arrive) at 8.30
1 What when you a metal spoon
A unless I had a well-paid job.
in a microwave? (put / happen)
B if you had the opportunity?
2 If he eggs, he an allergic reaction.
C unless you tell him.
(eat / have)
D if no one comes to our party?
3 The class until the bell .
E unless the train is delayed. (not finish / ring)
4 Unless you anti-virus software, your
The third conditional computer at risk. (be / use)

3 Complete the third conditional sentences in the If only and I wish

text using the verbs in bold. Use contracted forms
where possible. 6 Complete the second sentence so that it means the
same as the first. Use the expressions in bold.
When Cathy Freeman won the 400 metres at the 2000 Sydney
Olympics, she became the first Aboriginal Australian athlete 1 I don’t like being short. (If only)
to win an Olympic medal. Cathy believes that she taller.
(1) (be) less motivated to win
2 I painted the wall red. That was a mistake. (I wish)
if she (2) (not need) to face
up to difficulties in her early life. Cathy’s sister, Anne-Marie, was born
with serious disabilities. If her sister (3) the wall red.
(not be) disabled, Cathy says she probably 3 My parents are really embarrassing. (I wish)
(4) (not
understand) how amazing it was to be able to run. Cathy is
so embarrassing.
proud of her achievements, and she believes that Aborigines must
continue to fight for equality. She says that many of her Aboriginal 4 I don’t like living in this city. It’s boring. (If only)
friends (5) (win) medals
too if they (6) (have) the in a more interesting city.
opportunity to get involved in athletics.

114 Unit 4 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 4 Vocabulario

4.1 Phrasal verbs 4.3 Extra vocabulary

calm (sb) down (phr v) avalanche (n) / ˈævəlɑːnʃ /
/ ˌkɑːm ˈdaʊn / layers (n) / ˈleɪəz /
cheer (sb) up (phr v) parka (n) / ˈpɑːkə /
/ ˌtʃɪə(r) ˈʌp / snowshoes (n) / ˈsnəʊʃuːz /
chill out (phr v) / ˌtʃɪl ˈaʊt / thermal underwear (n)
cut down (phr v) / ˌkʌt ˈdaʊn / / ˌθɜːml ˈʌndəweə(r) /
face up to (phr v) thermometer (n)
/ ˌfeɪs ˈʌp tə / / ˌθəˈmɒmɪtə(r) /
open up (phr v) / ˌəʊpən ˈʌp /
slow (sth) down (phr v) 4.3 Word builder
/ ˌsləʊ ˈdaʊn /
work out (phr v) / ˌwɜːk ˈaʊt / Adjective suffixes
accessible (adj) / əkˈsesəbl /
4.1 Extra vocabulary cautious (adj) / ˈkɔːʃəs /
anxious (adj) / ˈæŋkʃəs / national (adj) / ˈnæʃnəl /
cheerful (adj) / ˈtʃɪəfl / normal (adj) / ˈnɔːml /
dynamic (adj) / daɪˈnæmɪk / sensible (adj) / ˈsensəbl /
grumpy (adj) / ˈɡrʌmpi / various (adj) / ˈveəriəs /
sleepy (adj) / ˈsliːpi /
4.4 Functional language
4.2 Aches and pains
Asking for advice
aching muscles / ˌeɪkɪŋ ˈmʌslz /
What do you think I should do?
allergic reaction
/ əˌlɜːdʒɪk riˈækʃn / What would you do if you were me?
broken leg / ˌbrəʊkən ˈleɡ / Would you suggest … ?
bruised knee / ˌbruːzd ˈniː / Giving advice
dislocated shoulder
If you … , you will … (+ infinitive)
/ ˌdɪsləkeɪtɪd ˈʃəʊldə(r) /
If I were you, I’d … (+ infinitive)
itchy skin / ˌɪtʃi ˈskɪn /
My advice would be to … (+ infinitive)
sore back / ˌsɔː(r) ˈbæk /
sprained wrist / ˌspreɪnd ˈrɪst / Make sure you … (+ infinitive)
stiff neck / ˌstɪf ˈnek / Have you thought about … (+ -ing)?
swollen ankle / ˌswəʊlən ˈæŋkl / You could … (+ infinitive)
You should / shouldn’t … (+ infinitive)
4.2 Functional language You ought to … (+ infinitive)
Agreeing and disagreeing
I don’t think that’s possible.
I’m not convinced about that.
I’m not sure about that!
I see what you mean
Me too!
That’s impossible.
That’s right.

Vocabulario Unit 4 115

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 4 Vocabulary practice

1 Copy the letters with the same colour and put them 3 Complete the missing words in the mini-dialogues.
in the correct order to make words to complete 1 A : Why are you wearing jeans? It’s so hot!
the sentences.
B : I’ve got a b k and it looks awful.
S E O N E N S I A C O H 2 A : I’ve got basketball training, then band practice
R A T I E S R E S O T E and finally a judo class.
P N B K R M M W R D O W B : You really need to s d !
D R E S H A I M Y T C S 3 A : I don’t want to talk about my problems.
1 Eric has got a ; B : If you o u , maybe I’ll be able
he can’t write. to help.
2 Rachel needs a 4 A : How many cans of cola have you had?
to take her temperature. B : Three. I should c d , shouldn’t I?
3 Dawn wants to buy 5 A : I’ve got a s n .
for the expedition.
B : That’s because you spend too much time on your
4 Ricardo is very . laptop. It isn’t good for you.
5 Helen has got a very ; 6 A : Oh, no! Have you got a b l ?
she can’t lift anything.
B : No, don’t worry. It’s just a sprained ankle.
2 Complete the article with the words and phrases.
4 Translate the sentences.
aching avalanches calm down cheerful facing up to 1 If I were you, I’d wear a parka.
grumpy layers swollen thermal underwear work out

So you want to climb a mountain? 2 Some allergic reactions cause itchy skin.
Climbing a mountain is an amazing experience, but it’s
very dangerous if you don’t know what you’re doing. Here
are some things to consider before your first expedition. 3 Marta ought to spend more time chilling out.
Climbers need to be in excellent physical condition, so you’ll
need to (1) regularly to avoid
(2) muscles and to increase your
4 I couldn’t play tennis because I had a dislocated
stamina. Mental strength is just as important. Are you good at
(3) challenges? Will you stay
(4) when things get difficult or
will you become (5) ?
Can you (6) yourself 5 You’ll feel sleepy tomorrow unless you go to bed
when you feel anxious? soon.
You’ll need special clothes to keep warm in the snow, including
a thick jacket on the outside, (7)
on the inside, and several (8) in 6 Which music videos have you streamed recently?
the middle.
Many accidents are caused by (9)
and falling rocks. Could you recognize the danger signs?
What would you do if someone in your group had a
(10) ankle and couldn’t walk?
If I were you, I’d think about all these things
before climbing any mountains!

116 Unit 4 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 5 Gramática

Question forms el infinitivo (con to): I’ve decided to start a blog.

Preguntas sobre el sujeto Who edits the site?
Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos tanto de verbos en -ing
como de infinitivos, y tienen un significado diferente. He
Preguntas sobre el objeto Which blogs do you read?
aquí algunos ejemplos típicos:
Question tags He hasn’t emailed, has he?
forget / remember
Preguntas con preposición Who are you writing to?
I’ll never forget meeting you. (no) tener un recuerdo de
(no) olvidar algo que debemos
En las subject questions, la partícula interrogativa (what, Remember to email me.
who, etc.) se refiere al sujeto.
go on
‘Who commented on your post?’ ‘Sara.’ (Who asks about He went on talking for hours. seguir
Sara, the subject of the verb comment.)
He started a blog and went on
Las preguntas relativas al sujeto se construyen con una pasar a otra actividad
to launch a website.
partícula interrogativa seguida del verbo principal, que regret
funciona igual que en la forma afirmativa. Estas preguntas
arrepentirse de algo que
no incluyen los auxiliares do (presente) / did (pasado). I regret buying this tablet.
hicimos en el pasado
Who hosts the site? (NO Who does host the site?) I regret to say that I can’t repair sentir tener que decir que algo
En las object questions, la partícula interrogativa (what, your laptop. es cierto
who, etc.) hace referencia a la persona o la cosa que recibe la stop
acción del verbo. I’ve stopped using Facebook. dejar de hacer algo
‘What did you upload?’ ‘I uploaded a video.’ (What asks interrumpir una acción
about the video, the object of the verb upload.) She stopped to chat to me. brevemente para hacer otra
Las preguntas sobre el objeto, tanto en presente como en cosa
pasado, incluyen los auxiliares do / did y el infinitivo sin to. try
Who did you email? I’ll try sending an email from hacer un experimento para ver
my other account. si algo funciona
Utilizamos questions tags al final de la frase para
asegurarnos de que algo es cierto, o preguntar si nuestro I’m trying to get up earlier. hacer un esfuerzo
interlocutor está de acuerdo.
You commented on my blog, didn’t you?
Modals of deduction and possibility
Las questions tags se construyen con un verbo modal o sujeto + verbo modal + verbo principal
auxiliar seguido del pronombre sujeto de la frase principal. It can’t have a virus.
Si el verbo principal está en afirmativa, el de la question tag (= I’m certain it isn’t true.)
irá en negativa, y viceversa.
We could / may / might arrive late.
You use a PC, don’t you?
(= It’s possible.)
We can’t access our emails, can we?
You must be angry.
Si la frase contiene un verbo en la forma afirmativa del
(= I’m certain it is true.)
present simple o el past simple, utilizamos la correspondiente
forma negativa de do en la question tag. Uso
Los verbos modales can’t, could, may, might, must sirven
He transferred the files, didn’t he?
para expresar distintos grados de certeza.
Algunos verbos van acompañados de preposiciones (look
at, talk to, comment on.) En preguntas relativas al objeto, se
suelen colocar al final.
Infinitives of purpose
What are you looking at? Oración principal + infinitivo de finalidad
I switched on my tablet (action) to check my email. (= reason)
Verbs with -ing and to Uso
El infinitivo de finalidad explica el porqué de una acción.
Cuando un verbo va seguido de otro, el segundo puede
adoptar dos formas: ‘Why did you call Sam?’ ‘To cheer him up.’

la forma en -ing: I enjoyed reading your post.

Gramática Unit 5 117

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 5 Grammar practice

Question forms Modals of deduction and possibility

1 Complete the question tags. 4 Complete the dialogue with suitable modals from
1 They host this website, ? box A and main verbs from box B. Sometimes there
is more than one possible answer.
2 He wasn’t very respectful, ?
3 You’ve already logged on, ? A can’t could may might must
4 She hadn’t registered with the site, ?
B be be have live spend
5 The file uploaded correctly, ?
6 Hackers can’t access my documents, ? A: Look! This girl’s got 10,000 Facebook friends! She
(1) really popular.
2 Look at the underlined words in the answers. Then B: No way! Is it actually possible to meet 10,000 people
write the questions. Use the same verb as in the in your life?
A: I think so. You (2) to the
1 age of 100 and meet 100 people a year. Or you
I’m looking at a football blog. (3) a celebrity.
2 B: But that girl’s sixteen and at school! She
Mum bookmarked the website. (4) all day sending friend
3 requests. She (5) any time
to see anyone face-to-face.
I uploaded a hilarious cat video.
4 Infinitives of purpose
I’m commenting on the photo of Amber in Rome.
5 Rewrite the second sentence so that it means the
same as the first. Use infinitives of purpose.
A virus caused the computer to crash.
1 I want to buy a can of cola, so I’m going out.
Verbs with -ing and to
2 I need to ask your advice – that’s why I’m calling.
3 Complete the essay with the correct -ing or
infinitive form of the bold verbs.
3 I always say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ because I want to
be polite.

4 I’m learning how to play the guitar, so I’ve been

We all remember (1) (learn) about manners
as children. But how often do we stop (2) watching YouTube videos.
(consider) the impact of manners on our careers?
According to research, success at work depends 85 per cent
on people skills. ‘Treat others how you want them to treat you,’
says business coach Marga Cruz. ‘It’s a simple rule, but we often 5 We’re trying to help the local hospital, which is why
forget (3) (follow) it. Many of my clients we’re raising money.
regret (4) (not realize) this sooner.’ Cruz
says there are simple ways to show politeness in the workplace.
‘Don’t go on (5) (talk) in meetings,’ she
says. ‘Let others speak. And stop (6) (react)
angrily to criticism,’ she says. ‘It doesn’t achieve anything and
it damages relationships.’

118 Unit 5 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 5 Vocabulario

5.1 Verbs: technology 5.2 Functional language

access (v) / ˈækses / Thinking time
bookmark (v) / ˈbʊkmɑːk / you know
comment (v) / ˈkɒment / I mean
edit (v) / ˈedɪt / well
host (v) / həʊst / like
launch (v) / lɔːntʃ /
log off (v) / ˌlɒɡ ˈɒf / 5.3 Extra vocabulary
log on (v) / ˌlɒɡ ˈɒn / poverty (n) / ˈpɒvəti /
network (v) / ˈnetwɜːk / respectful (adj) / rɪˈspektfl /
register (v) / ˈredʒɪstə(r) / (social) circle (n)
respond (v) / rɪˈspɒnd / / ˈsəʊʃɪ ˌsɜːkl /
transfer (v) / trænsˈfɜː(r) / upbringing (n) / ˈʌpbrɪŋɪŋ /
upload (v) / ˌʌpˈləʊd / upper classes (n)
/ ˌʌpə ˈklɑːsɪz /
5.1 Extra vocabulary
face-to-face (adj)
5.3 Word builder
/ ˌfeɪs tə ˈfeɪs / bring up (phr v) / ˌbrɪŋ ˈʌp /
global (adj) / ˈɡləʊbl / cheer up (phr v) / ˌtʃɪə(r) ˈʌp /
multiple (adj) / ˈmʌltɪpl / own up (phr v) / ˌəʊn ˈʌp /
virtual (adj) / ˈvɜːtʃuəl / put up (phr v) / ˌpʊt ˈʌp /
split up (phr v) / ˌsplɪt ˈʌp /
5.1 Learn it!
actually (adv) / ˈæktʃuəli /
5.3 Say it!
currently (adv) / ˈkʌrəntli / calm down (phr v)
/ ˌkɑːm ˈdaʊn /
5.2 Nouns: manners chill out (phr v) / tʃɪlˈaʊt /
appreciation (n)
/ əˌpriːʃiˈeɪʃn /
5.4 Functional language
consideration (n) Making suggestions
/ kənˌsɪdəˈreɪʃn / There could be … (+ noun)
diplomacy (n) / dɪˈpləʊməsi / We could consider … (+ -ing)
etiquette (n) It’d be great if we could … (+ infinitive)
/ ˈetɪket /, / ˈetɪkət / Why don’t we … (+ infinitive)?
interaction (n) / ˌɪntərˈækʃn / Perhaps we could … (+ infinitive)
netiquette (n) / ˈnetɪket /, We’d better (not) … (+ infinitive)
/ ˈnetikət /
How / What about … (+ -ing / noun)?
politeness (n) / pəˈlaɪtnəs /
rank (n) / ræŋk / Expressing certainty
rudeness (n) / ˈruːdnəs / It’s / There is / are bound + to … (+ infinitive)
tradition (n) / trəˈdɪʃn / That’s definitely … (+ noun / adjective)
There’s no doubt … (+ that clause)

Expressing doubt
I doubt / I’m not really sure / It’s unlikely … (+ that clause)

Vocabulario Unit 5 119

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 5 Vocabulary practice

1 Read the sentences and complete the puzzle. Then A of old films has grown as I’ve got older.
find a mystery word in the horizontal squares. B often form a closed social circle.
C in the USA to eat turkey for Thanksgiving.
1 2 3 4 5 8 9
D for this site without uploading a photo?
E interaction to communicating online.
F is not showing consideration for others.
G websites that you want to access frequently.

3 Complete the text with the words.

appreciation comment face-to-face hosts
log on respectful rudeness uploads virtual

What annoys you most on social media?

1 This is a useful site if you want to … large files. I have a friend who (1) her own cookery
2 Child … is one of the biggest global issues that we blog and (2) photos of her food to Twitter
currently face. every day! Every time I (3) , another one has
appeared! Then, if I don’t (4) on her photos
3 I have more … friends than real friends.
and show my (5) , she gets angry and
4 I think … is essential in any society. accuses me of (6) !
5 Social … varies widely between different cultures. Graham, Edinburgh
6 They’re going to … their new website next month. I’m still good friends with my ex-boyfriend, but he’s started
7 It isn’t … to your neighbours to make a lot of noise. having long (7) conversations with his new
girlfriend on his Facebook wall. Why don’t they message
8 Why don’t we … a blog about surfing?
each other privately or actually meet (8) ? It’s
9 This software works on … platforms. great that they’re in love, but it isn’t (9) to
10 Please will you … my article for the website? other people, and especially not to me!
Jessica, Manchester
The mystery word is .

2 Complete sentence halves 1–7 with two different 4 Translate the sentences.
letters from the word cloud. Then match 1–7 to A–G
1 You remembered to log off, didn’t you?
to form sentences.
a p i e
t s a p t k
s p e f o r e
p e a o i k s s f 2 Who took the photos that you uploaded to your blog?
a s

1 The u er cla e
2 You can b mar 3 Which comments did you respond to?
3 Can I gist
4 It’s a rad on
5 I prefer ce-to- ce 4 There’s no doubt that face-to-face networking
requires politeness and diplomacy.
6 I think rud n
7 My reci tion

120 Unit 5 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 6 Gramática

Reported speech ‘Who wrote the sketch?’ he asked. ➞ He asked who had
written the sketch.
Al contar lo que alguien ha dicho, podemos hacerlo en
estilo directo, repitiendo sus palabras: En preguntas de tipo yes / no, se utilizan if y whether.
‘The book is really chilling,’ said Ben. ‘Did you enjoy the act?’ He asked me? ➞ He asked me if
O podemos utilizar el estilo indirecto: I’d enjoyed the act.
Para órdenes y peticiones, utilizamos el infinitivo con to.
Ben said the book was really chilling.
Al pasar de estilo directo a indirecto, el tiempo verbal da un ‘Please stand under the spotlight.’ ➞ He asked me to
paso atrás hacia el pasado. stand under the spotlight.
‘Don’t worry,’ she told me. ➞ She told me not to worry.
Estilo directo Estilo indirecto
present simple past simple
Reported suggestions and offers
present continuous past continuous
past simple past perfect simple Se utilizan distintas estructuras dependiendo del verbo
present perfect simple past perfect simple introductorio:
can could suggest + (that) + sujeto + infinitivo sin to.
will would He suggested (that) I use a microphone.
am / is / are going to was / were going to offer + to + infinitivo
También cambian las referencias al tiempo, el espacio y She offered to help me with my act.
la gente, para reflejar el punto de vista de la persona que
cuenta las cosas. Prepositions
‘We’ll arrive tomorrow,’ they confirmed. ➞
Lugar Movimiento Distancia Origen
They confirmed that they would arrive the following day.
below away from away of
Estilo indirecto Estilo indirecto on top of towards near from
Tiempo at across
yesterday the previous day
tomorrow the following day Las preposiciones expresan distintas relaciones entre las
next week the following week palabras de una frase, p. ej.
Lugar Lugar: The cat was on top of the bookcase.
here there Movimiento: She started walking towards me.
this, these that, those Distancia: There’s a big town about 10 km away.
Gente Origen: Our teacher is from Scotland.
I, me, mine, myself he / she, him / her, his / her(s),
himself / herself Adverb phrases
we, us, our, ours, ourselves they, them, their, theirs,
themselves Las expresiones adverbiales están formadas por dos o más
palabras, a menudo una preposición y un sustantivo, que se
Reported questions, requests and unen para funcionar como un adverbio.
commands Tiempo Lugar Modo
after a while at home in secret on foot
Al pasar una pregunta al estilo indirecto, cambiamos as soon as in bed in silence very much
el orden, que refleja la misma estructura que la forma every night in a hurry
afirmativa. En estas preguntas no se incluyen los auxiliares Uso
do / did, pero sí cambian las referencias al tiempo, el lugar y Utilizamos adverbios y expresiones adverbiales para indicar
la gente, igual que en la forma afirmativa. cuándo, dónde y cómo ocurrió algo.
‘Which comedians do you like?’ he asked her. ➞ He He goes out every night. She studies at home.
asked her which comedians she liked. They met in secret.

Gramática Unit 6 121

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 6 Grammar practice

Reported speech 4 They asked me who had designed that set.

1 Read Jessica’s review. Then complete the sentences ‘Who set?’

using reported speech. 5 He asked if I’d seen their act the previous day.
‘ ?’

Reported suggestions and offers

Visitor feedback
3 Decide if the sentences are suggestions or offers
I visited Hampton Court Palace yesterday with my family.
and rewrite them in reported speech using the
I haven’t written a review before, but I really want to say
reporting verbs suggest or offer.
how much we enjoyed ourselves!
Hampton Court was the home of Henry VIII. He was the 1 ‘Why don’t we have a day out?’ Lu said to me.
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and he had six wives.
There are lots of interactive features so visitors can
2 ‘I’ll drive you to school,’ Dad said to me.
imagine what life was like in the 1500s.
It’s great for a winter’s day, but we’re going to go again
in the summer. Then we’ll be able to explore the gardens. 3 ‘I can help you with your bags,’ Ali said to Amy.
Jessica, Brighton
4 ‘Let’s watch something funny,’ Sam said to Jane.
1 Jessica said that Hampton
Court Palace with
2 She explained that Hampton Court Palace
the home of King Henry VIII, who 4 Complete the sentences with the prepositions.
six wives. Say if they refer to location (L), movement (M),
3 She said that visitors distance (D) or origin (O).
what life like in the 1500s thanks to across below from near
lots of interactive features.
1 There’s a great ice cream shop here.
4 She mentioned that she and her family
again in the summer so 2 I don’t recognize his accent. Where is he ?
they be able to explore the gardens. 3 Please sign your name the line.
4 Let’s walk the bridge.
Reported questions, requests and
commands Adverb phrases
2 Rewrite the questions, requests and commands in 5 Complete the second sentence with an adverb
direct speech. Write one word in each gap. phrase so that it means the same as the first.
1 She asked me to call her the following day. 1 They didn’t talk at all during the meal.
‘Please .’ They ate their meal .
2 They asked me what subjects I studied. 2 I always walk to school.
‘What subjects ?’ I always go to school .
3 He told me to write a sketch for his new show. 3 Suzy hasn’t got up yet.
‘Write new show.’ Suzy’s still .
4 When you get this message, call me immediately.
Call me you get this message.

122 Unit 6 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 6 Vocabulario

6.1 Verbs: reporting 6.3 Extra vocabulary

add (v) / æd / blockbuster (n)
admit (v) / ədˈmɪt / / ˈblɒkbʌstə(r) /
agree (v) / əˈɡriː / film-buff (n) / ˈfɪlm bʌf /
boast (v) / bəʊst / frame (n) / freɪm /
complain (v) / kəmˈpleɪn / set (n) / set /
confirm (v) / kənˈfɜːm / zoom out (v) / ˌzuːm ˈaʊt /
deny (v) / dɪˈnaɪ /
insist (v) / ɪnˈsɪst /
6.3 Word builder
mention (v) / ˈmenʃn / in a film / ɪn ə ˈfɪlm /
point out (v) / pɔɪnt ˈaʊt / in a scene / in scenes
/ ɪn ə ˈsiːn /, / ɪn ˈsiːnz /
recommend (v) / ˌrekəˈmend /
in the background
reply (v) / rɪˈplaɪ /
/ ɪn ðə ˈbækɡraʊnd /
reveal (v) / rɪˈviːl /
in the studio
state (v) / steɪt / / ɪn ðə ˈstjuːdiəʊ /
on location / ɒn ləʊˈkeɪʃn /
6.1 Extra vocabulary on screen / ɒn ˈskriːn /
annual (adj) / ˈænjuəl / on set / ɒn ˈset /
exhausting (adj) / ɪɡˈzɔːstɪŋ / on stage / ɒn ˈsteɪdʒ /
extreme (adj) / ɪkˈstriːm /
unforgettable (adj) 6.4 Functional language
/ ˌʌnfəˈɡetəbl /
Asking for points of view
What did you all / both think about … ?
6.2 Nouns: entertainment
What’s your opinion?
act (n) / ækt /
amateur (n) / ˈæmətə(r) /, Giving points of view
/ ˈæmətʃə(r) / In my view, …
microphone (n) As far as I’m concerned …
/ ˈmaɪkrəfəʊn / My view is that …
monologue (n) / ˈmɒnəlɒɡ / To my mind, …
newcomer (n) / ˈnjuːkʌmər / In my opinion …
professional (n) / prəˈfeʃənl / From my point of view, …
prop (n) / prɒp / Talking about other people’s points of view
scriptwriter (n) According to …
/ ˈskrɪptraɪtə(r) /
For (name), …
sketch (n) / sketʃ /
spotlight (n) / ˈspɒtlaɪt / Agreeing with others
stage (n) / steɪdʒ / I couldn’t agree more.
venue (n) / ˈvenjuː / I agree with you entirely / in the main / up to a point.

6.2 Functional language

Expressing frequency
a couple of times a week nearly always
almost never once a week

Vocabulario Unit 6 123

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 6 Vocabulary practice

1 Find seven words in the grid to complete the poster. 3 Choose the correct option to complete the text.
Words can be horizontal, vertical or diagonal.
P E J K S P I H U N I W How far is too far?
I E O G B H C T S R S A As the popularity of stand-up comedy has grown, so has
L R P F N X H Z D E N Y the number of people (1) boasting / complaining that
I O I E E D A H H C G O jokes and (2) sketches / venues are too offensive. So should
F A P E W S T E N O O A comedians and (3) scriptwriters / professionals be allowed
to say or write anything they like?
D O O D O V B I H M K R Yes
G A P L M P T R O E C B ‘I don’t like cruel jokes, but I believe in freedom of speech,’
D C S A E C P J Y N U A (4) states / adds the comedian Andy Kemp. Sociologist Dr
Colin McGee (5) agrees / replies with Kemp. He (6) denies
/ points out that comedy allows people to explore what
E N T H L U I E S S H L is socially acceptable. ‘If people don’t like a particular
comedian’s (7) act / prop, I (8) admit / recommend that
The New TheaTre preseNTs they stop watching it.’

Lars Jorgensen Live! No

‘Last week, I was shocked to see a ‘funny’ (9) monologue /
this year,
‘If you only see one live stand-up (1) venue about immigrants on TV,’ says writer Kay Ashworth.
that you see Jorge nsen .’ EvEnIng MErcury ‘Of course, the comedian (10) denied / revealed that
I (2)
to the comedy scene. he was racist, but to my mind, when broadcasters put
‘This year’s best (3) someone under a (11) spotlight / stage and give them a
true (4) ’ ThE Echo
Only 22 and already a (12) microphone / sketch, they give them the power to
‘Love him or hate him, you can’t (5) influence people,’ she says. ‘TV stations should make sure
’ azIn E
Jorgensen is a comic genius. haha Mag that those influences aren’t (13) extreme / exhausting or
make hateful,’ she (14) adds / admits.
‘A spectacular show! The brilliant (6)
it visually impressive as well as hilari ous. ’ Funny.coM

is 4 Translate the sentences.

‘Jorgensen’s chicken (7)
funn iest thing I’ve ever seen .’
possibly the
1 She boasted that she had worked as a scriptwriter on
ThE ManchEsTEr TIMEs
NT an American drama series.

2 Complete the sentences with the words.

amateur confirm frame 2 To my mind, it’s the best comedy venue in the city.
unforgettable venues zoom
1 Help! I’ve made this photo really big. How do I
out? 3 He recommended that I practised using the
microphone before going on stage.
2 Please could you that you’d like two
tickets for the 8.30 showing of Star Wars?
3 Some stand-up comedians are so popular that they
4 You can’t deny that he has some extreme opinions.
can fill huge like football stadiums.
4 For an , he takes incredible photos.
5 Animation is time-consuming because every
5 He admitted that being a comedian was exhausting.
is filmed separately.
6 Going on a zip slide is an experience.

124 Unit 6 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 7 Gramática

Future continuous and future perfect Comparatives and superlatives

Future continuous Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo
I / You / He / She / It / will long longer than the longest
be going.
We / They won’t big bigger than the biggest
Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they be going? busy busier than the busiest
Yes, will. beautiful more beautiful than the most beautiful
I / you / he / she / it / we / they
No, won’t. good better than the best
Future perfect Uso
I / You / He / She / It / will El comparativo sirve para comparar dos cosas, lugares o
have gone.
We / They won’t personas; en el superlativo se compara una persona, un
Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they have gone? lugar o una cosa con al menos dos más.
Yes, will. Driverless cars will be safer than cars driven by people.
I / you / he / she / it / we / they
No, won’t. The ‘vactrain’ will be the fastest form of transport we’ve
Uso ever seen.
Utilizamos el future continuous para describir acciones que También utilizamos otras expresiones para establecer
se estarán desarrollando en un momento concreto del futuro. comparaciones.
Las frases en future continuous suelen incluir las expresiones Driverless cars are less dangerous than cars driven by
in / at y this time … people.
In 2025, we’ll be using driverless cars. Football isn’t as old as Kabbadi.
At 1.30, they’ll be having lunch. This was the least cold winter that I can remember.
This time next week, I’ll be travelling to New York. Para descubrir más expresiones utilizadas para hacer
El future perfect se utiliza para referirse a acciones que se comparaciones, consulta la sección Functional language de
completarán en un momento concreto del futuro. Suelen la página 127.
incluir expresiones temporales introducidas por by.
By four o’clock, I’ll have finished this essay.
Future expressions
By the year 3000, we’ll have discovered life on another Los tiempos verbales citados no son los únicos que sirven
planet. para hablar del futuro. También podemos emplear ciertas
Future tenses be (just) about to (+ infinitivo)
I’m just about to go to bed. I’ll call you tomorrow.
Se utilizan distintos tiempos verbales de futuro para
funciones diferentes. be likely to (+ infinitivo)
It’s likely to be drizzly tomorrow.
be due to (+ infinitivo)
Predicciones (basadas en We’ll win the World Cup.
opiniones o impresiones) We’re due to fly to the USA soon and I’ve lost my passport.

Promesas I won’t tell anyone.

Decisiones espontáneas I’ll have another biscuit.
be going to
Predicciones (basadas en There’s going to be a blizzard.
evidencias externas)
Intenciones I’m going to call him now.
Present simple
Horarios The plane leaves at 7.45.
Present continuous
Planes concretos We’re moving to Scotland.

Gramática Unit 7 125

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 7 Grammar practice

Future continuous and future perfect 2 When the plane from

1 Choose the correct option. Say if the sentences are
3 We in the square at six o’clock.
in the future continuous (FC) or future perfect (FP).
4 This cake very nice. I forgot to put
1 What will we be doing / done tomorrow?
sugar in it.
2 By 2025, we’ll be / have got married.
5 I your hamster while you’re on holiday.
3 At 7.30, I’ll be having / had breakfast.
6 What a beautiful bag! I think I it.
4 Everyone will be / have driving electric cars in ten
years. 4 Look at the sentences in exercise 3 again and match
5 When will you have finishing / finished your them to the functions.
homework? A a promise
6 At half past two, the match won’t have beginning / B a prediction based on external evidence
begun . C a prediction based on a belief
2 Complete the text with the correct future D an event on a timetable
continuous or future perfect form of the verbs. E a spontaneous decision
F a fixed plan
Melting Arctic ice to open
up new shipping routes Comparatives and superlatives
5 Complete the gaps in the sentences with one word.
Scientists claim that by 2050, ships 1 This is best film I’ve ever seen.
(1) (sail) directly over
2 Walking isn’t as tiring cycling.
the North Pole. At the moment, this route
3 My sister’s outgoing than I am. I love parties
is difficult and this makes trade between
and she hates them.
Europe and China expensive. But so much ice
4 Does travelling by train take longer flying?
(2) (melt) by 2050 that a
corridor (3) (open up) 5 My feet really hurt! These are the comfortable
shoes I’ve ever bought!
in the Arctic Ocean and transporting goods
(4) (become) much cheaper.
It is thought that over the next decades. It is
Future expressions
possible that in 2050, while most of the world’s 6 Add four words to the second sentence so that it
population is suffering from the effects of climate means the same as the first. Include the bold word.
change, a few people (5) 1 The Prime Minister is giving a speech at 11.00. (due)
(make) money from it. The Prime Minister
a speech at 11.00.
2 There will probably be a light breeze today. (likely)
Future tenses There a light breeze
3 Complete the sentences with future forms of the 3 When do you expect to get your results? (due)
verbs. When get your
buy feed meet sell take off taste results?
4 Arsenal probably won’t beat Chelsea. (likely)
1 I don’t think the band many copies of
Arsenal Chelsea.
their next album.

126 Unit 7 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 7 Vocabulario

7.1 Phrasal verbs: travel 7.3 Extra vocabulary

come across (phr v) bronze (adj) / brɒnz /
/ ˌkʌm əˈkrɒs / finish line (n) / ˈfɪnɪʃ ˌlaɪn /
get away (phr v) / ˌɡet ˈəweɪ / opponent (n) / əˈpəʊnənt /
get off (phr v) / ˌɡet ˈɒf / runner-up (n) / ˌrʌnər ˈʌp /
get on (phr v) / ˌɡet ˈɒn / substitute (n) / ˈsʌbstɪtjuːt /
see off (phr v) / ˌsiː ˈɒf / tackle (v) / ˈtækl /
set off (phr v) / ˌset ˈɒf /
speed up (phr v) / ˌspiːd ˈʌp / 7.3 Word builder
stop over (phr v) be in a league of their own
/ ˌstɒp ˈəʊvər /
take off (phr v) / ˌteɪk ˈɒf / be no match for
turn back (phr v) / ˌtɜːn ˈbæk /
fight a losing battle
7.1 Extra vocabulary
commuting (v) get off to a good start
/ kəˈmjuːtɪŋ /
double-decker (n) put up a good fight
/ ˌdʌbl ˈdekər /
fare (n) / feər /
pedalling (v) / pedlɪŋ / 7.4 Functional language
pedestrian (n) / pəˈdestriən / Comparing and contrasting places
rush hour (n) / ˈrʌʃ aʊər / It might be (+ comparative) …
… is less / more (+ adjective) than …
7.1 Nouns: weather There are (not) as many as …
blizzard (n) / ˈblɪzəd / They are not as (+ adjective) as …
breeze (n) / briːz / … get(s) (+ comparative) and (+ same comparative)
drizzle (n) / ˈdrɪzl / The (+ comparative), the (+ comparative).
frost (n) / frɒst / There’s never been a (+ comparative) way to …
gale (n) / ɡeɪl / (noun) is second to none.
hailstorm (n) / ˈheɪlstɔːm / You’ll not only (+ infinitive), but you’ll also
heatwave (n) / ˈhiːtweɪv / (+ infinitive) … .
hurricane (n) / ˈhʌrɪkən / … is the only (+ noun), in town with (+ noun) …
mist (n) / mɪst / It may be (+ adjective), but it won’t be as (+ adjective)
shower (n) / ˈʃaʊər / as …
sleet (n) / sliːt /
tornado (n) / tɔːˈneɪdəʊ /

7.2 Functional language

What and How
What a lovely idea!
How very interesting!
How very disappointing!

Vocabulario Unit 7 127

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 7 Vocabulary practice

1 Complete the missing double letters in the 3 Complete the interview with the words.
words. Then use six of the words to complete the
double-decker get away hailstorm mist
set off stop over tornado turn back
1 5
bli ards dri le
rEtIrEd BUS drIvEr, 68, dEScrIBES
2 6 rOUNd-tHE-WOrLd cYcLE trIP
sp ds up hu icane
Ex-bus driver John Laws has returned home after cycling
around the world. Devon Life interviewed him about his trip.
3 7
o onent ru er-up Why did you decide to do it? What was the most
I’d travelled thousands of difficult aspect of the trip?
4 8 kilometres, but in Devon in a The weather! In India, a
co uting s o (1) (4) had
bus. I wanted to see the world! destroyed the road. In
China, I was in an incredible
UK PrEParES fOr (1) aNd  How long did it take and how
(5) – it
many countries did you cycle
SNOW aS WINtrY WEatHEr cONtINUES was like golf balls were
falling from the sky! And
I (2) two and
in Cambodia, there was so
(2) to work causes stress say doctors a half years ago and travelled
much (6)
through sixteen countries.
that I couldn’t see the road at
What will you remember all. There were times when I
Last year’s Tour de France (3) most about the trip? wanted to (7)
retires from cycling The scenery and the kind – but fortunately I didn’t!
people I met – especially the
and what now? Will you be
Nepalese family who invited
Diet book claims green tea (4) weight loss enjoying a quiet retirement
me to (3)
in devon?
at their house when I had
No way! I can’t wait to
nowhere to stay.
Nadal faces his toughest (8) again!
(5) yet in Light (6)
won’t stop the party at
tonight’s match the gLastonbury FestivaL!
4 Translate the sentences.
1 At six o’clock, the plane will have taken off.
2 Choose the correct option to complete the
1 It’s only a … . It’ll have stopped raining soon. 2 I came across my bronze swimming medal while I
A shower B frost C sleet was tidying my room.
2 You can’t get … the train without a ticket.
A off B on C away
3 It isn’t very windy, but there’s a light … . 3 There are plenty of cheap flights at the moment so
there’s never been a better time to get away.
A gale B breeze C heatwave
4 Let’s go and watch the runners cross the … .
A fare B finish line C rush hour 4 I hope that at 4.15, I’ll be crossing the finish line.
5 That was a bad … ! Why didn’t the referee give him a
yellow card?
A opponent B substitute C tackle 5 The runner-up said his opponent was second to none.

128 Unit 7 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 8 Gramática

Defining and non-defining relative Nota: en inglés, se utiliza el determinante para referirse a las
clauses profesiones.
Elvis was a singer.
Utilizamos pronombres relativos para añadir una
proposición (de relativo) a una frase. Al hablar de las cosas en general, no siempre es necesario el
determinante, p. ej. en el caso de los sustantivos abstractos.
(proposición principal) (proposición de relativo)
I don’t like fruit. Trust is essential in relationships.
That’s the bakery which sells mouth-watering cakes.

Se utiliza: Indefinite pronouns

• who con personas • when para indicaciones temporales
• which para cosas • where con lugares Afirmativa Negativa e interrogativa
• whose para expresar pertenencia Cosas something anything
Hay dos tipos de oraciones de relativo. Las especificativas nothing
aportan información esencial sin la cual no sabríamos a qué
Lugares somewhere anywhere
cosa, persona, lugar o momento se refiere la frase. everywhere
This is the restaurant which serves aromatic curries. nowhere
En las proposiciones especificativas, who y which se pueden Personas someone = somebody anyone = anybody
sustituir por that. everyone = everybody
no one = nobody
This is the restaurant that serves aromatic curries.
Las proposiciones explicativas añaden información Los pronombres indefinidos que empiezan por some- y
adicional sobre el sustantivo, pero la oración principal any- se utilizan para referirse a cosas, personas y lugares
tendría sentido sin ellas, ya que sabemos a qué cosa, sin especificar exactamente qué o quiénes son. Utilizamos
persona, lugar o momento se refiere. some- en la forma afirmativa; y any-, en negativa e
La proposición explicativa va entre comas. interrogativa.
The restaurant, which is called Thai Spice, serves There’s someone in the kitchen.
aromatic curries. There isn’t anything savoury.
En las proposiciones explicativas, los pronombres relativos Is there anything in the fridge?
no se pueden sustituir por that.
Everything, everyone / everybody y everywhere significan
“todas las cosas”, “todas las personas” y “(en) todos los sitios”.
Determiners She’s already been everywhere in Europe.
Utilizamos determinantes tales como los artículos a / an y Utilizamos no one / nobody y nowhere con un verbo en
the para identificar sustantivos. afirmativa para referirnos a “ninguna cosa”, “ninguna
persona” y “ningún sitio”. También podemos emplear
Algunos determinantes hacen referencia a cosas concretas:
anything, anyone / anybody y anywhere con un verbo en
negativa. El significado es el mismo.
this, that, these, those,
my, your, his, her, its, our, their There’s nobody here. = There isn’t anybody here.
so … that and such … that
This burger is inedible.
Se utiliza so / such … that para subrayar la intensidad de
Which sandwich are you going to have?
Otros determinantes, p. ej. a y some, hacen referencia a las
so + adjetivo + that
cosas en general:
The biscuits were so delicious that I ate three.
I’d like a sandwich. Let’s get some food.
such + (adjetivo ) + sustantivo + that
He showed such bravery that he won a medal.
I had such a bad headache that I went home.

Gramática Unit 8 129

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 8 Grammar practice

Defining and non-defining relative Determiners

clauses 3 Are the determiners in these sentences correct or
1 Match 1–5 to A–E to form sentences. Say if the incorrect? Write ✓ or ✗ and correct the incorrect
sentences contain defining (D) or non-defining (ND) sentences.
relative clauses. 1 I’m allergic to the milk.
1 My uncle, who spent
2 This is the museum 2 How much do these sandals cost?
3 My mum’s new perfume,
4 We saw the Big Hat Jazz Band, 3 How cold is it at North Pole?
5 We’re going to visit the town
A where we saw the Matisse exhibition last year. 4 The loneliness is a problem in our society.
B a long time in India, makes delicious curries.
C who performed at last year’s jazz festival. 5 You look great. I really like your dress.
D which contains patchouli oil, smells awful.
E where my grandmother was born.
Indefinite pronouns
2 Complete the text with suitable relative pronouns. 4 Choose the correct option.
Use that where possible.
1 No one / Anyone knows how old petroglyphs are,
but they probably date back thousands of years.
2 Check that you’ve got everything / anything you
need before you start assembling the table.
3 Why didn’t no one / anyone tell me that I had
We all know that we can’t see in places tomato ketchup on my shirt?
(1) there isn’t any light. But why?
4 There’s something / anything that I need to tell you.
Light, (2) is a form of electromagnetic
radiation, travels in waves. There are few objects
(3) emit light. Most objects just reflect so … that and such … that
the light (4) hits them. This reflected
light makes it possible for us to see an object 5 Join the sentences with so / such … that.
(5) we look at it. The light hits the retina 1 It was a good concert. I bought the band’s album.
in the eye, (6) it is converted into neural It was
signals. These are sent to other cells, (7) .
transmit the information to the brain. Researchers 2 The soup smelled delicious. We had to try some.
(8) study vision believe that the brain The soup .
actively interprets what we see and fills in gaps. It
often uses our experience of things (9)
3 My friend’s penguin costume looked silly. I couldn’t
we have seen before to do this. In other words, we stop laughing.
often see the things (10) we expect to My friend’s penguin costume
see. This is why we don’t always notice errors in a .
text. Our brains often correct mistakes automatically 4 There was a big crowd of people at the exhibition. We
(11) we’re reading or add missing letters couldn’t see the paintings.
in the places (12) they should be. There was

130 Unit 8 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 8 Vocabulario
a school of dolphins
8.1 Idioms: have and take / ə ˌskuːl ɒv ˈdɒlfɪnz /
have a ball / ˌhæv ə ˈbɔːl / a pride of lions
have a good nose for / ə ˌpraɪd ɒv ˈlaɪənz /
/ ˌhæv ə ɡʊd ˈnəʊz fɔːr / a troop of monkeys
have an eye for / ə ˌtruːp ɒv ˈmʌŋkiz /
/ ˌhæv ən ˈaɪ fɔː(r) /
have an open mind 8.2 Functional language
/ ˌhæv ən ˌəʊpən ˈmaɪnd / Too, neither and nor
have no idea / ˌhæv nəʊ aɪˈdɪə / Me too! Neither can I!
take it easy / ˌteɪk ɪt ˈiːzi / I have too! Me neither.
take it from me / us Nor does the researcher.
/ ˌteɪk ɪt frɒm ˈmi /, / ˈʌs /
take note of / ˌteɪk ˈnəʊt ɒv / 8.3 Extra vocabulary
take your breath away
complex (adj) / ˈkɒmpleks /
/ ˌteɪk jɔːr ˈbreθ əˌweɪ /
life-sized (adj) / ˈlaɪf ˌsaɪzd /
take your mind off
/ ˌteɪk jɔːr ˈmaɪnd ɒf / magnificent (adj)
/ mæɡˈnɪfɪsnt /
8.1 Extra vocabulary peculiar (adj) / pɪˈkjuːliər /
primitive (adj) / ˈprɪmətɪv /
aromatic (adj) / ˌærəˈmætɪk /
inedible (adj) / ɪnˈedəbl / 8.3 Word builder
mouth-watering (adj)
/ ˈmaʊθ wɔːtərɪŋ / look around (v) / ˌlʊk əˈraʊnd /
savoury (adj) / ˈseɪvəri / look back (v) / ˌlʊk ˈbæk /
look down (v) / ˌlʊk ˈdaʊn /
8.2 Abstract nouns look into (v) / ˌlʊk ˈɪntə /
affection (n) / əˈfekʃn / look out for (v) / ˌlʊk ˈaʊt fɔːr /
aggression (n) / əˈɡreʃn /
apprehension (n)
8.4 Functional language
/ ˌæprɪˈhenʃn / Giving instructions: sequencing
bravery (n) / ˈbreɪvəri / Beginning
compassion (n) / kəmˈpæʃn / Before you begin, … (+ imperative)
friendship (n) / ˈfrendʃɪp / Start by … (+ gerund)
grief (n) / ɡriːf / The first thing you should do is …
intelligence (n) / ɪnˈtelɪdʒəns / The best way to begin is by … (+ gerund)
joy (n) / dʒɔɪ / Continuing
loneliness (n) / ˈləʊnlinəs / After that, you should … (+ infinitive)
sympathy (n) / ˈsɪmpəθi / The next step / thing is to … (+ infinitive)
trust (n) / trʌst / Once / When you’ve done that, … (+ infinitive)
While + present continuous, + imperative
8.2 Learn it! Finishing
a herd of elephants The last step is to … (+ infinitive)
/ ə ˌhɜːd ɒv ˈelɪfənts / When you’ve completed all the steps, you should …
a flock of birds (+ infinitive)
/ ə ˌflɒk ɒv ˈbɜːdz / By this point, you should have … (+ past participle)
a pack of dogs
/ ə ˌpæk ɒv ˈdɒɡz /
Vocabulario Unit 8 131

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 8 Vocabulary practice

1 Complete the missing words in the sentences. Then 3 Complete the text with the words and phrases.
put the letters in the blue boxes in order to find the
apprehension bravery compassion have an eye for
mystery adjective.
have an open mind have no idea joy
1 Do you prefer sweet or S magnificent take it from me trust
food in general?
2 G S
physical – it can be verbal too.
isn’t always
JOB FashiOn
3 Dogs need more F F
from their owners than cats do.
#78 cOnsultant
People often think buying clothes is a fun and frivolous
4 I can’t wait until the wedding. We’re going to activity, but (1) , it isn’t. What you
V B ! wear affects your confidence, so as a fashion consultant, my
5 I’ve had a busy week, so I’m going to K job is to help clients choose clothes that suit them. Many
Y this weekend. people (3) what looks good on them.
A fashion consultant needs to (5)
6 Classical music fans can photograph colour and tone and make sure the client’s best features are
themselves standing next to a emphasized.
F - Z statue of Mozart.
Fashion consultants must understand their clients’ feelings
7 The Altamira Caves in northern Spain have and show (6) . For someone without
some of Europe’s best preserved much self-confidence, changing one’s image requires
P art. considerable (7) . Clients often feel great
(8) at our first meeting. They need to
8 The soldiers got medals for their extraordinary
(9) and for that to happen, you
Y . must develop (10) : when you say that
The mystery adjective is . your client looks (11) in an outfit, he or
she has to believe you.
2 Complete the words and phrases with the letters. For me, the best part of the job is seeing the pure
There are two extra sets of letters. Then match 1–8 (12) on clients’ faces when they look in
to A–H. the mirror and feel good about themselves – sometimes for
the first time in their lives.


4 Translate the sentences.
1 It took my br h away
1 My sister is someone who loves shopping and has a
2 He didn’t show much sym y good nose for a bargain.
3 I believe that friend
4 Do you think in igence
5 I heard a pecu noise 2 This curry is so spicy that it’s completely inedible.
6 L liness is a problem
A for many elderly people.
3 Grief is a complex emotion which has many forms.
B is more important than money.
C when I failed my guitar exam.
D is something that you can develop? 4 Listening to cheerful music usually takes my mind off
E when I saw my sister’s wedding dress. my problems.
F during the night. What was it?

132 Unit 8 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 9 Gramática

Summary of tenses Future perfect

Acciones que se habrán completado en un momento
Present simple
concreto del futuro.
Hábitos del presente; horarios del futuro
In two years, my sister will have graduated from
My brother studies engineering.
The autumn term finishes on 19th December.
Present continuous
Acciones que se están desarrollando ahora; planes
Non-tense revision
concretos para el futuro inmediato. Reported statements
I’m revising for my exams. Ver unidad 6 de esta Gramática, página 121.
We’re having a Maths exam tomorrow.
Reported requests
Past simple Ver unidad 6 de esta Gramática, página 121.
Acciones que se completaron en un momento concreto del
Third conditional
Ver unidad 4 de esta Gramática, página 113.
My dad got a new job in 2015.
Past continuous
Ver unidad 8 de esta Gramática, página 129.
Acciones que se estaban dando en un momento del pasado.
I was working on Saturday morning. Defining and non-defining relative clauses
used to Ver unidad 8 de esta Gramática, página 129.
Hábitos o situaciones que ya no se dan. Questions ending in a preposition
We didn’t use to have so much homework. Ver unidad 5 de esta Gramática, página 117.
Present perfect simple Question tags
Acciones o situaciones pasadas que tienen un efecto en la Ver unidad 5 de esta Gramática, página 117.
actualidad. Subject and object questions
I’ve done lots of volunteer work. Ver unidad 5 de esta Gramática, página 117.
Present perfect continuous Verb + -ing / to
Acciones o situaciones que empezaron en el pasado y Ver unidad 5 de esta Gramática, página 117.
siguen en la actualidad.
I’ve been studying all morning.
Plural nouns
Past perfect
Acciones que se dieron antes que otras acciones del pasado. Para la mayoría de los sustantivos, el plural se forma
He didn’t get the job because he’d lied on his CV. añadiendo -s.
Futuro con will students grades semesters
Predicciones basadas en opiniones o impresiones; Sin embargo, algunos sustantivos crean su plural de forma
decisiones espontáneas. diferente.
You’ll find this job very rewarding. Singular acabado en… Plural acabado en…
I won’t tell anyone. -y university -ies universities
That job looks interesting. I’ll apply for it. -ch, -s or -x boss -es bosses
Futuro con be going to -is analysis -es analyses
Intenciones o predicciones basadas en evidencias externas. -um medium -a media
I’m going to work really hard and pass this exam.
-f or -fe leaf -ves leaves
The teacher isn’t here. We’re going to have a free period.
Future continuous
Acciones que se estarán desarrollando en un momento
concreto del futuro.
In ten years, I’ll be working abroad.

Gramática Unit 9 133

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 9 Grammar practice

Revision 1 4 Correct the underlined mistakes.

1 David that’s a lawyer earns a lot of money.
1 Choose the correct option.
1 Sssh! Be quiet. I ’m studying / study. 2 What did happen at the interview?
2 I can’t do the exam because I ’ve broken / ’ve been
breaking my wrist.
3 I forgot asking what the salary was.
3 I felt nervous because I didn’t do / hadn’t done an
interview before.
4 You graduated from Leeds University, isn’t it?
4 My sister ’s going to / will study at Harvard next
5 In 2030, I’ll be graduating / have graduated and 5 The vocational careers include teaching and
I’ll have a job in a big company. medicine.

2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of

the verbs. Plural nouns
1 Question 2 looks difficult. I
5 Complete the text with the plural forms of the
(answer) Question 1.
nouns in bold.
2 I wasn’t feeling well when I (take)
the exam.
3 I (think) about it for ages, but I
still can’t decide what subject to study. Recent (1) (study) by the European
Commission show that higher education in Europe is
4 The exams will be over soon. This time next week, we
changing fast. Here are two of the (2)
(relax) on the beach.
(change) that (3) (analysis) of the
5 I need some money, so I (get) a data have revealed.
summer job.
The balance between the (4) (sex)
is changing. There are now three female students
Revision 2
for every two male students studying in EU
3 Put the words in brackets in the correct order. (5) (university). The ratio in
1 (not / jeans / her / told / I / wear / to) to the interview. education and the (6) (humanity)
is two to one. In science (7) (class),
there are still more males, but the gap is closing.
2 (in / subjects / did / Which / specialize / you) when
you were my age? There is more emphasis on employment
(8) (opportunity). Due to the
economic (9) (crisis) in many
3 If (I / you / helped / wouldn’t / passed / hadn’t / have European countries, higher education institutions
/ me,) the exam. are building closer links with (10)
(business). They are adapting their
4 The university careers centre (a / is / get / can / you / (11) (curriculum) to help students
place / where) information about different jobs. develop skills in new (12) (medium)
and personal (13) (quality) that will
make them employable. They are also preparing
students to continue learning for the rest of their
(14) (life).

134 Unit 9 Gramática

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 9 Vocabulario

9.1 Verbs and prepositions: 9.3 Extra vocabulary

education atmosphere (n) / ˈætməsfɪər /
approve of / əˈpruːv ɒv / launch (n) / ˈlɔːntʃ /
benefit from / ˈbenɪfɪt frɒm / mission (n) / ˈmɪʃn /
comment on / ˈkɒment ɒn / orbit (n) / ˈɔːbɪt /
concentrate on surface (n) / ˈsɜːfɪs /
/ ˈkɒnsntreɪt ɒn /
graduate from / in
9.3 Word builder
/ ˈɡrædʒuət frɒm / ɪn / Cognates or false friends?
participate in / pɑːˈtɪsɪpeɪt ɪn / design (v) / dɪˈzaɪn /
prepare for / prɪˈpeər fɔːr / emergence (n) / iˈmɜːdʒəns /
search for / ˈsɜːtʃ fɔːr / frontier (n) / ˈfrʌntɪər /
specialize in / ˈspeʃəlaɪz ɪn / intend (v) / ɪnˈtend /
succeed in / səkˈsiːd ɪn / probe (v) / ˈprəʊb /
ultimate (n) / ˈʌltɪmət /
9.1 Extra vocabulary
free period (n) / friː ˈpɪəriəd / 9.4 Functional language
half term (n) / ˌhɑːf ˈtɜːm / Giving notices and warnings
semester (n) / sɪˈmestər / Always … (+ infinitive)
study leave (n) / ˈstʌdi liːv / Never … (+ infinitive) unless …
term (n) / tɜːm / (Book) soon, otherwise you might … (+ infinitive)
Don’t let (him / her / them) … (+ infinitive)
9.2 Adjectives: careers Don’t panic. / Don’t worry.
academic (adj) / ˌækəˈdemɪk / (Give) this … , or you might … (+ infinitive)
challenging (adj) He / She / You / We / They should … (+ infinitive)
/ ˈtʃælɪndʒɪŋ / otherwise (he) might … (+ infinitive)
motivating (adj) Hurry.
/ ˈməʊtɪveɪtɪŋ /
It’s essential to (+ infinitive) / that you (+ infinitive) …
repetitive (adj) / rɪˈpetətɪv /
Make sure you … (+ infinitive)
rewarding (adj) / rɪˈwɔːdɪŋ /
If you don’t … , you will / won’t … (+ infinitive)
skilled / unskilled (adj)
/ ˈskɪld /, / ˌʌnˈskɪld /
unsociable (adj) / ʌnˈsəʊʃəbl /
varied (adj) / ˈveərid /
vocational (adj) / vəʊˈkeɪʃənl /
well- / badly-paid (adj)
/ ˌwel /, / ˌbædli ˈpeɪd /

9.2 Functional language

No way!

Vocabulario Unit 9 135

Grammar & vocabulary

Unit 9 Vocabulary practice

1 Complete the sentences with pairs of words. Then 3 Complete the opposites. Then complete the
match questions 1–3 to answers A–C. sentences.

approve comment free graduate half skilled ≠ un r ≠ varied

-paid≠ badly-paid
in leave study of on term period
sociable ≠ un

1 My sisters all medicine. What will 1 Should I get a(n) job that I enjoy or
my parents think if I say I want to be a writer? a(n) one that will allow me to save for
the future?
2 I started revising during the February .
What about you? 2 Finding a(n) job is challenging. Even
with lots of qualifications, you might have to do
3 I’d really like to get your opinion on my CV. Will you
a(n) job while you’re searching for one.
have a look and it?
3 My last job was very . Every day was
A Sure. I’ve got a this afternoon, so I’ll do it
the same. My new job is much more exciting
and .
B I haven’t done anything yet. That’s what
4 I’m a(n) person, but my job is very
is for!
. It doesn’t involve much interaction
C Well, my grandparents didn’t my dad’s with people.
career … until his first book sold 2 million copies.
4 Translate the sentences.
2 Complete the text with the words.
1 You should start revising this semester; otherwise
you might not have enough time to prepare for the
academic benefits challenging concentrate
motivating participated prepare rewarding
search specialize succeed

It’s a common belief nowadays that if you want a(n)

2 NASA put a spacecraft into orbit around the moon to
(1) career, you’ll need a university degree. examine the lunar atmosphere.
But society needs people to (2) in
many different skills, and not only (3)
ones. For example, consider the building you’re
3 The video shows the launch of the Apollo 11 mission
in now. Think about all the skilled people who
(4) in its construction, from electricians
and Neil Armstrong walking on the moon.
and plumbers to painters and carpenters. A good way
to (5) for a career in one of these trades
is to do an apprenticeship. If you (6) 4 Vocational careers, such as teaching, can be both
online, you’ll see that all kinds of trades employ
challenging and rewarding.
apprentices. An apprenticeship allows you to gain
qualifications and work with experienced tradespeople
at the same time. Your employer (7)
from your help, while you learn valuable skills and
earn money. An apprenticeship isn’t an easy option:
combining work and studies is (8)
and you’ll need to (9) just as much
as you did at school in order to (10) .
But apprentices find it (11) to gain
practical experience straightaway. And, of course,
a salary is always useful too.

136 Unit 9 Vocabulario

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Starter unit

Modals and semi-modals 4 Rewrite the sentences in the affirmative (),
negative () or question (?) form.
1 Complete the table with the words.  Sarah went to the shops at 9 a.m. today.
can could don’t have to had to mustn’t  Sarah didn’t go to the shops at 9 a.m. today.
have to should will be able to ? Did Sarah go to the shops at 9 a.m. today?
1  Mrs Hollis has worked at this school for years.
Obligation, prohibition and advice  _____________________________________
present obligation have to, need to, ? _____________________________________
2 ? Did you and I meet Joseph three years ago?
past obligation (1) ________
 ____________________________________
no obligation in the present (2) ________
 _____________________________________
no obligation in the past didn’t have to
3 ? Have you read the article about education?
prohibition (3) ________
 ____________________________________
advice (4) ____ and ought to
 _____________________________________
Ability and permission
4  I studied every evening last week.
in the past (5) ________
 _____________________________________
in the present (6) ________
? _____________________________________
in the future (7) ________
5  We haven’t seen his Spanish cousins since
2 Choose the correct option. 2013.
 ____________________________________
? _____________________________________
Hi everyone! Well, today was my first day at my new 6  Your friends didn’t play tennis on Saturday.
school. It was OK, but there are a lot of rules! First, we  ____________________________________
have to / mustn’t ask before we can leave the ? _____________________________________
classroom during a lesson. Also, we (1) are able to /
mustn’t eat or drink in the classroom. Two good Present simple and present continuous
things: at my old school we (2) had / must to wear
school uniform – we (3) weren’t allowed to / needed 5 Read the sentences. Then write questions and
to wear our own clothes like I (4) should / can at my short answers.
new school. Also at my new school, students It is raining today.
(5) will be able to / ought to choose what sports they ? Is it raining today?
do in PE class next term – that will be cool! Are there  Yes, it is.
a lot of rules at your school? Leave a comment! 1 We are learning about modern technology this
Past simple and present perfect ? _____________________________________
 _____________________________________
3 Complete the sentences with the correct past 2 Our uncle visits us in Spain every year in the
simple or present perfect form of the verbs in
brackets. summer.
? _____________________________________
Grace watched (watch) a science fiction film
 _____________________________________
3 Jack and Brittany are wearing Augmented
1 My team ____________ (not win) a match for
Reality glasses at the moment.
? _____________________________________
2 ____________ (you / be) to the new café on
 ____________________________________
Diamond Street?
4 Millie uses the internet for an hour every night.
3 ____________ (your sister / visit) your
? _____________________________________
grandmother last night?
 _____________________________________
4 I _________ (not sit) an English exam last week.
5 You often buy pizza from that Italian restaurant.
5 Tyler ____________ (live) in London, England
? _____________________________________
since 2014.
 ____________________________________

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Starter unit

Technology / instruction verbs 4 Choose the correct option.

1 Complete the words in the dialogues. Three weeks ago, I decided I would take ____ a
A Do you want to browse the internet? new sport. First, I tried (1) ____ judo, but I wasn’t
B No, I can’t right now. really crazy about it. Then my friend asked me to
1 A What did you and Emma do last night? play in his ice hockey team one afternoon. It was
B We s________ music videos and played great! In ice hockey, you have to be really fast –
computer games. (2) ____ is very important. You also have to have
2 A I don’t know how to s________ on this lots of (3) ____ in your arms and legs so you can hit
lamp. the puck really hard and move around the ice
B Here, let me show you. quickly. Since my friend asked me to play that
3 A OK, so what do I do first? afternoon, I’ve practised a lot and I’ve really
B First, you need to p________ this little (4) ____. Tonight, we have a big match. I really
black button. think we will be able to (5) ____ the other team!
4 A This new app is great!
B I know! It automatically u________ when a out b in c up
new versions become available. 1 a up b in c out
2 a accuracy b speed c flexibility
Technology adjectives 3 a coordination b balance c strength
4 a improved b taken c drawn
2 Are these opposites correct or wrong? Tick () 5 a win b beat c compete
the correct ones and correct the wrong ones.
automatic inautomatic  manual Money verbs
1 convenient inconvenient __________
5 Match the sentence halves 1–6 to A–F.
2 efficient unefficient __________
3 heavy light __________ 1 When you can afford something, B
4 high quality low quality __________ 2 If you buy something and you feel it’s worth it, __
5 practical inpractical __________ 3 When you borrow money, __
6 reliable unreliable __________ 4 Banks often lend __
7 useful useless __________ 5 When you save up money, __
6 When you’ve wasted money, __
A people and companies money.
3 Complete the words in the sentences. B you are able to buy it if you want.
C you haven’t made the best use of it.
Historically, the sport of archery was used for
D you feel you didn’t spend too much money on it.
hunting animals and combat.
E you have to give it back.
1 When you go k__________ you sit in a long, thin
F you don’t spend it.
2 For r_______ c_______, you need to wear
special heavy boots and a helmet. Functional language
3 While my friends and I were t_______ b_______
6 Complete the words in the sentences. Tick ()
in the countryside on Sunday, I fell and cut my
the ones that ask for help with a specific
leg. problem.
4 I don’t like w__________; I want to be in the
Can you spell that for me? 
boat, not behind it!
1 I can help you _n an hour. __
5 I run really fast, so I do very well in sports like
2 Hi, Abi. _re you __sy? __
3 __uld you _ind ____slating that? __
4 I work __om 9 __ 5. __
5 H___ you got a ___ute? __

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 1
Past simple, past continuous and used to Present perfect simple and present perfect
1 Write the correct tenses.
We use it for a past habit or state. used to 4 Complete the rules.
1 We use it for a completed action in the past. continuous finished for simple since
____________ unfinished
2 We use it for an action that was interrupted by
another action. ____________ We use the present perfect continuous to focus on
3 We use it for an action that happened an action which is (1) _______.
immediately after another action. ____________ We use the present perfect (2) _______ to focus on
4 We often use while before it. ____________ the present result of an action which is (3) _______.
We use (4) _______ to talk about how long
2 Correct the mistakes in the sentences.
something has lasted and (5) _______ to talk about
Did the film use to start at two o’clock yesterday? when something started.
Did the film start at two o’clock yesterday?
1 Jordan was lucky he didn’t sleep when the fire 5 Complete the dialogues with the correct present
started. perfect simple or continuous form of the verbs
____________________________________ in brackets.
2 We didn’t used to care about animals, but we do A My friend has started (start) writing a blog.
now. B Really? I haven’t seen (not see) it.
____________________________________ 1 A Where’s Fin? I __________ (not have) time to
3 Did used you to work in your parents’ shop when talk to him all evening.
you were sixteen? B He’s in his room. He __________ (study)
____________________________________ since six.
4 When the bully tried to hit me, a teacher came 2 A Meg _________ (plan) the campaign for days.
and was stopping him. B I know, but she __________ (not finish) yet.
____________________________________ 3 A We _________ (know) Mrs Rae for five years.
5 While Mariella walked along the street, she fell. B I don’t know her well, but I _________ (meet)
____________________________________ her once on a school trip.
4 A Ethan _________ (repair) his car all morning.
3 Choose the correct option and complete the text B Yes, and he still __________ (not fix) it.
with the correct form of the verbs using the past
simple, the past continuous or used to. 5 A __________ (the boys / go) to bed?
Sometimes more than one answer is possible. B Yes, they __________ (sleep) for hours.

When / While I (1) __________ (walk) to school on Present perfect with already, still, yet, just,
Monday morning, I (2) __________ (see) a girl,
ever and never
Grace, from my History class sitting on a bench at
the bus stop. (3) When / While I (4) __________ 6 Choose the correct option.
(get) closer to her, I noticed that she
Lauren has ____ had an argument with me.
(5) __________ (cry). When I was younger, I
a never b ever c yet
(6) __________ (not care) too much about other
1 Jacob hasn’t found any sponsors ____.
people’s problems, but I do now, so I had to find out
a just b ever c yet
why she was so sad. (7) While / When I asked her
2 I ____ haven’t made any new friends.
what the matter was, she said that a girl from school
a already b still c yet
(8) __________ (send) her cruel messages on
3 Have you ____ had to wear a uniform?
Facebook. I told her that we should tell a teacher
a ever b just c still
about this and stop it. (9) __________ (you / have)
4 Mum and Dad have ____ left for work.
problems with bullies when you were at school? I
a just b still c ever
think we all have to make an effort to stop horrible
5 Sorry, we’ve ____ had lunch.
cyber bullies.
a still b ever c already

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 1
Adjectives: personality Collocations: get and make

1 Find eight adjectives in the wordsearch. 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of
get or make.
T D E D I C A T E D E U Did you get the feeling that he’s angry with me?
D I N T Q H F S Q U M W 1 He ____ a good impression on his teachers
E C S Y L O Z Y Y O Z B because he always did his homework on time.
P B I P J U F M U U V I 2 She ____ better at chess because she practised.
E Z F T T T M P T H W T 3 We ____ the most of the day by going for a walk.
N H J A L G F A S L Z T 4 I’ve ____ my decision. I’m going to university.
A B X E O I F H C D K R Extra vocabulary
4 Complete the words in the text.
E M O P T I M I S T I C The New Forest National Park in England is the
I C R U E L F C H R S K (1) ___itat of many species, including the famous New
Forest ponies – animals like small horses – that are
2 Complete the sentences with the adjectives from free to walk around the park. It didn’t really have one
exercise 1. (2) ___nder – several people and organizations
I know you’ve fallen out with your best friend, but worked to (3) ___ng change to the area so that it is
don’t be bitter about it. You should apologise now one of the largest protected areas in southern
because you know you were wrong. England. Over four million tourists visit the park every
1 Don’t hit the dog, Jonathan! That’s horrible! Why year, coming to hike, cycle, or simply sit in the
are you being so __________? (4) ___de of one of the park’s many trees and enjoy a
2 Please tell me what I can do here in the old day out in the (5) __ld landscape of Hampshire.
people’s home – I’m __________ to help in any
way I can. used to, be used to, get used to
3 I think many teenagers are __________ about
the future; they think things will be better in 5 Complete the sentences with the words.
twenty years from now. getting used to cleaning is used to cleaning
4 Matt loves parties and having fun with his friends used to clean
at the weekends. He’s a very __________ 1 He _____ his flat. He’s been doing it for years.
person. 2 He _____ his flat, but now someone else does it.
5 When I don’t know what to do about a bad 3 He’s been living in his flat for two weeks, so he’s
situation, I go to my friend, Rajesh. He always _____ it.
helps me and gives me good advice – he’s very
Functional language
6 Jasmine always does what she says she’ll do
when she says she’ll do it – she’s a really 6 Complete the dialogues with the words.
__________ person.
about good how like see what would
7 Hannah lied to her parents about hanging out in
the city centre. Now they won’t let her go out at 1 A Hello. I’d like some information
weekends, but I don’t feel at all __________ ________ your organization.
because she caused this problem by not telling B Sure. ________ you like me to tell you
the truth! ______ it works?
8 Dad works ten hours a day, six days a week – 2 A Could you explain ________ working at the
he’s very __________ to his job. old people’s home involves?
B Have a look on our website to ________
what it’s all about.
A OK, ________ idea, thanks!

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 2
Past simple and past perfect simple enough, (a) few, (a) little, lots of, plenty of,
too much, too many
1 Complete the rules with the words. There are
two words you do not need. 4 Choose the correct option.
first important main past perfect simple There isn’t ____ space in here for another chair.
modal past simple recent relationship a plenty b few c enough
1 My brother spends too ____ money on clothes.
We use the past simple and the past perfect simple a many b few c much
to show the relationship between two past actions. 2 I have very ____ money, so we can’t go
The (1) ____ is used for the action which happened shopping.
(2) ____. We use the (3) ____ to describe the more a plenty b enough c little
(4) ____ action. We form the past perfect simple 3 Emily’s only got ____ friends, but they’re all
with had and the past participle of the (5) ____ verb. great!
a enough b a few c a little
2 Match the beginnings of the sentences 1–6 with 4 There were ____ of paintings at the auction, but
the endings A–F.
I didn’t really like any of them.
1 We only knew about the website E a lots b few c many
2 By the time I got to the auction, __ 5 It was a good party, but there were ____ people
3 I had forgotten to go to the shops after school, __ there.
4 All the shoppers had left the Viking Store __ a too much b a little c too many
5 Olivia went to the police station __ 6 There are ____ sandwiches on the table – help
6 Muhammad hadn’t been to a fundraising event __ yourself!
a plenty of b few c lots
A so Mum was angry with me.
B until his uncle took him to one.
Attitudinal adverbs certainly, maybe,
C they had sold all the paintings.
obviously, simply
D after she had lost her bag.
E because a friend had told us about it.
5 The bold adverbs are in the wrong sentences.
F before it closed for the day. Write them next to the correct sentence.

3 Correct the mistake in each underlined part of Look at that cool sports car! Certainly, it’s
the story. expensive. Obviously
1 The teacher didn’t shout at me; she maybe told
On Friday, Amber got up early to go shopping. She me to leave the classroom. ________
heard the day before that there was a huge sale at 2 Obviously I’ll go with you, but I’m not sure.
the shop, Games Are Us! (1) She set her alarm ________
clock for 6 a.m. the night before because (2) she 3 ‘Can you help me?’ ‘Simply! I’m always eager to
didn’t want to miss the chance to find a special help!’ ________
game that she played with a friend at the weekend.
(3) After she had had breakfast, Amber had left for Intensifiers
the shop. (4) By the time Amber arrived at the shop,
it had already opened and had been full of 6 Complete the words in the rules.
shoppers. Amber had been worried she was too late
to get the game that she wanted until she saw one We use words like really, (1) v________ and
at the back of the shop. (5) It was the last one and (2) e________ to make adjectives stronger, or
Amber didn’t get there in time to purchase it! Amber intensify them. With adjectives which are already
was very happy! strong, e.g. terrified (= really scared), we use
(3) c________, (4) t________ or (5) a________.
had heard 3 __________
1 __________ 4 __________
2 __________ 5 __________

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 2
Advertising Extra vocabulary

1 Find nine more words connected with 4 Match words 1–6 to definitions A–F.
advertising in the word snake. 1 habitable E
2 stunning __
3 old-fashioned __
4 media __
5 ordinary __
6 terraced __
promote 5 __________
1 __________ 6 __________ A usual, not strange
2 __________ 7 __________ B TV, newspapers and the internet, for example
3 __________ 8 __________ C used to describe a house that is one of a row of
4 __________ 9 __________ houses that are joined together on each side
D not modern
2 Complete the text with the correct form of five of E used to describe something that can be lived in
the words from exercise 2. Sometimes there is
F extremely beautiful
more than one possible answer.
5 Complete the words in the sentences.
Most people have heard of Greenland, but not many
people know how it got its name. People claim that My family lives in a semi-detached house – it’s
Eric the Red, a famous Viking from Iceland, was sent joined to another house by a wall that we share.
to Greenland because he had killed someone. He 1 We have a huge si____________ house, so
wanted to (1) ________ the country so that people there is lots of space for all six of us to sleep.
would go there, so he named it in a way that might 2 Unique im_________ of rare animals decorate
(2) ________ to people. Of course, by calling it the walls of the café.
‘Greenland’ Eric (3) ________ a little, because 3 If you want to buy one of our amazing
Greenland is a land of snow, ice and very cold pr_________, please visit our website.
temperatures – there isn’t really anything about it that 4 Our company sl_________ is ‘The customer is
is green! To be truthful, if you don’t like extreme always right!’.
weather, Greenland isn’t a place that I’d (4) ________ 5 My favourite comedian has a regular
that you visit, despite what Eric the Red said! sl_________ on Saturday-night TV.

Functional language
6 Complete the dialogue with the words.
3 Complete the sentences with the words.
consider kidding passion shame think
bargain bid charge unbelievable
purchase refund selection
A So, Jordan, tell me a bit about yourself.
Let’s go into that shop – it’s got a huge selection
B Sure! Firstly, I like to think I’m hard-working and
of computer games.
efficient, so I (1) __________ myself to be
1 The advert says that if you __________ one T-
suitable for the job.
shirt, you get another one free!
A Have you worked as a chef before?
2 The hotel has a gym, but you have to pay a
B Yes, in London. I loved my job, but I had to leave
small __________ to use it.
it when I moved here to Leeds.
3 These boots are too big for me. Can I get a
A That’s a (2) __________, but I’m sure you
__________, please?
picked up really valuable experience there.
4 You liked the painting at the auction, so why
B Oh, yes! And I love food, it’s my (3) __________!
didn’t you __________ on it?
A Great! If you want the job, it’s yours!
5 In some countries, you can __________ with the
B You’re (4) __________? That’s (5) __________!
sellers in the shops so that you get a discount.
Thank you!

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 3
The passive – past, present and future Reflexive pronouns, emphatic pronouns,
each other, one another
1 Write sentences in the correct passive form.
Sometimes there is more than one possible 3 Complete the text with the words.
another herself himself itself myself
MAN SAVED FROM BEAR ATTACK other ourselves yourself
A man was saved from a bear attack yesterday. My friends and I love to invent things. We have a
club that we organized by ourselves, and we meet
ALLOWED IN LOCAL POOL AFTER once a week to talk to each (1) _____ about new
TRAGIC ACCIDENT ideas for innovative gadgets. Last week, Ibrahim
showed us a machine that he had designed (2) ____
1 ______________________________________
– it creates energy from the wind! Then Jasmine
TWO THIEVES CAUGHT asked us to try out a gadget that she had invented
BY POLICE LAST NIGHT (3) _____ – a piece of plastic that you can attach to
2 ______________________________________ a knife so that you don’t cut (4) ____ when you’re
preparing meals. I showed everyone what I had
made by (5) _____ – a lamp that turns (6) _____ on
SCIENTISTS and off when someone enters or leaves a room. In
our club we’re all supportive of one (7) _____ and
3 ______________________________________
we enjoy discussing what we’re going to make next.
PRINCE CHARLES have something done
4 Rewrite the sentences with the correct form of
4 ______________________________________ have something done.
NEW SCHOOLS TO BE OPENED Someone took my photo. I had my photo taken.
NEXT YEAR 1 A famous chef is preparing a meal for us.
5 ______________________________________ ______________________________________
2 Someone washes Dad’s car every week.
2 Complete the sentences with the correct active ______________________________________
or passive form of the verbs in brackets. 3 Uncle Dan isn’t going to fix my bike.
Sometimes there is more than one possible
4 Will the doctor take your temperature?
A lot of tickets were sold after people saw the
advert for the concert. (sell)
1 Next month, we ____________ to find a more
It is said / thought / well known / believed /
efficient way to heat our home. (try)
2 Unfortunately, many rare animals ____________
accepted that
every year. (kill)
5 Put the words in the correct order.
3 My family ____________ the planet by cycling to
work and school every day. (help) he / said / it / a great inventor / is / that / is .
It is said that he is a great inventor.
4 An electronics factory ____________ in Newport
1 that / get / thought / it / will / hotter / the Earth / is .
next year. (close)
5 Unfortunately, the company’s new computer ______________________________________
2 must / it / use / is / we / that / less energy /
____________ by many consumers last year.
accepted .
6 ____________ by a mechanic tomorrow? (your ______________________________________
3 well known / is / that / very clever / Einstein / it
car / fix)
was .
7 The students ____________ the end-of-year
party by themselves last year. (organize) ______________________________________

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 3
Technology adjectives Extra vocabulary

1 Choose the correct option. 3 Complete the news stories with the correct form
Can you believe that these beautiful images of the words in bold at the end of each story.
were computer-generated / solar-powered /
adaptable? Today’s top stories …
1 This little device is very wireless / mechanical /
Inuk, the world-famous polar bear, turned twelve
adaptable; you can use it as a knife, fork or
years old today. Lots of visitors came to the zoo for
Inuk’s birthday celebration. It didn’t take long for the
2 I have a sustainable / wireless / chemical
furry (1) ‘__________’ to eat his cake, which was
computer mouse.
made from his favourite food – fish! celebrate
3 It is thought that if we use sustainable /
electronic / solar-powered fishing methods, the A local wildlife charity held its yearly sponsored run
number of fish will increase. today. More than one hundred (2) __________ ran
4 If the sun isn’t shining, will the inside of a(n) ten kilometres to help raise money for endangered
solar-powered / innovative / alternative home animals. Charity organizers want to thank all those
be cold? involved for their (3) __________ – it made the run
5 Cycling is a popular wireless / electronic / a great success. participate
alternative form of transport – it’s better than
And in the world of sport … West Ham fans were
using a car.
not happy today as they watched their team lose 2–
6 This is a(n) energy-saving / sustainable /
1 to Sheffield United. One of the (4) __________ for
chemical lamp – it uses less power than normal
the team says that the players will simply have to try
harder in next week’s match. He also said that the
level of (5) __________ needed to be increased.
Function verbs train

2 Complete the sentences with the verbs.

Functional language
absorb boost crash perform
process release repair rest 4 Complete the words in the sentences. Tick ()
transport the sentences which are suitable for giving a
My grandmother is old and she needs to rest for presentation.
an hour every afternoon. I’d now like to discuss an alternative form of
1 Oh, no! I’ve knocked my cup over! Quick! Let’s public transport. 
use these tissues to try and __________ the 1 I’m qu____ intere____ in things like science and
coffee. maths. 
2 Be careful that your computer doesn’t get too hot 2 Ri____, let’s mo___ on to our next topic, which
or it might __________. is chemical energy. 
3 You won’t __________ well in the exam unless 3 Sports don’t app____ to me in the ____htest. 
you get plenty of sleep and eat healthy food. 4 I’m very ____sed with myself. I couldn’t have
4 How long does it take for our brains to done bet____. 
__________ new information? 5 Let me sum______ what I’ve just said. 
5 Most cars __________ pollution into the air while 6 I’m a bit ____ppointed wi___ my exam results
we are driving them. this year. 
6 When we sleep, our bodies __________ 7 I’m running in a charity race. It’d be gre___ if you
themselves. wou___ sponsor me. 
7 Here, eat this piece of chocolate. It will 8 Today, we’re ___ing to talk to you ___out the
__________ your energy levels. Dance Warriors of Africa. 
8 Many companies use huge boats to __________
their products to the USA.

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 4
The first and second conditional The third conditional

1 Choose the correct option. 3 Rewrite the story in the third conditional.
The first conditional is formed by:
Nadia moved into the house next to Dylan’s. They
If / Unless + ______, will / won’t + infinitive.
became friends. Dylan offered to help Nadia paint
a past simple b present simple
her kitchen, so they bought some tins of orange
c past continuous
paint. Dylan fell over one of the paint tins and
1 Conditional sentences ______ contain commas.
sprained his ankle. Nadia took him to hospital. By
a always b sometimes c never
chance, Dylan met an old friend called Rachel
2 The second conditional is formed by:
there. He asked Rachel out and they went to the
If + past simple, ______ + infinitive.
cinema together two weeks later.
a would b will c be
3 Unless means the same as ______ + a negative If Nadia hadn’t moved into the house next to
verb. Dylan’s, they wouldn’t have become friends.
a infinitive b will c if 1 If they hadn’t b__________________________
4 The second conditional talks about the result of ______________________________________
a(n) ______ situation. 2 If Dylan hadn’t o_________________________
a past b possible future c imaginary ______________________________________
5 The first conditional talks about the result of a(n) 3 If Nadia hadn’t b_________________________
______ situation. ______________________________________
a past b possible future c imaginary 4 If Dylan hadn’t s_________________________
2 Complete the sentences with the correct first or
second conditional form of the verbs. 5 If Nadia hadn’t t_________________________
We will help (help) you paint your room at the
6 If Dylan hadn’t m________________________
weekend unless we’re busy.
1 If they __________ (not work out) at the gym
more often, they won’t get fit.
2 If we had lots of money, we __________ (buy) a The zero conditional
new car.
4 Write zero conditional sentences.
3 Your parents would give you more pocket money
if you __________ (not waste) it on computer you / get the most points / you win.
games. If / When you get the most points, you win.
4 He __________ (visit) the doctor if he has any 1 meat go bad / you not put it in fridge.
aches and pains, but he says he feels OK. _______________________________________
5 If I __________ (not have) a lot of homework, I 2 you / sit in the sun for hours / you get sunburned.
would invite my friends for a sleepover. _______________________________________
6 __________ (you / send) Megan a text message 3 you not get blue / you / mix red and white paint
if you find her keys? together.
7 Unless I __________ (not catch) the 8 o’clock _______________________________________
bus, I will meet you at the sports centre at 9
o’clock. wish / if only
8 __________ (you / be) a professional actress if
5 Complete the words in the text.
you had the opportunity to go to drama school?
9 Julia would go to university and study to be a If only and I wish mean the same thing. We use I
doctor if she __________ (be) so afraid of blood! wish with the (1) p________ simple to talk about
10 If I _________ (be) King for a day, I __________ regrets expressed in the (2) p________. We use if
(give) everyone in Spain more holiday. only with the (3) p________ p________ simple to
11 What __________ (you / do) if it __________ talk about (4) p________ regrets.
(rain) tomorrow?

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 4
Phrasal verbs Extra vocabulary

1 Complete the dialogues with down, out or up. 3 Match words 1–7 to definitions A–G.
A I hate going to the dentist! 1 anxious E
B Calm down, and tell me why you don’t like it. 2 parka __
1 A I painted my room and it looks awful! 3 dynamic __
B Cheer ______, Sophia. I’ll help you paint your 4 avalanche __
room again. 5 grumpy __
2 A Do you think I’m getting fat? 6 cheerful __
B No, but if I were you, I’d cut ______ on 7 snowshoes __
3 A Do you want to go to the water park? A in a bad mood
B No, I think I’ll stay home and chill ______. B worn on your feet in winter weather
4 A I have got a lot of problems. C happy and optimistic
B Open ______ and tell me about them. D snow, ice and rock that suddenly falls down the
5 A Where are you going? side of a mountain
B To the gym to work ______. E very nervous
F a long warm jacket with a hood
Aches and pains G very energetic
2 Choose the correct options, then match the
labels to the pictures. 4 Complete the text with the endings.
A broken / stiff neck __ -al -ble -ous
B dislocated / broken leg __
C sprained / allergic wrist __
D aching / itchy skin __ Sledding might not be the national sport of Canada,
E bruised / swollen ankle __ but it is a very popular one. This is a sport that is
F aching / allergic muscles __ done in cold weather and there are (1) vari____
ways you can stay warm while you’re doing it – try a
few of them and you’ll really enjoy flying down the
snowy hills! Remember, though, that some hills are
not (2) accessi____ to sledders, so always ask
before you go onto someone’s land to go sledding.
the first time you try sledding, but if you’re always
(4) cauti____ and (5) sensi____, you’ll have the
time of your life!

Functional language

5 Complete the words in the sentences. Tick ()

the sentences which show agreement.
I know what you mean. 
1 Wh___ do you think I sho___ do about my poor
exam results? 
2 What ___uld you do if you w___ me? 
3 H___ you thought ___out asking your teacher?

4 You ___ght to wear warm clothes in winter. 
5 Defin___! 
6 That’s ___ht. 
7 I’m not conv____ about that. 

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 5
Question forms Verbs with -ing and to

1 Correct the underlined mistakes in the text. 3 Choose the correct meanings.
We remember travelling on a plane for the first
time quite well. We were about six years old.
Hi Olivia, a We remember something we did in the past.
How are you? Are you enjoying your holiday? You b We remember that we have to do something.
knew that I’m staying at my grandma’s house for a
1 She showed us a video and then went on to
week, you did? I’m having a great time – Gran’s
discuss it.
brilliant. You’ve met her, (1) hasn’t she? Something
a She continued with an action.
funny happened last night when I was using my tablet.
b She changed her activity.
Gran said to me, ‘What (2) for is that little gadget?’
2 I regret not asking my cousins to go with us.
She’d never seen a tablet before! I showed her how it
works and now she wants to get one! That’s cool, a I’m sorry about something I didn’t do in the
(3) it is? So, you said that you had gone to the cinema past.
last week to see Will Smith’s new film. Who (4) you go b I’m sorry to say that something is true.
with? Was the film good? I’ve seen the advert for it, but 3 Nick stopped to visit me on his way home.
I haven’t actually seen the film. What (5) did happen at a Nick doesn’t do an action anymore.
the end of it? I’m really excited about meeting you after b Nick interrupted an action and did something
I get home from Gran’s, by the way. Which bus else briefly.
(6) does stop at Riverloo Station? That’s where we’re 4 He remembered to buy a present for Mum.
meeting, (7) it is? Let me know! a He remembered that he had to do something.
Miss you, b He remembers something he did in the past.
Liam 5 I tried going to the gym and I actually lost weight!
a You did an experiment to see if something
didn’t you 4 ________________ works and it did.
1 ________________ 5 ________________ b You made an effort to do something that was
2 ________________ 6 ________________ difficult and it failed.
3 ________________ 7 ________________

2 Read the answers in the dialogues. Then

Modals of deduction and possibility
complete the questions. Use the same verb as in
the answer. 4 What do the underlined modals in the sentences
express? Write D (deduction) or P (possibility).
A Which film are you going to see?
We might launch a new website. P
B I’m going to see the one about pirates.
1 Michelle can’t be home – her car is gone. __
1 A ________ did you ________?
2 Somebody may comment on your blog. __
B I bought some things to make lunch.
3 I could upload the photos to the internet. __
2 A ________ ________ the car accident?
4 He can’t be a student here – he’s too old. __
B Wet roads caused the car accident.
5 Simon must be rich – he’s got a huge house. __
3 A ________ ________ you about the festival?
B Andrew told me about it.
4 A ________ article are you ________? Infinitives of purpose
B I’m reading the one about manners
5 Tick () the sentences which contain infinitives
in the past.
of purpose.
5 A ________ ________ the party?
B Jamie and Sam organized it. We went to the zoo to see the animals. 
6 A ________ was the book ________? 1 I want to host a website. 
B It was written for my auntie. There’s a 2 She used my phone to send an email. 
dedication to her in the front. 3 They waited until noon to eat lunch. 
7 A ________ did you last ________ a tweet? 4 Dad phoned to tell me the news. 
B I last sent a tweet this morning. 5 I’m looking forward to seeing your new laptop! 

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 5
Technology verbs Extra vocabulary

1 Complete the words in the text. 3 Choose the correct option.

Some patients ____ got worse after receiving
The Internet for Beginners: 
the medicine!
A Guide for Grandparents 
a current b actually c currently
So, you’ve finally bought yourself a computer –  1 Sue isn’t keen on ____ communication with
welcome to the digital world! 
people – she prefers talking with people online.
The first thing you need to do is to turn your  a face-to-face b global c multiple
computer on and then log on to the internet with  2 What do most of the people in your ____ circle
two things – a user name and a password.   do in their free time?
Once, you’ve (1) ____ssed the net, the digital world  a respectful b face-to-face c social
is at your fingertips!  3 Why are you so grumpy today, Nicole? ____ up
Here are just a few things that you can do while  and let’s go for pizza.
you’re online:  a Cheer b Split c Own
  (2) ____oad your favourite videos to the  4 Somebody should help the people in the world
internet so all your family and friends can see  who are living in ____.
them too.  a circles b poverty c upbringing
  (3) ____nsfer photos from your phone to your  5 Harry and his girlfriend have been arguing a lot –
computer and email them to other people to  I think they might ____ up.
enjoy.     a put b bring c split
  (4) ____st a blog on a subject that really  6 The people in the ____ classes were always
interests you. You’ll enjoy (5) ____onding to  quite wealthy.
the comments that you get on it.    a virtual b upper c multiple
7 I didn’t get the idea for my new business from a
  (6) ____kmark your favourite sites so that they 
are always easy to find when you want to look  real friend – I got it from a ____ friend on
at them.  Facebook.
a multiple b virtual c global
8 What am I doing these days? ____, I’m at
Manners nouns university studying to be a lawyer.
a Actually b Current c Currently
2 Answer the questions with the words.
appreciation consideration netiquette Functional language
politeness rank tradition
4 Complete the sentences with the words. There
English Vocabulary Quiz are two words you do not need.
What is the opposite of rudeness? politeness bound consider doubt great had mean
1 What do we call the set of rules we should unlikely well
follow when we are online? __________
You shouldn’t spend so much time online. I
2 What’s the word for the pleasure we have when
mean, you should do other things too.
we recognize the good qualities of something?
1 I have an idea! We could _____ going to London
on the train for a day out. What do you think?
3 What do we call the quality of being kind to
2 We ______ better send a text message to Mum
others and thinking about their feelings?
and Dad.
3 I ______ that Ethan has commented on my blog
4 What’s another word for a belief, custom or
– he never goes online.
way of doing something? __________
4 It’s looking _____ that my computer will be fixed
5 What’s the word for the position somebody has
by next Friday. I’m so annoyed. I want it fixed!
in society? __________
5 There are ______ to be lots of people you know
at the party. Don’t be so worried.

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 6
Reported speech Reported questions, requests, commands,
suggestions and offers
1 Read the direct speech and look carefully at the
underlined words. Then complete the reported 3 Read the text. Then complete the reported
speech with one or two words. speech.
‘I will help you with your report,’ David said.
David said that he would help me with my report. Good morning. I want to welcome all of you to
the museum. There are a few things I need to tell
1 ‘His computer game is more entertaining than
you before we begin our tour. First, have you
mine,’ Grace said. bought your tickets? Are they the correct tickets
Grace said that his computer game was more for this tour? Good! So, which exhibit interests
interesting than ________. you most? May I suggest the Picasso exhibit for
2 ‘Some animals can bite you,’ the zookeeper said the art-buffs? Now, let me give you all a map of
to me. the museum. Keep hold of it … or you might get
lost! OK, could you listen to a few rules, please?
The zookeeper said that some animals ________
Please show consideration for the other museum
bite ________. visitors – don’t run or make too much noise.
3 ‘Ethan had a good time yesterday,’ Lisa said. Right, let’s go to the exhibit on the art of Malta.
Lisa said that Ethan ________ a good time the
I went on a school trip to a museum yesterday. The
4 ‘Your cousin is sleeping,’ my aunt said.
museum guide discussed a few things with us before
My aunt said that _____ cousin _____ sleeping.
we began our tour. First, he asked us (1) _______
5 ‘We are going to the theme park,’ Mum said.
we (2) __________ our tickets. Then he asked us
Mum said that we ______ going to the theme
(3) _______ they (4) _______ the correct tickets for
that tour. Finally, he asked us (5) _______ exhibit
6 ‘I have bought the Diggerland tickets,’ Olivia said.
(6) _______ us most and suggested (7) _______ art-
Olivia said that ______ ______ bought the
buffs see the Picasso exhibit. Next, he offered
Diggerland tickets.
(8) _______ us all a map of the museum and told us
2 Rewrite the direct speech in reported speech. (9) ____________ it. Then he asked us to listen to a
‘Tyler is going to take us out,’ Alexis said. few rules. He asked us (10) _______ consideration
Alexis said that Tyler was going to take them out. for the other museum visitors and told us
1 ‘You can be a zookeeper for a day,’ my parents (11) ____________ or make too much noise. Then
said to me. the tour started.
______________________________________ Prepositions
2 ‘The boys are playing in the garden,’ she said.
4 Complete the words in the table.
______________________________________ Location (2) M_______ Distance (5) ____gin
3 ‘I’ll take them to the theme park,’ Josh said.
(1) bel____ away from (4) aw___ of
on top of (3) tow_____ near from
at across
4 ‘James has walked the dog,’ Sarah said.
______________________________________ Adverb phrases
5 ‘Going to the theatre is better than watching TV,’
5 Complete the adverb phrases with as, at, in, on
Auntie Liz said.
or very.
in secret 4 _____ soon as
1 _____ silence 5 _____ bed
6 ‘Lauren visited Zip 2000 yesterday,’ he said.
2 _____ home 6 _____ a hurry
3 _____ much 7 _____ foot

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 6
Reporting verbs Extra vocabulary
1 Read the direct speech. What are the people
doing? Complete the sentences with the words. 3 Find seven more words connected to
entertainment in the word puzzle.
admitting agreeing boasting
complaining denying recommending E G A O W I J Z A P P R D N V
Yasmine: My friend and I went to see a film at the H G N K C M H F F R A M E J H
local cinema last night. It was amazing – if you A Q U N F O R G E T T A B L E
like adventure films you have to see this one! U Q A Z C D S C E N E G C S X
Yasmine is recommending something. S G L D V L Q Q F S I Z T L Z
Rafael: I play in the school football team. I I R T H P C X Q F U D N Y O X
score at least three goals in every match. N T Q C N C L O C A T I O N F
My team would never win without me!
1 Rafael is ________ about something. X C A B A C K G R O U N D J M

Emma: I went to a restaurant last night. It 4 Complete the sentences with the words from
was terrible! The food was awful and the exercise 3.
waiters were rude. I’ll never go there again! Did you know that this film was shot on location
in Australia?
2 Emma is ________ about something. 1 Glastonbury is a(n) __________ festival – it’s
held every year.
Leon: My cousin thinks that Beyoncé has a great
voice – he believes she’s the best singer on the 2 Who’s that in the __________ of this photo?
planet! He’s right! I think she’s amazing too! 3 In the final __________ of the film, the star gets
3 Leon is ______ with somebody about something. 4 His new film is a(n) __________; it’s made lots
of money and has been very successful all over
Eloise: I didn’t take any money from your the world.
room. I can’t believe that you think I would 5 I’ll always remember this wonderful day – it’s
ever do anything like that! been a(n) __________ experience!
4 Eloise is ________ something. 6 It must be __________ being a professional
singer – I’d never have the energy to do it.
Sanjay: It was me that broke the mirror on 7 A(n) __________ is one of the many pictures
the car door, Dad. I wasn’t looking where I that a video is made from.
was going and I hit a post box.
5 Sanjay is ________ something. Functional language

5 Complete the words in the dialogue.

Entertainment nouns
A According to this online article, teens watch too
2 Complete the words in the sentences. much TV. What’s your (1) op______?
B In my (2) ____ew, that’s not true. I (3) al____t
Will doesn’t earn money singing; he’s still an
never watch TV. And most of my friends only
watch TV a (4) co______ of times a week.
1 The comedian’s a________ consisted of five
A I agree with you up to a (5) po_____, but
humorous s________ about life as a teenager.
(6) ____r the writer of the article, young people
2 We couldn’t hear the performer because her
waste a lot of their time in front of the television.
m________ hadn’t been turned on.
B Well, to my (7) m_____, the writer is wrong. As
3 The actress looked beautiful as she stood alone
far as I’m (8) con________, he hasn’t done
on s________ in the s________.
enough research on the subject.
4 Has the v________ for next week’s concert been
announced yet?

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 7
Future continuous and future perfect Future tenses

1 Complete the rules with the words. 4 Correct the underlined mistakes in the rules.
at be by completed happening have We use be going to for promises. will future
participle 1 We use the present continuous for timetables.
The future continuous is formed by: will be + -ing. 2 We use the present simple for spontaneous
We use it to talk about actions that will be decisions. _______
(1) ________ at a certain time in the future. We 3 We use be going to for fixed future plans. ______
often introduce time expressions with (2) ________, 4 We use will future for future intentions. ______
in and this time. The future perfect is formed by: will 5 We use the present simple for predictions based
(3) ________ + past (4) ________. We use it to talk on what we believe. _______
about actions that will be (5) ________ by a certain 6 We use the present continuous for predictions
time in the future. We often introduce time based on external evidence. _______
expressions with (6) ________.
Comparatives and superlatives
2 Write the verbs in the correct form of the tense
in brackets. 5 Complete the text with the correct comparative
This time next winter, we will be skiing (ski) in or superlative form of the words in brackets.
Add words where necessary.
the Swiss Alps! (future continuous)
1 _____ all the tourists ____________ (leave) the
city by this time next month? (future perfect)
Hi Valeria,
2 Man ________________ (not walk) on Mars by
How are you? Sorry I haven’t emailed in a while, but
this time next year. (future perfect)
I’ve been getting ready to move house on the 4th –
3 What ____ you and your friends ___________ (do) it’s going to be the busiest (busy) day of the year for
at this time tomorrow night? (future continuous) our family! I hate moving, but our new apartment is
4 Cyclists ________________ (not use) the new (1) ________ ________ (big) our old one and it isn’t
cycle path in January. (future continuous) (2) ________ ________ (expensive) to rent
5 Scientists _____________ (invent) many alternative (3) ________ our old one, thankfully. Our new
means of transport by 2025. (future perfect) apartment also has all (4) ________ ________
(late) home comforts too, like high-tech air
3 Complete the dialogues with the correct future conditioning and lights that switch themselves off if
continuous or future perfect form of the verbs in you’re not in the room. The past two weeks have
been (5) ________ ________ ________ (stressful)
A What will we be studying (study) this time of my life – I’ve been packing like crazy! The boxes
next week? seem to get (6) ________ (heavy) and
B I don’t know. Let’s ask the teacher. (7) ________ (heavy), but the apartment seems full
1 A You look upset, Pernille. What’s wrong? of stuff! ;-) I’ll just keep going!
B My flight’s been cancelled, so I _____________ Talk soon,
(not travel) to Denmark today after all. Mason
2 A Why are you cleaning the house, Bertie?
B Because my relatives ________________ Future expressions
(arrive) here in two hours’ time!
3 A By this time next month, I ________________ 6 Complete the text with the words.
(work) here for ten years.
about due just likely to (x2)
B Really? That’s a long time!
4 A I’m afraid I ________________ (not fix) your Mum is just (1) _______ to leave for work. She’s got
car by Friday. a meeting that is (2) _______ (3) _______ start at
B Oh, no! That’s bad news. 9.30 a.m. She is (4) _______ (5) _______ be on
5 A ____ you ________ (finish) cooking by 5 p.m.? time if there isn’t too much traffic on the roads.
B Yes, I think so.

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 7
Travel phrasal verbs

1 Complete the sentences with the words. 3 Complete the text with the words. There is one
across away back off over up word you do not need.
battle commuting got line match
While I was cleaning my room, I came across my
opponents pedalled put runner-ups tackle
keys, which I had lost the week before!
1 You’ve been working too hard; you should try Until last weekend, when I was a participant in a
and get ________ for a short holiday. charity cycling race, the only cycling I had ever really
2 Do you want to come to the airport with me? My done was commuting to work every day! Because I
dad is going to the USA and I want to see him travelled back and forth to work on my bike, I actually
________. thought I was quite fit and I believed that I could
3 Why are you walking so slowly? Speed (1) __________ up a good fight against my
________ or we’ll be late for school. (2) __________ in the race. I was in for a surprise! I
4 The weather is getting worse. I think we’ll have (3) __________ off to a good start and because I
to turn ________ and return to camp. (4) __________ as fast as I could, I managed to stay
5 On our way to Wales, we stopped ________ for close to the other cyclists. The problem was that I got
the night at a lovely little B and B. tired very quickly and it wasn’t long before I realized
that I was fighting a losing (5) __________. As we got
Weather nouns closer and closer to the finish (6) __________, I knew
that I was no (7) __________ for the cyclists in front of
2 Complete the words with the vowels a, e, i, o, u.
me. In the end, my friend Janine won the race and her
Then label the pictures.
sisters, Nicky and Rebecca, were the (8) __________.
h_ _lst_rm t_rn_d_ h_rr_c_n_ I wasn’t too disappointed, though – true, I didn’t win
h_ _tw_v_ sh_w_r bl_zz_rd the race, but I did raise lots of money for charity.

Functional language

4 Complete the words in the sentences. Tick ()

the sentences that compare or contrast
1 ______________ 2 ______________ There’s never been a better way to get away
than with EazyPlane! 
1 You didn’t win a prize for your new invention …
how very dis____inting fo__ you, Victoria! 
2 This hotel m____ be bigger, but it ___n’t as nice
as the one we stayed in last year. 
3 Obviously, th___ are not as m____ tourists using
3 ______________ 4 ______________ the beaches during the colder winter months. 
4 At the moment, scientists are experimenting with
trains that will be able to travel at 4,000 km/h …
h___ very int__________! 
5 Many experts have pointed out that the planet is
g_________ hotter and hotter. 
5 ______________ 6 ______________ 6 You and your family are setting off on a holiday
to Bermuda next month … ___at exciting ___ws!

7 Michael will not ____y earn lots more money in
his new job, but he’ll ___so get the chance to do
lots of travelling. 

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Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 8
Defining and non-defining relative clauses 5 Choose the correct option.
Is this / the one / another the book you were
1 Read sentences A and B. Are sentences 1–5 true looking for yesterday?
(T) or false (F)?
1 Look at these / those / any monkeys over there
A The chef, who has been cooking for years, is – I think they’re talking to each other!
from Spain. 2 Do you believe what / these / – aggression is a
B Any food which I prepare tastes amazing. natural feeling?
In sentence A, the relative pronoun cannot be 3 I’ll give you her / another / which chance to be
replaced with that. T my friend if you promise to be nicer to me.
1 Sentence A contains a defining relative clause. 4 What / Which / His is that boy’s name?
__ 5 Steve has got two dogs; the ones / their / the
2 In sentence B, the relative pronoun can be one he got first is called Leo.
replaced with that. __ 6 Could you pass me that / this / those knife?
3 Sentence A contains extra information. __
4 In sentence B, the clause gives us information Indefinite pronouns
necessary to know what we’re talking about. __
5 In sentence B, extra information comes between 6 Complete the words in the dialogue with any-,
every-, no- or some-.
commas. __
Alyssa So what’s new? Have you been doing
2 Match 1–7 to the relative clauses A–G. anything cool or been out
1 I met a French chef C (1) ______where interesting recently?
2 The meal, __ Noah No, not really. What about you?
3 That’s the office building __ Alyssa Erm … I went (2) ______where nice last
4 The nurse, __ Friday – Luigi’s Pizzeria. It was really
5 Shakespeare, __ good – there was (3) ______thing I didn’t
6 Alexander Graham Bell is the man __ like about it. The food was nice and the
7 2014 was the year __ music was great – (4) ______one seemed
to be having a good time. I asked
A where my dad works. (5) ______body sitting at the table next to
B who invented the telephone. me if they’d been there before and they
C whose first name was Jacques. said ‘no’, but that they’d definitely be back.
D who took my temperature, was very kind. We should go.
E which we had at Dans le Noir, was delicious.
F whose plays are very well-known, was English. so … that and such … that
G when Amanda finished university.
7 Find and correct the mistakes in the sentences.
3 Which of the sentences 1–7 in exercise 2 One sentence is correct.
contain non-defining relative clauses? It was such cold that I turned on the heating.
_________________________________________ It was so cold that I turned on the heating.
1 The chef is such a good cook the restaurant is
Determiners always full.
4 Complete the table with the determiners. 2 It was so a cute monkey that I took a photo.
a another any his no article the
the one these this what 3 It’s such an easy puzzle that anyone will be able
to do it.
General Specific ________________________________
a ________ 4 The cave is so dark we can’t go into it.
________ ________ ________________________________
________ ________
________ ________
________ ________

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 8
have and take idioms Extra vocabulary

1 Complete the words in the idioms and add the 4 Complete the adjectives in the text.
verbs have or take.
1 have a ball 6 _____ a good n____ for
2 _____ it fr____ us 7 _____ n____ of Hi all! In today’s post I’m talking about food – well,
3 _____ an e____ for 8 _____ an o____ mi____ actually I’m talking about a peculiar, but cool,
4 _____ no id____ 9 _____ it e____ restaurant I went to with some friends at the
5 _____ your m____ off 10 _____ your b____ aw___ weekend. The restaurant has been built to look like
a huge cave. When you first walk in the entrance,
2 Match six of the idioms from exercise 1 to the there’s a (1) life-_____ed ‘caveman’ waiting to greet
meanings A–F. you! On the walls of the restaurant are
have good skills in finding things 6 (2) p_____tive paintings of wild animals and hunters
A enjoy yourself __ – amazing! And the food, at least most of it, was
B accept new ideas __ really good too. Two of my friends and I had a
C relax __ (3) sa_____y dish made from meat and vegetables
… it was (4) m_____-watering and delicious! My
D help you forget __
friend, Jack, decided to try a fish dish. When it
E really surprise you __
arrived at our table, it had a very strong
F know nothing __
(5) ar_____ic smell and it looked rather strange.
After one bite, Jack complained that his food was
Abstract nouns (6) in_____le. He sent it back to the kitchen and
ordered something else. Have you had any
3 Choose the correct option. interesting restaurant experiences recently?
Do you believe that there is any stronger feeling
than the ____ a mother feels for her child? 5 Complete the sentences with the words.
a affection b loneliness c bravery around back flock herd into pride
1 Why do you always throw things when you’re
angry, Stella? You must control your ____! We’ve just seen a(n) herd of elephants!
a trust b aggression c sympathy 1 Experts are looking ______ new forms of
2 The newspaper article said that the firefighter energy.
had showed a lot of ____ when he rescued the 2 Looking ______, I realize that I should have
man from the burning building. gone to university when I was younger.
a grief b affection c bravery 3 What a huge ______ of birds in that field!
3 Martin couldn’t hide his feeling of ____ when he 4 Let’s go into that shop and have a look ______.
found out that he had won an award for his new 5 A(n) ______ of lions can be very dangerous.
a friendship b joy c compassion Functional language
4 Daniel is a humorous man with great ____.
These qualities mean that he is great company. 6 Complete the words in the sentences. Tick ()
a intelligence b apprehension c trust the sentences that show agreement. Underline
the sentences that continue instructions.
5 Have you ever experienced feelings of ____? If
you have, you should join a club so that you will Nor does the researcher. 
meet new friends and have people to hang out 1 Sta___ b__ taking the pieces out of the box and
with. putting them on the table. 
a friendship b sympathy c loneliness 2 I ha___ t__o! 
3 Aft___ that, you ___uld cut up the vegetables. 
4 The la___ ___ep is to paint the model car the
colour that you’ve chosen. 
5 Wh___ the meat is cook___, prep___ the sauce.

6 Me neit____! 

4 2

Grammar & vocabulary

Grammar Unit 9
Revision 1 Revision 2

1 Choose the correct option. 3 Look at the underlined words. What kind of
We use the present __ to talk about present grammar item are they? Choose from the items
in the box.
a perfect simple b simple c continuous determiner non-defining relative clause
1 We use the past __ to talk about an action in question tag question with a preposition
reported question reported statement
progress at a certain time in the past. subject question third conditional
a simple b continuous c perfect verb + -ing / to
2 We use __ to talk about past habits or situations
which are different now. Lizzie pointed out that we would be late for class
a used to b will future c the past perfect if we didn’t hurry. reported statement
3 We use the __ simple to talk about an action or 1 What is this little black button on the mechanical
situation which started in the past and has device for? ____________
continued until now. 2 Mr Hollis, who is a famous scientist, specializes
a past b present c present perfect in alternative forms of energy. ____________
4 We use __ to talk about an action in the past 3 We’ve already watched two films – I don’t want
which happened before another action in the to watch another one. ____________
past. 4 Zach really has an eye for the latest trends,
a the past perfect b be going to c used to doesn’t he? ____________
5 We use __ to talk about future intentions and 5 We’re out of milk and bread, so don’t forget to
predictions based on evidence. stop at the shops on your way home from the
a will future b future perfect c be going to gym. ____________
6 My grandad would have gone into that little shop
2 Correct the underlined mistakes in the to look around if he had known that it sold rare
sentences. silver coins. ____________
Deborah cooked in the kitchen for hours now, 7 Who is going to organize the annual charity run
but dinner still isn’t ready. this year? ____________
has been cooking 8 Jake asked us whether we had ever been to the
1 Paul had broken his ankle yesterday while he restaurant Dans le Noir. ____________
was playing football at the local sports centre.
_______________________________________ Plural nouns
2 My parents usually had been taking the bus to
work, but this morning they’ve decided to walk. 4 Correct the spelling mistakes in the sentences.
_______________________________________ Our company is looking for someone who has
3 This time next June we will travel around South the different kinds of abilitys which are needed
Africa and I think we’ll visit Europe after that. for working in a busy office. abilities
_______________________________________ 1 A couple of foxs managed to get into the barn
4 Did your friends used to enjoy reading books and kill some of the chickens. ________
about animals when they used to be younger? 2 I’m thinking about working in a restaurant – do
_______________________________________ waitress make very much money? ________
5 Angela and I will paint our bedroom by next 3 The coachs from the two rugby teams are
Saturday and then we are going to paint the arguing about the last goal. ________
living room – that’s the plan anyway! 4 At the moment, our planet is facing several crisis,
_______________________________________ global warming being one of them. ________
6 Look at that little girl! She has been falling into 5 From my point of view, you shouldn’t believe
the swimming pool if she isn’t careful! everything that you read in the medias. _______
_______________________________________ 6 Cut the potatoes into halfs and add them to the
7 At the moment, the teacher talks about other vegetables. ________
avalanches. 7 Can you put those forks and knifes on the table
_______________________________________ for me, Grace? ________

4 1

Grammar & vocabulary

Vocabulary Unit 9
Education verbs and prepositions Extra vocabulary

1 Complete the phrases with prepositions. 5 Complete the words in the text.
for (x2) from in (x4) of on (x2)
Walking on the moon, by Gareth Jones 
approve of 5 benefit ____ This term, we’ve been learning about the ‘final 
1 comment ____ 6 concentrate ____ (1) fro________’ – space. As a science buff, I find 
2 graduate from / ____ 7 participate ____ the topic really thrilling. During one of my free 
3 prepare ____ 8 search ____ (2) pe________ today, I went online and found out 
4 specialize ____ 9 succeed ____ about the Apollo 11 space (3) mi________. Back in 
2 Complete the text with the correct form of some 1969, three astronauts, Armstrong, Aldrin and 
of the phrases from exercise 1. Collins, accepted the (4) ult________ challenge – 
they (5) int________ to walk on the moon! The 
Learning different languages is very important to me. I
(6) la________ took place on 16 July and after 
believe that people benefit from speaking several
languages for lots of reasons, so at the moment I am
travelling for three days, Apollo 11 landed on the 
(1) __________ my FCE exam, which I will sit in June, moon on 20 July. Six hours later, on 21 July, 
by taking English lessons three times a week. If I Armstrong became the first man to ever walk on 
(2) ________ passing that, I’m going to the moon’s (7) su________! This amazing moment 
(3) _________ an exchange programme in London, was broadcast live back on earth, so people saw 
England next summer. My parents (4) __________ and heard Armstrong as he said the famous words, 
this plan and they are also very excited that after I ‘One small step for man, one giant leap for 
(5) ___________ university I am going to go on to do mankind.’ I can’t imagine how exciting that would 
further studies and (6) ___________ modern foreign
have been … wow!  

Careers adjectives Functional language

3 Find eight more careers adjectives in the word 6 Complete the dialogue with the words. There is
puzzle. one word you don’t need.
Y X W X A C I U B C X E essential hey hurry if might otherwise
N R W R C Z U M T H W L ouch panic really should wow
O V E E A P N O F A M U A Hey, Amy! Wait for me! I’ve been looking for you.
Z E L P D G S C A L O N Have you started studying for half-term exams
G V L E E L O G H L T S yet? I haven’t, and I need some advice.
B Hi, Liam. You know, it’s (1) __________ that you
concentrate on your exams this week.
Q R A I I J I R T N V I (2) _________ you don’t, you won’t pass! But don’t
T I I T C V A H R G A L (3) _________. I’ll give you a few hints to help you.
N E D I Q P B U T I T L A (4) _________? You’d do that for me? Thanks,
S D A V M J L L N N I E Amy.
B It’s OK. You (5) __________ make a timetable of
what you are going to study and when,
R E W A R D I N G Z G V (6) __________ you (7) __________ end up
wasting time.
4 Which adjectives from exercise 3 are positive?
A (8) _________! I see what you mean! What else?
academic, ________________________________ B We’ll talk more later on. We’re going to be late
_________________________________________ for our next class. Come on, Liam.
(9) __________!

4 2