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Plug in x = 0, y = −1: e−1 + 0 = y + 1, y = e−1 − 1. b) If f (x) = (cos x)ln x then ln f = ln x ln(cos x). Diﬀerentiate the last equation: f (x) 1 1 ln(cos x) = ln(cos x) + ln x · (− sin x) = + ln x tan x, f (x) x cos x x f (x) = f (x) ln(cos x) ln(cos x) + ln x tan x = (cos x)ln x + ln x tan x . x x

c) Let f (x) =

x2

x , then +1 x2 + 1 − 2x2 1 − x2 1(x2 + 1) − x(2x) = = 2 . f (x) = (x2 + 1)2 (x2 + 1)2 (x + 1)2

Thus f (0) = 0 when 1 − x2 = 0, x = ±1. Since x = −1 is not in [0, 4], the only critical point in [0, 4] is x = 1. We evaluate f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1 1 4 4 = , f (4) = = . 1+1 2 16 + 1 17

The maximum value is 1/2 (at x = 1), and the minimum value is 0 (at x = 0). 2. a) We have cos x ≈ 1 − cos(−0.2) ≈ 1 − x2 (you can either remember it or derive it here). Hence 2

(−0.2)2 = 1 − 0.02 = 0.98. 2

M (0.2)3 , where M is a constant such that |(cos x) | ≤ M for 3! x between −0.2 and 0. We have (cos x) = (− sin x) = (− cos x) = sin x and | sin x| ≤ 1 1 1 for all x, hence we can take M = 1. Thus the error can be estimated by (0.2)3 = . 3! 150 b) The error is bounded by c) If f (x) = 3x then f (x) = 3x ln 3, f (x) = 3x (ln 3)2 , f (x) = 3x (ln 3)3 . Hence the third order Maclaurin polynomial is f (x) ≈ 1 + (ln 3)x + (ln 3)2 2 (ln 3)3 3 x + x . 2! 3!

3. Let y(t) denote the amount of material left after t years, measured in grams. Then y(t) = 100ekt for some k < 0. We know that y(1) = 80, hence 100ek = 80, ek = We wish to ﬁnd t such that y(t) = 40: 100ekt = 40, ekt = .4, kt = ln .4, t = ln .4 ln .4 = . k ln .8 80 = .8, k = ln(.8). 100

4. The water in the container has the shape of an inverted cone with height h cm and radius 2h cm at the top, where h is measured to be 50 cm. The volume of the water is V (h) = π(2h)2 h/3 = 4πh3 /3. The error in computing it based on the measured value of h is bounded by V (50)dh, where dh = 1. We have V (h) = 4π · 3h2 /3 = 4πh2 , so V (50) = 4 · 502 π = 10000π. Hence the error is at most 10000π · 1 = 10000π cm3 . 5. Let d(t) denote the distance between the boy and the ball, h(t) – the height of the ball, x(t) – the distance the boy has run from the starting point, where all distances are measured in meters and t is measured in seconds. Then d2 = h2 + x2 . Diﬀerentiate in t: 2dd = 2hh + 2xx , dd = hh + xx . We have h(t) = 38t − 16t2 , h (t) = 38 − 32t, x(t) = 3t, x (t) = 3. At t = 1, we have h(1) = 38 − 16 = 22, h (1) = 38 − 32 = 6, x(1) = 3, x (1) = 3, and √ √ d(1) = 222 + 32 = 484 + 9 = 493. Hence √ 141 . 493d (1) = 22 · 6 + 3 · 3 = 132 + 9 = 141, d (1) = √ 493

Since d (1) > 0, the distance is increasing.

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