Está en la página 1de 47

R A W P A P A C H A

Tawantinsuyu ñawpa-pacha-k'uzkiypa 'uyaychanan

An I n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r i e s f o r Andean archaeology

Publicación i n t e r n a c i o n a l de arqueología andina

13-/4

1975

John H. Rowe
P a t r i c i a J . Lyon

Editors

Tawantinsuyu K'uzkiy F a q a r i c h i s q a

I n s t i t u t e o f Andean S t u d i e s - I n s t i t u t o de E s t u d i o s Andinos

Berkeley,. C a l i f o r n i a
1+5

A CARVED STELA FROM TARACO, PUNO, PERU, AND THE DSFINITION


OF AN EARLY STYLE OF STONE SCULPTURE FROM THE
ALTIPLANO OF PERU AND BOLIVIA

S e r g i o Jorge Chávez and Karen L. Mohr Chávez

Contents

Introduction.

General D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Taraco M o n o l i t h (Yaya-Mama S t e l a ) . . 45

. D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e carved elements..... 47

S i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h Other S c u l p t u r e from Around t h e Margins

o f L^ke T i t i c a c a ( P a r t i c u l a r l y t h a South) 49

D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e Yaya-Mama S t y l e 57

Forms 57
Motifs 57
Composition 53
Technique 59

P r o b l e m a t i c a l Pieces O m i t t e d from t h e Yaya-Mama S t y l e 59

Comparison w i t h M o n o l i t h s o f t h e Pucará S t y l e f r o m Puno .52

Considerations o f Dating ..54

Comparison o f d e s i g n m o t i f s 64
The Qalasasaya s t y l e argument " 65
The r a d i o c a r b o n evidence 56
S e r i a t i o n a l order 67

Acknowledgements 68

Dedicat ion 69

Notes .59

Bibliography , .75

Key t o I l l u s t r a t i o n s . 82
Introduction^

T h i s paper c e n t e r s on a d i s c u s s i o n o f a c a r v e d s t e l a from Taraco,


i n t h e Department o f Puno, Perú. The unique c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t y l i s t i c
elements w i l l be compared t o those o f some pre-Tiahuanaco m o n o l i t h s from
around t h e margins o f Lake T i t i c a c a , Pucará s t y l e m o n o l i t h s , and t o l a t e
Paracas o r e a r l y Nasca elements. A group o f s i m i l a r stone s c u l p t u r e from
around t h e l a k e , i n c l u d i n g t h i s Taraco s t e l a , w i l l be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as
composing a newly d e f i n e d s t y l e , p o s s i b l y b e i n g pre-Pücara i n r e l a t i v a
d a t e . For ease o f r e f e r e n c e we have named t h e Taraco s t e l a "Yaya-Mama,"
a Quechua word a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i e d t o t h e male ( " f a t h e r " o r yaya) and
female ("mother" o r mama) combination carved on t h e s t e l a . T h e Yaya-Mama
s t e l a i s , t h e n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r group o f stone
s c u l p t u r e , a group which we suggest be termed t h e "Yaya-Mama group," a f t e r
t h e "type m o n o l i t h , " as i t were, and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e i n g carved i n t h e
"Yaya-Mama s t y l e , " t o be d e f i n e d below,

On November 5, 1968, and a g a i n on August 2, 1970, d u r i n g


a r c h a e o l o g i c a l reconnaissance i n t h e Peruvian a l t i p l a n o , t h e f i r s t a u t h o r
v i s i t e d t h e town o f Taraco, l o c a t e d i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f Taraco, Province
o f Huancané, Department o f Puno. Seven m o n o l i t h s a r e e r e c t e d i n t h e p l a z a
t h e r e , t h r e e o f which were d i s c o v e r e d r e c e n t l y ; ^ t h e o t h e r f o u r were r e -
corded and s t u d i e d , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l from t h e same
s i t e , i n 1941 by A l f r e d K i d d e r 1 1 . ^ A d d i t i o n a l newly d i s c o v e r e d m o n o l i t h s
not e r e c t e d i n t h e p l a z a were r e c o r d e d by t h e f i r s t a u t h o r i n 1970, and by
b o t h a u t h o r s d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1973, c o m p r i s i n g a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - s i x
new m o n o l i t h s c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h e x c a v a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n ; these mono-
l i t h s w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f a f u t u r e a r t i c l e . Reconnaissance was a l s o
c a r r i e d o u t a t Taraco i n 1955 by Thoroas C. P a t t e r s o n ^ and i n 1953 by a
Japanese group under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f S e i i c h i Izum.j..^

One o f t h e m o n o l i t h s r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d i n Taraco i s t h i s
Yaya-Mama s t e l a . We have p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d a d e s c r i p t i o n and compari-
sons i n two o t h e r a r t i c l e s , based on t h e above-ground p o r t i o n o f t h e s t e l a
o n l y , as observed e r e c t e d i n t h e p l a z a . D u r i n g t h e 1970 t r i p , t h e f i r s t
a u t h o r was p e r m i t t e d , as he had not been on h i s p r i o r , v i s i t , t o u n e a r t h
t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h o f t h e s t e l a . T h i s paper, t h e r e f o r e , adds t o t h e de-
s c r i p t i o n and comparisons made by us e a r l i e r by i n c l u d i n g t h i s b a s a l p o r -
t i o n f o r the f i r s t time. Further, the a r t i c l e attempts t o b r i n g together
v a r i o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f comparative m a t e r i a l d e r i v e d f r o m d i s p e r s e d , oíd,
or sometimes m i s l e a d i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s , and i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f new, p r e v i o u s l y
unpublished monoliths.

General D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Taraco M o n o l i t h ( t h e Yaya-Mama S t e l a )

Form: The m o n o l i t h ( f i g s . ' 1 and 2) i s a f o u r - s i d e d p i l l a r l i k e


s t e l a , w i t h t h e f o u r v e r t i c a l c o m e r edges rounded r a t h e r t h a n s h a r p l y
a n g u l a r ; t h e cross s e c t i o n i s alraost square. The plañe f o r m i n g t h e t o p
o f t h e m o n o l i t h i s i n c l i n e d so t h a t f a c e B i s l o n g e r t h a n f a c e D. The
base has been broken.

Dimensions: Length ranges from 215 cm. on f a c e C t o 221 cm. on


1+7

f a c e B; w i d t h a t t h e upper p a r t i s 21 cm. on f a c e s A and B, and 22 cm.


on f a c e s C and D; w i d t h , taken a t t h e b a s a l p o r t i o n i s 27 cm. on faces A
and C, and 29 cm. on faces B and D. The s t e l a i s , t h e r e f o r e , w i d e s t a t
t h e base and narrows a t t h e t o p .

M a t e r i a l : The stone f r o m which t h e s t e l a i s made i s á q u a r t z -


i t e o r sandstone, w e l l C o n s o l i d a t e d , v e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d , v e r y h a r d , and
greenish-gray i n color.^

Technique: A l l f o u r f a c e s a r e c a r v e d i n a l o w r e l i e f a p p r o x i -
m a t e l y 1 cm. i n h e i g h t ; t h e r e i s no incisión o r g r o o v i n g . The f i n e t e x -
t u r e o f t h e stone p e r m i t t e d a f i n e f i n i s h , and t h e p o r t i o n s i n r e l i e f a r e
o f a d i f f e r e n t c o l o r f r o m t h e green-gray background, b e i n g y e l l o w i s h -
brown t o brown. The c o l o r i n g may be t h e r e s u l t o f p a i n t i n g , perhaps w i t h
a m i n e r a l pigment mixed w i t h g r e a s e , s i n c e n a t u r a l p a t i n a t i o n o r weather-
i n g would p r o b a b l y not a f f e c t t h e d e s i g n elements o n l y .

Provenience: The s t e l a was f o u n d d u r i n g one o f t h e r e c e n t


e x c a v a t i o n s made f o r sewer i n s t a l l a t i o n and house f o u n d a t i o n s i n t h e
town o f Taraco and was subsequently e r e c t e d i n t h e p l a z a . D u r i n g o u r
1973 work i n Taraco, we had t h e s t e l a moved t o a room i n t h e Concejo
D i s t r i t a l de Taraco t o p r o t e c t i t from w e a t h e r i n g , as a u t h o r i t i e s had
had t o .place w i r e around t h e p o r t i o n which had a l r e a d y begun t o c r a c k .

D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e carved elements (see f i g . 2)

Faces B and D each bear t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an anthropomorphic


f i g u r e . Because o f t h e two c i r c u l a r elements on t h e chest o f t h e f i g u r e
on f a c e 3, we b e l i e v e t h a t f i g u r e t o be f e m a l e ; and h-ence, t h e f i g u r e on
f a c e D, which l a c k s such elements, would be male. Both f i g u r e s have
round eyes, an o v a l r e l i e f band r e p r e s e n t i n g an open mouth, and T-shaped
eyebrows j o i n e d t o a t r a p e z o i d a l nose. The eyebrows c u r v e over t h e eyes
on t h e f a c e D f i g u r e and o n l y v e r y s l i g h t l y on t h e f a c e B f i g u r e , and
t h e r e i s a neck i n d e n t a t i o n on t h e face.D f i g u r e . The famale f i g u r e o f
f a c e B has a U-shaped i n d e n t a t i o n above t h e nose as an éyebrow separa-
tion. Each f i g u r e has t h r e e c u r v e d r e l i e f s e n c i r c l i n g t h e mouth; t h e
upper p a i r appear t o be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e s i d e s o f t h e nose o r perhaps
t h e septum. These r e l i e f s around t h e mouth appear t o be a mouth mask as
on t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s on o t h e r m o n o l i t h s which compare most
c l o s e l y t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a ; i f t h e f a c e B personage i s f e m a l e , t h e n
t h e r e l i e f s c e r t a i n l y do n o t r e p r e s e n t moustache and b e a r d . The check-
e r e d r e l i e f band which l i n k s a l l f o u r faces o f t h e s t e l a , i s s i t u a t e d on
t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s o f faces B and D j u s t above t h e l e g s ; t h i s
band has a checkered c r o s s on f a c e s A, B, and D w h i l e a checkerboard
element occurs on face C.

A more o r l e s s o v a l element w i t h s c r o l l - l i k e o r r e c u r v e d r a y
appendages, p o s s i b l y r e p r e s e n t i n g a s t y l i z e d head, appears v e n t r a l l y as
though a n a v e l on. t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s o f faces B and D. The o v a l
element w i t h s c r o l l - l i k e appendages on f a c e B i s most s i m i l a r t o t h e o v a l
element w i t h appendages above t h e s e r p e n t on f a c e A, s i n c e i n b o t h t h e
l o n g a x i s o f t h e m o t i f i s v e r t i c a l , and f o u r o f t h e f i v e c i r c l e s a r e
I

48

a l i g n e d almost h o r i z o n t a l l y , as though d e p i c t i n g two eyes and two ears o f


I a head. L i k e w i s e , t h e element w i t h s c r o l l - l i k e appendages on f a c e D i s
i s i m i l a r but n o t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e one which appears above t h e s e r p e n t on
f a c e C s i n c e the l o n g a x i s i s h o r i z o n t a l i n b o t h . These s i m i l a r i t i e s seem
J t o suggest an a s s o c i a t i o n o f face A w i t h face B, and o f f a c e C w i t h face D.
I
^ The v e r t i c a l c u r v i l i n e a r elements on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e element
** . w i t h appendages above t h e s e r p e n t on f a c e A and t h e c i r c u l a r t o s u b c i r c u -
l a r elements i n t h e same p o s i t i o n on f a c e C c o u l d be merely space f i l l e r s .
J However, these v e r t i c a l c u r v i l i n e a r elements and c i r c u l a r elements may be
f c o n t i n u a t i o n s o f t h e z i g z a g m o t i f s above t h e heads o f t h e anthropomorphic
J^' f i g u r e s on faces B and D. That i s , t h e r i g h t v e r t i c a l c u r v i l i n e a r element
j,' ' on f a c e A may continué as t h e upper z i g z a g o f t h e head ornament above t h e
anthropomorphic f i g u r e on f a c e B and end as t h e l e f t c i r c u l a r element on
,. f a c e C; l i k e w i s e , t h e l e f t v e r t i c a l c u r v i l i n e a r element on face A may con-
t i n u e as t h e z i g z a g element o f t h e head ornament above t h e anthropomorphic
f i g u r e on f a c e D and end as t h e r i g h t c i r c u l a r element o f f a c e D.

The lowermost u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t on f a c e A appears t o termínate


I "'í a t t h e base as though i t never possessed a second eared head comparable
t o t h a t a t t h e base o f f a c e C, s i n c e t h e r e l i e f t h e r e t a p e r s o f f t o t h e
''¡mi same l e v e l as t h e stone background.

11^ The e l o n g a t e d , u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t s have heads w i t h l a r g e p r o j e c -


t i n g e a r s o b v i o u s l y absent on snakes. The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f l e n g t h
o f ears t o l e n g t h o f head suggests a c a m e l i d , e s p e c i a l l y a l l a m a , o r per-
Jj—jj^, haps a guanaco. Comparing a d u l t l l a m a and a l p a c a heads, l l a m a ears are
•^M-'-¡ one h a l f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e head, w h i l e a l p a c a ears are one t h i r d t h e
'^lí l e n g t h o f t h e head, and i n t h e l a t t e r t h e f u l l e r h a i r makes t h e head
appear more rounded and t h e ears even s h o r t e r . The p r o f i l e heads on the
Ji^l u n d u l a t i n g m o t i f s below t h e f e e t o f t h e two anthropomorphic f i g u r e s on
1^ faces B and D, however, have ears p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l e r i n r e l a t i o n t o
the r e s t o f t h e head, more c l o s e l y approaching those o f a l p a c a o r p o s s i b l y
||.. vicuña. U n l i k e t h e e r e c t ears o f t h e l l a m a and guanaco, ears o f alpacas
and vicuñas a r e s m a l l e r and o f t e n , h e l d i n a downward and backward p o s i t i o n .
These p r o f i l e animal heads, o f c o u r s e , c o u l d be some o t h e r a n i m a l such as
fA 3. c a n i n e o r f e l i n e , b u t i n any case seem t o be d i f f e r e n t from t h e animal
11 heads on t h e serpent b o d i e s .

^ The m o t i f s under t h e f e e t o f t h e f i g u r e s on f a c e s B and D are


unique i n a l t i p l a n o s c u l p t u r e t o o u r knowledge. The appendages b r a n c h i n g
out o f a c e n t r a l u n d u l a t i n g element have suggested t h e term r a m i f o r m t o
,^||; d e s c r i b e t h e m o t i f . The o v e r a l l f o r m o f these m o t i f s and t h e i r p o s i t i o n
*|Í. below t h e f e e t o f t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f p l a n t o r
r o o t f o r m s , under o r on t h e ground upon which t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s
<4I
I s t a n d . H-owever, t h e ends o f t h e appendages o f t h e f i g u r e ' o n f a c e D t e r -
% minate i n p r o f i l e a n i m a l heads, a l l o f which f a c e toward t h e l e f t i n a
^: r e g u l a r and r o t a t i o n a l manner. The r a m i f o r m f i g u r e on f a c e B d i f f e r s from
I' t h e one on face D i n h a v i n g p a i r s o f p l a i n appendages; upon cióse examina-
t i o n , however, the c e n t e r r i g h t p a i r o f appendages a l s o appears t o end i n
very s m a l l .Tnimal heads w i t h e a r s . The m o t i f s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e e n t i r e
s t e l a , t h e n , are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h anthropomorphic and zoomorphic
49

elements, w i t h o n l y a p o s s i b i l i t y o f p l a n t l i k e forms b e i n g p r e s e n t .

S i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h Other S c u l p t u r e f r o m Around t h e Margins o f


Lake T i t i c a c a ( P a r t i c u l a r l y t h e South)

The s t e l a from Taraco shows v a r y i n g degrees o f s i m i l a r i t y t o ,


a t l e a s t , t h e f o l l o w i n g stone s c u l p t u r e :

1. S t e l a 15 from t h e Serai-subterranean Temple a t Tiahuanaco.

2. M o n o l i t h f r o m Mocachi on t h e Copacabana P e n i n s u l a , Perú ( a l t h o u g h


Casanova and Bennett b o t h s t a t e t h a t t h e s i t e i s i n B o l i v i a , i t
i s a c t u a l l y i n Perú).

3. S t e l a f r o m Santiago de Huata, B o l i v i a .

4. S t e l a f r o m Tambo K u s i , P r o v i n c e o f L a r e c a j a , Department o f La Paz,


Bolivia.

5. S t e l a f r o m Wakka Uyu, Copacabana P e n i n s u l a ( n e a r t h e S a n t u a r i o de


Copacabana), P r o v i n c e o f Manco Kapac, B o l i v i a .

5. Two fragments f r o m W i l a q o l l u near l l a v e . Puno, Perú.

7. S t e l a f r o m t h e v i c i n i t y o f Copacabana, B o l i v i a .

8. Slab f r o m Copacabana, B o l i v i a .

9. Slab f r o m C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a .

10. Slab named "Qota A c h a c h i l a " f r o m Qasani, Yunguyo, Perú, now i n t h e


Puno Museum.

11. M o n o l i t h from C h c h a l l a p a t a , B o l i v i a .

D e t a i l e d comparisons o f t h e s e specimens t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a


are made below. Of t h o s e p i e c e s w h i c h have been i l l u s t r a t e d i n p r i n t ,
numbers 1-11 belong i n t h e s t y l i s t i c group which we c a l i "Yaya-Mama."
Other m o n o l i t h s n o t on t h e l i s t may a l s o b e l o n g t o t h i s s t y l e , b u t l a c k
s u f f i c i e n t documentation f o r p r o p e r e v a l u a t i o n . These w i l l be mentioned
i n a sepárate s e c t i o n .

Number 1: S t e l a 15 ( f i g . 3) i s so d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e c a t a l o g u i n g
system o f t h e Centro de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s Arqueológicas de Tiwanaku; i t was
named t h e "Barbada" by Wendell C. Bennett who d i s c o v e r e d i t i n h i s 1932
e x c a v a t i o n o f t h e Semi-subterranean Temple a t Tiahuanaco. S t e l a 15 was
found a l o n g s i d e t h e l a r g e C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco m o n o l i t h , S t e l a 10, which
C a r l o s Ponce Sanginés a s s i g n s t o Epoch I V ; b o t h s t e l a e a r e r e d sandstone.
S t e l a 15 i s Bennett's No. 24, b e l o n g i n g t o h i s S t y l e 3 which he p l a c e d i n
s t y l i s t i c Group I I I c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o Decadent Tiahuanaco t i m e s .

Ponce assigns S t e l a 15 t o Epoch I I I , a p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g Epoch


50

IV and r c u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o Bennett's E a r l y Tiahuanaco. He does so on


t h e basis o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y i n rough e x e c u t i o n t o t h e Epoch I I I r o u g h l y
carved and p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d stone p i l l a r s w i t h anthropomorphic f i g u r e s i n
r e l i e f on t h e i r p r i n c i p a l faces (P-40. P-6, P-18) which f o r m p a r t o f the
Semi-subterranean Temple w a l l i t s e l f . ^ - Ponce f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t
S t e l a 15 shows s i m i l a r i t i e s t o o t h e r s c u l p t u r e found i n t h e a l t i p l a n o ,
i n c l u d i n g a s t e l a from Qalaqala ( B o l i v i a ) , two s t e l a e from Wankani, and
numbers 2 and 3 from our l i s t , and t h a t t h e s e specimens s t a n d a p a r t be-
cause o f t h e i r l a c k o f " c l a s s i c " Tiahuanaco m o t i f s . He f e e l s , on t h e
b a s i s o f s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s , t h a t these stone s c u l p t u r e s a r e contem-
p o r a r y w i t h S t e l a 15 and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Semi-subterranean Temple,
and henee a s s i g n s them t o Epoch I I I , e a r l i e r t h a n C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco,
w i t h the r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e c h r o n o l o g i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s need
t o be checked.^3

José de Mesa and Teresa G i s b e r t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e group o f mono-


l i t h s which Ponce has d e l i m i t e d ( t h o u g h n o t m e n t i o n i n g t h e one from
Q a l a q a l a ) , a l o n g w i t h the s t e l a from C h i r i p a ( d i s c u s s e d below, see f i g . 11)
and v a r i o u s r e l i e f s from near Escoma ( p o s s i b l y they r e f e r t o a " l i g h t n i n g
stone"^'^), form a sepárate h o r i z o n r e m o t e l y r e l a t e d t o Pucará and
Tiahuanaco. They s t a t e t h a t one o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s
h o r i z o n i s d e c o r a t i o n based on s e r p e n t s , b u t a l s o h a v i n g f r o g s and geo-
m e t r i c d e c o r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g c r o s s e s , as w e l l as a r e a l i s t i c f o r m o f r e p r e -
s e n t a t i o n . They f e e l t h a t Wankani was a p r i n c i p a l c e n t e r o f t h e style.•'•^

S i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a and S t e l a 15 i n


t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f o v e r a l l f o r m , and i n theme, d e t a l l , and c o m p o s i t i o n o f
t h e p r i n c i p a l m o t i f s . I n f o r m , b o t h are p i l l a r b l o c k s s l i g h t l y narrower
a t t h e t o p t h a n t h e bottom w i t h a l l f o u r f a c e s carved. I n m o t i f s , t h e
p r i n c i p a l personages on b o t h s t e l a e are s i m i l a r , t h e i r arms a r e bent one
above t h e o t h e r on t h e chest and stomach w i t h f i n g e r s o u t s p r e a d , t h e eye-
brows and nose form a "T" w i t h t h e p a r t o f t h e eyebrows j u s t above t h e eye
c u r v e d , eyes are c i r c u l a r , t h e open mouth i s a continuous r e l i e f band, and
t h e r e i s r e l i e f e n c i r c l i n g t h e mouth ( " b i g o t e r a " o r mouth m.ask). T h i s r e -
l i e f e n c i r c l i n g t h e mouth resembles a moustache and b e a r d , b u t must be a
mouth mask s i n c e i t does not begin below t h e nose, b u t r a t h e r a t e i t h e r
s i d e o f i t , as I m b e l l o n i c l a r i f i e d , a c c o r d i n g t o P o n c e . C o n t i n u i n g the
comparison o f m o t i f s , t h e z i g z a g f i g u r e s , a p p a r e n t l y s e r p e n t s , above the
eyebrows o f t h e personages on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a , are a l s o s i m i l a r t o
t h e ear-headed s e r p e n t s on S t e l a 15 which b e g i n above t h e eyebrows o f t h e
anthropomorphic f i g u r e on t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c e and continué o n t o t h e two
contiguous faces o f t h e s t e l a as though t h e y were s t y l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s
o f h a i r . The anthropomorphic f i g u r e on S t e l a 15 d i f f e r s f r o m those on t h e
Yaya-Mama s t e l a by b e i n g shown o n l y from t h e w a i s t up, and i n o t h e r d e t a i l s .

Although t h e p r i n c i p a l m o t i f , t h e e l o n g a t e d and z i g z a g serpent


w i t h eared head, i s most common i n Pucará s t y l e m o n o l i t h s , i t occurs on
S t e l a 15 t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e . The g e n e r a l composi-
t i o n i n a,lr,o s i m i l a r i n t h e two s t e l a e , t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e being
f i a h k e d on c o n t i g u o u s faces by z i g z a g s e r p e n t s which are themselves on
oppósité fa«;es-. T h i s s i m i l a r i t y i n c o m p o s i t i o n a l s o occurs i n t h e s t e l a
tfm. Hesaehi which w i l l b- iscussed n e x t . The p o s t e r i o r f a c e o f S t e i a 15,
!

51

a l t h o u g h c a r v e d , i s e x t r e m e l y wom, t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t Ponce r e p r e s e n t s
o n l y a few l i n e s o r elements (see r i g h t s i d e o f f i g . 3 ) . E a r l i e r ,
B e n n e t t i l l u s t r a t e d t h e back, b u t n o t e d t h a t h i s drawing might be i n c o r -
r e c t s i n c e , "...now (1934) n o t h i n g can be seen."•'•''

Number 2: S i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a . and


t h e m o n o l i t h r e p o r t e d by Eduardo Casanova i n Mocachi, on t h e Copacabana
P e n i n s u l a . Ponce a s s i g n s t h i s s t e l a t o Epoch I I I . We cannot account
f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n d e t a i l s which e x i s t between Casanova's d r a w i n g
( f i g . 4 a - c ) , based on photos and sketches t a k e n i n s i t u , and B e n n e t t ' s
i l l u s t r a t i o n ( f i g . M-d-f) redrawn from Casanova's; b o t h a r e i n c l u d e d
here.^8 ^or example, on t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c e t h e r e l i e f near t h e mouth
shown i n Casanova's drawing d i f f e r s i n f o r m from t h a t drawn by B e n n e t t ,
and on t h e p o s t e r i o r f a c e t h e u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t above t h e personage's
head i n Bennett's d r a w i n g i s absent i n Casanova's. With r e s p e c t t o t h e
u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t above t h e head, however, Haks P o r t u g a l says t h a t a
stepped element o r " r a y , " a p p a r e n t l y e n d i n g i n a t r i a n g l e , appears on t h e
head, d e c o r a t i n g t h e h a t o r " l l a u t o " o f t h e Mocachi stela.•'•^ These d i s -
c r e p a n c i e s l i m i t comparisons w i t h t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a t o some e x t e n t .

I n f o r m , t h e Mocachi m o n o l i t h ' i s p i l l a r l i k e w i t h a p p a r e n t l y a l l
f o u r f a c e s carved (one l a t e r a l f a c e i s n o t i l l u s t r a t e d ) , and i s n a r r o w e r
at t h e t o p than a t t h e bottom. I n theme and c o m p o s i t i o n i t , l i k e t h e
Yaya-Mama s t e l a , possesses two anthropomorphic f i g u r e s on o p p o s i t e f a c e s ,
w i t h t h e o t h e r two o p p o s i t e faces ( o r a t l e a s t one o f these l a t e r a l f a c e s )
h a v i n g e l o n g a t e d , u n d u l a t i n g , eared s e r p e n t s . The two personages s i m i -
l a r l y have t h e i r arms b e n t , one p l a c e d above t h e o t h e r , b u t f i n g e r s a r e
n o t o u t s p r e a d ; eyebrows and nose form a "T" a p p a r e n t l y on b o t h personages,
t h e eyebrows s l i g h t l y c u r v i n g j u s t above t h e eyes; t h e eyes a r e c i r c u l a r ; ,
and r e l i e f " b i g o t e r a " o r mouth mask e n c i r c l e s t h e r e l i e f o v a l , c l o s e d
mouth. The Mocachi m o n o l i t h shows one o f t h e f i g u r e s as l a r g e r and more
e l a b o r a t e l y d e c o r a t e d t h a n t h e o t h e r ; s i m i l a r l y , on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a
f a c e B i s l o n g e r and c o n t a i n s more elements t h a n does face D.

The most s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t y , however, i s t h e s t y l i z e d head


v e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d j u s t below t h e arms o f t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e on
t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c e o f t h e Mocachi s t e l a . T h i s head has r a y s a r r a n g e d i n
" s t a r " f a s h i o n around i t and one s e t o f s c r o l l - l i k e appendages. I t com-
pares i n b o t h p o s i t i o n and form t o t h e s t y l i z e d f i g u r e s on t h e Taraco
s t e l a a l s o v e n t r a l l y s i t u a t e d below t h e arms on f a c e s B and D. Though
t h e s t y l i z e d f i g u r e s on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a do d i f f e r from t h e head on
t h e Mocachi m o n o l i t h , t h e two a r e s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r i n g e n e r a l form and
i n t h e d e t a l l o f h a v i n g s c r o l l - l i k e appendages. T h i s comparison
s t r e n g t h e n s o u r b e l i e f t h a t t h e s t y l i z e d f i g u r e s on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a
c o u l d a l s o r e p r e s e n t heads. T h i s s t y l i z e d head on t h e Mocachi s t e l a
appears t o have a k i n d o f mouth mask.

Number 3: The s t e l a from t h e p l a z a o f Santiago de Huata, which


Ponce assigns t o Epoch I I I , i s i l l u s t r a t e d by h i m i n t h r e e s o u r c e s ; t h e
first i s a poor photograph o f one f a c e o n l y , w h i l e t h e second and
t h i r d b o t h show t h e o p p o s i t e face and one c o n t i g u o u s t o i t . ^ - ^ John H .
h^a k i n d ' y s u p p l i e d us w i t h h i s drawing from a photograph p u b l i s h e d
52

by Rubén.'^'^ ' For a l l o f these i l l u s t r a t i o n s , see f i g . 5.

I n foCTH, t h e Huata m o n o l i t h i s broadest a t t h e base and t a p e r s


almost t o a p o i n t a t t h e t o p , f o l l o w i n g t h e n a t u r a l shape o f t h e stone.
I t i s carved on a t l e a s t t h r e e o f i t s f a c e s , and i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e t e c h -
nique o f i n c i s i ó n . A n anthropomorphic f i g u r e appears on one l a r g e face
( f i g . 5 a ) . The f i g u r e has T-shaped eyebrows and nose, an o v a l , r e l i e f
open iK)uth w i t h e n c i r c l i n g elements aiaove i t , and probably b o t h arms bent
over i t s c h e s t . A d e t a i l observable i n Ponce's 1969 i l l u s t r a t i o n , but
not v i s i b l e i n h i s 1964 one, i s a serpent w i t h a k i n d o f b i f u r c a t e d
tongue l o c a t e d above t h e head o f t h e personage. Below, a t t h e base, i s a
head w i t h s c r o l l - l i k e appendages vevy s i m i l a r t o those on t h e C h i r i p a and
Copacabana s l a b s ( f i g s . 9 and 1 0 a ) , e s p e c i a l l y i n having one appendage i n
t h e shape o f a f o o t .

On t h e a d j a c e n t face o f t h e s t e l a a r e two l o n g , u n d u l a t i n g
serpents s i d e by s i d e f a c i n g downward toward a checkered cross which
separates them from another l o n g u n d u l a t i n g serpent ( o r two s e r p e n t s )
below, a l s o p o i n t i n g toward t h e checkered d r o s s . This design i s v e r y
s i m i l a r t o faces A and C o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a w i t h t h e serpent heads
f a c i n g toward and d i v i d e d by a checkered C T O S S o r checkerboard r e l i e f
which forms a band around t h e e n t i r e s t e l a . The serpents on t h e Huata
m o n o l i t h a r e a l s o eared, b u t have b i f u r c a t e d tongues l i k e some o f those
on t h e s l a b from Copacabana ( f i g . 9 ) .

The o t h e r l a r g e f a c e on t h e Huata s t e i a ( f i g s . 5b, c ) a l s o has


a t i t s base two u n d u l a t i n g serpents w i t h eared heads and b i f u r c a t e d
tongues, f a c i n g upward toward a checkered cross and separated by what
appears t o be a f r o g / t o a d . Above these elements i s another f i g u r e ,
p o s s i b l y a f o u r - l e g g e d f e l i n e ( ? ) , and then an a p p a r e n t l y human f i g u r e
shown from t h e w a i s t up w i t h hands bent over t h e c h e s t . The f a c e o f t h i s
personage i s l i k e t h a t o f t h e o t h e r anthropomorphic f i g u r e a l r e a d y
d e s c r i b e d . The f o u r t h s i d e o f t h e s t e l a has n o t been i l l u s t r a t e d .

Nunber 4; The s t e l a from Tambo Kusi ( f i g . 6 ) was found and de-


s c r i b e d by Maks P o r t u g a l i n 1967.^** The s t e l a i s carved on two opposing
faces b o t h h a v i n g cmthropomorphic f i g u r e s shown from t h e w a i s t up. Face A
( f i g . 5a) i s t h e b e t t e r preserved and has round eyes w i t h eyebrows c u r v i n g
above t h e eyes and c o n n e c t i n g w i t h t h e t r a p e z o i d a l nose; t h e mouth i s r e -
presented by a continuous band around a c e n t r a l o'pening. The human faces
are o v a l , as on f a c e D o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a , and one o f t h e faces o f t h e
Mocachi s t e l a as w e l l as t h e s t e l a from t h e v i c i n i t y o f Copacabana ( f i g .
8 ) . No mouth mask i s v i s i b l e , however. On f a c e A t h e arms a r e r e p r e s e n -
t e d i n a manner n o t found i n o t h e r examples o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e , a l t h o u g h
t h e arms on f a c e B appear t o be one above t h e o t h e r , t h e r i g h t on t h e chest
and t h e l e f t on t h e stomach. P o r t u g a l s t a t e s t h a t t h e hands have o n l y
t h r e e f i n g e r s ; t h e f i n g e r s , however, are n o t apparent i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n .

According t o P o r t u g a l , below t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s on b o t h


f a c e s , t h r e e elements occur i n t h e same arrangeraent, a checkered cross
s e p a r a t i n g two u n d u l a t i n g , eared s e r p e n t s , a p p a r e n t l y b i c e p h a l o u s , and be-
low thera a f r o g f a c i n g upward toward t h e cross having t h r e e d i g i t s on each
53

foot and a stubby t a i l (as observable on face B ) . These elements and


t h e i r arrangeraent are very s i m i l a r to those on fa€« B of the Santiago
de Huata s t e l a which a l s o occur below the anthropomorphic f i g u r e .

Maks Portugal mentions t h i s s t e l a , S t e l a 13 ( I d o l o Plano), and


Khonkho Wankani, as w e l l as the carvings from C h i r i p a , Santiago de Huata,
and Mocachi, s t a t i n g that they show the expansión of a c u l t u r a l period
of Tiahuanaco.2^

Number 5: The s t e l a from Wakka Uyu was discovered by Maks


Portugal Zamora and described by h i s son, Max Portugal Ortiz.2o i t has
a p i l l a r l i k e forra, rectangular i n s e c t i o n , and i s carved i n r e l i e f on
a l l four f a c e s , although only the best preserved f a c e s are i l l u s t r a t e d
here ( f i g . 7 ) . The p r i n c i p a l faces are broa<ier than the sides» L i k e
the Yaya-Mama s t e l a , the Wakka üyu s t e l a has anthropomorphic f i g u r e s on
two opposite f a c e s , flanked by undulating serpents on the other two
faces.

An anthropomorphic f i g u r e (44.5 x 24.5 cm.) i s portrayed r a t h e r


simply on face A ( f i g . 7 a ) , having round eyes» eyebrows curving over the
eyes and connected to a s l i g h t l y t r a p e z o i d a l nose; there are remains of
an oblong mouth. Portugal s t a t e s that the body i s s l i g h t l y t r a p e z o i d a l ,
though he does not c l a r i f y whether i t has f u r t h e r carving or not. He
mentions an "elongated forra" over the personage, but i t i s unclear what
i s meant. However, a l l the v i s i b l e elements on t h i s face including
those already described as w e l l as the oval-shaped face and the presence
of a neck and headband, compare with those on the Yaya-Mama personages
as w e l l as with those on some of the other monoliths mentioned here.

Face C, opposite face A, was more e l a b o r a t e l y carved, but the


poor s t a t e of preservation did not permit Portugal to i l l u s t r a t e i t .
He was able to make the following observations, however: the upper
t h i r d apparently had an anthropoTTKsrphic f i g u r e portrayed from the waist
up, which i s incompleta because of breakage so that only the arms are
v i s i b l e (one on the chest and the other on the stomach); there are hands,
but the f i n g e r s are d i f f i c u l t to see. On the f i g u r e ' s chest i s a semi-
c i r c u l a r c a v i t y (21 X 16 cm.). On the c e n t e r t h i r d of the s t e l a there
are two p a r a l l e l , s m a l l , i a d u l a t i n g serpents, both 6.5 cm. wide, one
64.5 and the other 72 cm. long; t h e i r heads are not preserved. The
shorter serpent has a p a r t i a l l y c o i l e d t a i l ; the other does not. On the
lower t h i r d of t h i s s t e l a there i s a c i r c u l a r c a v i t y s i m i l a r to the one
already mentioned on the upper t h i r d . The stepped form of the top of
the s t e l a i s apparently not i n t e n t i o n a l but the r e s u l t of breakage.

On one of the narrow faces not i l l u s t r a t e d here (face D),


there are three serpents. On the upper h a l f are two p a r a l l e l , small
undulating serpents (53 x 4 cm, and 33 x 4 cm. r e s p e c t i v e l y ) both of
which l a c k heads. On the lower h a l f i s one headless serpent l a r g e r
than the two above i t with a t h i c k and extremely undulating body and a
p a r t i a l l y c o i l e d t a i l . The otber narrow face ( f i g . 7b) has only one
undulating serpent, the l a r g e s t on the s t e l a . Max Portugal compares t h i s
s t e l a to one mentioned by Arriaga ,(see our number 6, two fragments from
54

W i l a q o l l u ) , Wankani, Santiago de Huata, W a r i z a t a C h i r i p a , Q a l a q a l a , Tambo


K u s i , and Mocachi.

Number 6: Two fragments o f a s t e l a a t W i l a q o l l u near l l a v e p r o b -


a b l y correspond t o a n o t h e r example o f a s t e l a w i t h male and female r e p r e -
s e n t a t i o n s on o p p o s i t e f a c e s . The fragments were found by John M. Donahue
and Father I n o c e n t e Salazar i n June, 1971, and i d e n t i f i e d by them as a
s t e l a d e s c r i b e d i n A r r i a g a and Ramos Gavilán.27 T h i s s t e l a i s d e s c r i b e d
and i l l u s t r a t e d by Rowe and Donahue.^8

The s t e l a i s carved i n r e l i e f on o n l y two, broad f a c e s , and i n -


cisión i s used on t h e h a t o r headdress and p o s s i b l y on t h e l e g s ( u n l i k e
t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a ) . The upper p r e s e r v e d p o r t i o n o f t h e anthropomorphic
f i g u r e compares most c l o s e l y t o t h e one on f a c e D o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a
i n h a v i n g an o v a l face and round c h i n w i t h what appears t o be a mouth
mask e n c i r c l i n g t h e mouth; curved eyebrows over t h e eyes f o r m i n g t h e nose
by d i p p i n g a t t h e c e n t e r , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a neck, and a h o r i z o n t a l band
across t h e s h o u l d e r s which connects t h e upper arms. The eyes, however,
are o v a l and s l a n t upward. The s l a n t e d eyes, h o r i z o n t a l r e l i e f band a t
t h e s h o u l d e r s j o i n i n g t h e upper arms, and a l s o t h e r e l i e f on t h e knees on
t h e p r e s e r v e d l o w e r p o r t i o n compare c l o s e l y t o t h e s t e l a f r o m t h e v i c i n i t y
o f Copacabana ( f i g . 8) a l s o b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e . The u n d u l a -
t i n g s e r p e n t s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e anthropomorphic l e g s resemble Yaya-
Mama ones e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l o n g ears on t h e heads.

Though t h e t o a d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s which t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y


d i s c o v e r e r r e p o r t e d as p a r t o f t h e headdress a r e n o t p r e s e r v e d on these
two p i e c e s , t o a d m o t i f s a r e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e range o f Yaya-Mama s t y l e
iconography.

Number 7: The m o n o l i t h from t h e v i c i n i t y o f Copacabana i s shown


here i n f i g . 8. While Casanova r e f e r s t o t h e m o n o l i t h as coming from
Copacabana, Posnansky says i t comes from T i a h u a n a c o . A l t h o u g h no dimen-
s i o n s have been p u b l i s h e d , we calcúlate i t s h e i g h t t o be about 1.10 m.,
u s i n g as s c a l e t h e person s t a n d i n g near t h e s t e l a i n Joyce's photograph
and i n c l u d e d here i n f i g . 8. The s t e l a i s s i m i l a r t o t h e Yaya-Mama i n t h e
c o m b i n a t i o n o f anthropomorphic f i g u r e and u n d u l a t i n g t r i a n g u l a r - h e a d e d .
s e r p e n t s , t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e arms over t h e c h e s t , and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
o f some k i n d o f head adornraent. So f a r as we know, however, t h e m o n o l i t h
i s carved on o n l y one f a c e , and may be r e c t a n g u l a r i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . Still
c l o s e r s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e found between t h e Copacabana m o n o l i t h and t h e
fragments from W i l a q o l l u , as mentioned above.

Number 8: The s l a b f r o m Copacabana . ( f i g . 9) measures about 35 cm.


by 29.2 cm., a c c o r d i n g t o Uhle's rubbing.^° Uhle r e p o r t e d t h e s l a b had
been bought by W. G r e t z e r a t t h e f e r i a o f Copacabana, and i t i s now p r o b -
a b l y i n t h e Ethnographic Museum o f B e r l i n (Museum für V o l k e r k u n d e ) . ühle
d i s t i n g u i s h e s s e v e r a l m o n o l i t h s , i n c l u d i n g t h i s one, as being s t y l i s t i c a l l y
d i f f e r e n t from t y p i c a l Tiahuanaco ones. While t h e o t h e r non-Tiahuanaco
s c u l p t u r e he discusses appears t o belong t o t h e Pucará s t y l e , t h e
Cí5páaabána sla^-- belongs t o o u r Yaya-Mama group. The s l a b a p p a r e n t l y has
nót been metií.: ed o r i l l u . ' ^ t r a t e d s i n c e Uhle's 1912 p u b l i c a t i o n ; i t i s
HAZ - Í:-W<'ÍÁ
55

extreme.i.y s i m i l a r t o t h e C h i r i p a s l a b . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e , a head w i t h


f o u r eared-serpent appendages and two appendages i n t h e form o f f e e t , i s
most s i m i l a r t o t h e s c r o l l - l i k e heads o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a . T h i s s l a b
a l s o shares w i t h t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a t h e checkered c r o s s , though h e r e
w i t h t h e f o r m o f a c r o s s formée; u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t m o t i f s ; round e y e s ;
eyebrows c u r v i n g over t h e eyes and j o i n i n g a t r a p e z o i d a l nose w i t h a V-
shaped s e p a r a t i o n i n t h e c e n t e r ; and what appears t o be p a r t o f a mouth
mask. Three o f t h e s e r p e n t s have b i f u r c a t e d tongues as on t h e S a n t i a g o
de Huata s t e l a ( f i g s . 5a, c ) . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e , w h i l e o n l y somewhat
s i m i l a r t o t h e r a y e d head on t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c e o f t h e Mocachi s t e l a
( f i g . 4 ) , i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e head a t t h e base o f t h e Santiago de
Huata s t e l a and t o t h e C h i r i p a s l a b , even i n such d e t a i l s as h a v i n g f o u r
c o i l e d appendages, f o o t - s h a p e d appendages, and rounded e a r s . The s c r o l l -
l i k e heads w i t h l o n g v e r t i c a l axes on faces A and B o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a
may, by comparison, be a d i f f e r e n t versión o f t h i s m o t i f , s i m i l a r i n pos-
s e s s i n g rounded e a r s , b u t l a c k i n g f o o t - s h a p e d appendages. The quadrupeds
w i t h u p t u r n e d t a i l s compare t o t h a t on t h e s t e l a f r o m Santiago de Huata
( f i g . 5 b ) , t h o s e on t h e C h i r i p a s l a b ( f i g . 1 0 a ) , and t h o s e w i t h u p t u r n e d
t a i l s on S t e l a 15 a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r have f r o n t view heads ( f i g . 3 ) .

There i s here a unique occurrence o f two c r o s s formées i n


opposing c o r n e r s o f t h e s l a b , and t h e r e l i e f b o r d e r o r frame has c o m e r
i n d e n t a t i o n s f o r m i n g perhaps a s i m i l a r cross formée b o r d e r which e n d o s e s
t h e elements on t h e s l a b . One i s tempted t o suggest t h a t t h e two s m a l l
c r o s s formées a r e s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e s l a b and a l l elements p o r -
t r a y e d on i t , which i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s become checkered c r o s s e s .

Number 9: The s l a b from C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a ( f i g s . 10a and b ) ,


now i n t h e Museo N a c i o n a l de Arqueología i n La Paz, i s most s i m i l a r t o
t h e Copacabana s l a b j u s t described.32 Both demónstrate s y m m e t r i c a l and
a s y r a m e t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f elements. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e a l s o compares
t o t h a t on t h e s c r o l l - l i k e heads on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a . Izumi and
Tsunoyama suggest t h a t t h e c e n t r a l head r e p r e s e n t s t h e r a y e d sun.^"^ Both
s l a b s share u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t m o t i f s and quadrupeds as w e l l . Interest-
i n g l y , a l l f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e s l a b a r e notched so t h a t t h e f r o n t o u t l i n e
has t h e f o r m o f a c r o s s ( f i g . 1 0 a ) ; t h e back has a f r a m i n g r e l i e f b o r d e r
l i k e t h a t on t h e Copacabana s l a b such t h a t t h e área i t e n d o s e s has t h e
same cross formée shape ( f i g . 10b),3^ The s l a b f o r m and s i z e o f t h e s e
two p i e c e s suggest a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n f r o m t h e s t e l a f o r m , s l a b s b e i n g
perhaps more p o r t a b l e and n o t shaped t o be i m p l a n t e d i n t h e ground.

Number 10: The square s l a b f r o m t h e Puno Museum ( f i g . 13) was


r e c o r d e d by us i n J u l y , 1973, d u r i n g o u r v i s i t t h e r e t o make an i n v e n t o r y .
The book where a c q u i s i t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s s l a b was ob-
t a i n e d on Deceraber 3 1 , 1924, as a g i f t f r o m F a t h e r Cristóbal Pinazo. The
p r o v e n i e n c e g i v e n i s Qasani i n Yunguyo, a d i s t r i c t i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f
Chucuito. I n d i a n s a r e s a i d t o have c a l l e d i t " Q o t a - A c h a c h i l a , " which i s
A>Tiiara f o r " g r a n d f a t h e r o f t h e l a k e . " The m a t e r i a l i s d i o r i t e o r p o s s i b l y
granite.

The s l a b d e p i c t s an i s o l a t e d human f a c e i n l o w r e l i e f w i t h o u t
iñáiSAOft; i t i s c( n l e t e , n o t broken from some l a r g e r p i e c e . I t possesses
55

Yaya-Mama s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : round eyes, eyebrows c o n n e c t i n g t o a


t r a p e z o i d a l nose w i t h an i n d e n t a t i o n a t t h e t o p o f t h e nose. The eye-
brows a r e n e a r l y s t r a i g h t above t h e eyes b u t curve under them and t h e n con-
tinué over t h e cheeks t o connect w i t h what appears t o be a mouth mask.
The mouth i s o v a l b u t has a break i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e upper l i p . The
upper p a r t o f t h e f a c e i s surrounded by an i n t e r r u p t e d r e l i e f l i n e , t h e
l e f t p a r t o f which connects t o t h e i n n e r b o r d e r f r a m i n g t h e s l a b , and t h e
r i g h t p a r t o f which ends a t t h e cheeks. These l i n e s may r e l a t e t o t h e
space f i l l e r s on f a c e A o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a o r t o t h e snakes around
the human f a c e o f S t e l a 15. The presence o f a border i s shared w i t h t h e
Copacabana and C h i r i p a s l a b s and t h e m o n o l i t h from C h c h a l l a p a t a d i s c u s s e d
below.

I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s Puno s l a b appears t o possess a t r i a n g u l a r


lower l i p p l u g , unique i n t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e group. Hpwever, l o w e r l i p
p l u g s o r c h i n ornaments do appear i n a r e c t a n g u l a r form on t h e s t e l a f r o m
Incatunuhuiri and i n a t r a p e z o i d a l form e x t e n d i n g from t h e l o w e r l i p
onto t h e c h i n on one o f t h e k n e e l i n g Pucará s t y l e s t a t u e s f r o m Pokotía.^"^
Round l i p p l u g s , occur on o b j e c t s from Tiahuanaco, such as an Epoch IV
p o r t r a i t v e s s e l f r o m t h e Qalasasaya,'^^ and a stone head (C-277) from t h e
Semi-subterranean T e m p l e , a n d have themselves been found a t Tiahuanaco.
P o s s i b l y , however, a l l l i n e s around t h e eyes and cheeks, as w e l l as t h e
s p l i t upper l i p and even t h e l o w e r l i p o r c h i n ornament, o f t h e personage
on t h e Puno Museum s l a b a r e i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a f a c e mask.

Number 1 1 : The m o n o l i t h from t h e community o f C h c h a l l a p a t a ( f i g .


12), l o c a t e d near t h e l a k e s^iore west o f t h e I s l a d e l Encanto, has been
d e s c r i b e d by Maks Portugal.'^" The m o n o l i t h i s carved i n 4 mm. h i g h r e l i e f
on o n l y one f a c e , and i s broken a t one end.

We have i l l u s t r a t e d t h e p i e c e i n r e v e r s e o r i e n t a t i o n from t h a t
p r e s e n t e d by P o r t u g a l ; t h a t i s , o u r f i g u r e i s t h e upsidé-down versión o f
P o r t u g a l ' s . What i s seen w i t h t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s two o v a l f a c e s , p r o b -
a b l y human, s i d e by s i d e s e p a r a t e d by a checkered c r o s s and s h a r i n g a
s i n g l e s e t o f arm.s. The arms em.anate from t h e border i n such a way t h a t
the m.argin may a l s o serve as upper. arms a t l e a s t t o t h e elbows. The arms,
bent up a t t h e elbows, c r o s s one a n o t h e r , a unique p o s i t i o n i n g on Yaya- •
Mama s t y l e p i e c e s . A l s o u n i q u e , i f o u r o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p i e c e i s c o r r e c t , \
i s t h e presence o f two personages on a s i n g l e s u r f a c e . Lack o f l e g s on |
personages occurs on Yaya-Mama s t y l e m o n o l i t h s , however. I f viewed i n !
r e v e r s e , so t h a t t h e heads a r e on t h e b o t t o m , t h e n t h e crossed arms have no i
r e l a t e d head, and t h e arms a r e p o i n t e d downward, a manner o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n í
not found i n e i t h e r Yaya-Mama m o n o l i t h s o r o t h e r s t y l e s from t h e área. |
When viewed t h i s way, t h e two heads c o u l d p o s s i b l y be f r o n t view s e r p e n t i
heads arranged around t h e checkered c r o s s somewhat l i k e those on t h e s t e l a i
from Tambo K u s i ( f i g . 6 ) , o r Santiago de Huata ( f i g s . 5b, c ) . However, |
Yaya-Mama s t y l e s e r p e n t heads do n o t have such noses. í
í
There a r e o n l y f o u r f i n g e r s on t h e hands, which can be compared |
t o o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e x t r e m i t i e s w i t h fewer t h a n f i v e d i g i t s such |
as t h e Tambo K u s i s t e l a ( t h r e e f i n g e r s ) and f a c e s B and D o f t h e Yaya-Mama I
s t e l a ( f o u r t o e s ) . The r e l i e f r i n g s m i g h t , by t h e i r l o c a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t |
57

female b r e a s t s a s on face B o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a . R e l i e f r i n g s are


a l s o present on o t h e r examples i n our g r o u p , as i s t h e r e l i e f b o r d e r and
t h e o v a l r e l i e f bands f o r m i n g open mouths.

D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e Yaya-Mama S t y l e

On t h e b a s i s o f t h e comparisons made above, we d e f i n e what may


be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e . I n t h e p a s t , many a u t h o r s i n -
c l u d i n g Ponce, Maks P o r t u g a l , Mesa and G i s b e r t , have s e t f o r t h p o s s i b l e
groupings i n c l u d i n g some o f t h e p i e c e s i n our g r o u p , b u t have a l s o i n -
c l u d e d some o t h e r s we r e g a r d as r e l a t i n g more t o C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco o r
Pucará t h a n t o Yaya-Mama. The P o r t u g a l s suggested t h e ñame Paajanu ^"^
o r Pa-ajanu,^^ which means "two f a c e s " i n Aymara, f o r those m o n o l i t h s
h a v i n g an anthropomorphic f i g u r e on each o f two o p p o s i t e f a c e s ; Max
P o r t u g a l c i t e s t h e c h r o n i c l e r Father B a l t a z a r Salas (1618) who made r e f -
erence t o a región c a l l e d Pa-ajanu. The P o r t u g a l s have n o t e x p l i c i t l y '
f o r r a u l a t e d a s t y l i s t i c group, though t h e y suggest a number o f s i m i l a r
p i e c e s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d f u r t h e r . R e c e n t l y , David L. Browman has a l s o
proposed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r e a r l y stone s c u l p t u r e . f r o m Perú and B o l i v i a
and has s e t f o r t h a s t y l i s t i c sequence f o r p r e - C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco m o n o l i t h s .

The Yaya-Mama s t y l e group has a g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , s p e c i -


mens so f a r known coming from l o c a l i t i e s around t h e two ends o f Lake
T i t i c a c a ' , r a n g i n g from Taraco i n t h e n o r t h , t o t h e Copacabana p e n i n s u l a .
C h i r i p a , Tiahuanaco and Santiago de Huata on t h e s o u t h e r n end, and p o s s i -
b l y t o s i t e s on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. Examples
seem t o indícate a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e s o u t h t h a n i n t h e n o r t h ,
however.

The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t y l e a r e a c o m p i l a t i o n
o f s i m i l a r i t i e s found among these examples.

Forms

A l l examples are s t e l a e and s l a b s ; t h e r e are no t r u e s t a t u e s


o r s c u l p t u r e i n t h e r o u n d , t h e reason f o r t h i s absence perhaps b e i n g
t h a t anthropomorphic f i g u r e s are r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e s t e l a e , i n c o n t r a s t
t o t h e common Pucará p r a c t i c e o f p o r t r a y i n g anthropomorphic f i g u r e s i n
t h e round and r e s e r v i n g o t h e r m o t i f s f o r s t e l a e o r s l a b s , w i t h a few ex-
c e p t i o n s . The Pucará p r a c t i c e o f n o t c h i n g an upper c o m e r o f s t e l a e a l s o
does not o c c u r . There i s a tendency f o r s t e l a e t o be narrow a t t h e t o p
and w i d e r a t t h e base. Though we do n o t have dimensions f o r a l l t h e
Yaya-Mama s t y l e s t e l a e , and i t i s not c e r t a i n t h a t t h o s e we do have r e -
p r e s e n t t h e complete o r i g i n a l h e i g h t , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e range i n s i z e
i s from perhaps 1.10 m. ( c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e Copacabana s t e l a , our number
7) t o 2.55 m. ( S t e l a 15, our number 1 ) . Slabs range i n s i z e between
35 x 29.2 cm. and 53 x 37.5 cm.

Motifs

1. Face o r head element w i t h appendages: The manner o f r e p r e s e n t i n g


t h e appendages varíes from b e i n g s c r o l l - l i k e or r e c u r v e d r a y s as
58

i n t h e Taraco s t e l a , s t a r l i k e as on t h e m o n o l i t h f r o m Mocachi, o r
c o i l e d appendages e n d i n g i n t r i a n g u l a r heads as on t h e s l a b s from
C h i r i p a and Copacabana, t o f o o t - s h a p e d appendages a l s o on t h e
C h i r i p a and Copacabana s l a b s as w e l l as t h e s t e l a f r o m Santiago de
Huata.

2. E l o n g a t e d , u n d u l a t i n g , eared s e r p e n t s sometimes w i t h c o i l e d t a i l s ,
or double-headed as on t h e Taraco s t e l a : Serpents have f r o m two
t o t e n u n d u l a t i o n s , w h i l e Pucará s t y l e snakes have no more t h a n f o u r .
The o v e r a l l form o f t h e serpent head i s t r i a n g u l a r , i n c o n t r a s t t o
the u s u a l l y t r a p e z o i d a l head form i n t h e Pucará s t y l e where t h e r e
i s a tendency t o r e p r e s e n t more f a c i a l d e t a i l s ; t h e e x c e p t i o n s a r e
S t e l a 15 and t h e Mocachi m o n o l i t h on which t h e s e r p e n t heads a r e
r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h rounded c h i n s .

3. Anthropomorphic f i g u r e , s t a n d i n g , e i t h e r f u l l l e n g t h w i t h p r o p o r -
t i o n a t e l y s h o r t l e g s , o r head and t o r s o o n l y : Only on s l a b s do
anthropomorphic heads occur a l o n e , two h a v i n g f o o t - s h a p e d append-
ages. A s s o c i a t e d f e a t u r e s a r e sometimes a neck i n d e n t a t i o n on one
of t h e two f i g u r e s on a s t e l a ; round eyes; T-shaped eyebrows and
nose; eyebrows u s u a l l y c u r v i n g o v e r t h e eyes and f o r m i n g a "V" a t
the b r i d g e o f t h e nose; t r a p e z o i d a l nose; open mouth formed by an
o v a l r e l i e f band; mouth masks; hands o v e r t h e c h e s t , u s u a l l y one
above t h e o t h e r never h o l d i n g any o b j e c t s ; a t a i l head adornment
u s u a l l y h a v i n g a z i g z a g o r s e r p e n t f o r m o r c o n s i s t i n g o f some t u r b a n -
l i k e h a t w i t h bands.

4. Checkered c r o s s : This m o t i f i s f r e q u e n t l y present.

5. Complete quadrupeds p r e s e n t e d i n p r o f i l e : On S t e l a 15 t h e heads


of t h e quadrupeds a t t h e w a i s t a r e f u l l f a c e .

5. F r o g / t o a d : T h i s m o t i f occurs o n l y on t h e s t e l a e f r o m Santiago de
Huata and Tambo K u s i . ;

7. R e l i e f r i n g : Not as f r e q u e n t as i n Pucará s t y l e s c u l p t u r e . A v a r i a - -
t i o n , i n t h e form o f a c i r c u l a r and a s e m i c i r c u l a r c o n c a v i t y , occurs i
on t h e s t e l a from Wakka Uyu. i

i
8. Ramiform o r r o o t l i k e elements: Occur o n l y on t h e Taraco s t e l a . ;
i
9. Forked tongue emanating from t h e s e r p e n t s ' mouths: T h i s element i
may r e p r e s e n t barbéis o r w h i s k e r s . I t occurs on t h e Copacabana |
s l a b and on t h e s t e l a f r o m Santiago de Huata. I
i
Composition |
1. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f many m o t i f s , i n c l u d i n g a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c , zoomorphic, J
and g e o m e t r i c elements, o c c u r r i n g on a s i n g l e m o n o l i t h : Of these -|
elements, t h e anthropomorphic i s most s i g n i f i c a n t , a t l e a s t as r e - i
f l e c t e d i n a r e a l coverage. Next, o r perhaps o f e q u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , I
are zoomorphic elements which m.ay be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e forms, |
_ _ ^ ^ — I
.8
59

t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f which i s t h e s e r p e n t , t h e n quadruped, and


l e a s t r e p r e s e n t e d i s t h e f r o g / t o a d . Serpents a r e f r e q u e n t l y
double t o t r i p l e t h e number o f personages on any one p i e c e . Geo-
m e t r i c elements a r e l a s t i n s i g n i f i c a n c e as i n d i c a t e d by a r e a l
coverage, t h e checkered cross b e i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t , t h e n bands,
z i g z a g s , and r e l i e f r i n g s . F i n a l l y , heads o r elements w i t h a va-
r i e t y o f s c r o l l - l i k e appendages predomínate on t h e s l a b s , b u t a r e
l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t on s t e l a e . There i s a tendency t o f i l l spaces
w i t h zoomorphic, g e o m e t r i c , and "head" m o t i f s , t h a t i s , a use o f
space f i l l e r s so as n o t t o l e a v e l a r g e empty áreas.

2. P a i r s , o r c o n t r a s t i n g elements i n s e t s o f two: üp and down


o p p o s i t i o n , syinmetry and p a i r i n g o f zoomorphic and anthropomor-
p h i c f i g u r e s , and one i n s t a n c e o f male-female d u a l i t y . A t t h e
same t i m e , c o n t r a s t i n g o r opposing elements may be a s y m m e t r i c a l ,
as on t h e Copacabana s l a b o r t h e Wakka Uyu s t e l a f a c e s B and D.

3. J u r v i l i n e a r manner o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h much v a r i a t i o n i n
conventions.

H. Tendency t o carve a l l f o u r f a c e s o f t h e s t e l a e .

5. Some o c c u r r e n c e o f r e l i e f b o r d e r s f r a m i n g t h e elements w i t h i n ,
as found on f o u r o f t h e m o n o l i t h s .

Technique

Incisión i s l a c k i n g except on t h e S a n t i a g o de Huata and W i l a q o l l u


s t e l a e ; a l l c a r v i n g i s i n low r e l i e f .

P r o b l e m a t i c a l Pieces O m i t t e d f r o m t h e Yaya-Mama S t y l e

The m o n o l i t h s mentioned i n t h i s s e c t i o n e i t h e r have been r e -


j e c t e d from inclusión i n t h e Yaya^Mama s t y l e , o r cannot be c l e a r l y p l a c e d
i n t h e s t y l e f o r any o r a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons:

1. The p i e c e has t o o few elements and/or l a c k s d i a g n o s t i c ones.


2. The p i e c e l a c k s s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i s h e d documentation f o r p r o p e r
evaluation.
3. The p i e c e i s t o o p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d f o r adequate assessment.

Many o f these p i e c e s a r e discussed here because o t h e r a u t h o r s have com-


pared them t o s e v e r a l p i e c e s we have d e s c r i b e d as Yaya-Mama i n s t y l e .

The carved s t e l a from C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a ( f i g . 11),'*^ i s s i m i l a r


t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e i n having two l o n g u n d u l a t i n g t r i a n g u l a r - h e a d e d
s e r p e n t s and two t r i a n g u l a r - h e a d e d f r o g s / t o a d s . One s e r p e n t f a c e s down-
ward w h i l e t h e second s e r p e n t faces upward t o w a r d t h e two f r o g s / t o a d s i n
thé C e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f a s i n g l e f a c e o f t h e s t e l a . These m o t i f s and
t h e i r ©Seu^rénce on o n l y one face o f t h e s t e l a a r e f e a t u r e s shared w i t h
thé Puear^a s t y l e ísiore s p e c i f i c a l l y , w i t h what we have d e s i g n a t e d as t h e
Asárüñi súbatele);^S howev t h e l a c k o f i n c i s e d f a c e o r body d e t a i l and
t h e g r e a t e r number o f u n d u l a t i o n s o f t h e s e r p e n t bodies are more l i k e
Yaya-Mama s t y l e elements t h a n Pucará ones. Ponce suggests t h a t t h i s
stej.a and the C h i r i p a s l a b ( o u r number 9, f i g . 10) belong t o t h e C h i r i p a
c u l t u r e , ^ ' ^ though t h e y are s t y l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e group he assigns
t o Epoch I I I , and even though he clairas t h e r e i s an Epoch I I I semi-
s u b t e r r a n e a n temple a t C h i r i p a ( p r e v i o u s l y regarded as b e i n g Epoch V o r
Decadent Tiahuanaco).

Two s m a l l " l i g h t n i n g s t o n e s , " one from Escoma, Omasuyu,


B o l i v i a , ' ^ ^ and t h e o t h e r from the s o u t h e r n margin o f Lake T i t i c a c a , ^ ^ are
s i m i l a r i n s i z e and s t y l e : t h e y have been d e s c r i b e d , i l l u s t r a t e d , and d i s -
cussed by Sergio C h á v e z , T h e t r i a n g u l a r - h e a d e d , eared s e r p e n t s and
checkered-cross m o t i f on b o t h p i e c e s are shared not o n l y w i t h t h e Yaya-
Mama s t y l e b u t a l s o w i t h t h e Pucará s t y l e . However, t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f
t h e elements i s more l i k e t h e Pucará s t y l e , most c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g t h e
upper panel o f f a c e B o f t h e Pucará p l a z a s t e l a . I n any case, t h e form
o f t h e two p i e c e s i s u n i q u e ,

The s t e l a from I n c a t u n u h u i r i , Perú, was c l a s s i f i e d by K i d d e r as


a s t a n d i n g human s t a t u e , ^ ^ T h i s b l o c k y m o n o l i t h i s carved on a l l f o u r
f a c e s , w i t h an anthropomorphic f i g u r e on t h e p r i n c i p a l one which continúes
o n t o t h e l a t e r a l f a c e s . The f i g u r e haS b o t h hands r a i s e d t o t h e same l e v e l
below the c h i n i n a f a s h i o n somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f face A o f t h e
Tambo Kusi s t e l a , I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f i g u r e has round eyes, o v a l mouth,
neck r e p r e s e n t e d by i n d e n t a t i o n , and t h e f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g r e l i e f r i n g
s i t u a t e d v e n t r a l l y . The back o f t h e s t e l a ' h a s , a p p a r e n t l y , a p a i r o f a n i -
máis s i m i l a r t o those shown on a stepped s t e l a a l s o from Incatunuhuiri.-^"^
A l t h o u g h d e t a i l s are worn, these animáis each have a c o i l e d t a i l e n c i r -
c l i n g a disembodied héad and are s e p a r a t e d from one a n o t h e r by a r e l i e f
r i n g , While t h i s s t e l a shares some s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a ,
such as i t s p i l l a r l i k e f o r m , t h e emphasis on an anthropomorphic f i g u r e
w i t h i n d e n t e d neck, round eyes, t r a p e z o i d a l nose, s h o r t l e g s s e t a p a r t ,
and a n a v e l m o t i f ( t h o u g h here s e t r a t h e r low and i n t h e form o f a r e l i e f
- r i n g ) , t h i s s t e l a d i f f e r s enough f r o m t h e Yaya-Mama group t o be somewhat
s e p a r a t e d from i t , Those elements on t h e I n c a t u n u h u i r i m o n o l i t h which
d i f f e r from t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e i n c l u d e t h e l a c k o f c l e a r T-shaped brows
and nose; l a c k o f a m.outh mask, though t h e r e i s a c h i n ornament: presence
o f i n c i s e d l i n e s a t t h e w r i s t ; and e s p e c i a l l y t h e c o i l - t a i l e d animáis on
t h e back face which are u n l i k e any o f t h e animáis which occur on examples
from t h e Yaya-Mama group. F u r t h e r , s i n c e t h e r e i s a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y be-
tween t h i s m o n o l i t h and t h e I n c a t u n u h u i r i stepped s t e l a mentioned above,
i t would appear t h a t t h e two are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n t i m e ; and we know t h a t
t h e stepped form o f s t e l a i s common i n Pucará s t y l e s c u l p t u r e w h i l e i t
appears t o be absent i n t h e Yaya-Mama group, These s t e l a e from I n c a t u n u -
h u i r i would seem t o be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e Pucará s t y l e t h a n t o
o u r Yaya-Mama group. The r e l i e f r i n g , t o o , i s more com.mon t o t h e Pucará
s t y l e , though i t occurs on f o u r o f t h e m o n o l i t h s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Yaya-Mama
group i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t ( t h e v e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i s most s i m i l a r t o t h a t
on t h e Santiago de Huata s t e l a ) .

The t h r e e p i l l a r l i k e s t e l a e from Wankani, between t h e towns o f


iJesús de Machaca and C a q u i a v i r i , i n t h e Province o f I n g a v i , B o l i v i a , a r e
61

even l e s s s i m i l a r t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e . M o n o l i t h 1 , o r " W i l a - q a l a


i s 5.38 m. h i g h and 65 cm. i n máximum w i d t h , w h i l e M o n o l i t h .2, o r
"Hinchun-qala,"^^ i s 4.54 m. h i g h by 70 cm. máximum w i d t h . They each
have, e x t e n d i n g v e r t i c a l l y a l o n g most o f t h e l e n g t h o f one o r more f a c e s ,
e l o n g a t e d , u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t s w i t h squared a n i m a l heads h a v i n g e a r s , as
w e l l as two appendages a t t h e c h i n s . These u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t s , having .
a head a t each end o f t h e i r b o d i e s , a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s by a
h o r i z o n t a l band g o i n g around t h e e n t i r e s t e l a c o n s i s t i n g a l s o o f an undu-
l a t i n g s e r p e n t w i t h t h e same eared héad and appendages a t each end o f i t s
body. Incisión i s p r e s e n t on b o t h s t e l a e .

M o n o l i t h 1 has an anthropomorphic f i g u r e over most o f t h e


l e n g t h o f one f a c e . The f i g u r e has squared eyes w i t h z i g z a g " t e a r " bands
i n t h e form o f t r i a n g u l a r - h e a d e d s e r p e n t s , an o v a l mouth, arms bent l e f t
over r i g h t on t h e c h e s t , a squared f a c e w i t h appendages ( l i k e t h e serpent
heads) on t h e chest above t h e arms, and t h e h o r i z o n t a l s e r p e n t waistband
below t h e arms. No l e g s are p r e s e n t , b u t i n t h a t p o s i t i o n are two " r u n -
n i n g " zoomorphic f i g u r e s a l s o w i t h z i g z a g " t e a r " bands.

M o n o l i t h 2 has an anthropomorphic head and f e e t w i t h t h r e e


t o e s . 57 On i t s back f a c e t h e r e are e i g h t v e r t i c a l bands (we suggest
p o s s i b l y r e p r e s e n t i n g b r a i d s o f h a i r ) s i m i l a r t o t h e e i g h t bands on t h e
C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco S t e l a 8 o r Ponce m o n o l i t h , as Mesa and G i s b e r t p o i n t
o u t . Two anthropomorphic f i g u r e s appear below these bands, t h e n t h e
h o r i z o n t a l s e r p e n t band, and f i n a l l y a winged, f e l i n e - h e a d e d a n i m a l
h a v i n g f o u r c a m e l i d l i k e f e e t , a head ornament w i t h appendages e n d i n g i n
f e l i n e heads, and a s c e p t e r h e l d i n an anthropomorphic hand. Mesa and
G i s b e r t f e e l t h a t t h i s winged f i g u r e i s antecedent t o t h e Tiahuanaco ones.

These two m o n o l i t h s show some s i m i l a r i t y , t h e n , t o t h e Yaya-Mam.a


s t y l e i n possessing t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e and u n d u l a t i n g eared s e r -
p e n t s , However, t h e r e are o t h e r elements and d e t a i l s p r e s e n t on t h e
Wankani s t e l a e which a r e d i f f e r e n t enough so t h a t t h e y may be excluded
f r o m our Yaya-Mama s t y l e group. Such d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e " t e a r " bands
emanating f r o m t h e eyes, t h e l a c k o f mouth masks, more squared eyes, wide
n o s t r i l s , v e r t i c a l " h a i r " bands, t h e winged zoomorphic f i g u r e , t h e s m a l l e r
a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c - f i g u r e f i l l e r s , and d e t a i l s o f t h e s e r p e n t heads which
v e r y c l o s e l y approximate those on S t e l a 13 o r " I d o l o P l a n o . " ^ ^ Ponce,
t o o , d i f f e r e n t i a t e s these two m o n o l i t h s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b e t t e r f i n i s h ,
b u t says t h e y l a c k " c l a s s i c " Tiahuanaco m o t i f s , and a s s i g n s them t o Epoch
I I I . 5 9 7he s t e l a e appear t o us t o be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o C l a s s i c
Tiahuanaco i n c e r t a i n c h a r a c t s r i s t i c s such as those o b s e r v a b l e on S t e l a
13 ( I d o l o P l a n o ) , S t e l a 8 (Ponce m o n o l i t h ) , S t e l a 10 ( B e n n e t t m o n o l i t h ) ,
and t h e "Qochamama."

M o n o l i t h 3, o r "Tata-qala,"^° measures 5.1 m. by 95 cm. and i s


v e r y weathered. There are s e r p e n t heads on t h e s t e l a , a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r
t o those on t h e o t h e r two s t e l a e , a n d an a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
as on S t e l a 15.^^ More d e t a i l e d photographs o f a l l o f these s t e l a e would
a l l o w f i n e r comparisons t o be made.

A s t e l a from Q a l a q a l a , 11 km, from P i l l a p i , B o l i v i a , near t h e


52

highway has no p u b l i s h e d i l l u s t r a t i o n . I t i s mentioned here s i n c e Ponce


s t a t e s t h a t i t shows s i m i l a r i t y t o S t e l a 15, and would be i n c l u d e d i n
Epoch I I I .

A broken m o n o l i t h (59.5 cm. h i g h , 45 cm. wide, and 21 cm. t h i c k )


i n t h e N e s t l e r C o l l e c t i o n i n Prague comes f r o m Taraco ( p r o b a b l y B o l i v i a ) .
T h i s specimen has a personage i n r e l i e f , p r e s e r v e d from t h e w a i s t up, w i t h
hands over i t s chest one above t h e o t h e r , f o u r - f i n g e r e d hands, and t h e
arms c o n n e c t i n g t o a h o r i z o n t a l bar which forms t h e s h o u l d e r s . The p e r -
sonage has a headband w i t h a geometric h o r i z o n t a l b r a n c h i n g m o t i f l i k e t h e
v e r t i c a l b r a n c h i n g m o t i f above t h e f a c e on t h e Copacabana s t e l a ( f i g . 8 ) ;
a r e l i e f e n c i r c l e s t h e e n t i r e face from f o r e h e a d t o c h i n , i n c l u d i n g a p r o -
j e c t i o n under t h e eyes as on t h e f a c e from t h e Puno Museura ( f i g . 1 3 ) .
T h i s p i e c e would perhaps a l s o belong t o our Yaya-Mama s t y l e g r o u p , b u t t h e
i l l u s t r a t i o n does n o t p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l .

Another p o s s i b l e Yaya-Mama s t y l e s t e l a i s M o n o l i t h 1 f r o m J u n i p e ,
a mound southeast o f Moho, but a g a i n , d e t a i l s are l a c k i n g . T h e m o n o l i t h
o f r e d sandstone i s carved on one f a c e o n l y , h a v i n g a personage i n r e l i e f ,
p r e s e r v e d "from t h e w a i s t up, whose f a c e i s s l i g h t l y o v a l ; t h e r e i s an i n -
dented neck, arms are bent a t r i g h t angles over t h e chest one above t h e
o t h e r , and t h e hands have f i v e f i n g e r s . The o v e r a l l form o f t h e s t e l a i s
n a r r o w e s t a t t h e t o p ; i t s broken h e i g h t i s 140 cm., w i d t h 55 cm., and
t h i c k n e s s 15 cm.
I r
Mention may be made here a l s o o f tenon heads (cabezas c l a v a s )
f r o m Tiahuanaco, B o l i v i a , which are p l a c e d by Ponce i n t o Epoch I I I .
However, no c l e a r l y d i a g n o s t i c m o t i f s occur on t h e s e weathered p i e c e s
whose f u n c t i o n , moreover, i s almost c e r t a i n l y d i s t i n c t from t h a t o f o t h e r
s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i n b e i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l components; t h e n o r t h e r n end o f
t h e l a k e b a s i n has n o t h i n g comparable. Other stone heads from Tiahuanaco^"^
share some s i m i l a r i t i e s i n having round eyes, and T-shaped brows and nose,
and t h e r e are a few carved heads i n t h e Puno Museum, i n c l u d i n g one w i t h a
human head on each o f two o p p o s i t e f a c e s , as w e l l - a s one s l a b f a c e i n
Taraco, Perú, which a l s o share some g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s ; however, f o r one
reason o r another, t h e y cannot be p l a c e d w i t h i n o u r Yaya-Mama group w i t h
any c e r t a i n t y . I n a d d i t i o n , p i l l a r s 5 and 18 (and p o s s i b l y P-40) and S t e l a
14 from t h e Sem.i-subterranean Temple a t T i a h u a n a c o s h o u l d be mentioned
as m o n o l i t h s p o s s i b l y r e l a t i n g t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e , though poor p r e s e r v -
a t i o n does not a l l o w us t o make f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s .

Comparison V7ith M o n o l i t h s o f t h e Pucará S t y l e from Puno

F r e q u e n t l y found on the stone s c u l p t u r e o f Pucará s t y l e (espe-


c i a l l y o f the A s i r u n i s u b s t y l e ) are u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t s o r s e r p e n t l i k e
c r e a t u r e s h a v i n g eared heads, some b e i n g double-headed. Examples o f these
s e r p e n t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n s e v e r a l sources ;'^° o t h e r s are i n t h e Pucará
Museum, w h i l e a d d i t i o n a l ones were found a t s i t e s i n Puno d u r i n g t h e e x p l o -
r a t i o n undertaken by t h e f i r s t author,"^-^ as w e l l as o t h e r s found by us i n
1973.. The serpent i s f o u n d , as we have seen, on m o n o l i t h s o f our Yaya-
Mama group, and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e Pucará
s t y l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, t h e u s u a l i n c i s e d f a c i a l
¡BC — INAR
!-y":3 !UL.0E*aQiJc8L0Stt
•^3,_|0TECA 63

and body d e t a i l s on Pucará s e r p e n t s a r e l a c k i n g on t h e Yaya-Mama s e r p e n t s .


O t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e Pucará s e r p e n t s i n c l u d e t h e i r t r a p e z o i d a l f a c e s ,
f r e q u e n t l y e l l i p t i c a l eyes, presence o f t e a r bands, sometimes c o i l e d
" e a r s , " sometimes l e g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and u s u a l l y s m a l l e r number o f body
undulations. A l s o , on Pucará s t e l a e t h e s e r p e n t s a r e u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d
a l o n e o r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e p t i l i a n fauna and/or w i t h t h e r e l i e f
r i n g on s t e p p e d s t e l a e , a c o n t e x t which does n o t o c c u r i n t h e Yaya-Mama
group.

A second element common t o t h e Pucará and Yaya-Mama s t y l e s i s


t h e checkered c r o s s , a l t h o u g h i t occurs i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s i n t h e two
s t y l e s . Examples o f t h e checkered c r o s s on Pucará s c u l p t u r e a r e i l l u s t r a -
ted i n several sources.

There a r e very few s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e anthropomorphic


f i g u r e s on t h e Taraco s t e l a o r o t h e r s i n t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e and f i g -
ures found on Pucará s t y l e stone s c u l p t u r e , most o f t h e s e Pucará s c u l p -
tures being statues. However, t h e r e i s one s t e l a i n t h e Pucará Museum
w h i c h i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e ( f i g . lU).'^^ T h i s i s
the' Manuel Chávez Bailón m o n o l i t h , named a f t e r i t s d i s c o v e r e r . I t shows
a s t a n d i n g a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c f i g u r e c a r v e d i n r e l i e f w i t h i t s arms r a i s e d
on i t s c h e s t and stomach, o v a l almost s l a n t e d eyes s i m i l a r t o t h o s e on
t h e s t e l a e f r o m W i l a q o l l u and t h e v i c i n i t y o f Copacabana, and o v a l ,
t h i c k l y p r o t r u d i n g l i p s . However, t h e use o f incisión ( o n t h e Manuel
Chávez Bailón m o n o l i t h on t h e h a t , f i n g e r s , and on t h e w r i s t s ) and t h e
n o t c h o r s t e p removed from t h e upper l e f t c o m e r o f t h e b l o c k , a r e f e a -
t u r e s f r e q u e n t l y found on Pucará s t y l e s t e l a e .

General c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f anthropomorphic f i g u r e s which are


shared by Yaya-Mama and Pucará s t y l e s a r e t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e upper
t o r s o and head and t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f arms one above t h e o t h e r on t h e
chest. However, d i f f e r e n c e s between Yaya-Mama s t y l e anthropomorphic
f i g u r e s and Pucará s t y l e ones i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : Yaya-Mama
f i g u r e s have r o u n d eyes w h i l e Pucará ones have e l l i p t i c a l , s u b - r e c t a n -
g u l a r , o r sub-square eyes; mouth masks occur on Yaya-Mama f i g u r e s b u t a r e
absent on Pucará ones; Yaya-Mama f i g u r e s do n o t have w r i s t bands, o b j e c t s
h e l d i n t h e i r hands, f e l i n e - f a n g e d mouths, o r a v a r i e t y o f arm p o s i t i o n s
as sometimes o c c u r on Pucará s t y l e f i g u r e s .

A comparison o f c o n t e x t o f m o t i f s r a t h e r t h a n o f m o t i f s them-
s e l v e s can be made between t h e element w i t h s c r o l l - l i k e appendages, o r
head element, on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a ( a l s o o c c u r r i n g on o t h e r Yaya-Mama
s t y l e s c u l p t u r e ) and t h e r e l i e f r i n g element found so commonly on Pucará
s t y l e stone s c u l p t u r e . I n Pucará s c u l p t u r e t h e r e l i e f r i n g u s u a l l y occurs
e i t h e r ( 1 ) v e n t r a l l y on anthropomorphic f i g u r e s , i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e
n a v e l , o r ( 2 ) i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h animáis, f r e q u e n t l y w i t h a s e r p e n t l i k e
a n i m a l , t h e r i n g l o c a t e d j u s t above i t s head o r below i t s t a i l . I f we
compare t h e Taraco s t e l a we can see t h a t t h e s c r o l l - l i k e r i g u r e (head)
f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n o f p o s i t i o n i n g o r c o n t e x t as does t h e r i n g on
t h e Pucará m o n o l i t h s , namely, above s e r p e n t heads and v e n t r a l l y o r i n a
n a v e l p o s i t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e checkered c r o s s a l s o occurs i n t h i s
same v e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e s t e l a e f r o m Santiago de Huata and Tambo K u s i .
64

I n o t h e r words, i t may be t h a t t h e s t y l i z e d f i g u r e and/or t h e


checkered cross i s r e p l a c e d by t h e r i n g . The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s as t o
whether o r not they symbolized or r e p r e s e n t e d t h e same concept o r t h i n g .
Perhaps o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s r e g a r d i s an a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r s u b s t i t u -
t i o n i n C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s c u l p t u r e , though o f a much l a t e r d a t e , i n which
a r i n g and a head are used i n t h e same c o n t e x t suspended from t h e elbow o f
a human f i g u r e . '''^

Considerations o f Dating

I n a t t e m p t i n g t o p l a c e t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a and r e l a t e d p i e c e s
o f a l t i p l a n o s c u l p t u r e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , we s h a l l c o n s i d e r f o u r l i n e s o f
evidence. One i s a comparison o f design m o t i f s i n t h e s c u l p t u r e w i t h
m o t i f s i n o t h e r media i n o t h e r áreas, p r i m a r i l y t h e south c o a s t o f Perú,
where t h e best comparisons are w i t h t h e l a t e r phases o f t h e Paracas s t y l e
and t h e e a r l i e r phases o f t h e Nasca s t y l e . A second i s an argument ad-
vanced by Rowe i n v o l v i n g a p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Semi-sub-
t e r r a n e a n Temple a t Tiahuanaco and i t s s c u l p t u r e , i n c l u d i n g S t e l a 15, and
t h e n e i g h b o r i n g s e t t l e m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Qalasasaya s t y l e p o t t e r y . A
t h i r d i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e .radiocarbon evidence. The l a s t i s
t h e s e r i a t i o n a l o r d e r o f t h e Yaya-Mama, Pucará, and Tiahuanaco s c u l p t u r a l
s t y l e s . The c h i e f q u e s t i o n a t i s s u e i s whether the Yaya-Mama group i s
pre-Pucara or post-Pucara, and a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e evidence f a v o r s t h e
former p o s i t i o n .

Comparison o f design m o t i f s

The s t y l i z e d s c r o l l - l i k e f i g u r e s p r e s e n t on a l l f o u r faces o f
t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a , as we have shown, are a l s o shared by o t h e r s c u l p t u r e
around t h e l a k e b e l o n g i n g t o our Yaya-Mama group. These unique elements
are s i m i l a r t o rayed head m o t i f s which appear on t e x t i l e s from Paracas
on t h e c o a s t . T h i s head m o t i f w i t h s c r o l l o r r e c u r v e d r a y appendages
occurs on south coast t e x t i l e s from E a r l y H o r i z o n Epoch 8 t o E a r l y I n t e r -
medíate P e r i o d Epoch 3.^5

These t e x t i l e s i n c l u d e t h e Nasca 2 "^^ " m a n t o - c a l e n d a r i o " p r e -


sumed t o be f r o m Paracas which was f i r s t r e c o r d e d i n 1921 i n t h e Domingo
Cánepa c o l l e c t i o n i n Pisco.'^'^ Elements from t h i s mantle are r e p r o d u c e d
here i n f i g . 15; f i g . 15c shows t h e c e n t r a l m o t i f o f t h e mantle which i s
repeated t h i r t y - t w o t i m e s on t h e t e x t i l e . A s i m i l a r m o t i f appears as a
face mask h a v i n g a l t e r n a t i n g s t r a i g h t and curved appendages, f r o m a Nasca
IB t e x t i l e , " ^ ^ shown here i n f i g . 16; t h e curved appendages termínate i n
heads. Símilarly, c r e a t u r e s w i t h faces having r e c u r v e d r a y appendages,
some ending i n heads, occur on an e a r l y Nasca 1 ( o r Nasca l A ) garment from
t h e Paracas Necrópolis,"^^ i l l u s t r a t e d here i n f i g . 17. Squared faces w i t h
p a i r e d r e c u r v e d - r a y appendages. can a l s o be seen on a Paracas 9 o r e a r l y 10
(lOA) t e x t i l e from Paracas C a v e r n a s , s h o w n i n f i g . 18.

Oval faces w i t h p a i r s o f r e c u r v e d r a y s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h p a i r s
o f s t r a i g h t appendages occur on a headband from t h e Y a c o v l e f f - M u e l l e
e x c a v a t i o n s a t Paracas Cavernas, p r o b a b l y tomb 2 (see f i g . 1 9 ) , ^ ^ and are
p r o b a b l y Paracas 9 as i s a much more s t y l i z e d m o t i f on a headband from
65

t h e same l o c a l i t y ( f i g . 2 0 ) . Very s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r m e r , i s a head-


dress f r o m Ocucaje which has t h e same f a c e elements w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g
p a i r e d s c r o l l and s t r a i g h t appendages ( f i g . 2 1 ) . y e t a n o t h e r s i m i l a r
m o t i f on a c a r r y i n g bag from Paracas i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Engel,^'* shown
here i n f i g . 22, which he p l a c e s i n h i s P e r i o d I I d a t e d by him t o e i t h e r
200 B.C. - A.D. 200 o r t o 300-100 B.C.,^^ p r o b a b l y Paracas 9 i n s t y l e .
Another Paracas t e x t i l e shows, a g a i n , a s i m i l a r head w i t h p a i r e d r e -
curved r a y s b e l o n g i n g t o Paracas 9 ( f i g . 23):87 Engel p l a c e s i t a l s o i n
P e r i o d I I d a t e d by him t o about 300-100 B.C.^^

Two f i n a l examples a l s o show s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e Yaya-Mama


s t y l e head element. One i s from a Paracas t e x t i l e i l l u s t r a t e d by Engel
( f i g . 24) w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y t h e one on d i s p l a y a t t h e Paracas Museum
h a v i n g t h e m o t i f r e p e a t e d f o u r t i m e s . Engel p l a c e s i t i n h i s P e r i o d I I I ,
phase 1 o r 2, o f u n c e r t a i n a b s o l u t e d a t e . ^ ^ The second example i s from
a gauze weave t e x t i l e from a Paracas Necrópolis.grave ( f i g . 2 5 ) . ^ ^ Other
s i m i l a r head f i g u r e s w i t h s c r o l l appendages o c c u r on v a r i o u s t e x t i l e s
a n a l y z e d by J u n i u s B i r d and L o u i s a B e l l i n g e r , ^ ^ ^nd one from Las Haldas
found by t h e Japanese group d u r i n g t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e i r P i t I , l e v e l
I I I . 9 3 The m a j o r s t r u c t u r e s a t Las Haldas a r e now d a t e d t o t h e I n i t i a l
P e r i o d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a s i m i l a r m o t i f c o n s i s t i n g o f
a head w i t h s c r o l l appendages o c c u r s on Marajoara p o t t e r y o f Maráj5
I s l a n d , B r a z i l , perhaps d a t i n g t o around 1100 A.D.^^ S i m i l a r head m o t i f s
w i t h r a y e d appendages occur on Recuay p o t t e r y and stone s c u l p t u r e i n t h e
n o r t h h i g h l a n d s o f Peru.^^

The t w o r a m i f o r m m o t i f s on f a c e s B and D o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a ,


below t h e f e e t o f t h e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s , h a v i n g on f a c e B s e t s o f
two b r a n c h i n g appendages and on f a c e D p r o f i l e a n i m a l heads, have no known
p a r a l l e l s i n t h e s c u l p t u r e o f t h e a l t i p l a n o t h a t we a r e aware o f . A g a i n ,
a s i m i l a r i t y c a n be observed t o m o t i f s from Paracas i c o n o g r a p h y , a l t h o u g h
d e r i v e d f r o m o n l y one example. A s i m i l a r m o t i f O C C I Í T S on a pyro-engraved
gourd from Ocucaje, l e a , from t h e Paul T r u e l c o l l e c t i o n (shown here i n
f i g . 25),^"^ t h e m o t i f most c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g t h a t on f a c e D o f t h e
Yaya-Mama s t e l a . The gourd p r o b a b l y i s Paracas 9.^8 ^ v e r y r e m o t e l y
s i m i l a r m o t i f o c c u r s on a Paracas t e x t i l e t u r b a n h a v i n g s t y l i z e d
snakes (1).^^ Somewhat s i m i l a r m o t i f s , b u t w i t h appendages i n t h e form
o f a complete l e g w i t h f o o t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e head appendages, occur on
a Tiahuanaco s t y l e v e s s e l o f l a t e r date.^°°

A somewhat g e n e r a l i z e d c o m p a r i s o n . w i t h t h e Nasca custom o f


w e a r i n g mouth masks i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e " b i g o t e r a " o r mouth mask worn
by t h e two anthropomorphic f i g u r e s i n t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a and on o t h e r s
o f t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e . T h i s comparison assumes t h a t t h e f a c i a l r e l i e f s
around, b u t n o t t o u c h i n g , t h e nose o f t h e s e f i g u r e s i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t
masks and would be s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e coast i n b e i n g hung from t h e
n a s a l septum. Dawson's work w i t h "Paracas" t e x t i l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t mouth
masks occur i n t e x t i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and as a c t u a l g o l d ornaments i n
b u r i a l s i n l a t e Nasca 1 , and Rowe and Dawson now see no e a r l i e r examples
on t h e s o u t h c o a s t . F u r t h e r , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f mouth masks on p o t t e r y
and t e x t i l e s continué u n t i l Nasca 7, w i t h t h e c l o s e s t s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e
south s i e r r a s c u l p t u r e d ones b e i n g i n t h e range o f Nasca 1-^.^^^
Another somewhat g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e double-headed s e r p e n t s
on t h e Yaya-Mama s t e l a may be observed i n t h e "double-headed s e r p e n t i n e s "
o c c u r r i n g on t h e Paracas p o t t e r y o f l e a , d u r i n g Phases 9 and 10.

The r e l a t i v e dates o f t h e Paracas-Nasca comparisons range from


a p p r o x i m a t e l y Paracas 8 t o Nasca U, t h a t i s , from E a r l y Horizon 8 t o
E a r l y Intermedíate P e r i o d 4. Most o f t h e head m o t i f comparisons from
s t y l i s t i c a l l y dated t e x t i l e s are Paracas 9 t o Nasca 2, w h i l e t h e s i m i l a r -
i t y between t h e ramiform element and t h e gourd m o t i f i n v o l v e s a Paracas 9
gourd; t h e double-headed s e r p e n t i n e s are Paracas 9-10. These comparisons
suggest an E a r l y Horizon 9 date i n which a l l t h r e e s i m i l a r i t i e s c o i n c i d e .
The mouth mask comparison ranges l a t e r i n t o t h e e a r l y Nasca phases.
However, Rowe has suggested t h a t t h e h i g h l a n d mouth masks c o u l d be e a r l i e r
than t h e south coast ones.^"^^ -phe comparisons made here are lor^g d i s t a n c e •
ones, and t h e c r o s s d a t i n g o f t h e Yaya-Mama group t o t h e south coast sequence
i s not unambiguous. There i s c e r t a i n l y a need t o c o n f i r m whether and how
h i s t o r i c a l connections o r c o n t a c t s o f any k i n d e x i s t e d a t t h i s t i m e .

The Qalasasaya s t y l e argument

Rowe i n t e r p r e t s the Semi-subterranean Temple a t Tiahuanaco as a


v e r y e a r l y s h r i n e f o r which S t e l a 15, s t a n d i n g i n i t s c e n t e r , was t h e c h i e f
,4
||. c u l t o b j e c t . According t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e e a r l y s h r i n e was r e -
s t o r e d by t h e people o f Tiahuanaco i n t h e Middle H o r i z o n , a t which t i m e
t h e Bennett m o n o l i t h was e r e c t e d beside S t e l a 15 as a form o f r e d e d i c a t i o n .
The Bennett m o n o l i t h i s i n puré Tiahuanaco style.'^'^'^ Almost a d j a c e n t t o
t h s Semi-subterranean Temple on t h e west s i d e , Carlos Ponce Sanginés and
h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r s excavated t h e remains o f an e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t under t h e
g r e a t a r t i f i c i a l p l a t f o r m o f t h e Qalasasaya. The p o t t e r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
t h i s s e t t l e m e n t belongs t o a p r e v i o u s l y unknown s t y l e , now g e n e r a l l y c a l l e a
Qalasasaya. Rowe p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h i s e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t was t h e home o f
the o r i g i n a l b u i l d e r s o f t h e Semi-subterranean Temple, and t h a t conse-
q u e n t l y the^Qalasasaya p o t t e r y s t y l e was t h e s t y l e used by t h e makers o f
|| S t e l a 15.-'•'^^ He sees cióse s i m i l a r i t y between t h e f a c e o f a m.ythÍGal be-
•p. i n g d e p i c t e d on Qalasasaya s t y l e p o t t e r y and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s e f t h e f a c e
of a m y t h i c a l b e i n g ( t h e Oculate Being) i n Phase 10 o f t h e Paracas s t y l e . ^ ' ^ ^
At t h e same t i m e , he sees t h e c l o s e s t s i m i l a r i t i e s between Pucará s t y l e
p o t t e r y and t h e p o t t e r y o f t h e south coast i n Nasca 1-3.-'-'-''^ T h i s argument
, t h u s s u p p o r t s a pre-Pucara date f o r S t e l a 15, a p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e which
occupies a prominent p l a c e i n our Yaya-Mama group.

The radiocarbon evidence

I The r a d i o c a r b o n measurements from t h e s i e r r a do not c l a r i f y t h e


s i t u a t i o n . The a v a i l a b l e r a d i o c a r b o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s f o r Pucará c l u s t e r
i n t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y B.C, t a k i n g them w i t h o u t c o r r e c t i o n s as r e p o r t e d by
t h e l a b o r a t o r y . •^'-''^ The d e t e r m i n a t i o n s on Ponce's Epoch I ( t h e Qalasasaya
s e t t l e m e n t a t Tiahuanaco) range from t h e 16th c e n t u r y B.C. t o t h e 3rd
c e n t u r y A.D., w i t h o u t any obvious c l u s t e r i n g ; n i n e measurements from f o u r
d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s are i n v o l v e d . "'•^^ A g a i n , we are speaking o f uncor-
r e c t e d measurements as r e p o r t e d by t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s . Rowe's " l o n g s c a l e
p a t t e r n " o f r a d i o c a r b o n measurements from t h e south c o a s t o f Perú can be
67

i n t e r p r e t e d t o accomodate h i s s t y l i s t i c comparison between Pucará and


Nasca, a l t h o u g h t h e f i t i s n o t i d e a l . - ^ ^ ^ A c c o r d i n g t o t h e same p a t t e r n
and u s i n g u n c o r r e c t e d measurements, E a r l y H o r i z o n 9 s h o u l d f a l l i n t h e
4 t h o r 5 t h c e n t u r y B.C.^^-^

S e r i a t i o n a l order

The Yaya-Mama s t y l e shows some, b u t l i m i t e d , r e l a t i o n s h i p t o


Pucará s t y l e s c u l p t u r e and even l e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l a t e r C l a s s i c
Tiahuanaco s t y l e s c u l p t u r e . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t f i v e
major elements p e r s i s t f r o m Yaya-Mama s t y l e t h r o u g h Pucará s t y l e t o
C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s t y l e stone s c u l p t u r e : c r o s s , r e l i e f r i n g , quadrupeds,
s e r p e n t s , and anthropomorphic personages, a l t h o u g h i n each s t y l e t h e s e
elements a r e t r e a t e d w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . The
c r o s s i s n o t checkered on C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s c u l p t u r e t o o u r knowledge,
w h i l e i t i s on b o t h Yaya-Mama and Pucará s t y l e s c u l p t u r e . The p o s i t i o n -
i n g o f arms one above t h e o t h e r on t h e chest and/or stomach i s s h a r e d by
b o t h Yaya-Mama and Pucará s t y l e anthropomorphic f i g u r e s , b u t i s n o t used
i n C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco stone séulpture except f o r S t e l a 13 ( I d o l o P l a n o )
which shares d i f f e r e n t , and p o s s i b l y e a r l i e r , m o t i f s w i t h t h e Wankani
s t e l a e . Yaya-Mama anthropomorphic f i g u r e s never h o l d o b j e c t s i n t h e i r
hands ñor have t h e i r arms s t r a i g h t down a t t h e s i d e s as sometimes o c c u r s
i n Pucará and C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco f i g u r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e Yaya-Mama
m o n o l i t h s share f r o g / t o a d m o t i f s w i t h Pucará s c u l p t u r e , b u t t h e s e m o t i f s
are absent i n C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s t o n e s c u l p t u r e .

The f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f mouth masks on Yaya-Mama s t y l e


a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c f i g u r e s i s u n i q u e t o t h i s group, and a b s e n t , so f a r as
we know, f r o m b o t h Pucará and C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s c u l p t u r e . B i r d r e p r e -
s e n t a t i o n s b e g i n i n Pucará and continué i n t o C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s c u l p -
t u r e ; t h e y a r | ^ | b s e n t on Yaya-Mama m o n o l i t h s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e " f i s h " s i g n
o f Posnansky occurs on C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s t o n e s c u l p t u r e and most
p r o b a b l y i n Pucará p o t t e r y , ^ Q - t on Yaya-Mama s t y l e s c u l p t u r e .
A l t h o u g h t h e eared s e r p e n t , t h e checkered-cross m o t i f , t h e t o a d / f r o g e l e -
ment, and t h e r e l i e f r i n g a r e shared w i t h Pucará s c u l p t u r e , t h e y a r e
d i f f e r e n t i n b o t h s t y l e and c o n t e x t . As we have n o t e d , however, t h e
Yaya-Mama heads w i t h s c r o l l - l i k e appendages and checkered c r o s s e s o c c u r
i n c o n t e x t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f r e l i e f r i n g s i n Pucará s c u l p t u r e . I n '
a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e elements n o t e d above, t h e Yaya-Mama s t y l e d i f f e r s f r o m
t h e P i c a r a s t y l e i n t h e presence o f t h e s c r o l l - h e a d motif."'ínouth masks,
t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f many elements i n t h e same c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h a tendency
t o f i l l a l l spaces, t h e r a r i t y o f incisión, t h e absence o f s t a t u e s and
n o t c h e d s t e l a e , l e s s r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and o t h e r s . I n s h o r t ,
t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Pucará and Yaya-Mama s t y l e s t o
indícate t h a t t h e two s t y l e s a r e n o t contemperáis. Moreover, among t h e
Pucará s t y l e s c u l p t u r e t h e r e a r e examples which v e r y c l o s e l y resemble
C l a s s i c Tiahuanaco s t o n e s c u l p t u r e , such as some from C h u m b i v i l c a s as y e t
unpublished,-^-^^ and some f r o m Qaluyu; t h e s e would appear t o be t h e
l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s f o r a l a t e Pucará, more Tiahuanaco r e l a t e d group. A l l
these o b s e r v a t i o n s suggest t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l placement o f t h e Yaya-Mama
S t y l e as pre-Pucara.
) 68

' Concerning t h e checkered-cross m o t i f which occurs on b o t h Yaya-


I Mama and Pucará s t y l e s c u l p t u r e , t h e r e a r e e a r l y examples o f checkered
4 crosses on p o t t e r y from t h e Cuzco s i t e o f M a r c a v a l l e , which date t o 800-
' 700 B.C. (see f i g . 2 7 ) ; p o t t e r y w i t h a p p a r e n t l y t h e same element occurs
5 a t Qaluyu j u s t t o t h e n o r t h o f P u c a r á . G r a n t e d t h e r e i s as y e t no
j d i r e c t t r a n s i t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s m o t i f i n t o l a t e r p o t t e r y and s c u l p t u r e ,
n e v e r t h e l e s s i t p r o v i d e s an antecedent f o r t h e m o t i f i n t h e south h i g h -
' l a n d zone.

I t may be w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g h e r e , a l s o , two ceramic fragments


from t h e s i t e o f C h i r i p a , most p r o b a b l y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l a t e C h i r i p a
o c c u p a t i o n dated by r a d i o c a r b o n measurements t o about 500-100 B.C.^^'^
One p i e c e i s a trum.pet fragment wl)ich has a c r o p s , though n o t checkered,
on i t , ' ' - ' ^ ^ a g a i n , p o s s i b l y V^'ovidiiíg'an antecedent'to^'tl^e Yaya-Mama check-
^ ered c r o s s . The second piece comes from t h e U n i v e r s i t y Museum's
} ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania) 1955 e x c a v a t i o n s a t C h i r i p a , d i r e c t e d by
A l f r e d K i d d e r I I a s s i s t e d by W i l l i a m R. Coe. Though i t s provenience i s
from a mixed upper l e v e l , t h e grass temper i n d i c a t e s i t i s o f t h e C h i r i p a
•' c u l t u r e , and t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s d e c o r a t e d shows i t p e r t a i n s t o t h e l a t e
] C h i r i p a o c c u p a t i o n (see f i g . 2 8 ) . T h i s fragment possesses a modeled
.j s e r p e n t l i k e , though s h o r t - b o d i e d , c o i l e d c r e a t u r e h a v i n g a t r i a n g u l a r -
'M, shaped head w i t h face o r body d e t a i l s absent.-^^^ The s i m p l i c i t y o f r e p r e -
M' s e n t a t i o n and t r i a n g u l a r - s h a p e d head o f t h i s pre-Pucara example a r e s i m i l a r
.'^ t o t h e s e r p e n t s on Yaya-Mama s t y l e s c u l p t u r e .

From reconnaissance and e x c a v a t i o n s made a t Taraco and a t o t h e r


í í>'(í •
s i t e s i n Puno, l i k e Pucará and Qaluyu, t h e r e appears t o be an abundance
o f pre-Pucara p o t t e r y s t y l e s and a r e l a t i v e absence o f s t y l e s f o l l o w i n g
Pucará levéis, except f o r t h e much l a t e r C o l l a o v a r i e t i e s ; no i m m e d i a t e l y
post-Pucara s t y l e s have been c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d so f a r . I t would appear
t h a t Pucará s i t e s were unoccupied f o r a r a t h e r l o n g t i m e , though l a c k o f
d i s c o v e r y may s t i l l be a f a c t o r . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e i s a much g r e a t e r
p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e Yaya-Mama s c u l p t u r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these pre-Pucara
o c c u p a t i o n s r a t h e r than post-Pucara ones which do n o t e x i s t o r l a c k " i d e n t i -
f i c a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . However, on t h e b a s i s o f p r e s e n t evidence, we do n o t
know f o r c e r t a i n t h e exact t e m p o r a l placement o f t h e Yaya-Mama'style group
^ o f stone s c u l p t u r e .
I f we may argüe f o r a pre-Pucara placement o f t h e Yaya-Mama
^ s t y l i s t i c group, we probably have an a n c e s t o r f o r t h e Pucará s t y l e s c u l p -
i t u r e , and perhaps c u l t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e i m p l i c i t sugges-
» t i o n t h a t Pucará came t o t h e a l t i p l a n o a l r e a d y w e l l developed. More work
i s needed on t h e s t y l i s t i c sequence o f Pucará and P u c a r a - l i k e s c u l p t u r e
I from t h e n o r t h Lake T i t i c a c a B a s i n ; t h e n i t s h o u l d be e a s i e r t o evalúate
I t h e P u c a r a - l i k e s c u l p t u r e from t h e s o u t h e r n end o f t h e l a k e i n B o l i v i a .

^ Acknowledgements

The r e s e a r c h upon which t h i s paper i s based was p a r t i a l l y funded


by a Senate Research and C r e a t i v e Endeavor Grant and a f a c u l t y Achievement
í Award from C e n t r a l Michigan U n i v e r s i t y , g r a n t e d t o K. Chávez w i t h S. Chávez
^ as a s s i s t a n t . We wish t o thank t h e f o l l o w i n g persons f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s
'i
69

t o w a r d t h i s paper: John H. Rowe f o r p r o v i d i n g us w i t h supplemental


information including h i s t o r i c a l references, a d d i t i o n a l bibliographic
s o u r c e s , and f o r h i s comments and suggestions on t h e o r i g i n a l versión o f
t h i s paper; Jane P. Dwyer who k i n d l y i d e n t i f i e d some o f t h e Paracas-Nasca
t e x t i l e elements and t h e i r phases which were used i n our comparison;
W i l l i a m and Barbara C o n k l i n f o r a r u b b i n g o f t h e C h i r i p a s l a b ; Manuel
Chávez Bailón f o r p e r m i t t i n g us t o p u b l i s h t h e d r a w i n g from h i s own r u b -
b i n g o f t h e s t e l a he f o u n d , h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n as member o f t h e t h e n
P a t r o n a t o D e p a r t a m e n t a l de Arqueología d e l Cuzco, and f o r h i s comments;
Maks P o r t u g a l Zamora and Max P o r t u g a l O r t i z f o r p r o v i d i n g us i n f o r m a t i o n
on t h e Tambo K u s i and Wakka Uyu s t e l a e ; and P a t r i c i a J . Lyon f o r e d i t o r i a l
commei t s and s u g g e s t i o n s .

Dedication

We wish t o dedícate t h e p r e s e n t paper t o Dr. A l f r e d K i d d e r I I


whose s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s i n t h e Lake T i t i c a c a B a s i n , i n c l u d i n g e x c a v a t i o n
and e x t e n s i v e r e c o n n a i s s a n c e e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e Pucará c u l t u r e , has
i n c r e a s e d our knowledge o f t h e área and s t i m u l a t e d our own work t h e r e .

February 9, 1970
r e v i s e d September 27, 1975

NOTES

On F e b r u a r y 9, 1970, t h i s paper was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e e d i t o r f o r


p u b l i c a t i o n and t h e n , t o g e t h e r w i t h S. Chávez ( 1 9 7 6 ) , was p r e s e n t e d i n
t h e symposium e n t i t l e d " A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Form and S t y l e o f
t h e Precolumbian A r t o f t h e Andean Región," d u r i n g t h e 3 5 t h Annual Meet-
i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r American Archaeology, Norman, Oklahoma, May 6,
1971. I t i s p u b l i s h e d here w i t h no changes except f o r minor ones sug-
g e s t e d by t h e e d i t o r s and t h e inclusión o f a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l
w h i c h does not s u b s t a n t i v e l y change t h e o r i g i n a l versión.
2
S e v e r a l Spanish-Quechua, Quechua-Spanish d i c t i o n a r i e s were c o n s u l t e d ,
i n c l u d i n g Gon9alez H o l g u i n [ l 5 0 8 ] , 1952, f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e word f o r
" f a t h e r " and, henee, male, w h i c h was p r e f e r a b l y yaya and n o t t a y t a . Rowe
i n f o r m s us t h a t yaya i s t h e C l a s s i c Inca word f o r " f a t h e r , " w h i l e t a y t a
i s a C o l o n i a l b o r r o w i n g from an o l d e r Spanish f a m i l i a r word, l i k e "daddy"
i n E n g l i s h . He comments t h a t i n a l l t h e modern I n c a d i a l e c t s he knows,
yaya i s now r e s t r i c t e d t o r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t s . The idea o f a p p l y i n g t h e
t e r m "Yaya-Mama" d e r i v e s f r o m t h e ñame "Tayta-Mama" g i v e n t o t h e p e r s o n -
ages on t h e Taraco s t e l a by a Quechua-speaking i n f o r m a n t i n Taraco.
3
Chávez and Chávez, 1970.
K i d d e r , 1943, pp. 15-17, passim.

P a t t e r s o n , 1957, p. 144.
!''i Lí OTE CA

70

^ V a l d i v i a Ponce and Benavides Godoy, 1953.

''chávez and Chávez, 1959; 1970; see a l s o Kauffmann Doig, 1959,


p. 355, F. 500.
Q
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e stone was made by g e o l o g i s t W i l l i a m P. R e i d ,
P r o j e c t E n g i n e e r , M i n i n g División, Colorado School o f Mines Research
Foundation, I n c . , Golden, Colorado,
o
Cardozo Gonzales, 1954, p. 50, second píate a f t e r p. 64, p. 78,
i' píate f a c i n g p. 80, p. 107, píate f a c i n g p. 112, p. 1 2 1 , píate f a c i n g p. 128.

jj: B e n n e t t , 1934, pp. 439-442; 1956, pp. 115-118; Posnansky, 1945, v o l .


I's I I , f i g s . 87, 87a; I s h i d a and o t h e r s , 1950, p. 337, f i g . 4; Ponce Sanginés,
1964, DD. 24-25, f i g . 7.
> l

' ^ ^ B e n n e t t , 1934, pp. 458, 474-475.


12
11 i Ponce Sanginés, 1964, pp. 6 1 , 53.
^3 i 13
1; Ponce Sanginés, 1964, p, 53.

^"^S. Chávez, 1975, f i g . 8.

^^Mesa and G i s b e r t , 1957, pp. 55-57.

•"•^Ponce Sanginés, 1954, p. 53.

^''Bennett, 1934, p. 441, f i g . 32.

•"•^asanova, 1942, f i g . 3, p. 345; B e n n e t t , 1945, f i g . 18, p. 135.


[comment by J.H. Rowe: The a u t h o r s w r o t e t h i s a r t i c l e i n c e n t r a l Michigan
w i t h l i m i t e d access t o r e s e a r c h l i b r a r l e s . The e d i t o r s a s s i s t e d when
p o s s i b l e by s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . T h i s comment i s
' the consequence o f a r o u t i n e check o f b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l c i t a t i o n s c a r r i e d
lt¡ out t o o l a t e i n t h e e d i t o r i a l process f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be s u p p l i e d
.í t o the authors f o r t h e i r consideration.
Casanova a l s o p u b l i s h e d photographs o f t h e Mocachi s t e l a (same
a r t i c l e , lám. I I I ) . The photographs a r e p o o r l y r e p r o d u c e d , b u t t h e y do
p r o v i d e some check on t h e drawings. Bennett says v e r y e x p l i c i t l y t h a t
,: h i s drawing was "redrawn from Casanova, 1942c, f i g . 3." I considered the
:: p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t h i s i l l u s t r a t o r might have used Casanova's photographs
;,; t o c o r r e c t h i s d r a w i n g s , which are i n a c c u r a t e i n a number o f d e t a i l s , but
t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y must be r u l e d o u t , because d i f f e r e n t fragments a r e miss-
i n g from t h e head área i n Casanova's photographs and Bennett's d r a w i n g s ,
Perhaps Bennett had photographs o f h i s own.
Casanova's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t e l a ( p p . 342-347) i s d e t a i l e d
aftd i l l u m i n a t i n g . He says t h e r e i s an u n d u l a t i n g s e r p e n t on each narrow
síáé ( p i 3 4 7 ) . There i s a d e p r e s s i o n a t the end o f t h e f i n g e r s o f t h e
': l e f t hand o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e ( p . 345); t h i s d e p r e s s i o n i s v i s i b l e i n
thfe photograph b u t r a t h e drawing. Of t h e s m a l l e r f i g u r e on t h e back,
C-aSart'gV^a says: . e the •'highs he.g.in, pi r.nnr.^VTty has "hp^n r^.-rve^ñ
71

which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n t e n t i o n was to represent a personage o f the


female sex." (p. 347) The área i n question i s i n dark shadows i n the
photograph, but i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a v u l v a was represented, T h i s d e t a i l
a l s o does not show i n the drawing. The photographs do not show mouth
masks but r a t h e r cheek spots l i k e the ones on the Yaya-Mama s t e l a .
Casanova (pp. 347 and 348) compares the Mocachi s t e l a with S t e l a 15 a t
Tiahuanaco and with the s t e l a from the v i c i n i t y of Copacabana (number 7
of the Chávez l i s t ) . ]
19

Portugal Zamora, 1941, p. 294.

^°Ponce Sanginés, 1957, p. 134, f i g . 28.

^^Ponce Sanginés, 1954, p. 51, f i g . 24a; 1969, p. 54, f i g . 42a.


^^Ruben, 1952, Abb. 11.
23
Mesa and G i s b e r t , 1967, p. 57.
24
Portugal Zamora, 1967.
25
Portugal Zamora, 1967, p, 241.
Portugal O r t i z , 1971. L e t t e r i n g of f a c e s A-D i s our own,
27
A r r i a g a , 1621, cap, I X , pp. 52-53; Ramos Gavilán, 1621, l i b r o
primero, cap. XXXII, p. 168.
28
Rowe and Donahue, 1976. Rowe provided us with i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f
the fragments p r i o r t o t h i s w r i t i n g so t h a t our comparisons could be
i n c l u d e d here.
Joyce, 1924, photograph f a c i n g p. 635; Casanova, 1942, p. 344,
f i g . 5, and p, 348; Posnansky, 1958, p l . LXXV.A.aa, and p. 124.

^°Uhle, 1912, f i g . 15.

^^Uhle, 1912, p. 478.


32
Izumi, 1954, f i g . 4; Masuda [ l 9 5 4 ] , p. 39; Kauffmann Doig, 1959,
p. 344, F. 588; Ponce Sanginés, 1970, p. 45, f i g . 29.
•^•^Masuda, [1954], p, 39.
34
Information on the shape o f the f r o n t and on the back border was
k i n d l y provided by P a t r i c i a J . Lyon.
^^Written "Kcasani" i n the r e g i s t r a t i o n book.

^^Kidder, 1943, p l . I I , 4, 5, 5.
37
Hesa and G i s b e r t , 1967, f i g . 1.
38
Mesa and G i s b e r t , 1957, f i g . 10; Ponce SanginSs, 1961, pp. 25-27,
39
Ponce Sanginés, 1959, p. 39, f i g . 23.
un
Posnansky, 1958, p. 123, p l . LXXVI.A.a.
1+1
P o r t u g a l Zamora, 1951.
42
P o r t u g a l Zamora, 1957, p, 241,
43
P o r t u g a l O r t i z , 1971,
44
Lynch, 1974, p, 384,
"^^Ponce Sanginés, 1957, pp. 130-131, 133, and 135, f i g . 29; 1970,
p, 45, f i g . 28.

• '^^S. Chávez, 1975, note 23.


47
Ponce Sanginés, 1970, pp. 45-46,
48
Ponce Sanginés, 1970, p, 59,
49

Uhle, 1912, p, 478, f i g . 15.

^°Posnansky, 1958, p l . LXXV.A.a. and p. 124.

^^S. Chávez, 1975,p. 8, f i g s . 7, 8.

^ ^ K i d d e r , 1943, p l . I I , 4-6 and pp. 27-28.


53
K i d d e r , 1943, p l . I I , 8-10; see a l s o Spahni, 1971, f i g . 4.
^"^Posnansky, 1945, vo'l. I I , f i g s . 89, 89a, and 90; Rydén, 1947,
pp. 82-97 f f . ; V e l l a r d , 1955; I s h i d a and o t h e r s , 1950, pp. 334-335; .Mesa
and G i s b e r t , 1957, pp. 55-57.

^ ^ P o r t u g a l Zamora, 1941, pp, 294-295; Rydén, 1947, p. 92, f i g . 32;


Ponce Sanginés, 1959, p. 54, f i g , 42; V e l l a r d , 1955, lám, I , a and c,
55
P o r t u g a l Zamora, 1941, pp. 293-294, 297; Rydén, 1947, pp. 94-96,
f i g s . 34-35; V e l l a r d , 1955, lám. I , b, lám, I I , a and b,
57
Mesa and G i s b e r t , 1957, p, 58.
58
Ponce Sanginés, 1964, p. 5 1 , f i g . 24b.
59
Ponce Sanginés, 1954, p. 63.
60
P o r t u g a l Zamora, 1941, pp. 292-293; Rydén, 1947, p. 97, f i g . 37.
73

^^Mesa and G i s b e r t , 1957, p. 55.

^^Ponce Sanginés, 1964, p. 63. Ponce w r i t e s the s i t e nanie a s


"Kalakala."

^ \ o u k o t k a , 1958, p. 338, and 339, f i g . VI 1(#730).

^^Neira Avendaño, 1968, p. 136 and lám. 17.

^ S o n c e S a n g i n i s , 1964, p. 65, f i g s . 16-18.

^''Ponce Sanginés, 1969, f i g s . 17-24.

^^Ponce Sanginés, 1969, pp. 65-56, f i g s . 43-44.

^^S. Chávez, 1976, note 23.

"^°See, f o r example, Valcárcel, 1935, f i g s . 5 and 7; Kidder, 1943,


p l . I I I , 2 and 5, p l . I V , 4, and p l . V I I , 1.

"^^Chávez and Chávez, 1970.

"^^Kidder, 1943, p l . V I , 1 and 2, p l . V I I , 10; Valcárcel, 1935, f i g .


10; S. Chávez, 1976, f i g s . 1-4, 5b, 5a, 5d, 7, 8, 13.

.. '^'^This monolith i s published here f o r the f i r s t time. See Key to


Illustrations for details.

'''^Posnansky, 1945, v o l . I , p l . XXIX.

''^Dwyer, p e r s o n a l comraunication.
76
Dwyer, p e r s o n a l communication. A l l r e l a t i v e dates r e f e r r i n g to
the l e a ceramic sequence which a r e given f o r the t e x t i l e s mentioned i n
t h i s s e c t i o n have been k i n d l y provided by Dr. Jane P. Dwyer whose r e s e a r c h
has involved the study of "Paracas" t e x t i l e s .
''''lello, 1959, p l . LXXIX and caption.
na
Valcárcel, 1932, p l . 1, f i g . 5.

"^^O'Neale and Kroeber, 1930, p l . 10; O'Neale, 1942, pp. 195-201,


p l s . 3-5.
80
C a r r i o n Cachot, 1931, p. 41, f i g . 2 j ; O'Neale, 1942, pp. 194-195,
p l . 2.
81.
Provenience a c c o r d i n g t o Dwyer, p e r s o n a l communication.
82

O'Neale, 1942, p. 150, f i g . 8d-e.

®\ing, 1965 , f i g . 7.
71+

Enge n.d., p l . 22.


85^
Enge n.d., p l . 22.
86^
Enge 1955, P- 185.
87^
Enge 1955, P- 187, f i g - 51B.
88^
Enge, 1955, P- 185.

89r-Enge, 1956, P- 215, 51.


90^
Enge. 1955, pp. 201- -202, 215.

^^Bennett and B i r d , 1950, p. 180, f i g . 35, t o p c e n t e r ; 1954, f i g . 35,


top c e n t e r . Both i l l u s t r a t i o n s were used t o get a more complete d r a w i n g .
9?
B i r d and B e l l i n g e r , 1954, p l s . LXXIX and L X X X I I I .
93
I s h i d a and o t h e r s , 1950, p. 196, f i g . 17.
94
W i l l e y , 1971, p. 109; Moseley, 1975, pp. 95, 107.
95
Palroatary, 1950, p. 418, p l . 50a and p. 419, p l . 61b. Such s i m i -
l a r i t y was f i r s t p o i n t e d o u t t o us by Donald W. L a t h r a p ; e a r l y a r c h a e o l o -
g i s t s such as Valcárcel a l s o suggested comparisons between Pucará and HarajS.
^°For p o t t e r y , see T e l l o , 1949, f i g s . 25, 28, and Kauffmann D o i g ,
1959, f i g . 523a element on chest o f personage ( a l s o n o t e eared s e r p e n t s
on t h e s i d e s o f t h e personage). For s c u l p t u r e , see T e l l o , 1949, f i g . 39
element below w a i s t o f a female s t a t u e , and f i g . 40 elements on l e f t s i d e
of statue.

^ ' ' l e l l o , 1959, p. 2 7 1 , f i g s . 34, 35.


98
Menzel, Rowe, and Dawson, 1964, p. 287, 5.13.7.
99
B i r d and B e l l i n g e r , 1954, p l . X I I I , 91.115.

^°°Bennett, 1934, p. 420, f i g . 16d; Posnansky, 1958, p l . X X X I I I . a .


101
Rowe, p e r s o n a l communication c o n c e r n i n g t h e m.outh mask problem;
Rowe, 1974, p. 321.
102
Menzel, Rowe, and Dawson, 1964, p. 272, 4.4.5.
^°~^Rowe, 1974 , p. 321.
104

Rowe, 1974, p. 321.

•^°^Rowe, '.974, pp. 321-322.


75

^°Sowe, 1963, p. 8; 1974, p. 323.

^^'^Rowe and Brandal, 1971, p. 3; Rowe, 1971, p. 118.

^"^^Ralph, 1959, p. 57; Lawn, 1971 (P-1581).


109

Ponce Sanginés, 1970, Tabla 5.

^^°Rowe and Menzel, 1967, pp. 24-25.


^•^•^Rowe and Menzel, 1967, p. 24. The c h r o n o l o g i c a l t a b l e , pp. i v
and V, i s based on determinations c o r r e c t e d t o t h e 5730 y e a r h a l f - l i f e
f o r radiocarbon-.

^^^Posnansky, 1945, v o l . I , p. 119, f i g . 7.

^^^Rowe and Brandel, 1971, f i g s . 37 and 74.

S. Chavez, ms.

•^•^^Rowe, 1958, p. 258.


^^^K. Chávez, 1969, see p. 51 f f o r a checkerboard v a r i a t i o n on a
p i e c e a l s o of 700 B.C.

^^"^Ralph, 1959, pp. 55-57; P-115, P-115, P-124, P-125, P-125, P-141,
P-142, P-143A, P-143B, P-144.

^^^Bennett, 1935, p. 442, f i g . 28g.


119
Mohr, ms., p. 81, f i g . 42c.
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Rowe, John Howland, and Donahue, John M i c h a e l


1975 The Donahue d i s c o v e r y , an a n c i e n t s t e l a found near l l a v e . Puno.
Ñawpa Pacha 13, 1975, pp. 35-43. Berkeley.

Rowe, John Howland, and Menzel, Dorothy (eds.)


1957 Peruvian a r c h a e o l o g y ; s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . Peek P u b l i c a t i o n s ,
Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a ,

Rubén, W a l t e r
1952 Tiahuanaco, Atacama und Araukaner; d r e i v o r i n k a i s c h e K u l t u r e n .
Otto Harrassowitz, L e i p z i g .

Rydén, S t i g
1947 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l researches i n t h e h i g h l a n d s o f B o l i v i a . Elanders
B o k t r y c k e r i A k t i e b o l a g , Goteborg,
81

Spahni, J e a n - C h r i s t i a n
1971 L i e u x de c u i t e précolorabiens e t actuéis du département de Puno
(Pérou). Z e i t s c h r i f t f t f r E t h n o l o g i e , Band 96, H e f t 2, pp. 217-
233. Braunschweig.

T e l l o , J u l i o César
1949 Wira-Kocha. (Reimpreso de l a r e v i s t a " I n c a " , v o l . I , nos. 1 y
3, Lima, 1923.) Sapmarti £ Co., Lima.

1959 Paracas. Primera p a r t e . Empresa Gráfica T."Scheuch S.A., Lima.

Uhle, Max

1912 Posnansky—Guía g e n e r a l i l u s t r a d a p a r a l a investigación de l o s


monumentos prehistólricos de Tihuanacu é I s l a s d e l S o l y l a Luna,
R e v i s t a C h i l e n a de H i s t o r i a y Geografía,
año I I , tomo I I , segundo t r i m e s t r e , no. 6, pp. 457-479.
S a n t i a g o de C h i l e .

Valcárcel, L u i s Eduardo
1932 E l p e r s o n a j e mítico de Pukara. R e v i s t a d e l Museo N a c i o n a l ,
[tomo I ] , no. 1 , pp. 18->2l6, 122-123. Lima.

1935 L i t o e s c u l t u r a s y cerámica de Pukara. R e v i s t a d e l Museo


N a c i o n a l , tomo I V , no. 1 , I semestre, pp. 25-28. Lima.

V a l d i v i a Ponce, A l b e r t o , and Benavides Godoy, Víctor M.


1953 C u l t u r a Taraco. La Prensa, sección c a r t a s , 15 de j u l i o , p. 8.
Lima.

V e l l a r d , Jehan
1955 Las r u i n a s de Khonkho Wancane. R e v i s t a d e l Museo N a c i o n a l de
Antropología y Arqueología, v o l , I I , no. 2, p r i m e r semestre,
pp. 151-154. Lima.

W i l l e y , Gordon Randolph
1971 An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o American a r c h a e o l o g y . V o l . 2. South America.
P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y .
82

KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS

Unless o t h e r w i s e noted, a l l drawings a r e by S e r g i o J . Chávez.

Píate X X I I I

F i g . 3. R o l l o u t drawing o f t h e f o u r carved f a c e s ; 255 cm. h i g h , 54


cm. wide, 38 cm. t h i c k . Drawn from Ponce Sanginés, 1954, f i g . 7.
F i g . 4. Red sandstone, 210 cm. h i g h , 70 cm. wide a t base o f p r i n c i -
p a l f a c e , 35 era. t h i c k . F i g . 4a-c drawn from Casanova, 1942, p. 345, f i g .
3; f i g . 4 d - f drawn from B e n n e t t , 1946, p. 135.
F i g . 5. F i g . 5a drawn from Ponce Sanginés, 1969, p. 54, f i g . 42A, and
from Ponce Sanginés, 1954, p. 5 1 , f i g . 24a; f i g . 5b drawn from Ponce
Sanginés, 1957, p. 134, f i g . 28; f i g . 5c drawn by J.H. Rowe from Rubén,
1952, Abb. 1 1 .
F i g . 5. Height ( p r o b a b l y above ground) 183 cm., w i d t h 45 cm. , máxi-
mum t h i c k n e s s 23 cm. , mínimum t h i c k n e s s a t base 19 cm. F i g . 6a i s face A;
f i g . 5b i s face B. Drawn from P o r t u g a l Zamora, 1957, pp. 239-240.
F i g . 7. H e i g h t 231 cm., máximum w i d t h 50 cm., no t h i c k n e s s g i v e n .
F i g . 7a i s f a c e A, f i g . 7b r e p r e s e n t s one. o f t h e n a r r o w e r faces t o t h e
r i g h t ( r e a d e r ' s v i e w ) o f face A. Drawn from P o r t u g a l O r t i z , 1971.
F i g . 8. No dimensions p u b l i s h e d . Drawn from Joyce, 1924, p h o t o -
graph f a c i n g p. 535.

Píate XXIV

F i g . 9. 35 cm. h i g h , 29.2 cm. wide. Drawn from U h l e , 1912, f i g . 15.


F i g . 10a. 53 cm. h i g h , 37.5 cm. wide. Drawing f r o m r u b b i n g p r o -
v i d e d by W. and B. C o n k l i n and from I z u m i , 1964, f i g . 4.

Píate XXV

F i g . 10b. Drawn by J.H. Rowe from a photograph.


F i g . 1 1 . M a t e r i a l i s r e d sandstone, above-ground h e i g h t 141 cm. ,
w i d t h 35 cm., t h i c k n e s s 18 cm., h e i g h t o f r e l i e f 5 mm. Drawn f r o m Ponce
Sanginés, 1970, p. 45, f i g . 28.
F i g . 12. Width 57 cm., t h i c k n e s s 16 cm. Drawn from P o r t u g a l Zamora,
1951, p. 38, f i g . 4.

Píate XXVI

F i g . 13. P r e s e n t l y i n Puno Museura. 33 cm. wide, 13 cm. t h i c k , spe-


cimen number A-13. Drawn from a r u b b i n g made by S. and K. Chávez.
F i g . 14. I n Pucará Museum, Puno, Perú. T h i s m o n o l i t h i s p u b l i s h e d
here f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . The m a t e r i a l i s r e d sandstone w i t h v e r y r o u g h l y
f i n i s h e d edges. The i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a drawing from a r u b b i n g made
by Manuel Chávez Bailón which we photographed; t h e v e r t i c a l edges i n t h e
drawing have been s t r a i g h t e n e d from t h e uneven ones on t h e s t e l a .
Dimensions a r e : 190 cm. h i g h , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 cm. w i d e , 15 cm. t h i c k a t
t o p , 23 cm. t h i c k near t h e base, s t e p o r notch 28 cm. wide and 26 cm. h i g h ,
top near step 25 cm. wide, i n t e r i o r o f frame e n c l o s i n g f i g u r e 138 x 48 cm.
83

Píate XXVII

F i g . 15. Elements from t h e "manto-rcalendario" (Nasca 2 ) . F i g . 15a


dravm f r o m T e l l o , 1959, p. 286, f i g . 70; f i g . 15b dravm from T e l l o , 1959,
p. 287, f i g . 73; f i g . 15c drawn from T e l l o , 1959, p l . LXXIX; f i g . 15d
drawn f r o m T e l l o , 1959, p. 2 8 1 , f i g . 59.
F i g . 16. Nasca I B . Drawn f r o m Valcárcel, 1932, p l . 1 , f i g . 5.
F i g . 17- From a Paracas Necrópolis garment ( e a r l y Nasca 1 ) . Drawn
f r o m O'Neale, 1942, p. 197, p l . 3.
F i g . 18. Paracas Cavernas (Paracas 9 o r e a r l y 1 0 ) . Drawn f r o m
Carrión Cachot, 1931, p. 4 1 , f i g , 2 j .
F i g . 19. From a Paracas Cavernas headband ( p r o b a b l y Paracas 9 ) .
Drawn from O'Neale, 1942, p, 160, f i g . Be.
F i g . 20. From a Paracas Cavernas headband ( p r o b a b l y Paracas 9 ) .
Drawn f r o m O'Neale, 1942, p. 160, f i g . 8d.
F i g . 2 1 . Headdress elements f r o m Ocucaje. Drawn from K i n g , 1965,
f i g . 7.
F i g . 22, From a c a r r y i n g bag from Paracas ( p r o b a b l y Paracas 9 ) .
Drawn f r o m E n g e l , n.d., p l . 22.
F i g . 23. T e x t i l e from Paracas (Paracas 9 ) . Drawn from E n g e l , 1965,
p. 187, f i g . 51B.
F i g . 24. T e x t i l e from Paracas. Drawn f r o m E n g e l , 1956, p. 215,
f i g . 61.
F i g . 25. Gauze weave f r o m a Paracas Necrópolis grave. Drawn f r o m
B e n n e t t and B i r d , 1950, p. 180, f i g . 35, t o p c e n t e r , and Bennett and
B i r d , 1964, f i g . 35, t o p c e n t e r .
F i g . 25. Probably Paracas 9. Drawn f r o m T e l l o , 1959, p. 2 7 1 ,
f i g s . 34, 35.

Píate X X V I I I

F i g . 27. About 700 B.C, b l a c k on cream p a i n t e d on v e s s e l e x t e r i o r .


From t h e e x c a v a t i o n s o f K. Chávez.
F i g . 28. From a mixed upper l e v e l (B-1) o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y Museum's
( U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania) excavations a t C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a ; i t i s
p a i n t e d b l a c k and cream on r e d , See Mohr, ms., p. 8 1 , f i g . 42c.
Píate X X I I I . F i g - 3» S t e l a 15, Tiahuanaco, B o l i v i a ; f i g . 4, s t a t u e f r o m
Mocachi, Perú; f i g - 5, s t e l a from S a n t i a g o de Huata, B o l i v i a (5b and 5c
a r e t h e same f a c e ) ; f i g . 6, s t e l a from Tambo K u s i , B o l i v i a ; f i g . 7,
s t e l a from Wakka Uyu, B o l i v i a ; f i g . 8, s t e l a from v i c i n i t y o f Copacabana,
B o l i v i a . See Key t o I l l u s t r a t i o n s .
r.r,-,.

Píate XXIV. F i g . 9, s l a b from Copacabana; f i g . , s l a b from C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a . See Key t o I l l u s t r a t i o n s


10b

11 ^

píate XXV. FiP. 10b, back o f s l a b from C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a ; f i g . 1 1 , s t e l a f r o m C h i r i p a , B o l i v i a , l ^ l cm.


h i g n ; f i g . 12, m o n o l i t h f r o m C h c h a l l a p a t a , B o l i v i a , 80 cm. h i g h . See Key t o I l l u s t r a t i o n s .

Oo
'.•i.te XXVI. F i g . 13, s l a b c a l l e d "Qota-Achachila" from Qasani i n Yunp.uyo, P r o v i n c e o f C h u c u i t o , Puno,
• r , iTidximuin h e i g h t 30 cm, ; Manuel Chavez ?3all5ii s t e l a , 190 cm. hip,h. See Koy t o I l l u s t r a t i o n s .
Píate X X V I I . F i g s . 15-25, m o t i f s f r o m Paracas and Masca s t y l e t e x t i l e s ; f i g . 26, pyro-engraved gourd
f r o m O c u c a j e , l e a , Perú. See Key t o I l l u s t r a t i o n s .

Ve

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