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This work presents the utilization of mathematical models which represent the energy processing on Grid-Connected
Photovoltaic Systems. Such models are part present on literature and part proposed by the authors. All models are
implemented in MATLAB GUIDE code which allows the analysis, helps on the design and permits the operational
behavior and energy contribution simulation of GCPV with different sizes. The work also presents comparison
between the data generated by the program and some measured data from installed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic
Systems.

This work presents the utilization of mathematical models which represent the energy processing on Grid-Connected
Photovoltaic Systems. Such models are part present on literature and part proposed by the authors. All models are
implemented in MATLAB GUIDE code which allows the analysis, helps on the design and permits the operational
behavior and energy contribution simulation of GCPV with different sizes. The work also presents comparison
between the data generated by the program and some measured data from installed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic
Systems.

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ScienceDirect

Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177

Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Gilberto Figueiredoa, Wilson Macêdob, João Tavares Pinhob

a

Instituto de Energia e Ambiente (IEE/USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, São Paulo, Brazil

b

Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energéticas (GEDAE/UFPA), Rua Augusto Corrêa, 1, Belém, Brazil.

Abstract

This work presents the utilization of mathematical models which represent the energy processing on Grid-Connected

Photovoltaic Systems. Such models are part present on literature and part proposed by the authors. All models are

implemented in MATLAB GUIDE code which allows the analysis, helps on the design and permits the operational

behavior and energy contribution simulation of GCPV with different sizes. The work also presents comparison

between the data generated by the program and some measured data from installed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic

Systems.

© 2013The

© 2014 The Authors.

Authors. Published

Published by Ltd.

by Elsevier Elsevier

This is Ltd.

an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of ISES

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of ISES.

Keywords: Gri-Connected Photovoltaic Systems, Computational Tool, Energy Forecasting

1. Introduction

The interest in simulating the behavior of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPV) accurately is

related to the fact that solar energy is particularly different from conventional forms of Distributed

Generation (DG), such as diesel. That said, using models which are able to show the performance of

GCPV in distinct climatic conditions as close as possible to reality becomes a necessity.

The mathematical models used in the software presented on this paper are further shown. The

modeling includes the Photovoltaic (PV) generation and DC to AC conversion stage which comprises the

representative models of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), DC to AC conversion efficiency and

the power limitation due to power and/or temperature. Electrical losses are also estimated.

1876-6102 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of ISES.

doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.021

Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177 169

Nomenclature

ܲ Power at the maximum power point (MPP) ܫ Generator current

ܲ Generator peak power ܫ Photo generated current

ܪ Irradiance level at generator’s plane ܸ Open circuit voltage

ߛ MPP Temperature coefficient ܸ Generator voltage

ܶ Cell temperature ܴ௦ Series resistance

a IxV curve shape factor ߟெ் Maximum power point tracking efficiency

Normalized PV power M0, M1 MPPT model power factors

ܸ௫ Maximum input voltage ܸ௧ Start-up MPPT voltage

௩

ܲି௫ Maximum inverter input power ܲ௩ Inverter nominal power

௨௧ Normalized inverter output power Normalized PV power

ܸ Voltage at MPP k0V, k1V, e k2V Losses linear coefficients

௩

s0V, s1V e s2V Losses angular coefficients ܲ௫ Maximum inverter output power

ߟூ௩ Inverter efficiency ܶ௩ଶ ǡ ܶ௩ଵ Inverter temperatures at t1 and t2

ܨ Inverter thermal capacity factor ܨ Inverter dissipation factor

ܶ Ambient temperature ȟݐ Time interval

ߟ௫ Maximum inverter efficiency ܶ௫ Maximum inverter operational temperature

݁ݐݏ Temperature limitation process counter ܲ௧̴ Power level just before the limitation

ܮ ǡ ܮ Inverter electrical losses (input and output) ISF Inverter’s sizing factor

2. Mathematical Models

The PV generator converts the energy contained in photons of sunlight into DC electricity. The correct

sizing of the PV generator in means of power capacity and configuration to be installed is essential for the

safe and efficient operation of the system.

The computational tool developed in this paper allows the evaluation of the PV generator operation in

two ways: first using a model that considers the power loss coefficient by temperature. In this part the

software returns to the user graphical information about the relationship between global efficiency and

annual yield of the system related to the ratio between the inverter installed power and PV peak power.

This factor is called Inverter Sizing Factor – ISF (As the interface was made in Portuguese, such variable

will appear in the figures as FDI).

The temperature of the module is almost never maintained at the value set by the Standard Test

Conditions (STC) during of the PV generator operation so it is important that modeling considers this

170 Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177

particularity. The term "temperature coefficient" is used to quantify the behavior of electrical parameters

of the module, i.e. it allows analyzing the rate of change with respect to temperature, current, voltage and

power. The Evans model [1] to estimate the maximum power point for a given climatic condition of

irradiance and temperature is shown in equation (1).

ுೌ

ܲ ൌ ܲ ൈ ൈ ൣͳ െ ߛ ൫ܶ െ ܶǡ ൯൧ (1)

ு

The PV generator is commonly composed by PV modules associations. In the second part of the

simulation the user may choose considering the information obtained by the indicated ISF and must size

the generator by entering the number of PV modules in series and the number of rows in parallel in order

to achieve the desired installed power. The results will help to analyze the performance in terms of

voltage, current and power of the GCPV in different conditions.

To perform this simulation it is used the four parameters model for the PV generator which allows the

calculation of its IxV behavior. This is crucial since the software aims to use models that make possible

analyze continuously the performance of GCPV even considering the voltage variations. Thus, it is

possible to estimate the power to be managed by the inverter considering the dynamic variability of the

PV generator throughout the day. The model is shown in equation (2).

ǡ ሺାூήோೞ ሻ

ܫൌ ܫǡ െ ܫǡ ή ቀെ ቁ ή ݁ ݔ൬ ൰ (2)

There is a single point on the IxV curve where the PV generator maximum power is extracted.

Therefore, the inverter must have an algorithm whose tracks the Maximum Power Point (MPP).

Rampinelli [3] designed formulation that estimates the static efficiency of the MPPT depending on the

inverter load under clear sky conditions (irradiance and temperature constants for 1 minute) and assuming

that the MPPT meets MPP at the same range. From the MPPT efficiency curve (measured) as a function

of the load inverter, numerical regression shows that the behavior of the static MPPT is given by equation

(3), where M0 and M1 are power coefficients.

ߟெ் ൌ (3)

ାሺெబ ାெభ ሻ

Parameters M0 and M1 can be estimated using equations (4) and (5), obtained by multiple linear

regression.

௩

ܯ ൌ ሺെͳǡͺ ൈ ͳͲିହ ሻܸ௫ ሺʹǡʹͻ ൈ ͳͲିହ ሻܸ௧ ͲǡͲͲͳʹܲି௫ െ ͲǡͲͲʹܲ௩ ͲǡͲͳͳ (4)

݅݊ݒ Ͳ

ܯଵ ൌ ሺെͷ ൈ ͳͲି ሻܸ௫ െ ሺǡͷͷ ൈ ͳͲିହ ሻܸ௧ െ ͲǡͲʹͶܲܿܿെ݉ܽ ݔ ͲǡͲʹͷܲ݅݊ ݒ ͲǡͲͳͶ (5)

The relationship between inverter conversion efficiency and output power can be expressed in terms of

consumption and losses dependents on loading. However, as shown in [3], the conversion efficiency also

depends on the PV operating voltage. Equation (6) is an adaptation of the classical model and considers

Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177 171

the characteristic parameters of the losses as linear functions of the operating voltage. It is solved as a 2º

equation with pout as variable.

ଶ

௨௧ ൌ െ ሾሺ݇ േ ݏ Ǥ ܸ ሻ ሺ݇ଵ േ ݏଵ Ǥ ܸ ሻ ή ௨௧ ሺ݇ଶ േ ݏଶ Ǥ ܸ ሻ ή ௨௧ (6)

Limitation losses shall be estimated at GCPV design phase. Equations (7), (8) and (9) show the

algorithm implemented in the software to represent the inverter power limitation by power.

௩ ௩

݂݅ܲ௨௧ ܲ௫ ֜ ܲ௨௧ ൌ ܲ௫ (7)

݂݅ܲ ሺ݇ േ ݏ Ǥ ܸ ሻ ή ܲூ௩ ֜ ܲ௨௧ ൌ Ͳ (8)

௩

݂݅ሺ݇ േ ݏ Ǥ ܸ ሻ ܲ௨௧ ܲ௫ ֜ ܲ௨௧ ൌ ܲ௨௧ (9)

The limitation actually occurs at the DC side and the software also considers this characteristic by

means of the maximum DC accepted power.

The gradual increase in temperature of the inverter, which occurs in normal operating situations, tends

to be accentuated when power limitation occurs. Once reached the temperature limit, inverters develop a

second power limitation stage, now due to the temperature. This happens in practice by increasing the

operating voltage of the PV generator and the power decreases gradually until the device reaches safe

temperature. The model proposed in [3] and shown in equation (10) considers that all the power not

transformed into useful energy is dissipated as heat by convection and radiation from the inverter to the

environment.

ଵିఎೡ ிವ

ܶ௩ଶ ൌ ܶ௩ଵ ൬ ൰ Ǥ ܲ Ǥ ȟݐ൨ െ ൬ ൰ ሺܶூ௩ଵ െ ܶ ሻǤ ȟݐ൨ (10)

ிೌ ிೌ

It is possible to calculate the thermal parameters with equations (11) and (12). Both were designed

from multiple linear regressions using measured values presented in [3]. It considers that FCAP and FD are

dependent on the inverter maximum and nominal power, besides its maximum efficiency and maximum

permissible operating temperature (variables usually provided in the manufacturer datasheet).

௩

ܨ ൌ ሺെʹǡͷ ൈ ͳͲଷ ሻܲି௫ ሺʹǡͺ ൈ ͳͲଷ ሻܲ௩ െ ሺͷ ൈ ͳͲଷ ሻߟ௫ ͷͺͷܶ௫ ሺͶͷǡʹ ൈ ͳͲଷ ሻ (11)

௩

ܨ ൌ ሺͳǡͺʹሻܲି௫ െ ͳǡͺܲ௩ ͲǡͶͷߟ௫ െ ͲǡͲͳͷܶ௫ െ ͵ͺǡͺ (12)

PV generator oversizing on GCPV is a practice that can be used by designers to maximize the

electricity production and minimize losses, for example. However, the smaller the ISF is, the greater the

incidence of power limitation situations. As the computational tool proposed in this paper seeks to

represent the performance of GCPV as close as possible to reality, it is necessary to represent the process

of temperature limitation and the account of energy losses related to this fact. Figueiredo [4] proposes a

172 Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177

logarithmic model, seen in equation (13), to represent the operating power behavior in limitation

situations.

It is worthy mention that the empirical model proposed in this paper was based on experimental data

obtained from two GCPV which had many power/temperature limitation situations occurring power over

a year. Such systems had the same inverter model and it is desirable to compare the results with data from

different devices. The verification of the reliability of the model through validation with experimentally

measured data is at the end of this work.

2.6. Losses

At last, the representation of GCPV must predict the amount of power lost which is not related to

losses due to the limitation of power and DC/AC convert These losses are relate to cables, fuses, diodes,

and protections both on DC and AC sides.

According to Rodrigues [5] the losses mentioned above are equivalent, at maximum and at standard

conditions, to 2% of maximum power, at both DC and AC sides. This is in relation to PV generator peak

power and maximum power of the inverter at AC side. Assuming that this behavior takes place in a linear

shape, the equations (14) and (15) are valid.

ܮ ൌ ͲǡͲʹ ൈ బ (14)

ುೇ

ೠ

ܮ ൌ ͲǡͲʹ ൈ ೡ (15)

ೌೣ

3. Interface

The models presented in the previous section were implemented in an algorithm developed in GUIDE

(Graphical User Interface) environment of MATLAB in order to facilitate the use of the models, in GCPV

performance analysis and energy estimation.

The program recognizes files with .txt or .dat extensions and formatted as shown in Table 1 as climate

data input.

1 1 5:45 0 22

1 1 5:55 0 22.5

... ... ... ... ...

1 2 10:00 248 27.5

... ... ... ... ...

12 31 15:20 584.6 31

Fig. 1 shows the first simulation screen. The user can choose the equipment already registered

(modules and inverters), or sign up for a new one provided that user declares the variables necessary for

Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177 173

the models shown so far. In the first part the user can make successive simulations and is able to compare

the results of different equipment in terms of yearly yield and conversion efficiency as a function of ISF.

The program suggests to the user the ISF that sets the highest yield. DC losses (due to limitation

phenomena) and total losses (DC losses plus conversion losses) both related to the total energy supplied

by the PV generation, as a function of ISF, are also shown, as seen in Figure 2. With this data, the user

can define what will be the configuration of the PV array more interesting for him. It is worth considering

the MPPT voltage operating range of the inverter when deciding the number of modules in series.

174 Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177

The user can access the second part of the interface after doing or not the first part. The devices must

be selected and the configuration of the system must be indicated. If the climate data file have not been

already chosen at the first part it will be asked before the second part of the simulation runs. Fig. 3 shows

the results of the second part of the simulation, which performs better return to the user in terms of

performance indicators and energy contribution. The left part shows bar graphs regarding energy (in daily

and monthly means) and monthly performance indicators (Final Yield and Performance Ratio). The right

part returns the instantaneous trace of the AC GCPV power, where can be clearly seen the limitation

phenomena being represented. The period of visualization of this part shall be set by the user who still

gets information about energy, Final Yield and Capacity Factor for the period.

The user can also assess the determined system by means of the voltage (which influences in the

conversion efficiency and well performance of the GCPV), irradiance and power occurrences, as shown

in Fig. 4.

4. Energetic Comparison

The results presented by the program were validated using measured data from five GCPV installed at

the Institute of Energy and Environment, University of São Paulo (IEE / USP). Table 2 shows the module

type, PV generator configuration and the ISF for each GCPV analyzed. At the time of measurement the

systems operated with the same inverter model: SB 1100.

Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177 175

N1 MSX-77 13 1 0,99

N3 MSX-83 12 2 0,52

N4 A-75 12 2 0,56

N5 A-75 11 2 0,61

N6 MSX-70 10 2 0,65

Fig. 5 shows specific comparison of the PV power in occasions of power and temperature limitation

on system N3. The measured power and the calculated values of the PV generator can be seen. The trace

labeled as “managed” represents the amount of available PV power in the inverter input and the trace

labeled as “to be inverted” is the power which was actually inverted after the MPPT and limitation

processes. As can be clearly seen, the calculated trace was pretty close to the measured value, including in

the most critical moments involving the limitation due power and temperature.

Table 3 shows the energetic comparison between the data calculated by the program and the measured

data of the 5 system listed in Table 2. The errors, calculated in percentage, are also shown in Table 3 and

did not exceed 6%, which can be considered as a good approximation in energy year basis.

Nevertheless is important to notice that such errors can be related to the mathematical models

implemented since some are empirical and needs better adjustment. Another thing is the measurement

apparatus which can also incur in errors. Still then such results are pleasant since in most cases the error

did not exceed 2 % for the bigger oversized systems. That fact can be related to the proposed power

limitation due temperature model which, as can be seen in Fig. 4., returned results calculated by the

software close to the actual power developed by the PV generator.

Future works shall involve improvements in the models presented at this work. Attention will be

given at the conversion efficiency model depending on the operational voltage since its approximation

may not include all inverters models which have different inversion topologies that can cause distinct

176 Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177

performance characteristics. The model regarding the power behavior at temperature limitation conditions

will also be considered due to the reasons listed above.

DC Power Comparison

Managed

To be inverted

Measured

PV

Po

we

r

(W

)

SYSTEM N1

Measured Calculated

1023,6 kWh 1084 kWh

Error (%) 5,9%

SYSTEM N2

Measured Calculated

1967,9 kWh 1982,6 kWh

Error (%) 0,69%

SYSTEM N4

Measured Calculated

1977,7 kWh 1950,4 kWh

Error (%) -1,39%

SYSTEM N5

Measured Calculated

1794,0 kWh 1811,6 kWh

Error (%) 1%

SYSTEM N6

Measured Calculated

1665 kWh 1654,1 kWh

Error (%) -0,65 %

The interface shown in this paper facilitates the handling and understanding of modeling

implemented. This is important in the design and analysis of GCPV as the software is a tool with multiple

Gilberto Figueiredo et al. / Energy Procedia 57 (2014) 168 – 177 177

graphical results. Some of the program input data are easily found in the equipment datasheets and others

can be extracted from experimental measurements or in the literature.

The tool approached the simulation results of the values found in experimental measurements. Thus,

the better the information provided more reliable is the outcome estimation. The validation done showed

that the data generated by the program are closer to reality mostly in oversized systems.

References

[1] Evans, D. L. Simplified Method for Prediction Photovoltaic Array Output. Solar Energy, vol. 27, n. 6, pp. 555-560, 1981.

[2] De Soto, W. Improvement and Validation of a Model for Photovoltaic Array Performance. Master’s Thesis, Solar Energy

Laboratory, Winsconsin-Madison University, 2004.

[3] Rampinelli, G. A. Estudo de Características Elétricas e Térmicas para Inversores para Sistemas Fotovoltaicos Conectados à

Rede. PhD Thesis, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica, UFRGS, 2010.

[4] Figueiredo, Gilberto. Ferramenta computacional para dimensionamento e avaliação de desempenho de sistemas fotovoltaicos

conectados à rede elétrica. Master’s Thesis, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica, 2012.

[5] RODRIGUES, C. N. Centrais Solares Fotovoltaicas Ligadas à Rede Eléctrica. Prova de Acesso à Categoria de Investigador

Auxiliar, Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação, Portugal, 2008.

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