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NETD422 – Wireless

Communications and
Networks

Introduction
Chapter 1

Presented by: Maria Diorella A. Paguio


Wireless History

 Ancient Systems: Smoke Signals, Carrier Pigeons, etc.


 Radio invented in the 1880s by Marconi
 Many sophisticated military radio systems were developed during and
after WW2

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Wireless Comes of Age

 Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896


 Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in analog signal
 Sent telegraphic signals across the Atlantic Ocean
 Communications satellites launched in 1960s
 Advances in wireless technology
 Radio, television, mobile telephone, communication satellites
 More recently
 Satellite communications, wireless networking, cellular technology

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Wireless Comes of Age

 Exponential growth in cellular use since 1988: approx. 8B


worldwide users today
 Ignited the wireless revolution
 Voice, data, and multimedia ubiquitous
 Use in 3rd world countries growing rapidly

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Wireless Comes of Age

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Wireless Communication

 Transmitting voice and data using electromagnetic waves in open space


 Electromagnetic waves
 Travel at speed of light (c = 3x108 m/s)
 Has a frequency (f) and wavelength (l)
»c=fxl
 Higher frequency means higher energy photons
 The higher the energy photon the more penetrating is the radiation

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Wavelength of Some Technologies
 GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) Phones:
 frequency ~= 900 Mhz
 wavelength ~= 33cm
 PCS (Personal Communication Services) Phones
 frequency ~= 1.8 Ghz
 wavelength ~= 17.5 cm
 Bluetooth:
 frequency ~= 2.4Gz
 wavelength ~= 12.5cm

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Wireless?

 A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network that uses


radio waves as its carrier.
 The last link with the users is wireless, to give a network connection to
all users in a building or campus.
 The backbone network usually uses cables

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Common Topologies
The wireless LAN connects to a wired LAN
 There is a need of an access point that
bridges wireless LAN traffic into the wired
LAN.
 The access point (AP) can also act as a
repeater for wireless nodes, effectively
doubling the maximum possible distance
between nodes.

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Common Topologies
Complete Wireless Networks
 The physical size of the network
is determined by the maximum
reliable propagation range of the
radio signals.
 Referred to as ad hoc networks
 Are self-organizing networks
without any centralized control
 Suited for temporary situations
such as meetings and conferences.

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How do wireless LANs work?

Wireless LANs operate in almost the same way as wired LANs, using the
same networking protocols and supporting the most of the same
applications.

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How are WLANs Different?
 They use specialized physical and data link protocols
 They integrate into existing networks through access points which provide
a bridging function
 They let you stay connected as you roam from one coverage area to
another
 They have unique security considerations
 They have specific interoperability requirements
 They require different hardware
 They offer performance that differs from wired LANs.

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Physical and Data Link Layers
Physical Layer:
 The wireless NIC takes frames of data from the link layer, scrambles
the data in a predetermined way, then uses the modified data stream to
modulate a radio carrier signal.
Data Link Layer:
 Uses Carriers-Sense-Multiple-Access with Collision Avoidance
(CSMA/CA).

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Integration With Existing Networks

 Wireless Access Points (APs) - a small device that bridges wireless


traffic to your network.
 Most access points bridge wireless LANs into Ethernet networks, but
Token-Ring options are available as well.

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Integration With Existing Networks

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Broadband Wireless Technology

 Higher data rates obtainable with broadband wireless technology


 Graphics, video, audio
 Shares same advantages of all wireless services: convenience
and reduced cost
 Service can be deployed faster than fixed service
 No cost of cable plant
 Service is mobile, deployed almost anywhere

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Limitations and Difficulties of Wireless Technologies

 Wireless is convenient and less expensive


 Limitations and political and technical difficulties inhibit
wireless technologies
 Lack of an industry-wide standard
 Device limitations
 E.g., small LCD on a mobile telephone can only displaying a few lines
of text
 E.g., browsers of most mobile wireless devices use wireless markup
language (WML) instead of HTML
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What is Mobility?

 Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming


the user terminals are static
 No change of location during a call/connection
 A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location
 Mobility and portability
 Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline
 Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

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Degrees of Mobility

 Walking Users  Vehicles


 Low speed  High speeds
 Small roaming area  Large roaming area
 Usually uses high-  Usually uses low-
bandwith/low-latency access bandwidth/high-latency access
 Uses sophisticated terminal
equipment (cell phones)

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Wireless and Mobility

 Wireless:
 Limited bandwidth
 Broadcast medium: requires multiple access schemes
 Variable link quality (noise, interference)
 High latency, higher jitter
 Heterogeneous air interfaces
 Security: easier snooping

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Wireless and Mobility

 Mobility:
 User location may change with time
 Speed of mobile impacts wireless bandwidth
 Need mechanism for handoff
 Security: easier spoofing
 Portability:
 Limited battery, storage, computing, and UI

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Classification of Wireless Systems

 Personal communication systems


 Focus on voice communication
 Limited bit-rate data transmission
 Large-scale mobility and coverage
 Operate over licensed frequency bands
 Wireless LANs
 Designed for high bit-rate transmission
 IP oriented
 Low-scale coverage
 Use unlicensed ISM frequency bands
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Classification of Wireless Systems

 Multihop ad hoc networks


 Have little or no infrastructure
 Low-scale coverage
 Need new routing protocols
 Emerging applications

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The Need for Wireless/Mobile Networking

 Demand for Ubiquitous Computing


 Anywhere, anytime computing and communication
 You don’t have to go to the lab to check your email
 Pushing the computers more into background
 Focus on the task and life, not on the computer
 Use computers seamlessly to help you and to make your life more easier.
 Computers should be location aware
 Adapt to the current location, discover services

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Some Example Applications of Ubiquitous Computing

 You walk into your office and your computer automatically


authenticates you through your active badge and logs you into the Unix
system
 You go to a foreign building and your PDA automatically discovers the
closest public printer where you can print your schedule and give to
your friend

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More Examples

 You walk into a Conference room or a shopping Mall with your PDA
and your PDA is smart enough to collect and filter the public profiles
of other people that are passing nearby
 The cows in a village are equipped with GPS and GPRS devices and
they are monitored from a central location on a digital map.
 You can find countless examples

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Current/Next-Gen Wireless Systems

 Current:  Emerging
 4G Cellular Systems (LTE-  5G Cellular and WiFi Systems
Advanced)  Ad/hoc and Cognitive Radio
 4G Wireless LANs/WiFi Networks
(802.11ac)  Energy-Harvesting Systems
 mmWave massive MIMO  Chemical/Molecular
systems
 Satellite Systems Much room
 Bluetooth For innovation
 Zigbee
 WiGig

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Future Wireless Networks
Ubiquitous Communication Among People and Devices

Next-Gen Cellular/WiFi
Smart Homes/Spaces
Autonomous Cars
Smart Cities
Body-Area Networks
Internet of Things
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and Networks All this and more …
References:

 William Stallings: Wireless Communications and Networks


 Rajmohan Rajaraman: CSG 250: Wireless Networks Lecture
 Andrea Goldsmith: EE 359: Wireless Communications Lecture
 Marius Popovici, Daniel Crisan and Zagman Abbas: Wireless Network
Lecture

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End of Presentation
Thank you and God bless…

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