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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 12, 2017 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Study on High Rise Structure with Outrigger System Subjected to

Seismic Loading Supported on Different Soil Types
Shyam Sundar Roy1 Gore N. G2
PG Student 2Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
MGM’S college of Engineering Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, India
Abstract— ETABS model has been prepared for a G+60 and the design of tall buildings. In this concept, “outrigger”
finite element analysis has been done for gravity load along trusses extend from a lateral load-resisting core to columns
with lateral (Seismic) load, to study the behaviour of HIGH at the exterior of the building.
RISE building in terms of time period, base shear, base The key idea in conceptualizing the structural
moment, story displacement, and story drift. Due to system for a narrow tall building is to think of it as a beam
reduction of lateral stiffness with the increase in height of cantilevering from the earth, The laterally directed force
structures, outrigger system has been proposed in the present generated, either due to wind blowing against the building
study to minimize the effect due to loss of stiffness. or due to the inertia forces induced by ground shaking, tends
Equivalent Static Method (Static) and Response Spectrum both to snap it (shear), and push it over (bending), therefore,
Method (Dynamic) has been carried out, IS 1893:2002 has the building must have a system to resist shear as well as
been used for seismic loading calculation and analysis. Six bending. In resisting shear forces, the building must not
models have been prepared one for each soil type, hard soil, break by shearing off and must not strain beyond the limit of
medium soil, and soft soil with & without outrigger and the elastic recovery, when an outrigger-braced building deflects
results have been compared to understand the behaviour of under wind or seismic load, the outrigger which connects to
high rise structure supported on different soil types. the core wall and the exterior columns/shear walls, makes
Key words: Outrigger, Seismic Load, Response Spectrum, the whole system to act as a unit in resisting the lateral
Tall, Slender, Soil Type force, the primary result of the outrigger trusses is the
development of axial forces in the exterior columns due to
I. INTRODUCTION lateral load action.
High rise structures have always been in the list of top Outrigger serve to reduce the lateral deflection,
priority of a country, as they this a symbol of strength and story drift & overturning moment in the core that would
this is the main reason why high rise structures are otherwise act as a pure cantilever, and to transfer the
increasing day by day, and in advancement of structural reduced moment to columns, outside the core by the way of
engineering now day it is quite possible to design high rise tension-compression coupled, which take advantage of the
structure, one of the most important criteria for the design of increase moment arm between these columns, in high-rise
high rise structure is lateral sway (deflection) and storey building this same benefit can be realized by a reduction of
drift along with the strength criteria. the base core over-turning moments and the associated
It is required to keep the lateral sway and story drift reduction in the potential core uplift forces.
within the limit and IS code has laid some guidelines to limit There are two types of outrigger system
the lateral sway and drift, according to the IS456:2000,  Conventional outrigger system
Clause 20.5 “Under transient wind load the lateral sway at  Virtual outrigger system
the top of should not exceed H/500, where H is the total 1) Conventional Outrigger System
height of the building” and according to IS1893:2002,
Clause 7.11.1 “The storey drift in any storey due to the
minimum design lateral force, with partial load factor of 1.0
shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height”, and as per
Clause 4.23, Storey drift may be defined as the displacement
of one level relative to the other level above or below.
A. Outrigger
Outriggers connects the central core to the exterior columns
which help in keeping the columns in their position, and
when the lateral force attacks the structure central tilt
against the lateral force, and its rotation at the outrigger
level induces a tension-compression couple in the outer
columns acting in opposition to that movement acting on the
core at that level. Fig. 1: Outrigger Types
Outriggers have been used in high rise structures In the conventional outrigger system, the outrigger trusses or
for nearly half a century, but the design principles has been girders are connected directly to shear walls or braced
used for millennia, the oldest “outriggers’ were horizontal frames at the core and to columns located outboard of the
beams connecting the main canoe shaped hulls of core. Typically (but not necessarily), the columns are at the
Polynesian oceangoing boats to outer stabilizing floats or outer edges of the building. Figure 1.9 is an idealized
“amas”, the outrigger concept is in widespread use today in section through a tall building.

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A Study on High Rise Structure with Outrigger System Subjected to Seismic Loading Supported on Different Soil Types
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 12/2017/174)

2) Virtual Outrigger System  Response reduction factor – 4, Table 7 of IS1893:2002

In the conventional outrigger system, outrigger trusses  Soil Type – I, II & III Table 1 of IS1893:2002
connected directly to the core and to outboard columns  Importance factor – 1, Table 6 of IS1893:2002
convert the “virtual” outrigger concept, the same transfer of  Time Period – 3.769 Sec, user defined
overturning moment from the core to elements outboard of  No. of modes to be considered – 12
the core is achieved, but without a direct connection  Modal Analysis – Ritz
between the outrigger trusses and the core. The elimination
 Modal combination – CQC, cl of IS1893:2002
of a direct connection between the trusses and the core
 Directional combination – SRSS
avoids many of the problems associated with the use of
 Initial scale factor – Ig/2R
 Minimum eccentricity – 0.05
II. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY  Damping – 5 percent, cl of IS1893:2002
 Mass source – 1DL + 0.25 LL
1) To study various parameters such as Base shear, Base  Diaphragm type – Semi rigid
moment, Time period, Story displacement & Story
drift, when high rise structure supported on different
types of soil
2) To compare the behaviour of the structure with &
without outrigger system.
3) To carryout static and dynamic analysis for seismic
4) To compare the effect of outriggers by both Equivalent
static method and Dynamic Analysis method
(Response spectrum method).
5) To insure that the deflection and displacement are
within the permissible limits as specified by IS
standards. Fig. 2: Typical Floor Plan View
6) To prepare a three dimensional model in ETABS and
to analyze the structure using Finite element analysis B. Method of Analysis
approach Following analysis has been carried in addition to analysis
for gravity loading
III. METHODOLOGY 1) Seismic Analysis
High rise structure (G+60) is modeled as three dimensional  Static method – Equivalent static method
structure and all the loads are applied, gravity loading such  Dynamic method – Response spectrum method
as dead load and live load in the direction of gravity, lateral
loads such as seismic load and behaviour of the structure has
been studied and it has been insured the drift and
displacements are within the limits specified by Indian
A. Model Data
1) Material Properties
 Core wall & column – M70
 Slab & beam – M35
 Reinforcement – FE415
 Structural steel – FE490
2) Section Properties
 Beam - 300X600mm modeled as line elements
 Shear wall - 600mm thk. modeled as shell
 Slab – 150 mm thk. Modeled as shell
 Outrigger – SHS 500X500X60mm
3) Gravity Loading Fig. 3: Typical Elevation View
 Floor Finish – 1.5 kN/m2 Equivalent static analysis has been done as per IS
 Water proofing - 1.5 kN/m2 1893:2002, seismic weight of structure is calculated
 Live Load – 2 kN/m2, 3 kN/m2 including the dead load and 25 % of the live load, and to do
 Terrace Live load – 1.5 kN/m2 so mass source has been defined in ETABS as
 Wall load 230 mm thk. – 12.6 kN/m, 1.2DL+0.25LL. Terrace live has been defined in another
 Wall load 150 mm thk. – 8.63 kN/m load case namely Terrace live load and has not been
included in the mass source definition.
 parapet wall load – 6.09 kN/m
To consider the local buckling effect accurately
4) Seismic loading
second order analysis has been included with the load
 Zone factor – 0.36, for zone V, Table 2 of IS1893:2002
combination of 1.2 DL + 1.2 LL.
 Building Frame Systems – Ductile shear walls

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A Study on High Rise Structure with Outrigger System Subjected to Seismic Loading Supported on Different Soil Types
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 12/2017/174)

2) Load Case B. Base Shear & Base Moment

 DL – Selfweight of structure FX, MX, FX, MX,
 SDL – floor finish, waterproofing Type Load
 LIVE – live load on floors of Soil Case
G+60-C G+60-OUT
 TERRACE LIVE – Live load on terrace Soil EQX 36081 5965959 36342 5631972
 LLNR – Non reducible live load, MEP load Type1, SPEC X 38309 3698550 38872 3625530
 EQX, EQY – Seismic load Hard EQY 36081 5335903 36342 5287632
 SPECX, SPECY – Response spectrum case Soil SPEC Y 46938 3223202 46641 3397333
3) Load Combinations Soil EQX 49070 8113704 49425 7659482
a) Limit state of strength Type2, SPEC X 45897 5028110 47537 4929143
 1.5DL Mediu EQY 49070 7256828 49425 7191179
 1.5DL+1.5LL m Soil SPEC Y 56693 4368721 56982 4609874
 1.5DL+1.5WL/EQ Soil EQX 60255 9963151 60691 9405393
 0.9DL+1.5WL/EQ Type3, SPEC X 52748 6173007 54586 6051494
 1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2WL/EQ Soft EQY 60255 8910957 60691 8830345
b) Limit state of Serviceability Soil SPEC Y 65033 5353675 66275 5654404
 1DL Table 3: Base Shear & Base moment, kN, m
 1DL+1LL
 1DL+1WL/EQ
 1DL+0.8LL+0.8WL/EQ
 P-Delta load combination – 1.2DL+1.2LL


 Case 1 – Conventional, without outrigger, G+60-C
 Case 2 – With outrigger system, G+60-OUT
A. Time Period
Analysis G+60-C G+60-OUT
ESA 3.769 3.769
RSA 7.9 6.262
Fig. 4: Base Moment comparison chart–X-Direction
ESA-Equivalent Static Analysis
MA-Modal Analysis
Table 1: Time Period of Structure

Fig. 5: Base Moment comparison chart–Y-Direction

C. Story Displacement
Fig. 4: Time period comparison chart
Mode No. G+60-C G+60-OUT
1 7.9 6.262
2 7.261 5.806
3 4.687 3.814
4 2.302 1.848
5 1.102 0.95
6 1.043 0.919
7 0.636 0.544
8 0.454 0.43
9 0.402 0.332
10 0.27 0.262
11 0.201 0.174
12 0.144 0.137
Table 2: Modal Time Period, Modal Analysis Fig. 6: Story Displacement comparison–X-Direction

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A Study on High Rise Structure with Outrigger System Subjected to Seismic Loading Supported on Different Soil Types
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 12/2017/174)


The most effective and deciding basic parameter studied
during this whole analysis was drift and deflection of the
structure. The result section shows the variation of drift and
deflection of the structure with & without outrigger system.
The following conclusions are made from the
present study.
1) The use of outrigger system in tall structure increases
the stiffness and makes the structure more efficient
under seismic and wind loading.
2) The reduction in displacement is more than 40 %, after
adding outriggers at 0.4H, 0.7H & 1H, where H is the
height of structure.
Fig. 7: Story Displacement comparison–Y-Direction 3) The reduction in drift is more than 50 % at the level
where outriggers are added.
D. Top Story Displacement 4) It has been observed that the base moment gets
Type of Load reduced when outriggers are added, and it is
Conventional Outrigger advantageous for the structural engineers.
soil Case
EQX 435.044 228.537 5) It can be concluded from this study that the outrigger
Soil system provides reduction in displacement, drift &
SPEC X 263.707 145.72
Type 1, base moment, which are the prime aspects for
EQY 162.582 102.538
Hard soil designing tall structure.
SPEC Y 93.449 63.775
Soil EQX 591.66 310.811 6) It has been observed that the maximum reaction has
Type 2, SPEC X 358.641 198.179 been generated in the soil type III, Soft soil, in all load
Medium EQY 221.111 139.452 cases studied
soil SPEC Y 127.077 86.719 7) It is safer to build tall structure on the soil type I (hard
soil) rather than soil type II, (medium soil) and soil
EQX 726.524 381.657
Soil type III (soft soil)
SPEC X 440.387 243.35
Type 3,
EQY 271.512 171.238 A. Scope of Future Study
Soft soil
SPEC Y 156.033 106.476 1) The effect of combining dampers and outrigger system
Table 4: Top story Displacement, mm will be studied in detail on the same structural layout
E. Story Drift plan.
2) Demand capacity ratio of the structural members will
be studied and the critical members will be compared.
3) While designing the structure, value engineering will
be done, to optimize the sizes of structural element.
4) Further optimization of the sizes of the structural
members will be done
5) Analysis will be done on one unsymmetrical plan and
the results will be compared with the symmetrical
layout plan.

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Fig. 8: Story Drift comparison chart–X-Direction [2] Shivacharan K, Chandrakala S, Karthik N M:
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Fig. 9: Story Drift comparison chart–Y-Direction Issue 5, May -2015

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A Study on High Rise Structure with Outrigger System Subjected to Seismic Loading Supported on Different Soil Types
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 12/2017/174)

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