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DPI-7/8 Imager

User Manual
Phi.3D V2.0

DotPRODUCT, LLC
10801 Hammerly Blvd.; Suite #128
Houston, TX 77043 USA
+1 281-758-8301
www.dotproduct3d.com
DPI Imager Manual - Phi.3D V2.0 dotproduct3d.com
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Introduction

Welcome
Congratulations on purchasing your DPI-7 or DPI-8 3D Imager (DPI Imager). This manual combined with online
instructional videos will get you up and running as quickly as possible.
• A video guide for getting started is also available at the following link: https://vimeo.com/122696843

Manual Conventions
The DPI Imager operates with Phi.3D software. In this document, top menu line commands for Phi.3D are indicated by
SMALL CAPS; other commands are indicated by bold black font, e.g. Load Scene. Phi.3D elements
that do not require user input, but instead provide cues to system performance, are highlighted with a green font,
e.g. Scene Fitness.
The terms mapping, scanning and imaging are used interchangeably in this manual. The authors apologize for any
confusion resulting from this.

Looking After Your DPI Imager


The DPI Imager is a calibrated, sensitive optical measurement device, please handle it with care. We strongly recommend
shipping, transporting and storing the device in the rugged case that comes with the system. Bumping or dropping the
sensor can impact calibration and accuracy! Do not grab the device by the sensor when extracting it from the rugged case
in order to avoid bending it. When putting the device on a flat surface, always gently place the tablet face-down so that
the imager is facing up.

Periodically inspect the sensor and tablet for dust, dirt or finger prints. The tablet screen and sensor lenses should be
cleaned with a lens or LCD screen cleaner.

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Guide Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Welcome ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Manual Conventions ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
Looking After Your DPI Imager .................................................................................................................................. 1
DPI Imager System ............................................................................................................................................................... 5
System Components ..................................................................................................................................................... 5
System Configuration Options ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Hardware Setup ............................................................................................................................................................ 5
Hardware Care .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
DPI Imager Performance .............................................................................................................................................. 6
DPI Imager Accuracy ................................................................................................................................................... 6
PHI.3D Application .............................................................................................................................................................. 7
Starting the Software .................................................................................................................................................... 7
System Prep - Warm-Up..................................................................................................................................................... 10
System Warm-up ........................................................................................................................................................ 10
Initial System Warm-up.............................................................................................................................................. 10
Warm-up Procedure.................................................................................................................................................... 10
Session Warm up ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
Settings ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Default Calibration ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
Toggle Coverage Display ........................................................................................................................................... 13
Short Warmup Time ................................................................................................................................................... 13
About .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Image Capture .................................................................................................................................................................... 15
The Capture Process ................................................................................................................................................... 15
Capturing Your First Image ........................................................................................................................................ 15
Capture Guidelines ..................................................................................................................................................... 17
Scene Feedback .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
Lost Tracking.............................................................................................................................................................. 17
Precision Considerations ............................................................................................................................................ 17
Navigating the Point Cloud ................................................................................................................................................ 18
View Buttons .............................................................................................................................................................. 18
Zoom In/Out ............................................................................................................................................................... 18
Rotating the Image...................................................................................................................................................... 19
Translate View............................................................................................................................................................ 19
New Center Point........................................................................................................................................................ 20
Append ............................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Adding to Existing 3D Images ................................................................................................................................... 21
Append Steps .............................................................................................................................................................. 22
Coordinate system .............................................................................................................................................................. 23
User-defined coordinates ............................................................................................................................................ 23
Set Origin.................................................................................................................................................................... 23

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Align Axes to Plane in Scene ..................................................................................................................................... 23
Set Coordinate ............................................................................................................................................................ 24
Measure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 25
Options ....................................................................................................................................................................... 25
3D View...................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Frame View ................................................................................................................................................................ 26
Targeting............................................................................................................................................................................. 28
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................ 28
Target Coordinate Systems ......................................................................................................................................... 28
Targeting Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 28
Some rules of thumb: .................................................................................................................................................. 29
AprilTags .................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Checkerboard Targets ................................................................................................................................................. 30
Detecting Targets ........................................................................................................................................................ 31
Identifying Targets ..................................................................................................................................................... 41
Targets in Scene Optimization.................................................................................................................................... 46
Using Survey Targeting After Scene Optimization .................................................................................................... 46
Other Uses for Targets ................................................................................................................................................ 46
Targeting Modes In Global Optimization ........................................................................................................................... 46
Hard Targeting............................................................................................................................................................ 46
Soft Targeting ............................................................................................................................................................. 47
Scale-Bar Targeting .................................................................................................................................................... 47
Correspondence-only targeting mode ......................................................................................................................... 47
Best practices .............................................................................................................................................................. 47
Data Optimization............................................................................................................................................................... 48
Optimization Background ........................................................................................................................................... 48
Optimizing modes....................................................................................................................................................... 48
Optimizing your data after scanning........................................................................................................................... 49
Data Load, Save and Transfer ............................................................................................................................................ 49
FILE............................................................................................................................................................................ 49
Load Scene ................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Save Scene .................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Saving Un-Optimized Data......................................................................................................................................... 51
Export Data Formats ................................................................................................................................................... 51
Export Coordinate Systems ........................................................................................................................................ 52
Transferring Data ........................................................................................................................................................ 53
Additional Functions .......................................................................................................................................................... 54
Session Tab ................................................................................................................................................................. 54
Workflows .......................................................................................................................................................................... 54
Autodesk Workflow ................................................................................................................................................... 54
Bentley MicroStation and Pointools ........................................................................................................................... 54
ClearEdge3D EdgeWise ............................................................................................................................................. 54
CloudCompare ............................................................................................................................................................ 54
Leica Cyclone ............................................................................................................................................................. 55
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LFM Software ............................................................................................................................................................ 55
Trimble RealWorks .................................................................................................................................................... 55
Veesus Ltd. ................................................................................................................................................................. 55
Software Upgrades ............................................................................................................................................................. 56
Background................................................................................................................................................................. 56
Upgrade Procedure (short) .......................................................................................................................................... 56
Upgrade Procedure (long)........................................................................................................................................... 56
Tips and Tricks ................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Configuration Back-Up .............................................................................................................................................. 60
Start-Up ...................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Scene Path .................................................................................................................................................................. 60
Scene Consideration ................................................................................................................................................... 60
Scene Surface Consideration ...................................................................................................................................... 60
Imaging Technique ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
Scanner Handling ....................................................................................................................................................... 60
Measurement Accuracy versus Tracking Stability ..................................................................................................... 60
Image File Size ........................................................................................................................................................... 61
Targeting..................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Accuracy ..................................................................................................................................................................... 61
File Management ........................................................................................................................................................ 61

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DPI IMAGER SYSTEM

System Components
The DotProduct DPI Imager Kit contains the following components:
• Android Tablet computer with 16GB of storage. DotProduct reserves the right to provide greater than 16GB
depending on availability.
• License of DotProduct Phi.3D software preloaded on the tablet. One year of support and upgrades is included.
• DPI-7/8: PrimeSense Carmine 1.082 red, green, blue and depth sensor.
• DPI-7/8SR: PrimeSense Carmine 1.09 red, green, blue and depth sensor. (Short Range)
• 7”/8” tablet bracket with handle attachment
• USB to micro USB connectors for connecting sensor to tablet
• Carrying case
• Tablet charger
• Pistol grip handle
• Double socket arm to connect handle

System Configuration Options


Supported Tablets NVIDIA Tegra Note 7
NVIDIA SHIELD Tablet
HP Slate 7 Extreme
Google Nexus 7 (not 2013 or newer)
Samsung Galaxy Tab Pro 8.4
Tablet OS Android 4.2.2, Android 4.3.2, Android 5.0.1
Android OS version support varies by tablet.

Check with www.dotproduct.com or contact support@dotproduct3d.com for information about the latest version
of Android supported by Phi.3D. To obtain Android upgrades, the tablet must be provisioned with an email account
and registered with Google. A short video detailing Android upgrades may be found here:
http://youtu.be/XJ18M6FBPLM.

Hardware Setup
1. Remove the DPI-7/8 Imager from the storage case, taking care not to grab the Imager by the sensor. Insert the
tablet into the sliding bracket mount (if not already in the bracket).
2. Connect the sensor to the tablet by carefully connecting the OTG cable (USB-A female connector to USB Micro-
B male connector) from the sensor to the tablet. Make sure the connectors are connected firmly.
3. Power on the tablet by long-pressing the power button. .
4. Check the status of the battery charge icon in the upper right hand corner of the display. We advise beginning
operations with a fully charged battery.
Note: Button locations vary by tablet manufacturer and model.

Hardware Care
Bumping or dropping the system is very likely to impact the sensor calibration and system accuracy. So, treat your
instrument with care. We strongly recommend storing the device in the provided rugged case at all times when it is not
in use, and particularly when it is being transported.

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DPI Imager Performance
The data quality of the DPI Imager depends on range, temperature, ambient lighting conditions, reflectivity of the area of
interest, operator skill and other factors. System accuracy is improved by using survey targets. System performance is
degraded by long collection times, accumulation of frame-to-frame drift and lack of scene fitness induced by geometry
and texture limitations.
The working range of the DPI Imager is from 0.6 m to 3.7 m (2 ft to 12 ft) for the DPI-7/8 and 0.3 m to 1.9 m (1 ft to 6
ft) for the DPI-7/8 SR.

DPI Imager Accuracy


The data accuracy of the DPI Imager is summarized below.

Range Typical Accuracy (RMS) Minimum Accuracy


< 1 m (3.3 ft.) 0.2% 0.4%
1 m to 2 m 0.5% 0.8%
2 m to 3.3 m 0.8% 1.2%
> 3.3 m (11 ft.) Not specified Not specified

Percentage values are with regards to distance measured in the final post-processed model. E.g. measuring a distance of
1 meter at an accuracy of 0.5% means +/- 5 millimeters of error. As can be seen in the table above the system will
generally operate more accurately when operating closer to the surface scanned.
The recommended range for the DPI-7/8 is between 1m and 2.5m (3ft - 8ft).
The recommended range for the DPI-7 SR is between 0.4 m and 1.5 m (1 1/2ft to 5ft).
Scan accuracy is further impacted by temperature. The recommended operating temperature is room temperature (around
73 DEGF / 23 DEGC).
If used in higher temperatures, the system warm up time should be less than 15 minutes. It can be skipped entirely if used
in 86 DEGF (30 DEGC) or higher.
If used in lower temperatures the system warm up time should be extended slightly.
Continuous mapping time (time between start capture and stop capture) should be kept within 10 minutes per scan.

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PHI.3D APPLICATION

Starting the Software


Find the Phi.3D icon on the homepage (See Figure 1) of the tablet and touch it to activate the Phi.3D application.

Figure 1 - Starting Software

If you see the screen in Figure 2, select “OK” and the Phi.3D software will launch.

Figure 2 – Allow Phi.3D to access USB

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If you start with no sensor connected, the program will open in FILE. If you start with a sensor connected, it will open in

Figure 3 – Select Calibration or License File

SCAN. Before you get started, make sure there is a proper calibration file loaded. If not, it will affect your results. You
can easily check or correct this by going to the SETTINGS tab and choosing the right calibration file for the unit. This must
be done prior to starting to capture data. You should use the 1312160156_201411025.cal (example only – see Figure 3)
file if you have one and the X_Ytemp5.cal if you have a "temperature" file (initial naming convention). Also verify your
license file is loaded in SETTINGS. To load the calibration and license file, press the pencil next to each item. A list will
appear to choose the files. See Figure 3. If you forget to load your calibration file before mapping, a note will appear
telling you the device is not calibrated and the data may be inaccurate. You can also control the Depth cutoff for the sensor.
Setting a lower threshold may result in more accurate data. The app must be restarted for the change to take effect and the
maximum depth threshold may be limited by the calibration file. You also have the option to Invert the Rotation Axis of
the Point cloud view.

To start capturing data, switch to the SCAN Tab at the top of the screen. This will change the controls on the right side of
the screen to the ones necessary for scanning. You should start seeing a live gray scale image in the Image window. See
Figure 4. If you do not see the live image, look to see if there is a warning that a sensor is not detected. In this case, it is
most likely your USB connection has a problem. Check your connection into the tablet as well as the connection from the
sensor to the micro USB connector.

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Figure 4 -- Scan Tab, Start Mapping

The gray scale view of the image serves as a view-finder and to inform the user about non-captured areas. These areas are
masked in a light blue color in the gray scale view.
Anything beyond the sensor range or below its minimum range is not captured as well as shiny or very black surfaces.
It is recommended to start the scan in an area that has a lot of area that can be captured.
Once you have moved the scanner to a suitable start point for your scan, press the "Start Mapping" button to start the 3D
capture.

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SYSTEM PREP - WARM-UP

System Warm-up
There are two types of warm-up for the imager. First, there is the initial system warm-up required when you first activate
the software and the sensor. This system warm-up must be performed before every job and should be performed if the
imager has been turned off for more than 2 hours. Second, there is the session warm-up, required each time you begin a
scan session.

Initial System Warm-up


For each hour the device has not been used (sensor not plugged in or device battery empty), you should warm-up the
device for about 7.5 minutes but not exceed a warm-up time of 15 minutes, depending on environment temperature (less
warm-up is required in warmer environments.) See section "DPI Imager Accuracy" for details. Warm-up means the
device is powered-up and the sensor is running, with the instrument lying flat and sensor facing up.

Sensor Disconnect Time Warm Up Time


1 hour 7:30 minutes
2 hours 15 minutes

Warm-up Procedure
Place the imager on a flat surface with the sensor facing up. The System Warmup progress bar shown in Figure 4 tracks
how long the sensor has been activated. Once the System Warmup progress bar reaches 100%
and has turned green, the sensor is activated and warmed.

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Session Warm up

Figure 5 - Sensor warm up

Each time you begin an image session, you will need to let the sensor warm-up for about 45 seconds. This will be required
each time you reset the SCAN Tab. On the right hand side of the screen, you will see a Scene Fitness bar and a Session
Warmup bar. See Figure 5. You will not be able to capture data until the Session Warmup bar reaches 100%. If you press
the Start Mapping button before the Session Warmup bar is completed, the device will make you wait, with a countdown
dialog, until it is done. See Figure 5.

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SYSTEM CONFIGURATION OPTIONS

Settings
System configuration options can be accessed from any screen by pressing the three vertical dots on the top right side of
the screen. Only the options relevant to the current operation will be highlighted.

Default Calibration
When Default Calibration is selected the calibration file calibration_00000 will be loaded. See Figure 6. This option will
unload the sensor-specific calibration file and load default settings. This action may result in undesirable measurement
results, and should only be used for testing or if otherwise instructed. See Setting, Loaded Calibration to reload sensor-
specific calibration file.

Figure 6 - System Configuration Options

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Toggle Coverage Display
When you are in the SCAN Tab and Mapping you can toggle coverage from the yellow/green screen that shows how dense
the data is to the RGB image by selecting Toggle coverage display. See Figure 7 and Figure 9)

Figure 7 - Toggle Coverage Display

Short Warmup Time


The Short Warmup Time option is provided for demonstration purposes. When selected, the sensor is allowed to activate
for Mapping prior to completion of normal System Warmup and Session Warmup. This option should only be selected
for demonstration purposes as it may result in undesirable measurement results. See Figure 6

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About
To verify what version software you are using, select About. Information about the DotProduct Phi.3D software is given
there. See Figure 8.

Figure 8 - About Phi.3D

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IMAGE CAPTURE

The Capture Process


The DPI Imager will capture data in a contiguous path or sequence, storing the results as a scene. A scene is composed of
image frames. The data that is captured for each image frame is a combination of color (RGB) values and positional
information for each pixel. In a post capture process known as Optimization, the position and orientation for each of the
image frames is refined to minimize global misalignment of all the frames to each other.

Capturing Your First Image


To begin imaging, press Start Mapping and start imaging. Move the device slowly around the area of interest. A slow,
circular “washing” motion works well. Avoid sudden jerky movements of the imager. Keeping your wrist locked will
help keep the imager motion fluid. The pixels for the area of interest will start out grey, then turn yellow, and then green,
as the imager collects progressively denser and higher quality data. See Figure 10. The idea is to paint the area of interest
green on the tablet screen.

Figure 9 - Start Mapping

Touch Finish Mapping to end data capture. In seconds the 3D point cloud image will appear in the Image Window.

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Figure 10 - Finish Mapping

To capture a new scene touch Reset for New Scan. If you have not saved your previous scene, a prompt will appear that
says “Unsaved model. Your scene will be cleared if you continue.” The scene will be autosaved to the DpAutoSave folder.
See Figure 11.

Figure 11 - Reset for New Scan

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Capture Guidelines
Keeping the scanner orthogonal, i.e. normal to the main surface will have a positive effect on accuracy. Mapping at an
angle against surfaces usually results in reduced accuracy caused by increased sensor distortion. Holding the DPI Imager
as orthogonally as possible will help with overall result quality. The exception to this recommendation is during the
capture of difficult areas. For example, shiny surfaces can be captured by varying the imager angle to change the angle to
the surface which will minimize tracking issues, however it may reduce accuracy. Moving the imager closer to areas of
interest, and centering the areas of interest, will boost the quality of the capture. Do not move so close that the current
scene has too few overlapping features with the previous or next frame keeping in mind the minimum distance (60 cm /
2ft for the DPI-7/8 and 30 cm / 1 ft for the DPI-7/8SR). Going closer to the surface than the minimum distance may result
in less dense data and often leads to loss of tracking.

Scene Feedback
Scene Fitness The Scene Fitness bar, located on the right side of your screen (shown in Figure 10) indicates the
suitability of the scene for capture with the DPI Imager. Scene Fitness is positively impacted by scenes with geometric
features. The Scene Fitness for a blank white wall will be poor. The Scene Fitness for a scene that includes the
intersection of three planes, e.g. a corner that includes two walls and a floor, will be much better. We recommend beginning
a scan with good Scene Fitness.
Scene Size The main display includes a basic Scene Size Bar on the left side of the main tracking window that
progressively changes color from green to yellow to red when the scene size increases, and reaches critical sizes. Also a
warning message is displayed once a critical size is reached. Each scene is stored in memory as it is captured, therefore
managing scene and file size is important to prevent memory allocation or data loss issues.

Lost Tracking
Occasionally, you may find that the imager loses tracking. In these instances, move the imager back to an area where
you were collecting good data and had good scene fitness, and typically the imager will re-localize, i.e. find itself. Then,
you can continue the data acquisition. In the event that you are unable to re-localize the imager, it will be necessary to
stop the collection. The imager will save the data collected to the point that it lost tracking.

While mapping, if there are limited geometrical features in the area of interest (scene fitness is low), the screen will get a
red tint on the left and right borders of the image, for example, when imaging a flat area. This is a warning that the imager
may lose tracking for the lack of geometrical features. In this case it is important to slow down capture and to avoid sudden
movements! Remedies include changing the imager angle or backing up to capture more geometry. In some scenes the
warning is unavoidable. In cases where you are unable to recover from lost tracking, you scan stop the capture and append
to it. See the APPEND section below for more details.

Precision Considerations
While mapping, the color feedback can be helpful in determining the capture precision of the surface. Green is very
good, yellow is usually acceptable. Avoid pale or grey areas if you need high precision in these areas.

Bumping or dropping the sensor will knock it out of calibration, so it is strongly recommended to use a well-cushioned
transport case for the sensor (such as the one it ships with).

For each hour the device was not used (sensor not plugged in, or device battery empty) you should warm-up the device
for about 7.5 minutes, but not exceed a warm-up time of 15 minutes depending on environment temperature. A shorter
system warmup time is recommended for environment temperatures higher than 75 deg F (24 deg C). If the environment
temperature reaches or exceeds 86 deg F (30 deg C) it is recommended to skip the system warmup entirely.

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NAVIGATING THE POINT CLOUD

View Buttons
The buttons shown below are visible on the 3D view. Some of the commands toggle actions.
Go full screen / Exit full screen
Switch to point cloud view / Switch to image based rendering view.

Press the ? for instructions on Zoom, Rotate, Translate, etc.

Figure 12 - Navigation Buttons

Zoom In/Out – By pinching, or reverse pinching, the Image Screen with two fingers, you will zoom in or out
(respectively) to/from the center of interest. See Figure 13.

Figure 13 - Zoom

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Rotating the Image – You may rotate the scene by moving it with your finger. See Figure 14.

Figure 14 - Rotate

Figure 15 - Translate

Translate View– To translate the view, drag with two fingers; you will move the center of interest in space. See Figure
15.

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Roll Camera – You may roll the scene by using two fingers in a circular motion. See Figure 16.

Figure 16 - Roll Camera

New Center Point– You may change the center-of-interest point by double tapping on the desired point on the screen.
See Figure 17.

Figure 17 - New Center Point

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APPEND

Adding to Existing 3D Images


Selecting the APPEND tab allows you to capture additional data from a previously captured position. See Figure 18 for an
example of the APPEND tab screen before a frame is selected). Note that the software analyzes the frame data and allows
you to select frames where the append procedure is likely to succeed. Frames where append is unlikely to succeed are
denoted with a red background and are made unavailable for appending. Appending to an existing dataset adds un-
optimized data to the scene, therefore the final scene will need to be optimized again before exporting.
There are two modes for appending: the default mode is to append data to an existing file. In the default mode all of the
old and appended data will be contained in a single new file after appending.
The second mode is to append and then start a new scene. This mode is selected by checking the “Start new scene spatially
connected to existing scene.” The new file will be in the same coordinate system as the existing file but will not have all
of the data from the existing file. The new file will have only the overlapping frame used for the append operation. The
second mode offers the advantage that as soon as the imager is moved from the append frame, the existing scene will be
cleared from working memory (RAM), allowing a whole now data set to be collected. In this way scene size limitations
are mitigated and it is a good way to partition a capture session into several connected scenes (rather than one big scene).
Multiple append operations of this type can be performed. To minimize drift, it is advisable to append new data sets to the
initial file. For example, if file 2 is appended to file 1, then file 3 ought to be appended to file 1, not file 2. Also note that,
while the individual scenes can and should be optimized, no global optimization can be performed on the entire scene
(existing and appended data together) since such optimization would exceed available RAM capacity on the tablet.
Therefore if there are loops present in the appended scene stitching errors may result.
The limitation of not being able to globally optimize individual scenes together may get addressed in future versions of
Phi.3D or through an application running on a desktop or cloud computer.

Figure 18 - APPEND Tab - Frame unselected

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Append Steps
Press the Select to Append button to begin the APPEND procedure shown in Figure 19. Then wait for the sensor to warm
up. Once the sensor has warmed up, position the imager in the scene to match the view in the desired frame and re-localize.
Figure 20 shows an example of the imager re-localizing in the scene of interest – there is a ghost image of the frame you
selected to help in aligning the sensor. Once you have aligned the frame, the imager will automatically begin imaging.

Figure 19 - Append New Scene Spatially Connected to Existing Scene

For this feature to work, it is best to choose a frame that represents a view with good geometry in the scene and to position

Figure 20 - Select to Append

the DPI Imager as close to the same position represented in that view as possible. Otherwise the DPI Imager may have
difficulty re-localizing. If the system does not re-localize, you may touch the Back to Append button and return to the
APPEND tab and try choosing another image to append to.

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Figure 21 - Re-Localizing

COORDINATE SYSTEM

User-defined coordinates
The COORDS tab will allow a user-defined coordinate frame to be specified that can be used for measurements and
exported. There are a range of options that can be used individually or combined. To remove any constraints, click on the
trash bin button next to it or click Reset to global coords. See Figure 22. Note that Phi.3D follows the common
convention that the red axis is X; the green axis is Y and the blue axis is Z. Before a user-defined coordinate frame is
established, Z points in the direction the imager was facing at the time the capture began.

Set Origin
Set Origin can set the position of the origin at a point in the scene.
• Set Origin by picking a point in the scene with a single tap.

Align Axes to Plane in Scene


• To align the coordinate system with a plane in the scene, first select the axis you wish to be perpendicular to the
plane (default Z). Click Primary and select a point in the scene on the plain of interest. This will force the
selected axis to be perpendicular to the selected plane.

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• To add a secondary constraint select the axis and click Secondary and select a second point in the scene.

Figure 22 - Set Origin

Set Coordinate
Set Coordinate will set a fixed coordinate at a point in the scene. See Figure 22.
• Click Set coordinate to enter the coordinate you wish to assign and select the Measurement Unit desired.
• Click Okay and pick a point in the scene with a single tap.

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MEASURE

Options
The MEASUREMENT tab allows for a simple straight line measurement. The tab gives you the option to choose between a
3D view and a frame view. See Figure 23. Measurement can be taken relative to any coordinate system present in the
scene. This may include User defined or the coordinate frame defined by Control Targets.

3D View
3D view will allow you to select the available Coordinate frame and Measurement units. Under the Coordinate frame
there are three options. Original (global) coords is the default for this but if there are defined coords created in the COORDS
tab or if you have targets you can select either User defined coords or Control target coords. You can click Abort Measure
or Clear Measurement to reset screen.
To take a measurement in 3D View, follow these steps:
• Make sure that the Frame View is toggled in the OFF position.
• Click New Measurement.
• Select Coordinate frame if option is available.
• Navigate to the area of interest.
• Select the starting point with a single tap.
• You have the option to navigate further to the end of the area of interest.
• Select the end point with a single tap.
• Measurement will be display at bottom right of screen along with the Coordinate frame components.
• Measurement units are displayed in Meters (default) but can be changed by clicking the down arrow button and
selecting from the pop-up list.

Figure 23 - Measurement, Frame View Off

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Frame View
Frame view will allow you to take a measurement from one frame to another. You have the option to take a measurement
from a detected target in one frame to another detected target in another frame by selecting Snap to targets. (Shown in
Figure 25)
To take a measurement in Frame View follow these steps:
• Make sure that the Frame View is toggled in the ON position.
• Select the desired coordinate frame for measurement (if the option is available).
• Navigate to the area of interest; you can zoom in with the pinch gesture or pan with one-finger drag.
• Click New Measurement.
• Select the starting point with a single tap.
• You have the option to navigate further to the end of the area of interest or to tap the Android Back button to
select another frame for the end point.
• Select the end point with a single tap. You will be taken back to the 3D view where you can see the result of your
measurement.
• Measurement will be displayed at bottom right of screen along with the Coordinate frame components.
• Measurement units are displayed in Meters (default) but can be changed by clicking the down arrow button and
selecting from the pop-up list.

Figure 24 - Measurement, Fame View ON

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To take a measurement with Frame View using Snap to detected targets, follow these steps. See Figure 25.
• Make sure that Frame View is toggled in the ON position.
• Select Snap to targets.
• Targets will appear with a green dot on center. Select frame with detected target.
• Click New Measurement.
• Select start point target, a yellow ring will appear around center.
• You have the option to hit the Android Back button to select a target in another frame.
• Select end point target.
• Measurement will be displayed at bottom right of screen along with the Coordinate frame components.
• Measurement units are displayed in Meters (default) but can be changed by clicking the down arrow button and
selecting from the pop-up list.

Figure 25 - Frame View Measurement ON, Snap to Targets

If a measurement is required from a point and a target it is possible to combine frame view and 3D view. This is done by
toggling the Frame View ON or OFF after the starting point is selected. Measurement will display at bottom right of screen
along with the Coordinate frame components.

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TARGETING

Introduction
Phi.3D supports different targeting systems and markers to control scene accuracy, orient scenes to established coordinate
systems, and provide quality assurance for data. The supported types include AprilTags and Checkerboard (black & white
pattern) targets. The use of targets is recommended whenever possible because it will improve scene accuracy and tracking
stability. When targets are surveyed independently and survey control has been established, for example with a total station,
or their position has previously been determined by some other reliable method, then these targets can be used to rotate
and translate DPI Imager data into the coordinate system of the control network on the tablet. Targets also serve as a
constraint network in global scene optimization.

Target Coordinate Systems


Phi.3D supports both right handed and left handed coordinates for target files. The usual way of orienting the axes, with
the positive x-axis pointing right and the positive y-axis pointing up (and the x-axis being the "first" and the y-axis the
"second" axis) is considered the positive or standard orientation, also called the right-handed orientation.
To define a positive orientation according to the right hand rule, place a closed right hand on the plane with the thumb
pointing up, the fingers point from the x-axis to the y-axis, in a positively oriented coordinate system. Alternately in the
left hand rule, orientation is defined by placing the left hand on the plane with the thumb pointing up.
It is necessary to specify the handedness of the coordinate system. See Figure 26. The default target file orientation is
right handed in the following format: target ID, x, y, z. Switching any two axes will reverse the orientation, hence a survey
control file that is written as (Target ID, northing, easting, elevation) should be opened as a left handed coordinate system.
Note that Phi.3D data files will default to the right hand coordinate system, unless otherwise specified.

Figure 26 – Left Hand and Right Hand Coordinate System

Targeting Overview
Targeting may be employed in the capture process for a number of reasons, including:
• (a) To improve overall scene accuracy and to eliminate drift (see section "Targeting Modes in Global
Optimization")
• (b) To transform a captured scene into a target coordinate system.
Usually the necessity for (a) and (b) comes in tandem, i.e. it is likely that if a scene is to be transformed into a project
coordinate system (b), it is also required that the scene has highest possible accuracy (a) so that it fits well with existing
data.

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In this case the user would first carry out target association, then "Fit all Targets", then perform global optimization with
Hard or Soft Targeting enabled.
There are however other use cases in which a) and b) can be used and achieved independently of each other:
For example target association and "Fit all targets" may be performed on an already optimized scene to transform that
scene into project coordinates (b) "after the fact". This workflow is possible but comes at the expense of lower accuracy
since no target information was available when the scene has been optimized.
Another example is using un-surveyed targets, possibly in combination with provided inter-target distances, to achieve a).
This would be done by first associating the targets and then using the "scale bar targeting" or "correspondence-
only targeting" modes in Global Optimization. No "Fit all targets" step is required here.

Some rules of thumb:


1. Any Targeting Mode in Global Optimization (Hard, Soft, Scale Bar, Correspondence-Only) can only be used on
un-optimized scenes.
2. If survey targets are used on an un-optimized scene, there is usually no reason *not* to use Hard or
Soft Targeting Modes for Global Optimization.
3. The only reason to use targeting on an *already* optimized scene is the transformation into a project coordinate
system "after the fact" which is not optimal in terms of achieved accuracy.
4. Transforming a scene into project coordinates requires control targets to have 3D point locations.
5. Hard and Soft Targeting modes in Global Optimization require control targets to have 3D point locations.
6. Hard and Soft Targeting modes in Global Optimization require the scene to have a coordinate transform (Step
"Fit all Targets").
7. Hard and Soft Targeting modes will usually be more accurate than Scale-Bar or Correspondence-Only Targeting.
8. The Scale-Bar Targeting mode in Global Optimization requires no 3D point locations for control targets but
requires inter-target distances to be provided.

AprilTags
With V2.0, Phi.3D now has the ability to detect “AprilTags” targets while mapping. AprilTags are fiducials that contain a
unique 2D barcode. They can be used to help Phi.3D close large loops during Post-Processing. AprilTags do not need to
be surveyed. As long as they remain fixed in the scene, and there are no duplicate tags in the scene, Phi.3D can use
them to improve post processing. To enable AprilTag detection, simply tick the Detect AprilTags while scanning box on
the right side in the SCAN Tab at any point while mapping. When AprilTags are detected, they will be drawn onto the
current image as a red see-through polygon. See Figure 27.

A set of AprilTags recognizable by Phi.3D can be downloaded here: http://www.dotproduct3d.com/apriltags.php.


Note that AprilTags downloaded from elsewhere are unlikely to be supported by Phi.3D.

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Figure 27 - AprilTag Targets

Checkerboard Targets
The Phi.3D software can automatically determine the centroid of a checkerboard target captured by the DPI Imager. When
these targets are surveyed independently and survey control has been established, for example with a total station, then
these targets can be used to rotate and translate DPI Imager data into a coordinate system. Association of these target
centroids with survey control targets is achieved semi automatically.

Figure 28 - Detecting Targets

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Detecting Targets
Press TARGETS Tab at the top to begin targeting functions. A window will appear that says “Detecting Targets” while the
program detects targets in the scene. See Figure 28.
Press Manage Targets on the tablet to load a target survey file. See Figure 29. Note that the handedness of the coordinate
system for the target file must be specified. The default is Right-Handed System.

Figure 29 - Manage Targets

Note that, if the control target coordinate system is selected on export, the exported data files will be in the coordinate
system of the target file, following optimization using the target file. For example, if a survey control file with a left-
handed coordinate system is specified, then any data files exported in PTS or PTX formats will have a left-handed
coordinate system (provided the corresponding option is chosen in the export dialog). Binary .dp files are always stored
with right handed coordinates.

Figure 30 - Comma Delimited Survey File

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The survey file units may be Meters, Decimeters, Centimeters, Millimeters, Decimal Feet, US Survey Feet or Decimal
Inches and the units must be specified when importing the survey file. See Figure 31.

Figure 31 - Target File Units

The target file should be a comma delimited file that lists the target ID and coordinates of the target center. Figure 30
shows a sample survey control file.

This survey file can be stored in any folder, however for good file management, create a folder named \Survey as shown
in Figure 32. The survey control file is loaded on the tablet by connecting the tablet with a USB cable to a computer which
has the file and uploading it from the computer. Note that it is possible to have multiple survey control files on the tablet,
a different file for each project for example. Alternatively, the control file can be emailed to the tablet’s email account and

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downloaded from the email account inbox. Of course a WiFi connection is needed in this instance. Step 1 can be performed
either before or after data collection.

Shown in Figures 33-35 are images of the process of loading an existing survey file into the phi.3D software .Shown in
Figures 33-34 are images from the process of choosing and confirming target files. Note the files shown were created by

Figure 32 - Survey Folder Location

Figure 33 - Load from File

user separately and copied to the folder.

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If there is no survey file to load, you can create a file within Phi-3D Targeting by pressing Manage Targets then New

Figure 34 - Load/Save

under List of Targets. This is shown in Figure 37.

Figure 35 - Choose Target

Then you can either create a Target or Target Distance file. See Figure 38.

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Figure 36 – Target List

When you select Target you create a new target name and if it is a surveyed target you enter the x, y, z coordinates. See
Figure 39

Figure 37 - New Target File

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Once you have entered the target name and coordinates press Done and then Create. See Figure 40. Continue selecting
New until you finish creating all the new targets.

Figure 38 - Target or Target Distance File

After you finish creating new targets, then select Use for Targeting. This is shown in Figure 41.

Figure 39 - Create New Target

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If you select Unsurveyed Target then you will not be able to enter coordinates; values will default to 0,0,0. See Figure
42. This target type is used for frame correspondence and optimization, therefore coordinates are not required.

Figure 40 - Create Target, Save

Once you have entered targets you can save them to a file for possible later re-use by selecting Manage Targets then
select Load/Save then select Save to File. See Figure 43.

Figure 41 - List of Targets

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Then enter your file name and folder for the new target file and select Save. See Figure 44.

Figure 42 - Unsurveyed target list

Figure 43 - Save Targets to File

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Figure 44 - Entering File Names

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Once you have selected Manage Targets there is also the choice of entering Target Distance. See Figure 45.

Figure 45 - Target Distance

After entering one or two targets you create a Distance Entry then select Done. See Figure 46.

Figure 46 - Target Distance Entry

A List of Targets will display then select Use for Targeting. Figure 47.

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Figure 47 - Target Use List

Figure 48 - Deleting Targets

There is also an option to delete a Target. Select a target from the new target list you made and a Delete Target screen
will appear then select Yes. See Figure 48.

Identifying Targets
To transform a scan position to a survey, you must identify at least 3 unique survey targets in different target frames.
Select a frame with a target, and with your finger or stylus, point in the vicinity of a target. See Figure 49. Any targets

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automatically detected by Phi.3D may be selected. See Figure 27. Once selected, the centroid of the target will be
identified by a green circle.

Figure 49 - Set Target ID

Figure 50 - Target ID Reference

Press Set Target ID and associate this target with the corresponding entry in the target file. See Figure 49 and Figure
50. Phi.3D software will require the user select a minimum of 2 more targets to transform the captured data on the tablet
into the survey control coordinate system.

Step 2 is repeated until at least 3 independent targets have been associated with the targets file. See Figure 51, Figure 52
and Figure 53. For target redundancy, it is recommended to select more targets than the mathematical minimum
requirement of 3 targets; 5 or 6 is good practice. One physical target (as declared in the control file) may be associated

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to detections in any number of target frames, however at most one target per target frame can be defined. Another good
survey practice is to use targets that are spatially distributed to get the best results.

Each selected target should be in close range in the frame, and close to perpendicular to the view. Avoid picking targets

Figure 51 - Second Target Pick

at the borders of a target frame. These recommendations will improve accuracy of the target pick. Picking targets that
are far away, at high angles, or at the very borders of a target frame, will result in less than optimal results.

Figure 52 - Target List 2nd Pck

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After a minimum of three targets have been associated with the target survey control file, Phi.3D allows you to Fit All
Targets. See Figure 54. You are notified if the targets can’t be fit to the survey control file.

Figure 53 - Pick 3rd Target from New Frame

Fit will provide visual feedback in the form of purple circles which indicate where the system thinks the targets from the
control target network should lie, according to the control file and the computed transformation. Note that it is a 2D
projection of a 3D position so the purple circle visualization has some ambiguity in depth. See Figure 55.

Figure 54 - Fit All Targets

Fit will also provide feedback in the format of a target fit numeric value and a Fit Targets Report. See Figure 56.

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Figure 55 - Fit All Response

Whenever the user performs the Fit All Targets command, the system creates a quick optimized version of the dataset
(the "adjusted scan") on which further operations take place.

Figure 56 - Fit Targets Report

Fit RMS calculates the error in millimeters of associated targets versus detected target positions in the adjusted scene.
Sepcifically, the Fit RMS value is the square root of the sum of squared 3D errors of all associated (user-associated and
system-associated) targets in the adjusted scan. In this context "adjusted scene" means an altered version of the dataset on
which optimization was performed to put the user-associated targets into the exact right spot.

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The Fit RMS value is directly related to the visualized fit in the image frame overview in the TARGETS Tab. The better
the target positions align visually with the detected targets, the better the Fit RMS value. Having a bad quality target
alignment usually results in a high Fit RMS value and some obviously mismatched targets in the keyframe overview.
Acceptable values are in the range of 5 to 35 mm, less for smaller scenes, more for larger scenes. The value can be usually
improved by the user associating a broad range of targets (going well beyond the 3 required ones) and also associating
targets that are physically well distributed in the scene (as opposed to associating for example 3 targets that are physically
close together in a large scene).
IMPORTANT: An unnaturally low Fit RMS value (say < 5 mm) in conjunction with many unassociated detections is a
pretty solid indicator that something has gone wrong.
In RMS to scene, the Root Mean Square is error in millimeters of associated targets versus detected target positions in the
unadjusted scene. i.e. same thing as above but this time computing the errors against the input scene, not the adjusted
scene. This error is usually higher than the "Fit RMS" value and is an indication of how well the (in most cases un-
optimized) scene matches the control target network. There's not really an acceptable range for this as it can go pretty high
for un-optimized scenes, especially when there are small mis-alignments that the optimization will sort out in the end.
However values beyond several hundred mm could be an indication of the targeting step having failed or the scene having
gross misalignment errors.
Matched corner points are the number of detected targets that have been associated (by user or automatically) with one
of the targets from the control file.

Targets in Scene Optimization


Once a target fit has been found for the scene, the target control network can be made active during global optimization /
post processing. This means that the scene geometry will match the absolute target locations at the target center points.
This will effectively eliminate drift in the neighborhood of target locations. DotProduct recommends this practice for long
stretches of captured data and whenever absolute accuracy over long measurement distances is required.

Using Survey Targeting After Scene Optimization


It is possible to associate and fit targets to already optimized files, however only to obtain a coordinate transform of the
complete scene. It is not possible to re-optimize an already optimized file, regardless of whether there is a targeting mode
involved or not. The recommended best practice is to use targeting on un-optimized datasets, then optimize with the
desired targeting mode.

Other Uses for Targets


Even if the target positions are not surveyed independently, it is often helpful to include them in a scene. Adding targets
to a scene in areas where there is little geometrical or texture variation, a flat monochrome wall or a stretch of pipework
for example will allow the imager to track better than without targets.

TARGETING MODES IN GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION


Several modes for targeting can be used in global scene optimization in Phi.3D:
• Hard targeting
• Soft targeting
• Scale-Bar targeting
• Correspondence-only

Hard Targeting
This is the most standard targeting mode: It uses a list of named targets and their XYZ spatial coordinates. The use of
Hard Targeting in global optimization will result in highest accuracy of the model after the optimization. Hard Targeting
enforces the co-location of detected target center points in the scene with associated control target 3D points.

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Soft Targeting
The difference between Soft and Hard Targeting is that scene optimization favors fidelity and color accuracy over
absolute accuracy. Results after an optimization with Soft Targeting are still going to be at least as accurate as optimizing
without targeting, but will not exceed the accuracy of a model that has been optimized with hard targeting.
Note that for Hard and Soft Targeting to be available in the Global Optimization, the targets to be used need to have 3D
positions (see section "detecting targets") and a "Fit All Targets" step needs to have been performed prior to the
optimization.

Scale-Bar Targeting
This targeting mode relies on relative target-to-target distances rather than target absolute positions. It does not require a
"Fit All Targets" step. Scale-Bar targeting will improve the accuracy of the model in post processing (Global
Optimization) by ensuring the specified target-to-target distances are met. It will not however provide a coordinate
transformation.
To use scale-bar targeting use a target control text file that is structured as follows:
unsurveyed_0,0,0,0
unsurveyed_1,0,0,0
unsurveyed_2,0,0,0
...
distance,unsurveyed_0,unsurveyed1,A
distance,unsurveyed_0,unsurveyed2,B
distance,unsurveyed_1,unsurveyed2,C

A, B and C are target-to-target distance values (decimal values with dot decimal point, e.g. 1.234). Each individual
target should have an entry in the control file that starts with "unsurveyed_" followed by an arbitrary name (e.g.
"unsurveyed_0" or "unsurveyed_first"), followed by an arbitrary position (0,0,0 in the example). Also, for each target-
to-target distance measured there should be an entry in the control file consisting of four fields separated by a comma,
the first field being "distance", the next two being the names of the two targets where the distance refers to, followed by
the distance as the last field.
The control file for Scale-Bar targeting can be loaded just as any other control file through the "Load Targets File"
button in the TARGETS tab. After the file has been loaded all targets need to be associated (see section "Hard targeting"
for an explanation of how to associate targets). After all targets have been associated, Scale-Bar targeting will become
available as a targeting mode in the OPT tab. A Fit-Targets step must not be performed.

Correspondence-only targeting mode


This mode does not constrain any distances, scales or absolute positions (therefore no positions or distances are needed in
the control file), however it uses targets identified across image frames to help close large loops and generally improve
optimization performance. To use correspondence-only targeting in Global Optimization it is sufficient to only provide
target names and arbitrary positions in the control target list. If correspondence-only targeting is chosen for Global
Optimization no absolute point positions or distances will be used as constraints in Global Optimization even though the
used control target list may contain these. Use only a few target correspondences or distribute targets well throughout
the area of interest.

Best practices
Scale-Bar targeting should only be used with at least one target-pair that is at least half of the scene / object size. For
example if the object size is 4 meters, then one target pair for Scale-Bar targeting should be at least 2 meters apart.
Alternatively, a large number of short distances may be used. In this case however, no distance should be shorter than a
quarter of the scene size. The use of only a few short target-to-target pairs on a large scene in Scale-Bar targeting may
actually hurt accuracy and should be avoided.

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DATA OPTIMIZATION

Optimization Background
The scene is composed of "image frames". Every image frame has a depth map that carries a depth value for each pixel.
These depth values can be inaccurate, especially at longer ranges. Optimization is the post-processing step that optimizes
the scene. It tries to find a position, orientation and depth map for each of the image frames that minimizes global
misalignment of all the frames to each other.
You may perform automatic 3D data optimization right on the tablet while still in the field. We recommend saving the raw
data first. (See “Saving Un-Optimized Data”.) You should choose a targeting mode, if appropriate. Then go to the OPT
Tab and press the Global Optimization button. See Figure 57. This will take anywhere from 30 seconds to a few minutes
depending on the size of your scene. A progress bar will be displayed while the function is operating. Once the optimization
process is complete, the optimized scene will be shown in the 3D display and it will state “This scene has been optimized”
under the Global Optimization button. You may then save the optimized dataset in the same fashion as discussed in Save
Scene.

Optimizing modes
The Global Optimization button is available to you every time you record or append to a scene, and have not yet
optimized. Global Optimization is not available on scenes that have been optimized already.
The Dynamic Parent Scene switch is available whenever the Global Optimization button is available, AND the scene
has been appended to at least once.
Notes:
• If the switch is on, it means that the whole scene is optimized, regardless of what was appended or not.
• If the switch is off, however, all existing data in the scene, except the last Append is considered static in the
optimization and will not be optimized further.
• Setting the switch to off is only recommended if you append to an already optimized scene. If you append to a
scene that has not been optimized, the switch should always be on.

Figure 57 - OPT Tab: Global Optimization

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Optimizing your data after scanning
You can defer the optimization step until later, after you’ve finished all the data collection in the field. The steps are
outlined in the following:
• The first step is to retrieve the file you want to optimize by selecting the FILE tab. Then select Load Scene. This
will bring up a list of files in the /storage/emulated/0/PointClouds directory.
(Note: /storage/emulated/0 is just an alias for /sdcard which is the root directory.)
• You can easily navigate to other directories from this list too by scrolling up to the top of the listing. DP files
will be prefixed by the letter P (green color) indicating an already optimized file, or the letter N (red) indicating
a raw or un-optimized file. You cannot optimize a previously optimized file unless you append more data.
• After you have selected a previously un-optimized file by tapping it, the file will load. Then select the OPT tab,
and then the Global Optimization button. Then wait for the file to optimize.
• Save the optimized file with a new name, e.g. newfile_opt by first selecting the FILE tab and then selecting Save
Scene. Then enter the new name and set the File type to DP_BINARY and select to continue. There will be a choice
of save options; select Save Scene.
To continue optimizing more files, select the FILE tab, then select Load Scene to select the next file to optimize, then go
to the OPT tab.

DATA LOAD, SAVE AND TRANSFER

FILE
The FILE Tab on the main menu gives you the option of Load Scene, Save Scene, Export, Save Frame Images Only
and Close Scene.

Figure 58 - File Tab

Load Scene
To open an existing DP scan file, go to the FILE Tab and select Load Scene See Figure 59. This will bring up a list of files
in the PointClouds folder. You can easily navigate to other locations from this list by scrolling up to the top of the listing.

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DP files will be prefixed by the letter P (green color) indicating an already optimized file, or the letter N (red) indicating a

Figure 59 - Load Scene

raw or un-optimized file.

Save Scene
When you finish imaging, touch the FILE Tab on the main menu to save the image data to the internal tablet drive storage
using the Save Scene button. See Figure 60. You can change the file name and location, then press Save. (Shown in Figure
59)

Figure 60 - Save Scene

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Saving Un-Optimized Data
When you save the image data, you will be asked “Scene has not been optimized. Save anyway?” It is recommended you
save the raw data first. You can optimize immediately afterwards or save this for processing after you finish the data
capture.
• When saving and exporting after post processing Optimization, it is recommended to append a suffix in the
proposed filename, “_o” or “_opt”.
• Since PTX is a gridded format, image frames of a file are exported as individual PTX scans when this option is
chosen. The PTX scans can be exported as individual files or as a single file with separate scans in the file.
If you choose a file name to export to that already exists, the export dialog box will warn you, giving you the option to
overwrite the file.

Export Data Formats

Figure 61 - File Tab: Export as PTS (ASCII)

On the FILE Tab and after selecting Export, you can select the desired output format/file type from a dropdown menu.
Using DotProduct Phi.3D software with the DPI Imager, you may save your data to the following formats using the
EXPORT Tab:

• PTX Grid structure point cloud, ASCII, unit of meters, space delimited, RGB color.
• PTS XYZIRGB Unstructured point cloud, ASCII, user-defined units, space or comma delimited, intensity
and RGB color.
• PTS XYZI Unstructured point cloud, ASCII, user-defined units, space or comma delimited, intensity.
• DP DotProduct native file format, binary (highly compressed), RGB color.
• PLY (binary) Polygon mesh format, point elements, RGB color (Stanford Triangle Format).
• PTG (binary) Point cloud, binary, unit of meters, RGB color.

Figure 61 shows the drop down list of formats for Export in the FILE Tab

If you choose to export in PTS format, remember that the units and delimiter are user defined; import settings must
match export settings to get the correct scaling and location. See Figure 62.
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 units (Meters, Centimeters, Millimeters, Decimal Feet, US Survey Feet, Decimal Inches)
 delimiter (space, comma, tab)

Figure 62 - Export as PTS, Format Options

PTX files are written for each image frame in the scene. These files can be concatenated prior to importing into a third-
party application. Phi.3D also provides an export option that allows saving as a single file or individual files.

Export Coordinate Systems


When results are exported the standard coordinate system has the origin (0,0,0) where the imager started capturing. Axis
X is pointing to the right side of the sensor, Y pointing downwards and Z pointing along the optical axis into the scene. If
a different coordinate system is desired when data is exported Phi.3D offers several choices:
1. Z is up: This will have axis X pointing to the right side of the sensor, axis Z pointing upwards along gravity and
axis Y pointing parallel to the floor such that X Y and Z form an orthonormal system. This option uses the inertial
sensors on board the tablet to determine gravity and should be considered to be a coarse approximation.
2. Control targets: This will apply the transform obtained by identifying and matching a number of control targets
(see section "Using Targets").
3. User defined which you entered in the COORDS Tab
4. None

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Transferring Data
There are four ways to access the data you create on the DPI Imager depending on the format and tablet you are using.
The default storage location on your Tablet is the /sdcard/PointClouds folder. Make sure you look at the correct folder.
1. USB - You may connect your tablet to your desktop or laptop computer with the micro-USB to USB cable
provided which is also used for recharging your tablet. Depending on the computer you may need to download
an application like ES File Manager (free on Google Playstore) to your tablet or Android File Transfer (Mac) to
your computer. Most computers will recognize the tablet when it is plugged in and display it as a removable
media device.
2. MicroSD (up to 32GB of expandable storage) - You may plug a MicroSD card into the tablet and transfer data
to the card. Eject the card and plug into a compatible laptop or workstation to transfer.
3. WiFi - Depending on file size and WiFi access, you may use the Wifi capability of the tablet to upload your data
to the Web/Cloud. Some customers install DropBox or similar applications to upload data using an application
like ES File Manager.
4. Email - Depending on file size, you may email from the Gmail account set up already on your tablet (or another
account you set up). Because of file size issues, it is most likely you would only use this in the DP Binary, our
highly compressed format.

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ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS

Session Tab
The session tab is a simple tool that allows you to quickly manage a capturing session. It is useful especially in situations
when field-time is limited and it is preferred to maximize scanning time and to minimize time dedicated to saving /
exporting / optimizing / editing scenes.
After capturing a scene it can be quickly saved to the "session stack" by pressing the corresponding button in the SESSION
tab. An automatic file name will be created for the scene and it will subsequently appear in the list that represents the
session stack.
A scene saved to the session stack may be retrieved later by tapping on the corresponding file in the session stack. This
will cause Phi.3D to load the scene. Once loaded, additional operations (save/export/targeting/optimization/etc.) may be
performed on the scene.
To clear all scenes from the session stack press the corresponding button at the bottom of the SESSION tab.

WORKFLOWS

Autodesk Workflow
DotProduct is now shipping a plugin for Autodesk ReCap 1.3.2.500 (or newer). The plugin enables ReCap users to load
DotProduct's binary dp files directly into ReCap. This means it is no longer necessary to export PTS or PTX files to get
DotProduct data into ReCap.

The plug-in can be downloaded for no charge here:


http://tinyurl.com/ognmhhv
Installation instructions can be found here:
https://youtu.be/j7lcBVfott4

The plug-in needs to be copied to the ReCap plugin directory prior to use. After copying the file to the ReCap plugin
directory, .dp files are recognized as a valid file type for importing.

Bentley MicroStation and Pointools


Bentley Pointools PODcreator can be used to convert DP files into POD files for use in MicroStation-based applications.
This is achieved by exporting DP files in either PTS or PTX formats which in turn can be read by PODcreator. PODcreator
is available from Bentley for free and can be operated in batch mode.
Alternatively, MicroStation V8i can open PTS or PTX files directly.

ClearEdge3D EdgeWise
EdgeWise V4.6.0SP1 or newer can read .dp files directly and can be used to extract pipes, planar surfaces, structural steel
and ducting features.

CloudCompare
CloudCompare V 2.6.1 supports import of binary .dp files and can be used to review and measure from DP laser scans.
CloudCompare is an open source 3D point cloud and mesh processing software, and is available at the link
below. Documentation is at the link marked documentation.
Program: http://www.danielgm.net/cc/
Documentation: http://www.danielgm.net/cc/doc/qCC/

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Leica Cyclone
Leica Cyclone can be used to review measure and model from .dp data files. This is achieved by importing .dp files in
either PTS, PTX or PTG format. PTS should be exported from .dp in units of meters and a format of XYZIRGB, space
delimited. Choose the Leica option for a file automatically formatted for Cyclone.
Once imported, PTS data can be handled like regular scan data. Individual PTX files must be either be concatenated, (see
Export Data Formats above), or grouped using a Cyclone Register element (see Cyclone manual for more details).

LFM Software
DP laser scans can be imported into LFM Software for design review, clash and validations. LFM Server 4.3 and later
supports import of binary .dp files. A LFM Register Group will be created for each DP file. The Register Group will
contain scans corresponding to DP frames. If you wish to export your data to older versions of LFM Server then select
PTS from DP in units of millimeters and a format of XYZIRGB, space delimited. Once imported, PTS data can be handled
like regular scan data. Current workflow assumes data is registered or orientated to a local coordinate system.

Trimble RealWorks
Trimble RealWorks V9.0 supports import of binary .dp files. If you wish to export your data to older versions of Trimble
RealWorks, then select PTS with the Commas option. Note that the comma delimited files will be larger than the
corresponding space delimited file.

Veesus Ltd.
Veesus’s Arena4D Data Studio V1.19 and Rhino plugin v1.2 support the import of binary.dp files.

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SOFTWARE UPGRADES

Background
DotProduct upgrades PHI.3D from time to time. To upgrade your DPI Imager, you will need to install a new application
file on the tablet following these steps. The new application file will be named Phi3D_v2.x.apk where x identifies the
release number. This file will be provided to you in an email or may be downloaded from a link we will provide you.
If you are experienced with the Android operating system, please follow these steps. More detailed instructions for less
experienced users follow.
In rare cases you will need to uninstall the old Phi.3D application before you can install the upgrade release. Do not
uninstall the existing version unless you are having trouble installing the upgrade. Uninstalling will require you to load
some application settings, such as the calibration file.

Upgrade Procedure (short)


1. Install the Phi3D_v2.x.apk file in the root directory of the tablet.
2. Open ES File Explorer and tap the Phi3D_v2.x.apk file.
In rare cases you will need to uninstall the old Phi.3D application before you can install the upgrade release. See the
Upgrade Procedure (long) in the section below.

Upgrade Procedure (long)


Follow these steps if you are prompted to uninstall the old release of Ph.3D before installing the upgrade.
1. Uninstall the current version of Phi3D.
a. Power on the tablet and select the Google Apps button. (Figure 63)
b. Select Settings then select Apps (Figure 64), then select Phi.3D (Figure 65)
c. Select Uninstall (Figure 66) and select OK when asked to uninstall the App (Figure 67).

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Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65

Figure 66 Figure 67

2. Load the Phi3D_v2.x.apk file in the root directory of the tablet. This is accomplished by connecting the tablet to
the laptop or PC where you downloaded the Phi3D_v2.x.apk file. The tablet will look just like any other USB
drive. Copy the Phi3D_v2.x.apk file to the root directory of the tablet or a subdirectory where you can find it
later. The root directory will also contain a calibration file with .cal file extension. Figure 68 shows how a Nexus
tablet appears in Windows Explorer.

3. Open ES File Explorer on the tablet. Navigate to the root directory and tap the Phi3D_v2.x.apk file. Note that
the Phi.3D_v2.x.apk file needs to be located either in the root directory of the sdcard on the tablet or in another
directory previously created. In this case it is saved in the DpSoftware folder. See Figure 69. This root
directory is where the *.cal file will be located. Select Install. See Figure 72.

4. Reload the calibration file by opening Phi.3D from the Apps screen on the tablet. Then select the SETTINGS tab
and select Load Calibration. See “Starting the Software” above.

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Figure 68 - Directory Location

Phi.3D Update Tutorial Video (PC): https://youtu.be/sj2wiGl57nM


Phi.3D Update Tutorial Video (Mac): https://youtu.be/f7wwok8QOa0

Figure 70 - DP Software Folder


Figure 69 - SD Card

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Figure 72 - Phi.3D Installation


Figure 71 - Phi.3D Application

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TIPS AND TRICKS

Configuration Back-Up
Make a backup copy of your calibration file in the event of hardware failure. You can always source a replacement tablet
should there be a problem.

Start-Up
Before you get started make sure there is a proper calibration file loaded. If not, it will affect your results. You can easily
check or correct this by going to the SETTINGS tab and choosing the right calibration file for the unit. This must be done
prior to starting to capture data. Customers should use the X_Y.cal file if they have one and the X_YHOU.cal or
X_Ytemp5.cal file for earlier units (initial naming conventions). X represents the sensor manufacturer serial number and
Y represents the DotProduct sensor serial number. Contact support@dotproduct3d.com if your file is missing.

Scene Path
When you begin scanning, remember to consider the following when choosing your starting point:
• Have good geometric features such as intersecting planes and objects (as indicated by the "Scene Fitness" bar.)
• If traversing an object, start at the logical beginning and the end of a closed path.
• Begin at point you can come back to if you think you will need to pause.

Scene Consideration
Make sure there aren’t gaps in the scene such as large spaces between vessels otherwise the system may lose
tracking. Add a feature to the scene such as a trash can or chair to bridge the gap. Capturing floors, ceilings and
walls can be very problematic if they are monochromatic or reflective. Tracking depends on stable geometric and
photometric features in the scene. You can improve results by panning along the floor/wall or wall ceiling edge. Adding
targets will also allow better tracking. This is particularly important when the runs are long, for example a long piping
run, and the tracking features are few.

Scene Surface Consideration


If possible, transparent or semi-transparent surfaces should be covered before scanning. The reason is that the infrared
pattern from the sensor could get distorted when it goes through glass or similar materials, resulting in non-accurate
readings. If possible also cover wide-area reflective surfaces. Small chrome handles etc. are perfectly fine but large
mirrors etc. could be a problem.

Imaging Technique
When imaging an area of interest, it is recommended to traverse the area initially with goal of capturing as little detail as
possible. If higher detail is needed on a particular spot, or if capture of a hidden or shadowed area is needed, do an initial
traverse first without details, then going back to the particular areas of interest to fill in the details. This may also be
separated into several capture sessions using the append feature.

Scanner Handling
Keeping the scanner orthogonal i.e. normal to the main surface has a positive effect on accuracy. Scanning at an angle
against surfaces usually results in reduced accuracy caused by sensor distortion. Holding the DPI-7/8 as orthogonally as
possible will help with overall result quality.

Measurement Accuracy versus Tracking Stability


Getting close to objects in the scene generally leads to more accurate data but at an increased risk of tracking loss,
depending on the amount of surface geometry and texture of the captured object. Getting far away generally includes
more features and textures into the field of view and hence leads to more stable tracking but it can introduce distortions
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when the scanning range exceeds 2 m.. Therefore users should always get as close as possible to get accurate results but
as far away as necessary to guarantee stable tracking.

Image File Size


DP files are highly compressed. A size of 30 MB or more is considered huge. When DP files are loaded into memory,
the space requirement increases 25 fold; 10 MB of DP file expand to about 250 MB of memory allocated internally for all
the data. A good rule of thumb on size is to try to maintain the DP file size at or below 20 MB.
If you must scan a scene that will exceed the file size and practical scene size limitations, break the scene into smaller
overlapping scenes. Use the Append function, or a tool like Cyclone Register (cloud-based registration) to joins scenes
together.

Targeting
Target picks should be on close objects / surfaces and the picked targets should face straight towards the viewpoint. Avoid
picking targets at the borders of a target frame. These recommendations will improve accuracy of the target pick. Picking
targets that are far away, at high angles, or at the very borders of a target frame, will result in less than optimal results.
One physical target (as declared in the control file) may be associated to detections in any number of image frames,
however at most one target per target frame may be associated.
Target RMS value can be improved by user-associating a broad range of targets (going well beyond the 3 required ones)
and also associating targets that are physically well distributed in the scene (as opposed to associating for example 3 targets
that are physically close together in a large scene).
After obtaining a target transformation through pressing the "Fit All Targets" button, it is recommended for the user to
check for mis-associated targets. This is because while obtaining the target transformation the system tries to automatically
associate control targets with target detections, and hence it is recommended for the user to double-check if the automatic
association was successful. A failed automatic association typically shows up as purple circles that are far off center of the
green circles in the frame view (See section about Targeting in this manual for more details).
Pressing the "Fit All Targets" button again, once mis-associated targets have been checked and possibly corrected, typically
improves the target fit.

Accuracy
• Bumping or dropping the system is very likely to impact the sensor calibration and system accuracy. So treat
your instrument with care. We strongly recommend storing the device in the rugged case it is provided with
when it is not being used, and particularly when being transported.
• Drift errors are possible due to the natural operating principles of a mobile 3D capturing device. The use of
targeting in the scene will reduce or entirely get rid of drift. For best results assign targets and do 'fit targets' before
you post-process the data.
• During scanning the color feedback can be helpful in determining the capture precision of the surface. Green is
very good and yellow is usually acceptable but avoid pale or grey areas if you need high precision on these spots.
• Allow the device to warm-up for full time (dependent on disconnect time) for best results.

File Management
Append characters (i.e. “_O”) to the DP file name to indicate its updated status.
 Optimize O
 Target T
 Coordinate System C
All work on the DP scanner is automatically saved to folder DPAutoSave. If you forget to export to a new name, you can
use the FILE Load Scene function to review previously autosaved files, then reload and save.

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