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Unit 3: THE GEOSPHERE:

minerals and rocks


1. The geosphere
2. Minerals
3. Minerals and their properties
4. Rocks
5. Igneous and metamorphic rocks

VOCABULARY:
1. Mineral, rock, raw material (materia prima), depth (profundidad), crust (corteza), mantle (manto), consist of ( be formed from,

formado de), core (núcleo), huge (enorme), inner core (núcleo interno), outer core (núcleo externo), layer (capa), surface layer

(capa superficial), thick (grueso), plain (llanura).

2. Fixed chemical composition (composición química fija), crystalline structure (estructura cristalina), shape (forma), crystalline

network (red cristalina), cool (enfriar), amorphous (amorfo), quartz (cuarzo), feldspar (feldespato), mica (mica), ore (mena).

4. Sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock, igneous or magmatic rock, detrital sedimentary rock, conglomerate (conglomerado),

sandstone (arenisca), clay (arcilla), saline rock, gypsum (yeso), limestone rocks (rocas calizas), living beings, coal (carbón), oil

(petróleo), remains (restos).

5. Molten (fundido), plutonic and volcanic rocks, granite, syenite, gabbro, basalt, pumice, andesita, slate, marble.
1. THE GEOSPHERE

The solid part of


the Earth

Its temperature
increases with
depht
(3ºC / 100m)
Activity 5 on page 28. Copy and complete the table
below in your notebook.

Activity 6 on page 28
TYPES OF CRUST
América – Atlantic Ocean – Europe
THE OCEANIC CRUST
América – Atlantic Ocean – Europe
2. MINERALS

There are amorphous minerals because their components do not have


time to form geometrical shapes. Examples: opal.
3. MINERALS AND THEIR
PROPERTIES
Density Cleavages (exfoliación)
Fracture Lustre (brillo)
Colour Streak (raya)
Hardness (dureza)

Actividad. Copia en tu libreta estas siete propiedades de los


minerales con su definición y con ejemplos. Para ello tendrás que copiar
los recuadros que aparecen en las páginas 62 y 63 de tu libro en
español.

Actividad. Copia en tu libreta los diez minerales que forman la escala


de Mohs en orden creciente de dureza.
Density
Relationship between the mass and the
volume of a mineral
(Relación que existe entre la masa del mineral y su volumen)

LOW NORMAL HIGH


(baja) (alta)

Sulfur Galena Mercury Gold


(Azufre) (Galena) (Mercurio) (Oro)
(2 g/cm3) (7 g/cm3) (13,5 g/cm3) (19 g/cm3)
Cleavage (exfoliación)

When a mineral breaks into smooth, flat-


sided fragments
(Un mineral tiene exfoliación cuando al golpearlo y romperlo presenta caras planas)

IN SHEETS
(en láminas)

White mica Black mica Gypsum


(Moscovita o mica blanca) (Biotita o mica negra) (Yeso)
Cleavage (exfoliación)

IN CUBES
(en cubos)

Halite Galena Sylvite


(Halita o sal común) (Galena) (Silvina)
Cleavage (exfoliación)

IN RHOMBOHEDRON
(en romboedros)

Calcite
(Calcita)
Fracture
When minerals break into irregular pieces
(Los minerales que no se rompen presentan distintos aspectos, que en conjunto
se denominan fractura)

CONCHOID FIBRILLAR
(Concoide) (Fibrilar o astillosa)

Silex Asbestos
(Silex) (Asbesto)
Lustre (Brillo)
How the surface of the mineral appears
when it reflects light
(Aspecto que presenta la superficie de un mineral cuando refleja la luz)

METALLIC VITREOUS OR GLASSY GREASY

Pyrite Gold Olivine Talc


(Pirita) (Oro) (Talco)
(Olivino)
Colour

Sulfur Malachite Olivine


(Azufre) (Malaquita) (Olivino)

Azurite Graphite
(Azurita) (Grafito)
Streak (Raya)
The colour of the mineral in powder form
(El color del mineral pulverizado; es más característico y constante que el color del
mineral por lo que se utiliza para su identificación)

WHITE BROWN OR BLACK

Gypsum Pyrite
(Pirita)
(Yeso)
HARDENESS (Dureza)
Resistance that the material has to being scratched
(Resistencia que opone un mineral a ser rayado)

PARA MEDIR LA DUREZA SE


UTILIZA LA ESCALA DE MOHS
Esta escala está constituida por 10
minerales dispuestos en orden, de
forma que cada uno raya a los
anteriores y es rayado por los
posteriores.
Ejemplo: el apatito raya a la fluorita, calcita,
yeso y talco, pero es rayado por el feldespato,
cuarzo, topacio, corindón y diamante.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pv5h9K7eOwI
4. ROCKS
Rocks is a natural material that consists of minerals

Types or groups of rocks

IGNEOUS OR
SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
MAGMATIC
Sedimentary rocks
Are formed from fragments of other rocks or the remains of living things or
dissolved salts that precipitate

Types of sedimentary rocks

Detrital Saline Limestone


Consist mainly of calcite

Formed from fragments Formed when dissolved salts in Can be formed from the
of other rocks the water precipitate because remains of living things
the water evaporates (skeletons, shell…) or through
chemical processes
(stalactites and stalagmites)

FOSSILS FUELS: Coal, oil and natural gas were formed millions of years ago from plant and
animal remains. Some people think they are a type of sedimentary rocks but other people don’t agree with it.
Detrital sedimentary rocks
Are formed from fragments of other rocks.
There are three types according to the size of their grains

Conglomerates Sandstone Clay


(conglomerados) (arenisca)
(grains greater than 2 mm in (grains between (arcilla)
diameter) 2 mm and 1/16 mm) (grains smaller than 1/16 mm)
How are detrital sedimentary rocks
formed?
Saline sedimentary rocks
Are formed when salts dissolved in the water precipitate
because the water evaporates.

Halite Gypsum
(halita) (yeso)
Limestone sedimentary rocks
Are formed from the remains of living things or through
chemical processes (when calcite dissolved in water precipitates)

Stalactites and
stalagmites

Limestones
(calizas)
Fossil fuels
Are formed from plant (coal) and animal remains (plankton: oil
and natural gas)

Coal Oil Natural gas


(carbón) (petróleo)
Activities. Answer the following questions:
a) Do most rocks consist of one or more minerals?
b) How many types of rocks are there?
c) How many types of sedimentary rocks are there?
d) How can the sedimentary rocks be formed?
e) How do the grains differ between clays, sandstones and conglomerates?
f) What types of sedimentary rocks are formed by dissolved substances
that precipitate? And from the remains of living things? Write some
examples
g) Which is the main difference between a stalactite and a stalagmite?
Do most rocks consist of one or more minerals?

Most rocks consist of many minerals but other,


such as quartzite, only have one minerals (calcite).
How many types of rocks are there?

There are three types of rocks: Sedimentary,


Igneous or Magmatic and Metamorphic.
How many types of sedimentary rocks are there?

There are three types of sedimentary rocks:


Detrital rocks, Saline rocks and Limestone rocks.

There are also another type, FOSSIL FUELS: coal, oil and natural gas.
How can the sedimentary rocks be formed?

The sedimentary rocks can be formed from


fragments of other rocks or the remains of living
things or dissolved salts that precipitate.
How do the grains differ between conglomarates,
sandstones and clays?

The three types of detrital rocks differ in the size


of their grains.
What types of sedimentary rocks are formed from
dissolved substances that precipitate? And from the
remains of living things? Write some examples

Saline and limestone rocks.


Examples: halite, gypsum, stalactites and stalagmites

Limestone rocks and fossil fuels.


Examples: limestones and coal.
What is the main difference between a stalactite and a
stalagmite?

A stalactite hangs from the ceiling of a cave and a


stalagmite rises from the floor of a cave.
5. IGNEOUS AND
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Molten material from the Earth’s interior.
MAGMA It is a mixture of gases and minerals in a liquid state.

COOLS

Igneous or Magmatic rocks

TWO TYPES (depending on where magma or lava cools)

PLUTONIC rocks VOLCANIC rocks


Are formed when magma cools Are formed when lava cools on the
deep inside the Earth Earth’s surface
Differences between plutonic and volcanic rocks

PLUTONIC rocks VOLCANIC rocks

1. Are formed when magma cools 1. Are formed when lava from volcanoes
in the deep inside the Earth solidifies on the Earth’s surface
2. Cooling very slowly 2. Cooling very quickly
3. Many crystals with similar sizes 3. Few crystals

Examples: granite Examples: pumice,


syenite and gabbro andesite and basalt
PLUTONIC rocks

Granite Syenite
(granito)
(sienita)
Gabbro
(most common in (gabro)
continental crust)
VOLCANIC rocks

Pumice Andesite Basalt


(pumita) (andesita) (basalto)
(most common
in oceanic crust)
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
High pressure and high
Igneous and sedimentary temperature
rocks of the deep inside the Earth Metamorphic rocks
In solid state

Examples: slate, marble and gneis

Clay Very high pressure and high temperature


SLATE
(pizarra)

Very high pressure and high temperature


Granite GNEIS

Very high temperature and high pressure


Limestone MARBLE
(mármol)
Activities 12 and 13 on page 32.

Activities 1 and 2 on page 34.

Activities 1 and 2 on page 35.