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GEOLOGIC HAZARDS:

IMPACTS, CHALLENGES
AND PREPAREDNESS

LEO VAN V. JUGUAN, CESO V


Regional Director
DENR, Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Region 6
TYPHOON YOLANDA, NOVEMBER 2013
TYPHOON YOLANDA, NOVEMBER 2013

6,340 death toll


ST. BERNARD, GINSAHUNGON, LEYTE, FEBRUARY 2006

SOURCE: CENRO
ILOILO
ST. BERNARD, GINSAHUNGON, LEYTE, FEBRUARY 2006

1,126 death toll

The 2006 Leyte, Philippine Debris Avalanche


CHERRY HILLS
LANDSLIDE (1999)
GEOLOGIC HAZARDS:
What are they?

BRGY. CAWILIHAN, LEON, ILOILO


GEOLOGIC HAZARDS
• Earth processes occurring as
IRREGULAR EVENTS in which, its direct
interaction with the material environment
is CAPABLE OF CAUSING SIGNIFICANT
NEGATIVE IMPACT ON MAN’S LIFE AND
WELL-BEING;

• EXAMPLES: LANDSLIDES, FLOODS,


EARTHQUAKES, STORM SURGES, etc.
Philippine Setting Prone to
GEOHAZARDS
• Within the Ring of Fire
• Within the Earthquake Belt
• Within the Pacific belt of tropical cyclone
(average of 20 TYPHOONS A YEAR)
WHY DO WE HAVE
GEOLOGIC HAZARDS?
Continental Drift
WHY DO WE HAVE GEOHAZARDS IN THE PHILIPPINES?

 Location of most of the world’s volcanoes and earthquake generators (e.g. trenches, faults,
etc.)
 Highly prone to geologic hazards (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide, etc.)
 Potential for mineralization (formation of metallic deposits, etc.) is also high
Porphyry Cu belts
Philippines

Porphyry Cu belts
WHY IS THE PHILIPPINES GEO-HAZARD
PRONE:
• Numerous active Faults and Trenches
• Numerous volcanic belts and active volcanoes
• Generally mountainous terrain and steep
slopes
Tectonic Map of the
Philippines

Source: PHIVOLCS
Negros
Oriental
Earthquake
Mineral Central
Districts Cordillera
(Cu, Au, Fe)

Zambales
(Cr, Ni, Pt, Cu, Paracale
Au) (Au, Fe, Cu, Ni)

Masbate
(Au)

Negros
Eastern
(Cu,
Mindanao
Au)
(Cu, Au, Ni, Cr)
Zamboang
a
(Cu, Au,
Cr)
WHAT IS A LANDSLIDE ?

Downward movement of soils, rocks


and other debris due to

Not always fast !


TRIGGERING MECHANISMS:

heavy rainfall
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
(Landslides)

A. LOCATION / TOPOGRAPHY

B. SLOPE ANGLE

C. ROCK / SOIL TYPES

D. DEGREE OF WEATHERING /
ALTERATION IN THE ROCKS / SOIL
E. PRESENCE AND ORIENTATION OF
STRUCTURES

F. PRESENCE OF WATER

G. HISTORY OF LANDSLIDE
OCCURRENCES IN THE AREA

H. HUMAN INITIATED EFFECTS (AS


AGGRAVATING FACTOR)
PICTURE TAKEN IN IGBARAS, ILOILO
Picture - Brgy. Ingay, Leon, Iloilo
Brgy. Cunsad, Alimodian, Iloilo, August 1, 2012
Landslide Head
Landslide Head

Sliding Plane

Old cracks and the sliding plane at the


landslide head with very smooth and
oxididized surfaces.
Photos of houses near the head of the landslide. The residents
living in these houses were relocated to the barangay proper of
Brgy. Cunsad.
Brgy. Cunsad, Alimodian, Iloilo,August 2012 Landslide after TS Gener in July 2012,
Head

Base

Approximately 10.5 hectares of farmlands were affected/ destroyed by the


recent landslide in Brgy. Buenavista, Tubungan, Iloilo.
Day Care Center and Ricefields,
Brgy. Buenavista, Tubungan
BACOLOD NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL, MAY 2011

BACOLOD NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL, AUGUST


2011
Active landslides in the Transcentral Highway, Negros Occidental (2010)
BRGY. QUINTIN REMO, MOISES PADILLA, AUGUST 9, 2009

BRGY. QUINTIN REMO, MOISES PADILLA, FEBRUARY 8, 2010


BRGY. QUINTIN REMO, MOISES PADILLA
BRGY. QUINTIN REMO, MOISES PADILLA
Photo Credits: PAG-ASA
What is flood?

“Too much water at the ‘wrong’ place!”


FLOODS occur when a large
amount of water overflows
beyond its normal confines,
especially what is normally
dry land.

What is flood?
“Too much water at the ‘wrong’ place!”
What causes flooding?

Heavy rainfall Dam or dike failure

Storm surge (coastal areas)


Other Causes of Flooding:
Land subsidence,
outdated/clogged drainage
structures, reduced channel
capacities due to siltation and
encroachment of structures

What is flood?
“Too much water at the ‘wrong’ place!”
FLOODED AREAS IN CAGAYAN DE ORO
DURING TYPHOON SENDONG

December 2011
FLOODED AREAS IN CAGAYAN DE ORO
DURING TYPHOON SENDONG
BEFORE TYPHOON SENDONG

AFTER TYPHOON SENDONG


Manila
August 15, 2007; Typhoon Egay

Photo from Getty Images by AFP/Getty Images


TS “SENDONG”
December 2012, Southern Mindanao

newsinfo.inquirer.net
TY “ONDOY”

September 2009, NCR and Luzon


TY “PEPENG”

September 2009, Luzon


TS “QUINTA”

December 2012, Visayas & Mindanao


Typhoon Quinta, December 2012

Photo Credits: ABS-CBN Iloilo


Photo Credits: ABS-CBN Iloilo
Dingle town proper, during Typhoon Quinta, December 2012
Sta. Barbara Airport Resettlement Area Photo
Taken 2007

After Typhoon Frank,


2008

Photos from DENR 6


Libacao, Aklan

AKLAN RIVER, LIBACAO TO KALIBO, AKLAN


KALIBO, AKLAN
SIBALOM RIVER, SIBALOM, ANTIQUE
Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge
TYPHOON YOLANDA, NOVEMBER 8, 2013
IMPACTS
LOSS OF LIFE
 DAMAGE TO PROPERTIES
 LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD
 INTERRUPTION OF
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND
OTHER HUMAN ACTIVITIES
 DISPLACEMENT
 TRAUMA
What can be done?

…and what has been done…


The National Geohazard
Assessment and Mapping Program
The DENR-MGB National
Geohazards Mapping and
Assessment Program
An on-going priority program of the DENR-MGB
that aims to:

 identify areas in the country that are


susceptible or vulnerable to various geologic
hazards, and
 increase public awareness in order to lessen
or mitigate the negative impacts of these
events.
Generation of Geohazard Maps

LANDSLIDE POTENTIAL
=

Infrastructures
+
Vegetation map
+
Drainage map
+
Geomorphic map
+
Slope map
+
Geologic map
Basis for the rating of susceptibilities to landslides:
Presence of active and/ Presence of numerous and
or recent landslides
large tension cracks

Brgy. Oslao,
San Francisco,
Surigao Del
Norte

Areas with drainages that are prone to


landslides damming Areas with steep slopes
Brgy. Malangza, Igbaras, Iloilo
Liloan
Actual investigation of actual flood extent and
site interview on flood prone areas
STANDARD FIELD DATA SHEET
Generation of geohazards map (1:50,000 scale)

HIGH LANDSLIDE
SUSCEPTIBILITY

POSSIBLE ACCUMULATION ZONE


areas likely to be affected by
MODERATE LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY transported landslide materials

LOW LANDSIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY


Detailed Geohazards Assessment and Mapping at
1:10,000 scale
(2011-2014)
• More detailed geohazards
mapping for highly critical
areas.
• Complimented by an early
warning through workshops
with critical communities and
piloting of installation of
landslide warning signages

• Issued direct advisories to


LGUs particularly prior to arrival
of typhoons (e.g. TS Chedeng,
Juaning)
JANIUAY, ILOILO
SAMPLE MAPS
MAASIN, ILOILO
SAMPLE MAPS
Beyond Mapping: Getting people involved
 Direct advisories on geohazard threats issued
to cities/municipalities and barangays for
critical areas, right after the field survey
 Provision of geohazard maps and advisories
to concerned LGUs previously identified as
prone to geohazards
Making people aware through IEC

• Conduct of province- and


municipal-wide information and
awareness campaign
• Distribution of IEC materials on
geohazards (posters, flyers,
comics,videos)
TAPATAN, DILG - 2012

HLURB Seminars
In partnership with the Office of the Civil Defense (OCD), Region 6

Geohazard Presentation for the LCEs-Province of Iloilo, March 9, 2012


Ombudsman Caravan of Services in Carles, Iloilo. August 29, 2013.
MGB-6 posters distribution (landslides and flooding).

ABS-CBN – Iloilo interviews RD Juguan


October 14, 2013
Re: Landslide in Igbaras, Iloilo
Publication of geohazard maps on landslides and floods thru the
internet (http://www.mgb.gov.ph)
Coordination /meetings with LGUs

SB session Barotac Viejo, Iloilo, August 27, 2013.

SB San Dionisio, Iloilo, October 7, 2013.


Installation of landslide warning signage

Before After
DENR-MGB Landslide Warning Signage

MGB 2008

Little Kibungan Village in Barangay Puguis, La Trinidad, Benguet .


Effects on slopes viewed looking westward BEFORE and AFTER Typhoon Pepeng.
OTHER GEOLOGIC HAZARDS
SINKHOLES
What is a “Sinkhole”?
A sinkhole is an area of ground that has no natural
external surface drainage;

Sinkhole in La Salvacion, Carmen, Bohol


when it
rains, all of
the water
stays inside
the sinkhole
and typically
drains into
the sub
surface.
Limestone terrain with caves, sinkholes, and solution pipes.

Source: (Geoscience Australia)


Sinkholes are common in
limestone areas.

The land usually stays intact for a while until the underground spaces
just get too big. If there is not enough support for the land above the
spaces then a sudden collapse of the land surface can occur.
A sinkhole collapse in an undeveloped area.

(Photo Credit: Center for Cave and Karst Studies/Western Kentucky University)
A collapsed sinkhole in a parking lot of a mall in the U.S.

(Photo Credit: Center for Cave and Karst Studies/Western Kentucky University)
Brgy. Oringao, Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental
• EARTHQUAKES- shaking of
the Earth’s surface caused by
rapid movement of the Earth’s
rocky outer layer;

• Elastic Rebound Theory-if fault


surfaces do not slip easily past
one another, energy can be
stored in elastically deformed
bodies of rock. When the fault
finally does slip, the elastically
strained bodies of rock rebound
to their original shapes;
• Occurs at a rate of several
hundred per day
worldwide;

• Significant earthquakes in
Panay Island - earthquakes
in Negros Occidental,
Iloilo and Antique last July
2011)

Epicenter of earthquakes
in the Philippines
EARTHQUAKE-
RELATED
HAZARDS
Buildings tilted in liquefied sand due to
1964 Niigata, Japan quake

Karl V. Steinbrugge Collection,


Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
GROUND SHAKING/ACCELERATION
Baguio Park Hotel

Residential Bldg.
Umingan, Pangasinan
Central Luzon State
University Library
San Jose, N. Ecija
GROUND/
SURFACE RUPTURE

Dalton Pass,
Digdig, N. Vizcaya

Imugan River
near Digdig, N. Vizcaya
Negros Earthquake, February 2012
LIQUEFACTION

• The process by
which saturated,
unconsolidated
sediments are
transformed into
a substance that
acts like a liquid
(e.g. from intense
shaking of
earthquakes);
Kobe Port,
1995
Sand boils, Christchurch, New Zealand

Dagupan, Pangasinan
VOLCANIC-RELATED
HAZARDS
Volcanoes in the Philippines

23 active volcanoes www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph


Mt .Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991
Volcanic hazards

∆ lava flow
∆ ashfall
∆ pyroclastic flow
∆ lahar flow,
∆ volcanic gas
∆ volcanic bombs

Mt. Pinatubo Eruption, 1991


LAHAR
Bamban, Tarlac

ASH FALL
Clark Air Base

September 1991
• Tsunamis are sea waves generated

TSUNAMIS
by a major disturbance of the
seafloor and overlying water
(faulting due to earthquakes,
submarine landslides and volcanic
eruptions);

• As the water is displaced, it surges


outward in all directions in a large
wave;

• Height - May reach several tens of


meters;

• Velocity - less than 80 kilometers per


hour (land) to about 800 kilometers
per hour (deep ocean)
Tsunami, Japan Earthquake,
March 2011
IMAGES FROM THE JAPAN MARCH 2011 EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMIS
Courtesy of Space Imaging and USGS CRSSP
THE BARANGAY CAMANDAG,
LEON, ILOILO EXPERIENCE
• IN 2006, MGB-6 CONDUCTED A
GEOHAZARD ASSESSMENT OF (7)
CRITICAL BARANGAYS IN LEON,
ILOILO.

• MGB-6 ASSESSMENT TEAM ISSUED


LANDSLIDE THREAT ADVISORIES
AND CONDUCTED LECTURES TO THE
RESIDENTS OF THESE BARANGAYS
ABOUT THE LANDSLIDE AND
FLOODING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE
AREA AND THE PREPAREDNESS AND
MITIGATION MEASURES.
• IN 2008, BRGY. CAMANDAG WAS
SEVERELY AFFECTED BY
LANDSLIDES DURING TYPHOON
FRANK.

• 32 HOUSES OUT OF 49 WERE


TOTALLY DAMAGED AND BURIED.

• TOTAL POPULATION IS 323.


The Brgy
Brgy.. Camandag Story
The Brgy
Brgy.. Camandag Story

BRGY. CAMANDAG “ala SAINT BERNARD


TRAGEDY”. 80% OF BRGY SITE AFFECTED
The Brgy
Brgy.. Camandag Story
THE GOOD NEWS!!!

THERE WERE NO CASUALTIES IN


BRGY. CAMANDAG…

DESPITE DAMAGES TO PROPERTIES.


THE BRGY. CAWILIHAN, LEON
EXPERIENCE
• An earthquake also occurred at
about past 10:00 A.M. on Thursday,
August 25, 2011 that caused ground
shaking in the area;

• Last August 27, 2011, a landslide was


reported at Brgy. Cawilihan due to
strong and continuous monsoon rains
brought about by Typhoon Mina.

• The landslide occurred at 10:30PM


• The affected area is about 20
hectares;

• Eight (8) houses were totally


damaged; In addition, farmlands
were affected; Portions of the
barangay road, more or less 50
meters long, collapsed;
• The 8 houses are occupied by 11
families comprising of 51 individuals.

• The landslide has rendered the 20


hectares not fit for rice production.

• This also affected the livelihood of


the 3 households occupying the land.
LANDSLIDE THREAT
ADVISORY

MGB-6 GEOHAZARD
ASSESSMENT IN 2008
BRGY. CAWILIHAN, LEON, ILOILO
BRGY. CAWILIHAN, LEON, ILOILO
THE GOOD NEWS!!!

• THERE WERE NO CASUALTIES IN BRGY. CAWILIHAN


DESPITE THE SEVERITY AND EXTENT OF THE
LANDSLIDE;

• THE RESIDENTS WERE ABLE TO REMOVE ALL


THEIR BELONGINGS INSIDE THEIR HOUSES
BEFORE THE LANDSLIDE.
MGB Acting Director Leo L.
Jasareno:
“The maps are ‘lifesavers’
but would be effective
only if they are actually
heeded. “
(Philippine Daily Inquirer, “Geohazard Maps
to be available on Internet soon” published
January 27, 2012)
WE CANNOT PREVENT NOR EXACTLY
PREDICT THE OCCURRENCES OF
GEOLOGIC HAZARDS.
BUT, WE CAN PREPARE AND SAVE
OURSELVES, FAMILIES AND
COMMUNITIES…
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Region 6