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ESTRUCTURA DEL OJO HUMANO

El ojo es una masa gelatinosa casi esférica contenida dentro de una envoltura dura y
flexible, llamada esclerótica.
La córnea es transparente, mientras que la esclerótica es blanca y opaca. La superficie curva
de la córnea sirve como el primer y más fuerte elemento convexo del sistema de lentes.
Gran parte de la curvatura impartida a un haz de rayos se da la interfaz aire-córnea.
Desde la córnea, la luz pasa a través de una cámara llena con un fluido acuoso denominada
humor acuoso que nutre la parte anterior del ojo. En el humor acuoso está sumergido un
diafragma conocido como iris que sirve como diafragma de apertura cuya función es
controlar la luz que entra en el ojo a través de su agujero o pupila.
El iris puede expandir o contraer la pupila dentro de una gama que va de 2mm en luz
brillante a 8 mm en la oscuridad. Detrás del iris se halla la frente del cristalino.
El cristalino es una masa compleja de capas fibrosas rodeada por una membrana elástica. El
cristalino proporciona el mecanismo de enfoque de alta definición necesario cambiando su
forma, es decir, tiene una distancia focal variable.
Los componentes refractantes del ojo, la córnea y el cristalino, pueden estudiarse como
parte de una lente de elementos dobles con un foco objeto de 1,56 mm frente a la superficie
anterior de la córnea y un foco imagen de 24,3 mm detrás suyo en la retina. Podemos
imaginar que el centro óptico de la lente combinada a 71,1 mm enfrente de la retina que se
halla en el borde trasero del cristalino.
Detrás de peste hay otra cámara llena con una substancia gelatinosa transparente hecha de
colágeno y ácido hialurónico denominada humor vítreo que da sustento al globo ocular.
Al interior de la membrana esclerótica se halla una envoltura interna, la coroides, una capa
oscura, provista de conductos sanguíneos y pigmentada con melanina, que absorbe la luz
parásita al igual que la cubierta de pintura negra en el interior de una cámara. Una capa
delgada de células receptoras luminosas reviste gran parte de la superficie interior de la
coroides: se trata de la retina.
El ojo humano contiene dos clases de células fotorreceptoras: los bastones y los conos.
La zona de salida del nervio óptico del ojo no contiene receptores, siendo insensible a la
luz; por esta razón se denomina punto ciego.
Cerca del centro de la retina existe una pequeña depresión de 2.5 a 3 mm de diámetro,
conocida como la mancha amarilla o mácula, cuyo número de conos es más que el doble
del de los bastoncitos y en cuyo centro se halla una pequeña región libre de bastones de
unos 0.3 mm de diámetro, llamada fovea centralis. Aquí los conos son más delgados y
están más densamente empaquetados que en ningún otro lugar de la retina. Puesto que esta
zona proporciona la información más clara y detallada, el globo ocular se mueve
continuamente de tal forma que la luz que llega del área al objeto de interés primario cae en
esta zona. Una imagen se desplaza constantemente a través de las diferentes células
receptoras por medio de estos movimientos normales del ojo. Si tales movimiento no se
dieran y la imagen se mantuviera estacionaria en una determinada serie de fotorreceptores,
tendería a desvanecerse. Sin la fóvea, el ojo perdería entre 90 y 95% de su capacidad,
reteniendo tan solo la visión periférica.

ÓPTICA
El ojo humano puede ser comparado como una cámara fotográfica, porque el
funcionamiento de los dos es similar, en el que una imagen real invertida está formada por
un sistema óptico convergente en una pantalla sensitiva.
En la cámara la imagen est formada en el plato del film, que es plano, pero en el ojo está
formada en la retina, que es una superficie curva.
Si la imagen se enfoca nítidamente en las células sensibles, la forma de la superficie no
importa. Se comprenderá, si el tamaño del ojo se compara con el de incluso una cámara en
miniatura, que la potencia del sistema óptico en el ojo debe ser muy grande, y el aumento
de la potencia en un sistema óptico conduce a una distorsión creciente, incluida la curvatura
de la imagen, es necesario corregir las poderosas lentes de la cámara para producir una
imagen plana. El ojo evita la borrosidad de la imagen al recibir la imagen curva en una
superficie curva.

El hecho de que la imagen esté invertida se puede verificar mediante el siguiente


experimento simple. Se hace un pequeño orificio en una tarjeta con una aguja o un alfiler.
Entonces la tarjeta se sostiene cerca del ojo, tan cerca que una imagen del agujero no puede
formarse en la retina, y el alfiler o la aguja se sostienen, apuntan hacia arriba, contra la
tarjeta opuesta al agujero, de modo que se proyecta una sombra. la retina si el ojo se gira
hacia una luz brillante.

Se ve que el punto apunta hacia abajo, aunque se sabe que la sombra en la retina apunta
hacia arriba. Por lo tanto, aunque la imagen de la retina está invertida, el cerebro la
interpreta como si fuera la correcta.

In a camera, focusing is done by altering the distance between the lens and the film. The
same effect is achieved in the eye by altering the focal length of the lens. When the ciliary
muscle is in its relaxed condition, the lens is large in diameter and, therefore, comparatively
thin in the middle. In this state, if the eye is a normal one, objects at infinity are focused
sharply on the retina, and the eye lens must be made stronger, that is thicker in the middle,
making the radii of curvature of its faces less. This is done by contracting the ciliary
muscle, thereby accommodating the eye to the nearer object. When the eye is fully
accommodated, the distance from it to the nearest object which can be clearly focused is
called the least distance of distinct vision, and the position of the object is the near point.
Similarly, the distance of the farthest object that can be clearly seen when the eye is fully
relaxed is the greatest distance of distinct vision, and the object itself is at the far point of
the eye. For a normal eye, the near point is usually taken to be at about 10 in., or 25 cm,
from the eye, and the far point at infinity.
The function of the iris, as in the camera, is to act as an adjustable diaphragm to let more or
less light into the eye, as required. In bright light, the pupil becomes smaller to prevent the
retina being overloaded with light, or dazzled. This would correspond to over-exposure of
the film or plate in a camera. On entering a dark room the pupils of the eyes dilate. So that
as much light as possible enters them. In this way the eye can accustom itself to extremes of
illumination.
Thus the optical action of the different parts of the eye corresponds to that of similar parts
of a photographic camera. The analogy is even more complete with a television camera, as
in this the images are not retained in static form, but signals corresponding to the images
seen at any instant are transmitted continuously along a cable, which thus corresponds to
the optic nerve in the eye.

SHORT SIGHT AND LONG SIGHT

In these defects of vision the power of the lens is not adapted to the length of the eyeball so
that the near point and far point are not in their normal positions.
Short sight, or myopia, is the name given to the defect wherein the eyeball is too long for
the power of the lens, or the lens too powerful for the length of the eyeball, so that the
image of a distant object is formed in front of the retina, and the far point is no longer at
infinity, but at some nearer point. In severe cases, objects only a few feet from the eye may
not be seen clearly. Since the defect is that the eye lens is too powerful, even when fully
relaxed, the correction must take the form of a lens, which, when combined with the eye
lens, makes the combination less powerful. Thus a diverging spectacle lens is required.
WORKED EXAMPLE. A short-sighted man cannot distinguish clearly any object beyond
200 cm from his eye. What spectacles would be required to enable him to focus an object at
infinity?
The spectacle lens must produce a virtual image at 200 cm of an object at infinity (assume
that the spectacle lens and the eye lens are coincident). In the lens formula, 𝑢 = +∞, 𝑣 =
1 1 1 −1
−200 𝑐𝑚. Therefore, 𝑓 = ∞ + −200 = 200. Por lo tanto 𝑓 = −200 𝑐𝑚.
A concave (diverging) lens of focal length 200 cm, or power -0*5 dioptre, would be
required. As well as moving the far point out to infinity, the concave spectacle lens of
course moves the near point farther out. This is no disadvantage, however, because if the
myopic eye possesses the normal degree of accommodation, the near point is in any case
nearer to the eye than normal.
The opposite defect, long sight or hypermetropia, is caused by the eyeball being too short
for the lens provided, or the lens not powerful enough for the length of the eyeball, so that
the image of an object close to the eye is formed behind the retina and is blurred. The near
point is, thus, farther from the eye than the normal 25 cm. With normal accommodation this
means that the far point is farther than infinity, that is, the eye can focus not only diverging
and parallel pencils, but also slightly converging ones. The correction is to provide a
converging spectacle lens which will increase the power of the eye lens.

WORKED EXAMPLE. A long-sighted eye has its near point 100 cm away. What spectacle
lens is necessary?
If sight is to be made normal, the near point has to be brought to within 25 cm from it
produces a vistual image 100 cm away, so that, so far as the eye lens is concerned, the
pencils will be diverging from a point at this distance. Applying the lens formula to this
1 1 1 1 1 +4−1 3
case, we have 𝑓 = 𝑢 + 𝑣 = +25 + −100 = 100 = 100. The lens required therefore has a focal
length of +100/3=33.3 cm, or a power of +3 dioptres.

ASTIGMATISM AND PRESBYOPIA

In astigmatism the configuration of the cornea or the lens is such that the effective focal
lengths for rays in different planes are different. If we assume all the refraction to take
place at the crystalline lens, it is as if this were not a lens with spherical surfaces but a toric
lens, that is a lens whose surfaces are parts, not of a sphere, but of a torus or anchor-ring,
which has different radii of curvature in different directions, like an inflated motor-car inner
tube. An extreme case is a cylindrical lens, which has an infinite radius of curvature in a
plane containing the axis of the cylinder, and a finite one in a plane perpendicular to this.
A toric lens can be considered as made up of a spherical and a cylindral component, and
such a lens does not produce a point image of a point object but, instead, two focal lines
separated by some distance. In between these will be a circle of least confusion, which will
be the nearest approach to a point image produces by the leans. Such an eye lens is said to
be astigmatic, and will give blurred vision at all distances. The correction is to introduce a
spectacle lens which has equal and opposite cylindrical curvature, with the axis of the
cylinder in the appropriate direction. Astigmatism is commonly combined with either long
or short sight, so that the spectacle lens must have suitable spherical and cylindrical
components combined into one toric lens.
Presbyopia is the loss of accommodation which sometimes comes on with advancing age
due to loss of power in the ciliary muscles. The result of this is that the near point recedes
while the far point approaches. No single spectacle lens will correct both these defects, and
the only solution is to have either two pairs of spectacles