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 Chemistry deals with the composition, structure and properties of matter.

It is described
in terms of atoms and molecules.
 This branch of science studies the composition, properties and interaction of matter.
 Chemical principles play important role in different areas such as weather patterns, brain
functioning and computer operations.
 Different chemicals are important for the economy as well as the daily needs of
consumers. For e.g. fertilizers, alkalis, acids and dyes etc.
 These chemicals are not only important for food production such as fertilizers, pesticides
and insecticides, but are responsible for all the available medicines including the life
saving medicines such as taxol and cisplatin.
 Chemistry also helps in producing new materials with specific properties such as
magnetic, electric and optical. Some of these materials are superconducting ceramics,
conducting polymers and optical fibres.
 Matter: Everything that has mass and occupies space, for e.g. book, ice, etc. It has three
 Solids: The different particles are closely held together and this form of matter
has definite shape and volume.
 Liquids: The different particles are close, but can move and this form of matter
has indefinite shape and definite volume.
 Gases: The different particles are far apart and this form of matter has indefinite
shape and volume.
 These forms are inter-convertible and are affected by temperature and pressure:

Heat Cold
Solid Liquid Gas
Cold Hot
 Matter is classified as either pure or mixture, which are further sub divided


Mixture Pure substance

Homogeneous Heterogeneous Elements Compounds

mixture mixture
 Mixture is a combination of two different substances in any ratio such as sugar in water,
air, tea, etc.
 Homogeneous mixture is a uniform mixture such as sugar in water, air, etc.
 Heterogeneous mixture is a non uniform mixture such as sand in water
 Pure substances have fixed composition in fixed ratio such as glucose, silver, copper, etc.
Pure substances cannot be separated by simple physical process.
 Elements consist of one type of particle. They may be atoms and molecules. For e.g.
silver, copper, etc.
 Compounds are substances in which two or more elements combine to form a compound.
For e.g. water and ammonia,

 Thus, atoms of different elements are present in a compound in a fixed ratio. The
properties of compounds are different from those of their elements. For e.g. hydrogen
and oxygen are gases and water is liquid.
 Each substance has unique properties defined in terms of physical and chemical
 Physical properties are those which can be measured without changing the identity or
composition of the substance, for e.g. colour, odour, melting point etc.
 Chemical properties on the other hand, require chemical changes to occur. For e.g. their
acidity, basicity, combustibility.

 Mass is the amount of matter present in it. The weight is the force exerted by gravity on
 Volume has unit of length3, so in SI system unit is m3.
 Density is the amount of mass per unit volume
 Temperature is measured in degree Celsius, degree fehrenheit and Kelvin

 In order to measure large quantities, they are rounded, for e.g. 103 or 10-3.
 For multiplication and division, same rules as exponential number
 For subtraction and addition, first convert each number in the same scale. For e.g. 104 on
each number.
 Precision refers to closeness of various measurements for same quantity. Accuracy is the
agreement of particular value to the true value of the result. For e.g. if true value is 2.00
g, then precision can be 1.95 g and 1.93 g; while accuracy is 1.99, 2.00 and 2.01 g.
 Significant numbers are meaningful digits with certainty.
 All non zero digits for e.g. 285 cm or 0.285 cm.
 Zeros preceding first non zero digit, such as 0.03 has 1, while 0.0052 has 2 significant
 Zeros between two non zero digits are significant, for e.g. 2.005 has four significant
 Zeros at the end or right of a number are significant provided they are on the right side of
the decimal point. For e.g. 0.200 has 3 significant numbers, while 100 has 1.
 Exact numbers have infinite significant numbers. For e.g. 20 eggs or 2 balls can be
represented by infinite significant numbers such as 20 or 20.0 or 20.000000.
 Addition or subtraction of significant numbers:

 Multiplication and division of significant numbers cannot have more significant numbers
than those present in the two numbers itself: