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Environmental Chemistry

Michelle Natasya Gunawan – 018201700008 Kezia Kusumaningtyas — 018201700003

Aidah Maqbulah – 018201700009 Friska Fauziah - 018201700014

Riri Asyahira – 018201700007

Water Pollution Problem

We worked at a sugar industry, once upon a time, there are many groups of society complained that the sugar
industry emit many water pollution to the river. As an expert of environmental chemistry what should be
done to solve this problem in the sugar industry?



Planting and harvesting

1) Sugarcane requires an average temperature of 75

degrees Fahrenheit (23.9 degrees Celsius) and
uniform rainfall of about 80 inches (203
centimeters) per year. Therefore, it is grown in
tropical or subtropical areas. In Florida, Hawaii,
and Texas, standing cane is fired to burn off the dry
leaves. In Louisiana, the six- to ten-feet (1.8- to 3-
meter) tall cane stalks are cut down and laid on the
ground before burning.

2) The harvested cane stalks are loaded

mechanically into trucks or railroad cars and taken
to mills for processing into raw sugar.

Preparation and processing

3) After the cane arrives at the mill yards, it is mechanically unloaded, and excessive soil and rocks are
removed. The cane is cleaned by flooding the carrier with warm water (in the case of sparse rock and trash
clutter) or by spreading the cane on agitating conveyors that pass through strong jets of water and combing
drums (to remove larger amounts of rocks, trash, and leaves, etc.).

Juice extraction pressing

4) Two or three heavily grooved crusher rollers break the cane and extract a large part of the juice, or swing-
hammer type shredders (1,200 RPM) shred the cane without extracting the juice. Revolving knives cutting
the stalks into chips are supplementary to the crushers. (In most countries, the shredder precedes the crusher.)
A combination of two, or even all three, methods may be used. The pressing process involves crushing the
stalks between the heavy and grooved metal rollers to separate the fiber (bagasse) from the juice that
contains the sugar.

5) As the cane is crushed, hot water (or a combination of hot water and recovered impure juice) is sprayed
onto the crushed cane countercurrently as it leaves each mill for diluting. The extracted juice,
called vesou, contains 95 percent or more of the sucrose present. The mass is then diffused, a process that
involves finely cutting or shredding the stalks. Next, the sugar is separated from the cut stalks by dissolving
it in hot water or hot juice.

Purification of juice — clarification and evaporation

6) The juice from the mills, a dark green color, is acid and turbid. The clarification (or defecation) process is
designed to remove both soluble and insoluble impurities (such as sand, soil, and ground rock) that have not
been removed by preliminary screening. The process employs lime and heat as the clarifying agents. Milk of
lime (about one pound per ton of cane) neutralizes the natural acidity of the juice, forming insoluble lime
salts. Heating the lime juice to boiling coagulates the albumin and some of the fats, waxes, and gums, and the
precipitate formed entraps suspended solids as well as the minute particles.
The sugar beet solution, on the other hand, is purified by precipitating calcium carbonate, calcium sulfite,
or both in it repeatedly. Impurities become entangled in the growing crystals of precipitate and are removed
by continuous filtration.

7)The muds separate from the clear juice through sedimentation. The non-sugar impurities are removed by
continuous filtration. The final clarified juice contains about 85 percent water and has the same composition
as the raw extracted juice except for the removed impurities.

8) To concentrate this clarified juice, about two-thirds of the water is removed through vacuum evaporation.
The syrup leaves the last body continuously with about 65 percent solids and 35 percent water. The sugar
beet sucrose solution, at this point, is also nearly colorless, and it likewise undergoes multiple-effect vacuum
evaporation. The syrup is seeded, cooled, and put in a centrifuge machine. The finished beet crystals are
washed with water and dried.

9) Crystallization is the next step in the manufacture of sugar. Crystallization takes place in a single-stage
vacuum pan. The syrup is evaporated until saturated with sugar. When sucrose concentration reaches the
desired level, the dense mixture of syrup and sugar crystals, called massecuite, is discharged into large
containers known as crystallizers. Crystallization continues in the crystallizers as the massecuite is slowly
stirred and cooled.

10) Massecuite from the mixers is allowed to flow into centrifugals, where the thick syrup, or molasses, is
separated from the raw sugar by centrifugal force.

11) The high-speed centrifugal action used to separate the massecuite into raw sugar crystals and molasses is
done in revolving machines called centrifugals. The raw sugar is retained in the centrifuge basket because the
perforated lining retains the sugar crystals. The mother liquor, or molasses, passes through the lining (due to
the centrifugal force exerted). The final molasses (blackstrap molasses)containing sucrose, reducing sugars,
organic nonsugars, ash, and water, is sent to large storage tanks.
Once the sugar is centrifuged, it is "cut down" and sent to a granulator for drying. In some countries,
sugarcane is processed in small factories without the use of centrifuges, and a dark-brown product
(noncentrifugal sugar) is produced. Centrifugal sugar is produced in more than 60 countries while
noncentrifugal sugar in about twenty countries.

Drying and packaging

12) Damp sugar crystals are dried by being tumbled through heated air in a granulator. The dry sugar crystals
are then sorted by size through vibrating screens and placed into storage bins. Sugar is then sent to be packed
in the familiar packaging we see in grocery stores, in bulk packaging, or in liquid form for industrial use.



Cane Wash Water - This is generated only if the cane is washed (cane washing is done only on
mechanically harvested cane). The suspended solid content of cane wash water is
high. It may also contain considerable amounts of sugar.

Mill House Effluent - Large amounts of water are used for cooling the bearings of milling
machines which pick up lubricants. It also includes spillovers and floor washes.
Filter Press Cloth Wash Water - The clothes of filter press are washed periodically to remove the mud
clogging in the pores. This effluent contains enough suspended solids and
possesses a high BOD.

Effluent from Evaporation - Cooling and condenser waters are the wastes from this section which
contain sugar particles that gain access during concentration of juice at multiple
effect evaporators.

Boiling House Effluent - Mostly generated by leakage from centrifuges and periodical floor
washings. This waste has an extremely high BOD though small in volume and
discharged intermittently.

Spray Pond Overflow - The cooking waters are recycled from the pond. However excess water is
let out as waste which possess low BOD and suspended solids.

Boiler House Effluent - Like other industries boiles blow down also contribute to effluent, but the
volume is much less.

Molasses Effluents- Leakage and overflow from molasses storage tanks contribute to the high
BOD of sugar factory effluents.

During off season - Juice heaters and other heating surfaces are cleaned to remove
accumulation of scales with hot cemstic soda solution then with dilute
hydrochloric acid followed by rising with water. These operation produce a large
volume of effluents BOD value of this effluent is high.


- Oil and grease

- Carbonate
- Bicarbonate
- Nitrite
- Phospate
- Total Suspended Solid (TSS)
- Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)
- Volatile solids


The immediate oxygen demand of sugar factory effluents causes rapid depletion of the dissolved oxygen of
receiving streams resulting in anaerobic conditions. This results in the release of foul odors and in the
production of hydrogen sulfide which precipitates iron as black sulfide leading to unsightly appearance. All
these effects make the water totally unfit for fish and other aquatic life. Also, the dissolved and suspended
solids deteriorate slowly resulting in bastions odors. Further, suspended impurities block the drainage and
ditches. The excess oil and grease content is a nuisance which prevents aeration.



Evaluate the process of processing wastewater at PG from In House Keeping to the process of
processing wastewater in WWTP.
- In House Keeping
Pollution often comes from factory waste or from inside the factory. Industrial pollution will be
effective if it is carried out by controlling sources from within the factory. By means of the control,
2 things will be obtained,
1) Control pollution load
2) Waste of material can be suppressed
This is due to the analogy that waste of material will cause a high pollution load and increased
production costs.

- Liquid Waste Quality Standards

According to the Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 05 of 2014, the quality standard of
wastewater is a measure of the extent or level of pollutant elements or the amount of pollutants that
will be disposed of or released into water media from a business or activity, while wastewater is the
remainder of a business or activity that is liquid.

- Waste Water Treatment Process

Microbes as the main factor in processing wastewater using activated sludge units certainly need
food. Aerobic microbes require carbohydrates, fats, and proteins as their staple foods. These foods
can be classified as biodegradable organic which is a pollutant group in liquid waste. Aerobic
microbes also need oxygen for their metabolic processes.

D. Effluent Amount in Case Study


Waste Water:  Segregate non-contaminated wastewater streams
Washing of incoming raw from contaminated streams;
materials containing crop  Reduce the organic load of wastewater by
pests, pesticide residues, preventing the entry of solid wastes and
and pathogens concentrated liquids into the wastewater stream:
 Implement dry precleaning of raw material,
equipment, and production areas before wet
- Allow beet to dry on field if possible, and reduce
breakage during collection and transport through
useof rubber mats and lined containers.
- Use dry techniques to unload beet
- Fit and use floor drains and collection channels
with grids and screens or traps to reduce the
amount of solids (e.g. beet parts) entering the
-Prevent direct runoff to watercourses, especially
from tank overflows

Sugar processing wastewater has a high content of organic material and subsequently a high
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) organic material arriving with the beet or cane. Wastewater
resulting from the washing of incoming raw materials may also contain crop pests, pesticide
residues, and pathogens.
Process Wastewater Treatment
Techniques for treating industrial process wastewater in this sector include preliminary filtration for
separation of filterable solids; flow and load equalization; sedimentation for suspended solids
reduction using clarifiers; biological treatment, typically anaerobic followed by aerobic treatment,
for reduction of soluble organic matter (BOD); biological nutrient removal for reduction in nitrogen
and phosphorus; chlorination of effluent when disinfection is required; dewatering and disposal of
residuals; in some instances composting or land application of wastewater treatment residuals of
acceptable quality may be possible. Additional engineering controls may be required to contain and
neutralize nuisance odors.
Sugar manufacturing requires considerable quantities of high quality water for raw
material cleaning, sugar extraction, final sugar washing, and cooling and cleaning
equipment. Steam is essential to the evaporation and heating of the various process steps in sugar
processing. Beet and cane raw materials also contain high percentages of which can be recovered
and reused during processing. Additional industry measures applicable to sugar manufacturing
• Recycle process water and apply to the washing of incoming raw material;
• Use closed loops for intensive solid and flue gas scrubbers.

Pollution Prevention and Control

Since the pollutants generated by the industry are largely losses in production, improvements in
production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. Approximately 90% of the
saccharose should be accounted for, and 85% of the sucrose can be recovered. Recirculation of
water should be maximized.
Wastewater loads can be reduced to at least 1.3 m3/t of cane processed, and plant operators should
aim at rates of 0.9 m3/t or less through recirculation of wastewater. Wastewater loads from beet
processing should be less than 4m3/t of sugar produced or 0.75 m3/t of beet processed, with a target
of 0.3 to 0.6 m3/t of beet processed
Good pollution prevention practices in sugar manufacturing focus on the following main

• Reduce product losses to less than 10% by better production control. Perform sugar auditing.
• Discourage spraying of molasses on the ground for disposal.
• Minimize storage time for juice and other intermediateproducts to reduce product losses
and discharge of product into the wastewater stream.
• Give preference to less polluting clarification processes such as those using bentonite instead
of sulfite for the manufacture of white sugar.
• Collect waste product for use in other industries—for example, bagasse for use in paper
mills and as fuel. Cogeneration systems for large sugar mills generate electricity for sale.
Beet chips can be used as animal feed.
• Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals. Procure cane washed in the field. Prefer
the use of dry cleaning methods.
• Recirculate cooling waters.


Monitoring of the final effluent for the parameters listed in this document
should be carried out at least daily, or more frequently if the flows vary significantly. Effluents
should be sampled annually to ensure thatbiocides are not present at significant levels. Monitoring
data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals and compared with the operating
standards so that any necessarycorrective actions can be taken. Records of monitoring results should
be kept in an acceptable format. The results should be reported to the responsible authorities and
relevant parties, as required.

Many of the effluents of the sugar industry is not a result of a direct chemical reaction but often it is from the
excess water from washing or cooling the machine. Though there are some chemical process like for
example the clarification of juice which uses precipitating calcium carbonate, calcium sulfite, or both . If
the waste water gets into a river it has dangerous effects for the fishes and other aquatic life. When come in
contact with humans it can have dangerous health effects. It also destroys the aesthetic beauty of the river.
That is why proper treatment is needed in order to prevent that. Proper actions needs to be taken in order to
minimize pollution. By adapting and changing operation policies and do proper treatments.