CHAPTER 2
2.1 INTRODUCTION
generated AC power is injected into the grid and/or utilized by the local loads
through the filter. In some cases, the PV system is combined with storage
devices which improve the availability of the power. The subsequent section
provides more details about various components of the PV system.
DC to 3Ø
PV AC Filter Grid
Array Inverter
PWM
Controller PLL
MPPT
Controller
PV Parameters Ratings
Maximum output Power (PMax) 235 W
Power Tolerance (PT) [0 to 5] W
Percentage Efficiency of Module ( ) 15.0%
Voltage at maximum power point (VMPP) 30.0 V
Current at maximum power point (IMPP ) 7.84A
Open circuit voltage (Voc) 37.44 V
Short circuit current (Isc) 8.83 A
I
+ +
ID
ISc
D Vpv
VD


I = Isc  I D (2.1)
19
qvd
kT (2.2)
I d =I 0 e 1
I Rs
+ +
ID
Iph
D RP Vpv
VD
 
where
V  Module voltage
I  Module current
Is  saturation current,
KTA
Vt =
q
The photo current mainly depends on the solar irradiance and cell
temperature (Tsai et al 2012).
where
ki  Temperature coefficients
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
5 10 15 Voltage(V) 20 25 30 35
(a)
10
0
5 10 15 Voltage (V) 20 25 30 35
(b)
PMPP
ISc
IMPP
VMPP Voc
V PV (V)
(c)
300
Irradiation 1200 w / m2
250 Irradiation 1000 w / m2
Irradiation 800 w / m2
200 Irradiation 600 w / m2
Irradiation 400 w / m2
150
100
50
0
9 18 Voltage (V) 27 36 45
(a)
12
Irradiation 1200 w / m2
Irradiation 1000 w / m2
Irradiation 800 w / m2
Irradiation 600 w /m2
8
Irradiation 400 w / m2
0
9 18 Voltage (V) 27 36 45
(b)
250 Temp 15 C
Temp 20 C
Temp 30 C
200
Temp 40 C
Temp 50 C
150
100
50
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Open crcuit Voltage(V)
(a)
10
4 Temp 50 C
Temp 40 C
Temp 30 C
2 Temp 20 C
Temp 15 C
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
PV Voltage (V)
(b)
HF AC to DC DC to 3Ø
PV DC / AC Rectifier AC Grid
Array Inverter Inverter
(a)
DCDC DC to LF 3Ø
PV Converter AC Transfor Grid
Array Inverter mer
(b)
DC to 3Ø
PV AC Filter
Grid
Array Inverter
(a)
Non
isolated DC to 3Ø
PV DCDC AC Filter
Grid
Array Converter Inverter
(b)
e. Modular topology.
PV PV PV
Central Inverter
=
AC bus
strings
PV Strings Inverters
AC bus
String Inverters
PV Strings
=
AC bus
DCDC
Converters
PV Strings
=
=
Multistring Inverter
= = AC bus
=
=
=
DC bus
AC bus
(a)
(b)
(c)
In 1980, the first line commutated inverter topology was used for
PV based electric drive application and it was used up to 10 kW (Bulawka et
al 1987) as shown in Figure 2.15. It has the advantage of high efficiency, low
cost, and robustness. However, it suffered from a low power factor of 0.6 to
0.7 only.
PV Filter AC
Array
S1 S3 S5
+
Vpv
3
PV Cpv
Filter phase
grid

S4
S6 S2
VL
+ S1 S3 S5
Vpv 3
PV
phase
grid

S4
S6 S2
=
S
The current source inverter (CSI) inverters have the common mode
voltage problem due to parasitic capacitance effect. To overcome the short
circuit problem in the conventional voltage source inverter, the dual buck half
bridge inverter (DBHBI) was introduced (Zhilei Yao et al 2009a) as shown in
Figure 2.18. However, DBHBIs have the drawback of high switching stress
and low input utilization than the bridge type inverters.
C1 S1
D2
AC
Vdc
D1 S2
C2
=
D2
S1
Vdc
D1 S2
AC
S3
D4
D3 S4
L1
D
S1 S3 S5
+
Vpv C1 3
PV Cpv C2 phase
grid

S4 S6
S2 =
L2
DC Lf Li L/2 R/2
Cp
Rf AC
Cp Cf
DC L/2 R/2
This NPC inverter requires two PV strings of the same rating. Each
string conducts for only one half cycle. This results in high volume of
decoupling capacitor which increases the total cost and size of the
system. Optimized transformerless inverter topology proposed by
Huafeng Xiao et al (2011) is based on Heric topology and H6 topology.
37
+
Cpv Cdc1 S1
PV S2
S5
S3
L1 AC
Cf
Cdc2
L2

S4 S6
Cpv
P
L1
D
+ S1 S3 S5
Vpv C1 3
PV C2 phase
CpN
grid

S4 S6 S2 =
N L2
S5
S1 S3
L1
Cdc
AC
PV
 L2
S2
S6 S4
P D
1:n
S1 S3 S5
+ L2
L1
Vpv 3
PV Cpv phase
grid
Vc C

S4
S6 S2 =
N
IC
Vq 1
V PI  Mod(2 )
Orthogonal S
V signal
generation V Vd
dq
1 f
 LPF
2
RMS V
calculation LPF
The designed system needs to comply with the strict utility grid
standards. Then it must follow certain standards specified by the utility
authority of every country. The grid connected system must obey the
following norms.
2.10 SUMMARY