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Mediaeval Burmese wall-paintings from a temple

at Pagan now in the Hamburgisches Museum
für Völkerkunde, Hamburg.

by
K. J. Whitbread
B. A. (Hons) London
Harnburg

Pagan, classical name Arimaddanapur, on the left bank of the vast Irra-
waddy River, for centuries the only great highway of the country, lies over
460 river-miles north of Rangoon and was in the 12th. century the proud and
flourishing capital of Burma.
Geographically within the dry-zone of Upper Burma it experiences aver-
age daily temperatures of over 90 °F, cooling to around 70 °F at night and
receives between 25--40 inches of rainfall during the S. W. Monsoon season
(May- October). For the greater part of the year it is extremely arid, an
area covered by a scrub ofthin stunted trees and priddy bushes, abounding
in dried-up watercourses that only run after a shower. Even in the 12th.
century it was being called tattadesa- 'the dry country'.
The date of its foundation and early historystill remain obscure. Accord-
ing to the Burmese chronicles, a series a quasi-historical texts handed down
through the years in manuscript form, it developed from a duster of villages
into a larger unit by A. D. 849 when its chief, Pyinbya, enclosed it with a
wall, the remains of which can still be seen at the Sarabhä Gate 1• Mudl of
the original wall has been washed away by the river and annual flooding,
but both inside and outside the city walls there are magnificent temples,
stüpas and monasteries, mainly of brick, evidence of her greatness as a
centre of mainly Theraväda Buddhism, art, culture and administration.
Burma has been described by countless travellers from the 14th. century
as the country •par excellence• of pagodas. No work of merit is so richly
rewarded as the building of a pagoda and the title payataga continues to
rank high in Burmese society. The buHder gains much merit thus ensuring a
happy transmigration, for at death Buddhists believe ~ individual assumes
a new form to enjoy an existence which is more or less happy according to
the amount of good or bad that has previously been performed.
•Na hi dhammo adhammo ca ubho samavipäklno,
Adhalnlno nirayaip neti, dhammo päpeti suggatin u•
•Js it not true, hisproper fruit from right or wrong shall spring?
Right Ieads to heaven, unrighteousness a man to hell must bring•.•

1
Sud-est Aslatlque, L. F'Rinbuc, Paris, 1964, PI. 41.
1
Ayoghara Jiitaka. No. 510.

85

As it avails little to repair a previous dedication unless it is to one of the
great shrines, new pagodas raise tbeir spires to tbe sky, dleek by jowl with
older shrines which a little care would save from crumbling into anotber
mound of brick. Nowhere istbis moreevident than at Pagan where an area
of approximately 25 square miles is richly ca.r peted with tbe remains of
Buddhist monuments of many types.
The early religion of Pagan was a mixture of corrupt Mahäyäna Buddhism
of the Northern School whidl used Sanskrit as its medium, näga (snake)
worship with its priests the Ari 1 , and spirit worship. Our knowledge of the
first king of Burma, Aniruddha, (A. D. 1044-1077) is based largely on con-
jecture. The Chronicles teil us he extended bis dominians eastwards into
the Shan States, westwards into Arakan and southwards to Thaton. In
Ceylon the Buddhistking Vijayabähu I under attack from the Colas request·
ed and obtained financial help from Burma and later supplied full texts of
the Päli Tipitaka beld in sudl high esteem in Pagan. Päli now superceded
Sanskrit as the langnage of the sacred texts and the Mon king, members of
the royal family, monks and skilled craftsmen of all kinds uprooted from
Thaton, settled down to work for tbeir new Burmese masters.
Fired by religious zeal, the kings of the Pagan dynasty, members of the
royal family, courtiers and well-to-do laymen inaugurated an era of prolific
temple building over the next two centuries. Thonsands of stone inscrip-
tions were set up in or near pagodas recording the meritorious deeds of the
donors, royal events, and dedications of slaves and ricelands to specific
pagodas. Many contain the prayers and aspirations of their donors followed
by fearsome curses describing the fate awaiting anyone so ill-advised as to
destroy the work of merit. The temples were embellished with stucco, wall-
plaques, wall-paintings and sculpture. In A. D. 1287 however, the Pagan
dynasty was to fall prey to the well-disciplined and seasoned soldiers of the
Mongols. The city was looted and pillaged by tbe invaders. She bad risen,
flourished and fallen and was now destined to become what she has remain-
ed ever since, a ghostly city of ruined temples, a quiet backwater where
pagoda slaves and their descendants faithfully tended tbe shrines in their
care. Futurekings of Burma dlose other sites for tbeir capitals but members
of the Court, high offleials and the laity came to worship at the famous
shrines on festive occasions and villagers in the many small hamlets dotted
over the huge area, plied their respective trades, one of the most important
of which was the manufacture of laquerware '·
Two English offleials who led missions to the Court of A va, Midlael SYMEs
in 1795 5 and J ohn CRAWFURD • in 1827 made only passing reference to the
city and gave cursory accounts of their visits, probably because they were
hurriedly made during intervals they were able to snatdl from public duties.
I A. s. I. 1915-16, PP 79---93.
' Meisterwerke Burmanischer Lackkunst, Dr. Gernot PRUNNElt, Hamburg, 1966.
' An Account of an EmbClßsy to the Kingdom ol Ava, 1195. London. 1800, 1969 (?) .
• Journal of an EmbClßsy Jrom the Governor General o/ India to the Court o/ Ava,
1821. London, 1834.

86

Colonel YULE 7 , Secretary to Arthur PHAYRE during the 1855 Mission, how-
ever, devotes a whole chapter to the ancient capital and has left us a fine
account of its contents.
After the Third Anglo-Burmese War 1886 and the period of civil unrest
that followed it, numbers of travellers made their way north to see the re-
cently acquired area of Upper Burma formerly under the control of the
Burmese king. Their books 8 contain fascinating contemporary accounts of
the country and very good photographs of the old cities of Burma showing
famous pagodas, royal buildings and exquisitely omate wooden monasteries
many of which have since been destroyed. The Irrawaddy Flotilla Company
ran an efficient service of mail and cargo steamers twice a week between
Rangoon and Mandalay (1897) offering passengers comfortable accommoda-
tion. The joumey took approximately 8 days upstream and 5 days down-
stream according to the season of the year and the state of the river. Those
wishing to visit Pagan disembarked at Nyaung-U some 6 miles upstream and
made the last part of the journey on foot, on horseback, by pony or ox-cart
along sandy tra<ks shaded here and there by welcome acacia and other
flowering trees of the dry-zone.
For administrative convenience Burma at that time was a Province of
India staffed by civil service officers many of whom came to Iove the
country and begin research into its history, language, art and culture, either
as part of their job or in their Ieisure hours. In India the Ardlaeological
Department had been ta<kling the Herculean task of listing monuments and
writing monographs on the ardlaeological remains in the sub-continent, but
little wasdonein Burma. By 1889 the Department bad begun to lose favour
in Govemment circles and a period of retrenchment began. Burma was left
without a Surveyor. Lord Curzon, the new Govemor General of lndia, how-
ever, in his speedl to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta on the 1st. February,
1899 announced that he was going to pursue an active policy during his
term of office and encourage the promotion of ardlaeological study, researdl
on and preservation of relics of the past. From 1902-1926 the Burma
Archaeological Department published its own annual reports. They were for
a time merged with those of India but after the separation of Burma from
India in 1937, they resumed publication until the Japanese Invasion in 1942.
Since lndependance in 1948 they have appeared only in Burmese.
One man whose line of duty took him to Pagan, not as a traveller but as
a soldier on active service against the Japanese in the re-occupation of
Burma 1944--45, was Field Marshai Sir Willfarn SLIM, Commander of the
British XIV Army. Hisforward units had reached the lrrawaddy in February
1945 and a Sikh patrol which bad been secretly landed on its eastem bank, re-
ported there were no J apanese soldiers south of the town. Thanks to the

7
A Narrative ol the Mission sent by the Governor General of Indla to the Court
of A va, 1855. London, 1858, 1969.
8
Wanderfngs In Burma, G. W. Bmo, London, 1897, Picturesque Burma Past and
Present, Mrs. E. HART, London 1897. The SJiken Bast, V. C. Scott O'CoNNOB, 1904,
1908, and MandaJay and other eitles ol Burma, 1907.

87

able deception measures of one of his generals, the Japanese evacuated
Pagan and moved their troops up-river. Had the Japanese High Command
not dlanged the disposition of their forces, doubtless in the ensuing battle,
many gems of Mon and Burmese ardlitecture would have been razed to the
ground. It is very easy to understand how this very human Commander feit,
as after an enervating and exhausting campaign through the dense tropical
jungles of the Manipur-Burma border, he and his troops descended into the
drier central plain of Burma and saw for the first time the cooling waters
of the Irrawaddy and Pagan on the opposite shore, the golden and white
spires of her temples shimmering in the heat •To waten across the great
river as dawn breaks over ancient Pagan is to hold one's breath at so mudl
beauty. Pagan once the proud capital of Burma was in all its glory at the
time of the Norman Conquest, now silent, ruined and deserted it is still very
noble and beautiful. Its 1200 temples, madder red or ghostly white rise like
some fantastic pyramids or turreted fairy castles, others in tapering pagoda
spires from the sage-green mass of trees against the changing pastel blues,
reds and golds of sunrise 11 • • Such must have been the scene too when a
certain Herr Thomann 46 years previously suddenly tumed up.

The Thoma.n n Allalr.
Although certain aspects of the climate at Pagan have done much to pre-
serve many of its monuments in a remarkably good state after the passage of
ten centuries, exposed as they have been to the fierce heat of day, cooling
at night, the weathering effects of wind and rain and to earthquake tremors
from time to time, it is Man bimself who has sought to destroy and desecrate,
sometimes during periods of intemal strife, but more often than not out of
personal avarice and greed.
Lack of repair has resulted in many temples falling, brick by brick to
become mounds of earth covered with a patina of earth on which small
bushes struggle for existence. The more tenacious climbing plants and
shrubs have thrust their roots and tendrils amongst the ruins clawing at any
projecting piece of stucco or ledge for support thus weakening many a
doorway and wall. Masonary has cracked, fallen and broken. Treasure
hunters for centuries have disembowelled Buddha images and the inner
dlambers of pagodas to discover the valuables deposited therein by the
pious. Countless objects have been removed by raiders, thieves, villagers,
globe-trotters and vandals and the former glories of some painter's or
mason's art ruined by enthusiastic villagers armed with brushes and buckets
of whitewashl
Professor Gordon LuCE, the Burma epigraphist, still pre-eminent in bis
field, now over 80 but putting in a full-working day in his wonderful library
in the peace and solitude, charm and equable climate of Jersey in the
Channel Islands writes •Jn 1899 Th. H. Thomann, accompanied by C. von

1 Deleat lnto Vlctory. Field Marshai Sir Willlam SLJM, Cassel, London, 1956.
p. 429.

88

I. 1923. 1899. Government of India. opened an enquiry and placed a police guard around their monastery. It was in the end tbougbt expedient to place a 7 man Sikh guard around our peaceful dwell- ing until our departure• 11 • Thomann and his party bad taken up residence in a monastery on the bank of tbe lrrawaddy River near Pagan in June 1899. 101. 229. Frescoes were sawn off and the Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi irreparably damagedM to. From: H. Thomann Gillis landed in Burma and proceeded to the ancient city of Pagan in the Myingyan District. To: The Secretary to the Govemment of India. 11 Pagan.. left their signatures on walls wbich they defaced (small temples 1/4 mile west of the Htilominlo). Ronkel and Kugelmeyer. We bad previously exchanged flag and cannon signals with the extremely belpful Captain of tbe Britisb river steamer with whom we bad travelled from Rangoon to Nyaung-U whenever he passed. "Spoilation of sacred edifices at Pagan by German Ardlaeologists. we enjoyed every cour- tesy and facility for the first few months. TBOMANN. We were everywbere and at all times accused 9f doing wrong. sculptures and much eise from pagodas at Pagan intending to send everything back to Germany. 11 Old Burma. January 1900." = No. Of his visit TaoMANN teils us • As we had been recommended to the British Indian Government by the German Foreign Office. Mathews Esq. Muller. It transpired that Thomann and bis partybad re- moved some hundreds of jätaka wall-paintings. His successor immediately sbowed tbat be was not at all well-disposed towards German people. They pursued tbeir 'archueological researches' diligently for three months and then news of tbeir activities reached the ears of the District Commissioner. Meurer. there began a period of Iess pleasant times for us. it was finally confiscated. Officiating Revenue Secretary to the Govt. expelled and some of the loot recovered. but witb the <hange of tbe chief administrative officer of tbe district. I am directed to inform that in June 1899 a party of five persons under the leadership of a Mr.Dietrich. Proceedings of the Foreign Department.. Myingyan. p. p. The official records of the period help us to gain a clearer picture of the . Stuttgart. Thomann Gillis claims to have been deputed for Archaeological research by the Royal Museum of Ethnology at Berlin. The party produced no credentials at Rangoon and made no communica- tion to the Local Government.Early Pagan Vol. Disatisfied with Thomann's answers to bis questions. 933 9A-16 dated 30th. In the end this was disallowed 'as it would alarm tbe natives' and then one day when the saluting gun 'went off by itself' as tbe steamer made its way downstream. November. Home Department. Th. were caught. J.e scapade. In tbe event some of the treasures they bad taken were recovered and the partywas expelled from Burma in November 1899. but it has since been ascertained tbat Mr.S. be ordered a search to be made of their quarters.M. of Burma. 89 . H.

At the beginning of October. Under these orders the party which consisted of Herr Gillis. For three months the party remained at Pagan carrying on their operations without arousing tbe suspicion of local officers. his temporary premises were seardled. decided it would be better not to take action under the Penal Code. and Messrs. The Deputy Commissioner then placed a police guard to watch the operations of the party and opened an enquiry. At the same time it appeared to him desirable that Herr Gillis and bis party should not be allowed to remain in the country and thus obtain further opportunities for continuing their depredatioils. and it was found that the acts of spoilation had been numerous and extensive. His Honour the Lieutenant Govemor after full consideration. as it is possible that Herr Gillis will complain. on reflection. They bad shown that they were bent on seenring by underhand and unprincipled means objects of value. In view of this advice and as the valuable properties bad been re- covered. Runkel and Kugelmeyer left Rangoon by steamer on the 16th. Dietrich. therefore. and that a conviction might not in consequence be obtainable. Neverthe- less. when visiting Pagan. November. As Mr. decided that the so-called ex- ploring party should be expelled from the country. but at the same time he pointed out that there would be some difficulty in proving guilty knowledge. bowever. a number of tiles representing incidents in tbe life of the Buddha bad been chiselled out of the walls of one pagoda and removed by the party at night in order to avoid detection. Advocate was consulted as to the prosection of these so-called ex- plorers under tbe Penal Code. Ieader. Meurer. The Govemment Advocate advised tbat a prosection would lie for damaging a sacred edifice under Section 295 of the Indian Penal Code. make any complaint as bis conduct must be regarded witb the gravest disapproval by any civilised Government. the Lieutenant 90 . concealed some facts while admitting others. and in pursuance of this policy tbey were ordered to remove themselves from Burma under Section 38 The Foreigners Act III of 1864. 1899. the removal of which would un- doubtedly wound the feelings and insult the religion of devout Bud- dhists. the District Commissioner ascertained that the party had been removing a number of articles of veneration to Buddhists and of great ardlaeological value from pagodas or Buddhist temples whidl are a feature of Pagan. the Govt. on being taxed with this. The Lieutenant Governor thinks it doubtful whether Herr Gillis will. Gillis. I am to explain that Herr Gillis and bis party claimtobe German subjects and that this report is made to the Government of India because Herr Gillis intimated before be left Burma that he intended to complain to the German Govemment of the manner he bad been treated in Burma. Under the orders of His Honour the Lieutenant Govemor. In the course of his enquiry it was elicited that amongst other sacred and valuable articles. Sir Frederic Fryer.

reveals bere and there sidelights of bis personality. The greater part of tbe book is devoted to Pagan and its temples but he included chapters on tbe Buddhist Clergy. lmpetuous ü he did not receive speedy replies to his flow of letters. In places it is scientifically unreliable. culture and ardlitecture of a far-away exotic eastem land. dated 11th. pages 180-183.s made on Harn- burg during the Second World War and representative pieces are on display in the Museum's gallery devoted to South East Asia. written on all sorts of odd pieces of paper from wherever he happened to be at that moment. Fortunately the • Sammlung Thomann • survived the devastating air attack. tbe Kube Zat. After protracted negotiations the Hamburgisdles Museum für Völkerkunde purdlased bis collection in 1906 for the not inconsiderable sum of Reichs Mark 60. He must have been a colourful figure of the times. 10 coloured plates interleaved with the text and an almost unreadable map of Pagan at the back. November.550. the Kubyauktha or Kalaku Paya. is regretfully silent about personal Observations of the trip and even omits to inform the reader when it was made. easy to understand bow confusion over unfamiliar and often very similar-sounding names arose. Back in Germany Thomann set about finding a buyer for bis ill-gotten antiquities and was ready to sell them to any institution or museum tbat was ready to meet bisinitialexorbitant price. Calcutta. rutbless to obtain bis own ends. lack. in- stead of tbe Theinmazi. 1900 was signed by Curzon and six other officers tz. January. He quotes few sources of his information. for example.ed the professional linguistic skills this kind of researdl demands and no doubt bad to rely on numbers of local inhabitants whose knowledge and command of English may have been rather limited. for the photo- graphs his party took were very good and bis book obviously demanded 11 lndla Office Library Records No. 2924. Rangoon and the Andaman Islands. The Ietter was transferred to the Foreign Department for disposal No. lt is. 1899 and a covering Ietter for- warded to Her Majesty's Secretary of State for India. he calls tbe Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi Pagoda. Again after much delay. and talks about two non-existent temples. for Thomann was always on the move in the years before the First World War. A perusal of the bulky correspondence that took place in Germany while he was trying to sell his collection. painstaking. There are 98 photographs. century. quite a detailed survey of his travels with many good photograpbs of Burma and Pagan at the turn of the 19th. however. 91 . Burmese customs and festivals. 5948. the Shwe Dagon Pagoda. Thomann was very much a pioneer. Govemor considers it expedient to acquaint the Government of India witb the facts of tbe case. he published a book on his Burma visit in 1923 and presented to the general reader and more particularly to those interest- ed in the art. 16th. easily annoyed by what he thought were delaying tedmiques of bureau- cratic officials.

The hardships and difficulties involved in the types of joumeys he undertock were innumerable. 9. MThe Thomann Affair• urged the Government to take steps to prevent a re-occurence of such depredations and caretakers 13 were appointed to watch over 127 buildings in Pagan protected by Government. albeit once again on a shoe-string budget. political and religious life of the people u ASB Sectlon m 1912-13. is being maintained by the present Burmese Government. lts texts are written in Päli. the jätaka. The Päli Text Society.a translation into Päli of the commentary as remernbered in Ceylon. Originally it was a metrical composition divided into sections according to the number of verses each jätaka contained. para. a vemacular of the kingdom of Magadha. London. Fortunately the policy of systematic examination and conservation of the monuments these devoted officials began. Just when the jätakas in their present form came into existence is impossible to say but it is generally assumed that the stories have been handed down through the centuries by oral tradition and that this commentary with its verses became what is now known as the Jätaka-atthakathä. Their reports make frequent reference to the deterioration of wall-paintings and the restrictions imposed on their labours by a paucity of funds. was further developed a hundred years later at the Council of Vesäli. was compiled after the demise of the Buddha around 483 BC at the Council of Räjagaha. E. he certainly was a man with a flair for organization. Detailed in- structions were issued by the District Commisioner. and completed in its essential parts at the Third Council under the aegis of the great Indian king Asoka. began a programme of research and conservation of which they must justifiably be proud. The jätaka and their popularlty in Burma. Asia and by scholars elsewhere interested in Indolo~ and Buddhism. 92 . a collec- tion of stories concerning the former existences of the Buddha. Tradition asserts that the Buddhist Canon. since its inception in 1882 has published scholarly editions of the texts and produced a !arge nurober of translations.mudl hard work. Myingyan and the Government Archaeologist to village headmen and pagoda durwans and a public notice was framed and circulated waming curio-hunters that the police bad powers to arrest anyone caught pilfering a pagoda and would take out legal proceedings against any such person u. that became the sacred language of the scriptures. 14 ASB Report 1902-3. The Sutta Pitaka has as the tenth book of the Khuddaka Nikäya. a language not directly derived from Sanskrit but a mixed dialect with several stages of development. The stories form part of the ancient pre-Buddhist traditions of India and throw a flood of light on the social. p 4. the Tipifaka. From 1902 the Burma Archaeological Department. It is still widely studied in the Buddhist countries of S. despite their meagre staff and totally insufficient finances.

They lay stress on the impermanence of all worldly things. T. specific Buddhist teachings and a whole gamut of stories Blustrating lessons of life. S. century to narrate a jätaka story in elegant phrases and rechereile vocabularly to delight the ear. and W. on the fiddeness of women. 1877-1897.. and on the benefits tobe enjoyed by those who practise alms-giving and other virtuous deeds. D. Whilst artists and scribes were busy at their labours. Cambridge Unlversity Press. sometimes at the expense of meaning. S. Leipzig.. set about composing pyo . They give us an insight into popular Buddhism as all are based on the dogma of karma.or storles of the Buddha's lormer births. amongst whom were Mons and Indians from Lower Burma. P. In Burma it is usual to speak of the . pleasant. 11 Jätakam. the jätakas became an extremely popular motif for temple decora- tion. 11 The Jätaka. Particularly fine sets were found in Mon at the Ananda Pagoda. We do know. and instructive tales. that by the 10th. Trübner.a Burmese verse form used almost exclusively in the 15th. Many of these skilful compositions have become Burmese classics and are assiduously studied in universities and schools in Burma.550 jätakas. the E. FAUSBÖLL edited the Jätaka in Päli for the first time in 1877 (six volumes and an index)1 5 and an English translation was made under the general guidance of Professor CowELL between 1895-1913 18• DUTOIT published a Germantranslation in Leipzig in 1908 17• When the commentary came to Burma poses many as yet unsolved pro- blems. Professor V. when the Burmeseking Aniruddha descended into Lower Burma. on the vanities of the world. showing how the Buddha in his former lives displayed one or more of the great virtues. century A. of members of the Burmese court. Later when the Singhaleseking provided Burma with the full Tipitaka. Burmese sets were made to embellish other temples during the era of great temple building by artists and craftsmen serving the Burmese Court. the Mons were well- versed in Päli. Re- pnnted P. 1908. but modern books Iist only 547. for example. however. das Buch der Erzählungen au. The 19th. 1895-1913. kindness.in those far off times. bravery or self- sacrifice..! frilheren Bxlstenzen Buddhas. learned members of the Buddhist Clergy in the seclusion of peaceful monastefies and scholars already familiar with the Päli text of the jätakas. They also portend the fate awaiting those who transgress. Reprinted 1956. 1964. century saw new literary activity in Burma in the form of drama. •zat• long plays ~~ The Jätaka tagether wlth lts commentary. London. Petleik Pagodas and the Myinkaba Kubyaukgyi. From times immemodal the Buddhist Clergy have used this ready-made teacbing material to explain to the laity by means of these amusing. at Pagan and elsewhere. either in wall-painting or terra-cotta form. Two outstanding prose writers U Awbatha and the Nyaunggan Sayadaw later translated the jätakas into flowing Burmese prose. T. 93 . The only ones thoroughly Burmese in dlaracter are the jätakas painted according to local artistic tradition in 1820 at Amarapura in the Pathodawgyi Pagoda.

63. Touring theatrical companies presented cycles of the Ten Great Jätaka. He called this temple the Kubyauktha Pagoda. A stairway in the eastern passage Ieads to the top of the eastem vestible and first terrace. (Plates 38. archways and other walls had formerly been richly decorated with standing and seated paintings of the Buddha. bowls. only one. Traditional wedding gifts and presents given on other important occasions are still exquisitely embellished with intricate and beautiful pattems showing jätaka scenes. Max and Bertha FnRARS. numerous deities and other omamental designs. the temple itself is in a fair state of preservation for it has recently been repaired by the Archaeolo- gical Department. 68. on silk scrolls and folding manuscripts and by the wood-carvers. There is no evidence available regarding the date of the temple or about its donor 1'. Director. the comic capers. a standing image on the northem side remains un- damaged. 2nd Ed. Burma. 10 For this up-to-date Information concerning the Theinmazi Pagoda I am indebted to U Aung Tbaw. An iron-grill door has been fixed to the main entrance and the other entrances have been blo<ked with honeycombed bri<k walls. Archaeological Survey. 69). The entrance hall was irregularly -covered with jätaka paintings and the niche. or excerpts from particularly well-loved stories and held village and town audiences enthralled by the poignant portrayal of tragic scenes. of the four Buddha statues against the central pillar. whilst other parts were removed by Thomann. Low flights of steps on each side then Iead directly into a square sanctum above the main hall containing a seated Buddha image fac- ing east. The popularity of the jätakas 18 has been further increased by the repre- sentation of well-known characters and scenes on silver and lacquerware betel boxes. scenes from the life of the Buddha and jätakas with descriptive legends once decorated the various walls but many have deteriorated and fallen down. Thomann describes 11 a square ruined two-storeyed temple with a vesti- bule through which he came upon a corridor surrounding a central portion on three sides topped by a sikhara. Inside. 40. pp 51--54.and the shorter popular • pyazat• were written often with specific jätaka themes or contained a story in which frequent allusion was made to jätaka situations or personalities. 94 . bronze workers and embroi- dery makers in manifold ways. 11 Pagan. tables and trays. The Theinmazi Pagoda and its paintings. contains many fine pbotographs of the artistic skills of Burmese 19th. century craftsmen. The outside was originally decorated with fine stucco carvings a great deal of which still remains intact. Mural paintings. Although its enclosure wall is now dilapidated. wit and repartee of the clowns and by the brilliant classicial dancing of the troup Ieaders. scenes of the Buddha's life mythical animals. 18 Burma. 1901. 39. drinking vessels.

p 29. writings on the walls and paintings. A few photo- graphs of its wall-paintings were taken in 1918 in pursuance of the policy to jlperpetuate. Representations of the Bodhisatta as an animal are slightly less stylized. D. 1200 A. shoulder threads.. monkeys stand or kneel in adoration. S. a decorated cloak· like upper garment and a pattemed loincloth or in the more simple garb of a thin jacket and plain or striped loincloth. 17 in the Pagan-Myoma Circle and had Buddha images. all the frescoes that are now extant at Pagan or else- where in Burma so that these interesting relics may not be allowed to disappear without record" 21 • The jätaka paintings. but rather Indian in character. paws raised. 1918. Short of an on-the-spot examination. B.half-human creatures) is far less decided. Publications of the Ardlaeolo- gi. para 61 and plates. and the bulk of an elephant adequately fills one or two squares. H. and on the right either a kneeling or a seated figure. chlnthe (lions) and kinnara (half-bird . Luce who has spent a lifetime studying the history and culture of the Pagan Dynasty as reflected in its monuments and inscriptions. both by photographs and by traced copies.he feels fairly sure that many of the Thomann pieces come from a very fine early Burmese temple c. sharp noses and little goatee beards have been drawn in making some rather grim of aspect: the whole effect distinctly un-Burmese. The Theinmazi waslistedas No.tha and the Theinmazi coincide. No. armlets. large ear and neck ornaments. The artist's conception of the mythical animals nägas (serpents). 1901. hands slightly raised. coloured accord- ing to the originals. the Bodhisatta to the left on a small dais. palms tagether in an attitude of adoration. both with haloes. The identification of the Harnburg paintings came under review in my discussions with Professor G. combed into a beehive style or pulled into a neat ehignon at the nape of the neck. The hair may be piled high on the head giving a butterfly-like effect. It was later one of the shrines placed under the control of the two caretakers responsible to the Thugyi (headman) of Pagan and its contents are recommended to visitors who may be able to spend more than a few hours at Pagan.regrettably out of the question until more normal international relations exist between Burma and the outside world . 95 . A comparison of two maps of Pagan 21 showing pagoda sites with Thomann's well-nigh illegible folding map at the end of his book. The Bodhisatta is variously clothed according to the particular role he assumed in the story: in regal dress with a crown of 3 or 5 tiers. eyes. the Theinmazi Pagoda. 2. each measuring approximately 20 x 25 cms. The figures have been outlined in black showing a minimum of bodily contours and eyebrows. bracelets. Deer stand prancing on their hind legs. 11 · List of pagodas In the control of Government. Two figures are commonly shown. mouths. would seem to indicate that the location of the Kubyauk. show in simple stylized forms. the central characters in one of the stories of the Buddha's former existences. A. Rangoon. hands raised or pressed.:t Department.

D. The frequent recurrence of an almost identical physionomy. 105a. Even in their pristine state the walls cannot have been outstandingly colourful and the poor lighting conditions within the temple as dictated by the ardlitect would make many of them difficult to see. quails and vultures. a device employed by artists and sculptors to indicate the presence of the Holy One. Each picture contains an umbrella. U Mya further reminds us that the work can in no way be called 'frescoes' rather 'tempera' paint- ing2s. 96 . execution and colouring with those that still adom. The scribe continued his lettering outside and underneath the frame if there were too many words to fit the space provided or he found his letters were too large. I. generally the gum of the Melia Indica (Nim tree). owls. the haJllSa (Brahminy ducks) Iook plump and well-fed and one or two of the parrots have mischievous looking eyes. the art of painting in Burma did not attain the high degree of perfection found in India. Except in a few cases. to human error and to the limited knowledge of the scribes themselves. Ceylon or China and this set of jätakas can in no way com- pare in beauty. followed by the identification of the Bodhisatta in Old Burmese with sometimes a verb and a sentence-final par- ticle. There can be no doubt artists laboured under trying conditions: poor illumination from outside. the limited number of attitudes and the predominating yellow-odlres. but for black the gall of a certain fish was used. These may be variously ascribed to an artist's working from a different recension to the Singhalese version. the Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi and Winidho Pagodas at Pagan. browns. to local variations. S. to mis-copying. the flickering of oil-lamps inside. p. The Burmese letters. PI. 1930-34. !arge and slightly cursive. Only the greens still stand out brilliantly from the otherwise dull hues. awkward wall-surfaces at different heights and angles. Flanked by banana trees. It is not surprising therefore that the standard of workmanship should sometimes suffer and human errors creep in. 184--185 footnote. For adhesive purposes the pigments were mixed with water and a binding substance. and probably were racing against time to fulfil the orders of an all-powerful nobleman. Part I. uneven in size and shape. for example. The jätaka order follows Fausböll fairly consistently but there are discrepancies in titles. design. dark reds and black. Like most of the other jätaka collections their place is more of historical than artistic interest. 1237 that the paiting of a kü(temple) including 14619 pictures of the Buddha and the 550 jätakas took only 3-4 days to complete". They were executed on wall-surlaces which had prob- ably been left to dry. a A. however eadl have their set forms. 14 Inscriptions o/ Burma. a conventional central tree from whose foliage peers a gently smiling countenance portrays the Bodhisatta as a tree spirit. is an ink-gloss giving the name of the jätaka in Päli. crows.The birds. Portlollo 1. have been painted in with a thi<k brush. lines 6--8. do not contribute very much to relieve the monotony of the paintings. for we read in an inscription dated the equivalent of A. At the base of each picture within a bla<k-edged frame.

although N. transportation and handling. Compared to hundreds of inscriptions and other ink-glosses of the Pagan period. As the enlarge- ments built up and were pieced together. 230. I was then able to obtain a tentative set of readings before examining the originals. Curator of the S. these glosses proved difficult and challenging. two (24 x 30 cms. Pagan turned to Ceylon for guidance and inspiration in all things spiritual and under the aegis of the Buddhist roonarchs. pi<king out those needing repair. Thomann had plates (13 x 18 cms) taken of them and it was from these that I made my first contact prints. Gernot Prunner. If according to the photographic experts . Asian Section at the Museum. the art and architecture of Pagan. At some time or the other eac:h piece has been imbedded in a thick mould of plaster of Paris and given a black surround.. for some initial. The walls in 1899 were in a bad state. 228). erased letters. he and his Staff were rescuing the paintings from a storeroom. Cultural relations between Burma and Eastem India were well-established during the Pagan Dynasty. 229} and a third (THOMANN Nr. ghostly shadows of the letters were visible enough for me to read the gloss. merchants plied their trade with Bengal and Pagan kings sent missions to the holy site at Bodhgäya. whose carefully made letters are a credit to the skill of the scribes of yore. Occasionally. shows its own artistic and decorative art forms where local craftsmen have later added their own touches to borrowed concepts. final and subscript letters have been obliterated by the mould or its border I I then unearthed from the mass of Thomann's photographic plates. not included. sections stained by rain rivulets streaming down from a defective roof. flacked off portions. enough ink had seeped through the first layer of plaster so that when it had rubbed off. The decipherment of the lnk-glosses and reconstructlon of the walls. Whoever made the plaster casts was sometimes none too careful either.) reproduced in his book (TnoMANN Nr. E. cleaning and chemically treating the rest before each was placed in a plastic bag and stacked book-like on metal shelving. and parts broken off during removal. Indian in its general pattems. E. leaving in its wake the outstanding cultural heritage whic:h is Pagan. After the paintings had been removed all had flaws in them of one kind or another: cracks. Large numbers of terra- cotta votive tables have been unearthed.Plate 230 will be very difficult and demand an enormaus amount of 91 . a careful examination of which proved that the Harnburg jätaka wall-paintings came from this pagoda. From a stylistic point of view. Theraväda Buddhism triumphed. The Museum very kindly placed a darkroom at my disposal and so began a battle to pro- duce enlargements whic:h might enable me to match these pictures with my contact prints and the originals and perhaps even cull further readings from the otherwise illegible ink-glosses on many of the paintings. When I was first invited to work on this material at the invitation of Dr. it soon became apparent both these wishes would in part be fulfilled. Despite the fact that Mahäyänist cults having been introduced into Burma were being practised by a section of the inhabitants.

but 436. 436 and 490 have been missed out. and the Nagayon 1190. 25 com- plete squares and the fragments of 10 others remain Jn situ.nanda 1105. omission or insertion of a consonant or consonants and u On a recent photograph of this wall kindly supplied by U Aung Thaw. a total of 292. century. I began tests and finally by giving eadl small section exposure times of 40 minutes under the en- larger. it is possible to identify them as the earlier numbers of the collection. 253 of whidl I have identified. I have thus been able to establish that the Museum has the bulk of the jätakas from 251-547 with relatively few omissions.as in the Petleik Pagodas c 107{). so black is it.jac. even.jät. the Museum has 260.jät . the Shwezigon c 1086. beyond whidl there lies another jätaka wall largely de- stroyed. Jätaka 86 is the only example in the Museum of a jätaka from the earlier section.occasionally. 356. plate 230 another 168.cac. The wall-numbering follows the Fausböll order fairly consistently but is at times erratic. 296. iden- tify and decipher parts of the originals whidl bad been damaged and from my 'new walls' read the glosses under pictures the Museum does not possess.lends itself to speculation that we might here have an early example of this form from Pagan. They may well have been placed elsewhere. I was now able to assign eadl jätaka to its rightful place on the wall. The remaining 1 are far too badly damaged for accurate identifi- cation.jac . and plate 229 shows part of an ardl with six crowned figures. This and no doubt other walls once held the remainder from 1-250 thus providing the pagoda with a complete set. was not given its rightful place on the walll Of the 292 wall spaces. There is no trace of the other 32 pieces and the fate of the other parts is not known. for it had been broken and repaired in the dim past too. The lower part of the wall has been destroyed laying base the original bricks. 421. the A. They may have perished or never have been written.trial and erroi" then Plate 228 must surely be a photographer's nightmare.The spelling. As may be expected. in ardlaic Burmese there are inconsistences in spell- ing and many minor discrepancies involving length of vowel. for example. sometimes as an odd intruder. The Mingalazedi c 1250 and the Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi among others have. Plate 228 contains 124. over a period of six months built up the third part of the wall in prints. the Shwekyaung Kubyauknge c 1110. The Old Burmese words in the glosses show no marked departure in orthography from forms already constant in the 13th. Elsewhere in Pagan it is usually speit . Jätakas 263. 355. Very Httle detail can be seen even when it is held against a high-powered lamp.occurs in Kyaukse at the Nandawye Pagoda and in Mekhaya at the Shwezigon Pagoda. but the spelling of the word Jätaka . From the iconography of the 27 squares 25 that remain. Undarmted by such a wealth of tedlnical problems. 98 . Parts of the dlemical surlace have deteriorated and other areas have been damaged by dampness which has crept between the plate and its supporting glass. No ink-glosses are discernahte on Plate 229. susbstitution of a different vowel.

Letters enclosed by brackets indicate uncertain readings.256.the scribe frequently has difficulty with the more complicated Burmese Ietters used in writing Päli words. E.phlac te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic 4.(222) 8.255.(174) 99 .I)Qa . Plate 228.(255) 5.lakakucchisindhava jac mran (kun)saii The Bodhisatta was a Sindh horse KUI}.lakakucchisindhava .Jätaka number. KUI.l<. Marap~ä jac kunsaii The Bodhisatta was a merchant Jarudapäna. 1.254 . S. broken (Saqlk.251 .(53) 3. In the jätaka titles he shows a marked preference for using k for g and g for k but follows conventional 13th.(Thomann plate number) NIM indicates that the piece is not in the Museum collection or identifi- cation from the remaining odd pieces is quite impossible.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Tiritavacdla.251 . Divitivacdla jac rasiy.t:Ucanda jac man phlac The Bodhisatta was a king Gämai)iCa.(87) 6. The complete set of readings of the ink glosses beneath each jätaka is given below in the order they occur on the two reconstructed walls accord- ing to the following plan: Reading of the ink gloss Translation and identification of the Bodhisatta Fausböll title. MANIKANDA jac rasiy.252. Row 1. There are very few human errors. Siva jac kiy phlac e' The Bodhisatta was a paroquet Suka. indicates probable scribe's error. A Iist of some of the more blatant discrepancies in jätaka titles is also given. Letters in capitels have been read from the wall-photographs I made and are no Ionger visible on the originals.<.259 . Käma.a)ppa jac rasiy.(181) 1.phlac e' The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Saipkappa. Mandhätu jac sakkratiy phlac The Bodhisatta was a universal monarm Mandhätu-258.(106) 9.(245) 2. cen- tury orthography for his Burmese words. Tilamuthi jac charyä phlac e The Bodhisatta was a teacher Tilamutthi.

D(ü)ta jac . 13.278..261 .(133) 16.297. Siri jac rasiy..279. Mal). illegible. Gurudhamma jac man te The Bodhisatta was a king Kurudhamma. illegible.280.274 .(102) 24.NIM 14.(86) 15.NIM 20. 10. Seyha jac ma.li. The Bodhisatta was a king Düta.(116) 23..NIM 21.isükara . Probably Lola jätaka The Bodhisatta was a pigeon Lola. Mahisa jac kl(waw) te The Bodhisatta was a buffalo Mahisa.i jac man te The Bodhisatta was a king Mudupäl. The Bodhisatta was (an ascetic) Mai.283 .(208) 17.(217) 22.(223) Row 3.J..276.i(sükha)ra .260.lc.probably Abbhantara jätaka.lhakisükara.277.282...(175) 100 .(188) Row 2.284. The Bodhisatta was a pigeon Romaka.275. 25.NIM 12.262 .285 . PADUMAJACSATHIY .lc. Sattavatta jac khuiw te Satapatta. Mudupär}.. Kämapota jat sacpan nat The Bodhisatta was a deity Kämaviläpa.(32) The Bodhisatta was a pigeon 19.281 . Vac. Ruci jac khuiw phlac te The Bodhisatta was a pigeon Rucira.(190) 18. illegible on photograph.(195) 11.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Siri.probably Putadüsaka jätaka. Ro(m)a jac ..lhakisükara jac nat The Bodhisatta was a deity Vac. The Bodhisatta was the son of a ridunan Paduma.Ii phlac te The Bodhisatta was a king Seyya .

(189) 34.(123) 101 . Du(tha)ra jac khransiy te The Bodhisatta was a lion Duddubha. Silavimansa jac rasiy.sana. The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Silavimarp. PALASAJA(T) SACPANNAT The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Paläsa.probably Cülakälinga .(95) Row 4..(52) 39. Mahä-assaroha jac man The Bodhisatta was a king Mahä-assäroha -302.298.323.322. Udumbara jac sacpan nat The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Udumbara. Succa jac sacpan na(T) . Brahmaratta jac rasiy.319. 31.300..NIM 36. Tittira jac rasiy.299 .(173) 32..NIM 29.301.(215) 31.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Tittira.305. DaQ.(99) 28.320. SUJATAJACAMATPHLAC The Bodhisatta was a minister Sujäta-906-NIM 35. Kutidüsa jac cäcbyanton The Bodhisatta was a weaver-bird Kutidüsaka.(83) 40..(18) 41. The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Succaja.303. Komäyapu(tta) jac PUlllnä . (242) 30. illegible. 26.(34) 21. illegible -probably Vaka jätaka. (Ca)vasakuna jac tokryä The Bodhisatta was a woodpecker Sakul)a. all broken . The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Komäraputta. 301 .(131) 38.308 .ara jac nägä man te The Bodhisatta was the Näga king Daddara-304.321 . Ekaräja jac man phlac e The Bodhisatta was a king Ekaräja.te · The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Brahmadatta.(101) 33.

iari.(81) 50.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Arafiiia .329.(249) 44.(19) 46. Vänara jac myok te + + The Bodhisatta was a monkey Vänara.343. Kälabähu jac kiy te The Bodhisatta was a paroquet Kälabähu.(193) 55. Kak. Arafiaka jac rasiy.346.326.(82) 102 .(51) 43.324.(250) 47.(15) 53. 42. 49.327.käru jac sacpan nat The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Kakkäru.(40) 48.(48) Row 5. Silavimansa jac pUIJUlä The Bodhisatta was a Brahman SllavimalJlsa. Amba jac sakrä te + + The Bodhisatta was Sakka Ambacora. Käkätiya jac man te The Bodhisatta was a king Käkäti. Kesava jac rasiy te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Kesava.(36) 45.(13) 51. Anu(SOCIYA) jac rasiy. Gajagumba jac amat phlac The Bodhisatta was a minister Gajakumbha.344.325 . Cammasataka jac kunsaii The Bodhisatta was a merchant Cammasätaka . Ayatakuta jac mailsämail The Bodhisatta was a prince and a king Ayaküta.345. Kantarika jac uwaw te The Bodhisatta was a Koel (Indian ankoo) Kal)<.328 .342. Podha jac phwat phlac t(e) The Bodhisatta was a monitor lizard Godha .(90) 56.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Ananusociya.(68) 54.348 . Kuntani jac man phlac te The Bodhisatta was a king Kuntani.341.347.330.(177) 52.

Mikapota j ac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Migapotaka. The Bodhisatta was a merdlant Ahigut.N The Bodhisatta was a wiseman Devatäpaiiha.(39) 62. Kapotaka jac khUiw te The Bodhisatta was a pigeon Kapota-315.351 .kunsafi The Bodhisatta was a carter Gumbiya.l])ala jac man The Bodhisatta was a king Mcu.312 .rWay The Bodhisatta was a rieb man Sujäta. Paläsa jat rhuy wa. Mittavinda jac natsä te The Bodhisatta was a deity Mittavinda.311 .tQika.tQaka jac kunsaii.313. Sandhiseda jac mailsäman The Bodhisatta was a prince and a king Sandhibheda.361 .368 .366. Ta(casä)ra jac suk. ManikuJ.350.(16) 61.310.(6) 103 .(42) 64.(98) 58. 51. Kumbita jac lhaii.(41) 63.rway te The Bodhisatta was the son of a rich man Tacasära .(144) 68. Dighadikosala jac mai:tsä The Bodhisatta was a prince Dighitikosala.rway te The Bodhisatta was the son of a rieb man Säliya .tikut.369. Devatäpaiiha jac suk. 61.365 .(35) 66.(152) 11.352. Cüladhanuggaha jac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Culladhanuggaha.(228) 65.(143) 10.t4ala.Ippay The Bodhisatta was a golden Mallard Paläsa.(13) 60. Sujäta jac suk.hami.314.349.(151) 69.(54) Row 6. Müsika jac disäprämok The Bodhisatta was a world-famous teadler Müsika.(14) 59. Ahikut. Säliya jac suk.

TUNJ:>ILA JAC W AK (PHLAC E) The Bodhisatta was a pig Tu:t. Käka jac khuiw te + + The Bodhisatta was a pigeon Käka.a Vighäsa.(111) 18.(163) 80. Suci j ac panphay te The Bodhisatta was a smith Süci . Kukku jac amat te The Bodhisatta was a minister Kukku-396. Avariya jac rasiy.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Bhisapuppha .393.391 .(19) 81.(11) 82. Mayha jac sukrway rasiy.(155) 16.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic A väriya .(43) Row 8.394 .{51) 84. 12.ila.381 . Dhajavihedhana jac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Dhajavihetha.(169) 11. Bhisapupphi jac rasiy.1Q.392 .(33) 14. Sutana jac sacsükri te The Bodhisatta was an army general Sutano.389. 13.NIM 15.391. Dantudhamma jac amat te The Bodhisatta was a minister Dalhadhamma.nä te The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Suva:r:u:takakkataka. Suva:r:u:takakkata jac pu:rp.(91) Row 1.388 . Vighäsäda jac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakk.(96) 19.(212) 104 .(21) 83.390. 85.316 .398 . The Bodhisatta was a lion Manoja. Manoja jac khrailsiy. The Bodhisatta was born in a rich man's family and became an ascetic Mahyaka. Vatthaka jac ilum phlac te The Bodhisatta was a quail Vattaka.409.395 .

434.(76) 89.(204} 96.phlac te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Jägara-414. TE The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Atthasadda. Suma:rikala jac man te The Bodhisatta was a king Suma:rigala. Dhümak.(80) 87.435.(213) 94.418.(72) 92.(134} 98.(38) 90.NIM 95.a jac wcuppay te The Bodhisatta was a wild goose Cakkaväka.(1) 91. Sulassa (jac} t01idhic nat The Bodhisatta was a mountain deity Sulasä-419. Parantapa jac man phlac te The Bodhisa~ta was a king Parantapa.412.420.(209) 100.413. ATHASADDA JAC RASIY.417. Gotasimbali jac sacpan nat The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Kotasimbali .432.tgi-415.(158) 88. Cakkaväk. Kummäsapil)gi jac man phlac The Bodhisatta was a king Kummäsapit.(119) Sätnüka jac nwälä te The Bodhisatta was a bull 105 . Susima jac prühit te The Bodhisatta was a cbaplain Susima-411. 97.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Haliddiräga.(74} Row 9. Jakara jac rasiy.assapa.gi jac rasiy. Padakusa(la) jac bh11üma (te} The Bodhisatta was an ogress Padakusalamäl)ava. Kaccbänavagotta jac sakrä The Bodhisatta was Sakka Kaccäni. illegible. 86.probably Lomasak.433 .(61) 93. Somadatta jac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Somadatta-410.416. HaliJ).NIM 99.äri jac sukhamin te The Bodhisatta was a wiseman Dhümakäri.

hadipäyana.451.(88) 105. Mittavinta jac nat phlac e The Bodhisatta was a deity Mittavindaka.(244) 111. Cülabodhi jac paripaca~p phlac The Bodhisatta was a wandering ascetic Cullabodhi.ha .(37) 104. Dhammadeputta jac nat te = possibly scribe's error deva The Bodhisatta was a deity Dhamma.(229) 112.(100) 106.456 .(159) 106 .443.appears in Vidhurapa:Q.(162) Not on the wall-photograph.545 .lira jac khä phlac te + + The Bodhisatta was a partridge Tittira.444.439. Yudhaficaya jac mailsämail rasiy.(75) 110.Qha jac pwpnä phlac te The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Ka.431.442. SANKHA JAC PUMNA RASIY.(85) Row 10.(92) 103. TE The Bodhisatta was a Brahman ascetic Srupkha. Catuposatha jac man te (a)mata appears under man. Di<.NIM 107. Päniya jac man phlac te The Bodhisatta was a king Päniya -459-(9) 114. Ka. 101. Pütimailsa jac nat phlac e' The Bodhisatta was a deity Pütima~psa.(146) 108. K~adipäyana jac rasiy.(122) 113.<:{ita. The Bodhisatta was a prince who became an ascetic Yuvafijaya. Udaya jac sakrä phlac te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Udaya-458.436.(127) 102.460.455.may be scribe's error for amat The Bodhisatta was a king Catuposathika. 109.Qha.438. The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Ka:Q. Samugga. Mätuposa jac chail te The Bodhisatta was an elephant Mätiposaka.440. CUNHA jac man phLAc te The Bodhisatta was a king Jul).

.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Cullanärada. 121.465 .NIM Row 11.466.(121) 118.(214) 125. Ruru(ka) jac dlat phlac te + + The Bodhisatta was a sambur Ruru..marine. SAMUDDAVANIJA .r Suppäraka. Candakinnari jac kannarä phlac te The Bodhisatta was a kinnara Candakinnara.Ul}.(104) 117. (Cha)ttasäla jac nat ph(lac e) The Bodhisatta was a deity Bhaddasäla. (SAMVA)raka jac amat te The Bodhisatta was a minister Scupvara. illegible.(94) 124.(45) 119.485. Supära jac lhiysay (phlac e) The Bodhlsatta was a boatman.(124) 116. illegible.480. probably Akitti.486 .483.(216) 127.NIM 129.(55) 120.. Dasaratha jac man phlac te The Bodhisatta was a king Dasaratha. The Bodhisatta was a lion Mahä-ukkusa.478.484.479. MAHAUKKU (SAJAq .phlac te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Düta.481 .ija.(145) 130.411 . TaKKAri jAC PROHIT The Bodhisatta was a dlaplain Takkäriya.(241) 126. The Bodhisatta was (a carpenter) Samuddaväl}.482.464 . Särabha jac saman phlac te The Bodhisatta was a deer Sarabhamiga.(211) 123. Dhüta jac rasiy.463.äla.461 .(154) 128. Cülanärada jac rasiy.462. Kaliiika jac amat phlac te The Bodhisatta was a minister Käliligabodhl.(254) 122.. Cülaküla jac uwaw phlac e The Bodhisatta was a Koel Cullak. probably Sälikedära. • . 115.NIM 107 .

(148) 141. probably Mahäkapi. The Bodhisatta was a king and an ascetic Somanassa. illegible probably Rohantamiga.(192) 136. Cittasambhüta jac rasiy.504. .1~ana jac (ras)i(y.487 .(238) 146..) The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Mätanga .488. Somanassa jac man rasiy. Dararakkhasa in Fausböll.NIM 148.(176) 137.NIM 147.NIM Row 12...502. probably Bhisa. . (Mätanga jac pUIJlilä) rasi(y.. 133.496 .(206) 135. probably Mahäpalobhana. illegible.516. U(THÄ)LA JAC PROHIT TE The Bodhisatta was a chaplain Uddälaka .515.500 (232) 138. Sivika jac man phlac te The Bodhisatta was a king Sivi.501 . JAC . 13 145.499.(219) 144. Hansa jac WaiJlpay man phlac e The Bodhisatta was the goose-king HaiPsa. Campeyya jac näga räja The Bodhisatta was the king of the Nägas Campeyya.505 . probably Sambhava. Danärakkhasa jac .. Sattikumbha jac kiy phlac te The Bodhisatta was a paroquet Sattigumba. 131.(65) 142. illegible.498.(207) 134.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Cittasambhüta.. Bhikkhäpanupparäyika jac rasiy.) The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Sirimanda..(66) 143. 108 .(147) 140.503.497 .NIM Row. Bhallätika jac man phlac te The Bodhisatta was a king Bhallätiya.506. (Sirim)at.(231) 132..501. (Chaddanta) jac chan phlac te = usual spelling c:ban The Bodhisatta was an elephant Chaddanta.514. illegible.NIM 139. The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Bhikkhäparampara.

167.. illegible.(236) 158. but broken) The Bodhisatta was tlle Näga king SaiPkhapäla. illegible. Mahähailsa ja(c) (rhu)y WaiPpay The Bodhisatta was a golden Mallard Mahähatpsa .(20) 162. 14 157..518. The Bodhisatta was a king Kusa -531.535.(62) 163..523. GUl)äla jac uwaw phlac e' The Bodhisatta was Koel Kul)äla. 166... wall-destroyed here.4ara. probably Tesakuna.521 .520.. NIM. illegible. illegible.(60) 151. 168. So1.532.538.(210) 159. The Bodhisatta was the garu4a king Pa. wall-destroyed here. Cülahansa jac WaiPpay man te The Bodhisatta was king of the geese Cullahcupsa.phlac te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Sambula. illegible.odd jätaka inserted here 156.NIM 153.(149) 155.534.. illegible.(1 03) 161.JJ. illegible .524. wall-destroyed here.522. Sambula jac rasiy.(259) 165.(233) Row.531. wall·destroyed here. probably Sarabhanga.phlac te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Sona-Nanda.(107) 149.(48) 164.. The Bodhisatta was featured in the Maha·ummagga jätaka -546.phlac te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Alambusa..NIM 154. Alambusa ja(c) pUIJlllä rasiy. 109 . illegible.1an~4a jac ra(si)y.533 . illegible . Sudhäbhojana jac sathiy The Bodhisatta was a treasurer Sudhäbhojana. ma(il) .(185) 150. Phural01i temi te The Bodhisatta was Temi Mügapakkha.536.NIM 152. probably Gal)4atindu. Mahäsutasoma jac man phlac e The Bodhisatta was a king Mahäsutasoma. Ia jac nägä ph(lac te !)robably. P~4änägäräja jac kulun ..(153) 160.519.

NIM Row 2.rä The Bodhisatta was Sakka Mahäpanäda. 11.265. Macchuddäna. Row 1.287. Byaggha jac nat phlac e The Bodhisatta was a deity Vyaggha. 1.(140) 5. Nänäcanda jac man TE The Bodhisatta was a king Nänädlanda.(247) 2. Arämadüsa jac sukhamin The Bodhisatta was a wise man Ärämadüsa.(200) 110 . Läbhagaraha jac sudlryä The Bodhisatta was a teadler Läbhagaraha. Sälüka jac nwälä The Bodhisatta was a bull Sälüka-286.213 . MACCHUTHÄNAJACSOKRWAY The Bodhisatta was bom in a rieb man's family. Mahäpa(nä)da jat sak.(112) 8.(116) 9.(44) 3.N1M 14.(162) 12.288 . Ulluka jac wcuppay te The Bodhisatta was a goose Ulüka. Plate 230.268. Khurappa jac tuiwcon The Bodhisatta was a forester Khurappa. KACCHAPAJACRASIY The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Kacdlapa.adüsaka. Udapäl.266.(183) 6. Sujäta jac man phlac e The Bodhisatta was a king Sujäta-269.NIM 4.ladüsaka jac pwpnä rasiy.(126) 10.289. VÄTAGGASINDHAVAJACMRAN The Bodhisatta was a horse Vätaggasindhava.212.264. Kakkata jac chail phlac e The Bodhisatta was an elephant Kakkata.(191) 13.271 .270.261.(128) 1. The Bodhisatta was a Brahman ascetic Udapäl}.

316.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Khantivädi. 21.314.(109) 25.(165) 28. The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Silavimcupsana. Kassamandiya jac pw:pnä rasiy. Lohakumbhi jac rasiy. Supatta jac kli te + + The Bodhisatta was a crow Supatta.(224) 23.(28) 20. Sabbamailsa jac sethiy Th.292 .NIM 22.311 . Anda jac sac (PAN NAT) The Bodhisatta was a tree-deity Anta.(4) 16. PICümanDaka jac nat te The Bodhisatta was a deity Pucimanda.qivadi jac RASiy.295. Khal}. Silavimailsa jac rasiy.(64} 26.(61) 18.(239) 24.(164) 19.315. Jambu jac sacpail nat The Bodhisatta was a tree-deity J ambukhädaka. CHAV AKA JAC CANDÄLA PHLAC The Bodhisatta was a low-caste man Chavaka.294.(131) 111 . 15. Käyanaccätura jac pwpnä The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Käyavicchinda. The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Lohakumbhi.291 .(132) 11.312. Seyha jac pUIJlllä rasiy.293.313. Bhatraghatabheda jac sakrä The Bodhisatta was Sakka Bhadraghata. The Bodhisatta was a Brahman ascetic Seyya-310.(84) Row 3.309 . The Bodhisatta was a Brahnian ascetic Kassapamandiya.e Bodhisatta was a treasurer SabbamaiJlsaläbha.290. Sasa jac yun te + The Bodhisatta was a hare Sasa.(105) 21.

317.337.)adhalithi jac amat te The Bodhisatta was a minister Rathalatthi .(TE) The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Pitha. Viseyha jac sathly The Bodhisatta was a treasurer Visayha. The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Matarodana.(139) 39.avera.(198) 112 .332. Godha jac amat te The Bodhisatta was a minister Godha.. 41. (.NIM 30.334.335 .339 .338.(11) 35. Thusa jac prahlt te The Bodhisatta was a chaplain Thusa. GANAVIRA JAC SUKHUIW The Bodhisatta was a thief KaJJ. Kokäli jac amat te The Bodhisatta was a minister Kokälika.333. 31. SIHA (KA JAC) KHRA. J ambuka.(110) 38.336. MATARODANAJACRASIY.(18) 32. Pita jac rasiy. säkha jac disäprämuik The Bodhisatta was a world-famous teacher Venasäkha-353.318.(252) 40. Räcoväda jac rasiy.NIM Row 4.(172) 37. Brahmachatta jac sukhamin amat The Bodhisatta was a wise minister Brahachatta.(142) 34. BÄVEru jac utm1 The Bodhisatta was a peacock Bäveru. + The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Räjoväda.331 .NIM 36.(230) Row 5. The Bodhisatta was a lion.(243) 33.NSIY.. Vera (broken on plaque) . 29.340 .

(49) 50.362. CULADHAMMA JAC MANSÄ The Bodhisatta was a prince Culladhammapäla.I.nä The Bodhisatta was a Brahman SilavimaiJlsa. Äsanka jac ray te + + The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Asalpka.319. Silavimailsa jac purp. Setaketu jay chryä prahi(t) The Bodhisatta was a teacher Setaketu . Lutukiki jac dum te The Bodhisatta was an elephant 355 omitted from wall 356 omitted from wall Latukika.(46} 43.(49) 55.318.äroha jac nat Tbe Bodhisatta was a deity Vai).380 .(186) 53.a Sussondi.(8) 44. Neru jac r(h)uy warp. The Bodhisatta was a king and later ascetic Darimukha.311. Suv~amika jac saman The Bodhisatta was a deer Suvaooamiga.(113} 113 . Khajjopana jac sukhamin The Bodhisatta was a wise-man Khajjopanaka.läroha-361. Darimukha (jac) man rasiy. Migalopa jac lanta + + The Bodhisatta was a vulture Migalopa-381.(160) 41.pay te The Bodhisatta was a golden Mallard Neru.(50) Row 6. Uraka jac pwpnä te + Tbe Bodhisatta was a Brahman Uraga.(156) 49.(138) 54.363 .(25) 46.351 .NIM 45.359 .358.354. 42. 51. Sussünti jac kalun te The Bodhisatta was a garuQ.364. Hiri jac sethiy te The Bodhisatta was a treasurer Hiri .(111) 48. VaJ).(91) 52.360.

401. Suttabhastu jac puJllllä sukhamin The Bodhisatta was a wise Brahman Sattubhasta.383 .. A TTHISENAKA J AC PUMNA The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Atthisena.386. Vaka jac rasiy. Dabbapupphi jac nat phlac e The Bodhisatta was a deity Dabbhapuppha.(2) 68.(59) 63.(179) 60.404.399.400 . Kandhära jac man (phlac) e The Bodhisatta was a king Gandhära. NandiyaMI JAC samail te The Bodhisatta was a deer Nandiyamiga.. SirakäräkaJ}. GICCHA JAC LAN(TA) .(178) 51..382 .(115) 61. The Bodhisatta was a vulture Gijjha. Dhammadhaja jac ilhak te The Bodhisatta was a bird Dhammaddhaja-384.NIM 62. 56. Kharaputtaka jac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Kharaputta.408.i jac sathiy The Bodhisatta was a treasurer Sirikälakat. Kabi jac myok te The Bodhisatta was a monkey Kapi.(202) 65.403.tl)aka. Dasanna jac pUIJUlä sukhamin The Bodhisatta was a wise Brahman Dasar.(63) Row 1 61.li . The Bodhisatta was a cock Kukkuta .407 .te The Bodhisatta was an ascelic Bakabrahma .NIM 66.385.402.406.NIM 58.(29) 114 . Mahäkabi jac myok The Bodhisatta was a monkey Mahäkapi . K(A)KKU(T)A JAC KRAK .(108) 59.u. Kumbhikära jac uiwthin te The Bodhisatta was a potter Kumbhakära.(194) 69.(77) 64..405 .{89) 10.

(246) 18.445.TE The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Dipi. Ced.iya jac pWJlllä te The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Cetiya-422. Kukkuta jac krak te The Bodbisatta was a cock Kukkuta.(184) 16.431.(201) ' 82. Kacca jac lailta phlac e The Bodhisatta was a vulture Gijjha.429. ADitti jac man phlac E The Bodhisatta was a king Äditta .(56) Row 9.448.441.(10) 80.430 . Dhammapäla jac puQlnä te The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Mabädhammapäla..424 . Athäna jac rasiy.(130) 15.425.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Härita.(182) 11.428. 81.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Atthäna.(93) 84. lndriy jac rasiy. Härita jac rasiy. 11.426. Dipika jac rasiy.(30) 115 .(5) 83.te The Bodhisatta was an ascetic lndriya .446.Row 8. Takkala jac sunay t(e) The Bodhisatta was a young man Takkala. Cülasuka j ac kiy te The Bodhisatta was a paroquet Cullasuka.{10) 12.(203) 14. Nikrodha jac . iy dlail nra(Y) The Bodhisatta was a poor woman's son Nigrodha.(120) 19.421.423 . Dighävu jac man phlac e The Bodhisatta was a king Kosambiya. Mahäsuka jac kiy te The Bodhisatta was a paroquet Mabäsuva.(12) 13.

(125) 87..468 .(129) 99.NIM 116 .451 . Ghatapa~Q. PHANDANAJACSACPANNAT(PHLACE•) The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Phandana. Mittämitta jac amat + + The Bodhisatta was a minister Mittämitta . .(114) 97.467.474.u.450. Käma jac pulllilä phlac te + + The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Käma.471 . Cakkavakka jac WdlJlpay te The Bodhisatta was a goose Cakkaväka.lali jac rasiy. Piläratosiya jac sakrä The Bodhisatta was Sakka Bilärikosiya.. Mathdhakw. 91. The Bodhisatta was Mahosadha Me~Q.ita jac man The Bodhisatta was a king Ghata -454.1Q. 85.(27) 95.452.469 .(3) 90.(181) 92. Ambu jac cantäla phlac e The Bodhisatta was a low-caste man Amba. The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Matthakw.475. The Bodhisatta was a Brahman ascetic Mahämailgala .akapafiha. Mahäga~ha j ac sakrä te The Bodhisatta was Sakka Mahäka~ha .(251) 93.. Kosiya jac sakrä te The Bodhisatta as Sakka Kosiya.473 .(17) 89.ali.(22) 88.(31) 94. Mahäpaduma jac man rasiy. Mahämailka jac pUIJUlä rasiy. The Bodhisatta was a king Mahäpaduma -472.470. MENDAKAPA~HA JAC .(23) 98..449.(151) Row 10.(117) 86.NIM 96. Bhüripafiha jac sukhamin The Bodhisatta was a wise-man Bhüripafihä.453 .. Jananithi jac man te + + The Bodhisatta was a king J anasandha .

509. PAACAPA:r. TACCHASOKARA JAC SACPAN(NAT) The Bodhisatta was a tree deity Tacchasükara.phla)c e The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Ki:tpdtanda.(227) 108.493. Dasabrahmana jac sukhamin The Bodhisatta was a wise-man Dasabrähma:r.(135) 110.492 .489 . Cülasutasoma jac man phlac The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Cullasutasoma. Jaya<.(26) 117 . 101.••• The Bodhisatta was a golden goose Javanahatpsa.513.476.(237) 104.nä te The Bodhisatta was a Brahman Hatthipäla. 100.lita.. JAVANAHANSA JAC .tija. Kumbha jac sakrä phlac te + The Bodhisatta was Sakka Kumbha-512.(197) 102. Mahämora j ac .(78) 106.t<.lisa jac mailsä phlac e The Bodhisatta was a prince Jayaddisa. SäDHlna j ac mailsämaii te The Bodhisatta was a prince Sädhina .ta.(141) 111. Hatdhipäla jac purp. Kiipchanda jac rasi(y.(12) 112.••••. Mahävänija jac lhaii kunsafi The Bodhisatta was a carter Mahävä:r.NIM Row 11.t<. Ayokhara jac mailsä rasiy. 107.511.(7) 109.lita jac sükrway The Bodhisatta was a ridt man Paiicapa:r.(199) 105.(167) 103.495. SURUji jac sakrä TB The Bodhisatta was Sakka Suruci .(24) Row 13. The Bodhisatta was a peacock Mahämora -491.508. The Bodhisatta was a prince who became an ascetic Ayoghara-510. 113.(161) Row 12.525 .494 .

546.pblac e The Bodhisatta was an ascetic Nalini .NIM 123.(258) 124.526.(136) Row 14.(256) 122.NIM 118 . The Bodhisatta was a Brahman ascetic Mahäbodhi. illegible on wall-photograph.527. illegible on wall-photograph. Sakicca ja(c) putpnä rasiy.(69) 116. puhraloil närada te The Bodhisatta was Brahmä Mahänäradakassapa .(257) 121.543.529 . 119.530. purhäloil poradata te The Bodhisatta was Bhüridatta Bhüridatta.528.(58) 118. 114. Ummädanti jac man phlac e The Bodhisatta was a king Ummadanti.(47) 117. purhalonman vi(sa)nträ The Bodhisatta was a prince Vessantara-547. Sol)aka ja(c) man ph(l)ac te The Bodhisatta was a king Sonaka.te The Bodhisatta was a Brahman ascetic SaiJl}dcca. purhäloil vidhuir pantit The Bodhisatta was Vidhurapal)Qita Vidhurapal)Qita.545 . Nilanila jac rasiy. Mahäbodhi jac pUIJlllä rasiy.(220) 115.(260) 120.

545. 95 (broken) Remaining wall completely destroyed. 119 .480.x--524 525--530 14 531--542 546.anda 311 Brahmaratta Brahmadatta 323 Sihaka Jambuka 335 Ayatakuta Ayaküta 347 Lutukiki Latukika 351 Sussünti Sussondi 360 Ahiklll)~aka Ahigui)4ika 365 Dantudhamma Dalhadhamma 409 Kacdlanavagotta Kaccäni 417 Dighävu Kosambi 428 Halil)~i Haliddiraga 435 Jananithi Janasandha 468 BhikkhäparalJlparayika Bhikkhäparampara 496 Bhallätika Bhallätiya 504 Danärakkhasa Dararakkhasa 517 Nilanila Nalini 526 The numbering on the walls appears to have been as follows: Row Plate 228 Plate 230 1 251--262 264--273 2 274--285 286--295 3 297--308 309--318 4 319--330 331--340 5 341--352 353.491--495 12 496--507 508--513 13 514--523.3 2--435.482--488 489. Jätaka title variations Ink gloss Fausböll Jätaka number Sivi Suka 255 Marapal)ä Jarudapäna 256 Sattavatta Satapatta 279 Käyanäccutura Käyavicdlinda 293 Kämapota Kämaviläpa 297 Picümandaka Pucim.357--364 6 365--376 377--386 1 381--398 399--408 8 409--420 422--431 9 4.x Row Plate 229 1 10-20 (broken) 2 31--41 (broken) 3 52--62 (broken) 4 73--83 (broken) 5 94. 437--444 445--454 10 455--466 467--476 11 477--479.354.543.481.x. 547.

Perhaps it is fitting that a Queen of Pagan should have the last word: •May all those who destroy or roh any of these my works of merit be stricken with many ailments. the Museum also possesses more than 100 other fragmentary pieces of decorative painting. armlets and bracelets. of Pagan. The artists left no nook or cranny unadorned. elegant head-bands. There is no accurate record ava. dearsons. 120 . from ghostland to hell without retuming a second time to this human world "· • " Selections from the Inscrlptlons ol Pagan {Burmese texts) by PE MAUNG TIN and G. Eadl panel is surrounded by one or more decora- tive borders containing a mass of floral and geometrical patterns endless in variety and dlarm. University of Rangoon. ear-ornaments. Minanthu. pp. no border without its infinite leaf and scroll decoration. failing which within seven years. Wben they die. saktis. it is thought also belong to the Theinmazi. of the Lemyethna Pagoda. Whilst in no way condoning the vandalism of Herr Thomann and bis party. Others show cross-legged seated figures with elaborate head-dresses set against floral backgrounds. have been broken or are missing. Rangoon. As human beings may they become ghosts. parrots. and be short-lived in this human existence within seven days. Reconstruction of these walls is unfortunately out of the question for many of the pieces are badly weathered. scenes and friezes. May they be visited by the dangers of water. H.ilable to identify the temples from whidl they were removed: some. fierce-looking demon- like mythical animals and other grotesque figures giving the impression of one vast wall of movement. From A vici may they be cooked in the 8 great hells and in the 16 minor hells. Department of Orfental Studies Publication Number 1. Buddhists may perhaps find some solace in the knowledge that Thomann died in somewhat unexplained tragic circumstances in 1924 and feel that he reaped bis just reward. May they suffer untold miserles escaping from hell to ghostland. dressed in simple garments but wearing a wealth of ornamenta- tion. 1928. LucE. Even medallions within a border were given a central motif of an animal or bird. an area containing a number of pagodas whose walls are adomed with Täntric-style paintings. and W. There are standing Bodhisattvas and their consorts. dearhusbands. May the thunderbolt fall on their. no square without its mass of figures. neck-pieces. In addition to the jätaka paintings. 96-106lines 22-29. May they be visited by the king's danger. May all their wealth and happiness be destroyed without remainder and melt away. in various attitudes. failing which within seven months. houses. From amongst the foliage appear ducks. others may have come from small temples E. parts of larger panels.U to Thiripitsaya. in due course. fire and all the other great dangers. suffer great miseries. may they be cooked in the A vici Hell within the earth for as many times as there are particles of earth from Nyaung . May they be separated from their dearwives. it must be remernbered that hiswas only one of the many examples of the depredations of travellers and archaeologists who have taken unfair advantage of local conditions and of an unique opportunity to acquire art treasures and exhibits to fill their residences and museums. E.

On grounds of iconography and orthgraphy. 5. however. The fate and whereabouts of the Iower halves of these walls is. Alas sections still defy deci- pherment. they are certainly not from the Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi as was for a long time thought. alas. D. but here they now were thus enabling a fuller account of the temple and its contents to be written up. Gernot Prunner. and other snags posed special problems of photography. The full significance of my work in the darkroom immediately became apparent and to our intense delight. My researdl on this material has produced a nurober of interesting results: 1. I am indebted to Dr. Once again the technical difficulties on account of the state of the walls in 1899. 1271 on the occasion of her act of merit when she presented amongst othe. An interesting collection of early 13th. written in A. I came across 4. Long exposures of 30 minutes were often necessary to obtain a print 18 x 24 cms. Noticing that these jätaka walls had ink-glosses and a wealth of other Burmese leg·e nds und er the 28 Buddhas. I made as complete a set of readings from the photographs as possible and then one morning during a working holiday with Professor Luce. somewhat by chance as the result of a subsidiary project I began whilst waiting to examine the Theinmazi originals. The set is incomplete: some are in situ. They bad both despaired of ever obtaining the remainder of the legends. and many have been lost or destroyed. One snowy winter afternoon as I was dleddng through the 800 or so glass photographic plates taken during the Thomann trip. Such was the curse of Queen Phwä Jaw. cracked and broken parts. century Burmese ink glosses has been rescued. the poor condition of the plates. Curator 121 . Quite the most important discovery. The 'Thomann Collection' of jätaka wall-paintings appears to have been removed from the Theinmazi Pagoda.r things kathii~a rohes (cotton cloth supplied by the laity from whidl rohes for the Buddhist monks are made). offerings of slaves. 3. Our findings will appear in due course in Artibus Asiae. Iabelied "Kube Zat Tempel•. smaller panels and 16 large side-panels. gardens and paddy Iands to the service of the Buddha. Professor Luce and the late Colonel Ba Shin had many years previously read all the extant glosses in situ: I was now able to supply over 300 more of the jiitaka readings and some of the very difficult side-panels. came about as so often happens. we saw on my photographs the lower halves of the walls before Thomann removed them. repro- duced in bis book as plates 29-32. not known. Pagan. I built up these two walls in photographs measuring approximately 1 feet by 3 feet. a Iady of Minwaing near Pagan. For permission to publish this material and for bis enthusiastic encourage- ment throughout the project. the Museum has 260 jätaka paintings and over a 100 fragmentary pieces of wall-painting. 4. I was shown a photograph of the damaged walls of the Wetkyi-in Kubyaukgyi. Partial reconstruction of the inner walls has been achleved using photo- graphic tedmiques. 2.

whose patience. "Old Burma. 3. MCMLVI. pp. Luce. .Early Pagan•. E. 122 . G.Early Burmese Culture in a Pagan Temple. Director of Ardlaeological Survey Rangoon. for tedmical photographic advice to Fräulein U. Vol. Short bibliography: 1. Rangoon. I. Colonel BA SmN Lokatheikpan . 87-119. H. Plates L-LX. 111. 1969-70. meticulous scholarship and infinite erudition make near illegible readings suddenly all become so very easy. U Lu PE WIN "The jätakas in Burma". for the use of darkroom facilities and workroom to the Museum authorities and for my original initiation into the fascinating realm of Burmese epigraphy as an undergraduate to my Sayagyi. Artibus Asiae Vol. 5. S. 1963.A. 2. of the S. II PP· 94-108. 1962. DUROISELLE "Pietonal representation of the Jätakas in Burma • . XIX Pl. Jonas of the Photographie Department. 3/4. Professor G. Asia Section of the Hamburgisches Museum für Völkerkunde. 1955. Pictorial guide to Pagan. H. Artibus Asiae. LucE "The 550 Jätakas in Old Burma". 1912-13. Vols. XIX. II. C. Burma. I. 4.

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2A Abb.ha jätaka No . 88) . (Th. 535. (Th. 2B Sudhäbhojana jac sathiy Sudhäbhojana jätaka No. 440. Nr. 20) Ka:J:!ha jac purpnä phlac te KaJ). Nr.Abb .

Abb. 8) . 369. 3B Mittavinda jac natsä te Mittavindaka jätaka No. 357. (Th. 3A Abb. Nr. Nr. (Th. 35) Lutukiki jac chari te Latukika jätaka No.

Nr. 6) Kacchänavagotta jac Sakrä Kaccäni jätaka No.4 Abb.Abb. 417. 6 Kapota jac khiw te Kapota jätaka No. (Th. 213) . Nr. (Th. 375.

5) All prints made from the original photographic plates of Herr Th. .Abb. 446. Thomann by the author. H. (Th. 5 Takkala jac suriay t(e) Takkala jätaka No. Nr.

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