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Tribologv International Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.

19-26, 1996
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An experimental investigation
of thermal effects in circular
and elliptical plain journal
bearings
M.-T. Ma* and C.M. Taylor+

Hydrodynamic journal bearings can experience a significant


variation in film (bush) temperature. Reliable data of operating
temperatures in these bearings are very useful and important for
practical bearing designers and mathematical modellers. A two-
axial-groove circular bearing and an elliptical (lemon-bore)
bearing, both 110 mm in diameter, have been tested at specific
loads up to 4 MPa and rotational frequencies up to 120 Hz. Power
loss and flow rate were measured directly and detailed
temperature information was collected by an automated data
acquisition system. In this paper, the experimental apparatus is
described and some of the experimental data are presented. The
results show that the thermal effects are significant in both
bearings.

Introduction Numerous investigations have been carried out both


experimentally and theoretically by many researchers.
Hydrodynamic plain journal bearings are extensively An extensive literature survey has been presented by
used in high speed rotating machinery. Under normal Khonsari’. Only some recent experimental work will
operating conditions they usually experience a consider- be briefly reviewed here. An excellent and systematic
able variation in temperature due to viscous dissipation. experimental study of the thermal behaviour of 100 mm
This can significantly affect the bearing performance diameter cylindrical bearings was reported by Tonneson
since the lubricant viscosity is strongly dependent on and Hansen*. In their experiments, the shaft and bush
temperature. Moreover, excessive temperatures can surface temperatures, mid-plane pressure distribution,
cause melting of the soft whitemetal liner or oxidation eccentricity and flow rate were measured and the
of the lubricant and, consequently, lead to failure of effects of speed, load, viscosity and oil inlet geometry
the bearing. Hence, it is of great significance to know on these parameters were examined. The experiments
the temperature distribution, particularly the maximum by Ferron et aL3 with a single axial groove circular
film (or bush) temperature in the bearing, which is bearing revealed that the temperature variation along
an important parameter and can be regarded as one the axial direction was very small (less than 1°C). In
of the bearing design criteria. order to study the cooling effect of the supply oil,
In fact, the importance of thermal effects in hydrodyn- Mitsui et ~1.~ conducted an experiment in which the
amic journal bearings has been long recognized. temperature distribution at both the bush inner surface
and the journal surface, eccentricity, oil temperature
at the inlet and outlet and oil flow rate were measured
* Department of Engineering and Production Design, University of for a single axial groove circular bearing of 100 mm
Central Lancashire, UK diameter bore. A transparent plastic bearing was also
+ Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds. UK used to observe the mixing process of the recirculating
Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996 19
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

oil and supply oil and the existence of the backward effective cylinder area of 640 mm*, were positioned
flow into the space left by the contracted streamers underneath the housing. A hand operated pump was
in the cavitation region was recognized. In their later used to inject the hydraulic fluid into the cylinders.
experiments, Mitsui ef ~1.~ investigated the effects of Between the housing and the hydraulic cylinders,
journal speed, lubricant viscosity and clearance ratio four linear roller bearing assemblies running between
on the maximum bearing temperature. hardened races were fitted to ensure horizontal free-
dom.
Extensive studies have been carried out by Gethin
and his co-workers. In 1985, a two-axial-groove circular Two separate oil supply systems were adopted to feed
bearing of 75 mm diameter bore was tested by Gethin the lubricating oil into the test bearing and the support
and Medwell for high speeds under transitional flow bearings respectively. The oil was supplied to the test
conditions. A similar bearing was tested experimentally bearing via two internal galleries around the bottom
by Gethin and El-Deihi’ under varying loading direc- half of the bearing, each situated on a spherical seat
tion conditions and it was found that apart from speed surface of the bearing and connected to an oil nozzle.
and load magnitude, loading direction also had a A variable delivery pump was used in each of the
significant effect on film temperature excursions. systems. Thus the oil supply pressure for the test
More recently, Gethin and Basris completed some bearing could be maintained at a specified value by
experiments for 75 mm diameter three-lobe profile adjusting the controller to the pump through monitor-
bore bearings having symmetric tilted and side rail ing a pressure gauge fitted in the supply pipe. The oil
geometries under varying loading direction, and they feed temperature for the test bearing was maintained
found that thermal effects were significant in the three- by a 2.3 kW oil heater with the thermostat and an oil
lobe bearings. cooler working with recirculating water.
Read and Flack9 established a test apparatus on which The shaft was driven by a 11.2 kW (15 HP) d.c. motor
an offset half journal bearing of 70 mm diameter through an infinitely variable transmission and a
journal was tested. An experimental investigation into toothed drive belt. The rotational frequency could be
large turbine bearings including an elliptical bearing altered by adjusting a controller to the motor and
and a tilting pad bearing of 500 mm journal diameter could reach 120 Hz.
was reported by Hopf and SchulerlO under transitional
conditions between laminar and turbulent flow. It
was found that under laminar flow conditions, the Measurement and instrumentation
circumferential temperature excursions and the tem-
perature differences across the film could be very Load
significant. Also it was noted that transition to The hydraulic pressure to the loading cylinders was
turbulence would cause an improved heat exchange measured by a pressure gauge, capable of measuring
across the film and, accordingly, a reduction of the pressures up to 20.4 MPa (3000 psi). Thus the applied
bush inner surface temperatures. Most recently, some load was equal to the product of the total effective
experimental data for 76 mm diameter two-axial groove area of the cylinders and the hydraulic pressure. The
circular bearings were presented by Fitzgerald and weight of the housing and its appendages (0.86 kN)
Neall’ and in this work, heat transfers from the oil was deducted from the cylinder pressure load to give
film to the bush and the journal were estimated. the net bearing load.
According to their results, the axial temperature
variation was negligible but the circumferential tem-
perature variation could be very significant. Rotational frequency and power loss
The above brief literature review reveals that almost As shown in Fig 1, a torque transducer, which had an
all the previous experimental work pertains to circular adaption capable of measuring the shaft speed, was
bearings. Little was concerned with non-circular bear- mounted between the drive and test shafts using a
ings which are widely used in turbomachinery due pair of flexible half couplings. The readings of rotational
to their excellent stability characteristics. The main speed, torque and power loss could be directly obtained
purpose of the present work was to provide some from the associated electronic indicator. The accuracy
reliable experimental information on the temperature of the measured speed was verified by an optical
distribution in both a two-axial-groove (or two-lobe) tachometer focusing onto a reflective strip placed on
circular bearing and an elliptical (or lemon-bore) the shaft surface. It should be noted that the measured
bearing. power loss included the parasitic loss of two support
bearings. The calibration procedure for this will be
presented later.
Brief description of apparatus
Figure 1 illustrates a schematic arrangement of the Oil flow rate
apparatus. A self-aligning test bearing together with
the housing was installed on the journal of the test The oil flow was measured manually by collecting the
shaft between two support bearings, which were SKF drain oil in a measuring bucket (flask) and the rate
double row, self-aligning rolling ball bearings. The could be determined by recording the time using a
test bearing was sealed with two labyrinths. Four stop watch. The measurement of the oil flow was
hydraulic cylinders were adopted to apply the load conducted after thermal equilibrium had been reached
onto the test bearing. The cylinders, each having an and repeated three times to ensure the accuracy. The
20 Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

‘*’ - Decoder
computer

ADC~ - Multiplexers

1 Thermocouple II Indicator
ousing
II Toraue and weed

draulic cylinders
:at
Oil.tank He\ater

Fig 1 Schematic arrangement of the experimental apparatus

average value of the three recordings was taken as (bearing back) to give some temperature information
the oil flow rate for the specified operating conditions. on the surface exposed to the ambient conditions
inside the housing. Moreover, another four thermo-
couples were mounted on a bearing seat to monitor
Detailed temperatures
the temperatures around the surface.
Temperatures were measured by iron-constantan ther-
mocouples. Figure 2 shows the thermocouple locations
in the bush and grooves of a bearing. Anticipating a Experimental programme
negligible variation of the temperature in the axial
direction, thermocouples were mainly located on the A circular bearing and an elliptical bearing were
centre-plane of the bearing. Additional thermocouples tested. They were self-aligning, half-split bearings with
were also positioned along four axial lines with three two spherical seats. Each had two axial oil grooves at
rows located in the expected region of maximum 90” to the vertical loading line and the bush was lined
temperature in the lower half and one row in the with whitemetal about 2.5 mm thick. The dimensions
upper half. This additional arrangement had two of the two test bearings are listed in Table 1. Tests
purposes: (1) to obtain information on axial tempera- were conducted for all combinations of the operating
ture variation; (2) to check the alignment of the conditions listed in Table 2 with the two bearings
bearing. The thermocouples numbered 1, 11, 12 and respectively, except for some extreme conditions which
18 were used to measure the lubricant temperatures the apparatus could not reach due to the limited motor
in the grooves. Thus they were fitted via four through power (see Figs 7 and 8).
holes drilled radially in order that the thermocouple
As mentioned in the previous section, the measured
beads were exposed to the lubricant. The remaining
power loss was actually the total loss of both the test
thermocouples (except for those numbered 49 to 52)
shown in Fig 2 were fitted in radially drilled blind bearing and two support bearings. To obtain the net
holes and the thermocouple beads were placed about power loss of the test bearing, a preliminary set of
calibration tests was carried out to estimate the
0.75 mm from the whitemetal surface.
parasitic power loss of the two support bearings. To
Four thermocouples numbered 49 to 52 were fitted in do so, two rolling ball bearings, which had the same
the oil feed slots near to the grooves to give accurate type and size as the two support bearings, were
information on the oil feed temperature. The oil feed positioned in the place of the test journal bearing with
temperature was then represented by the average the adoption of an alternative shaft arrangement. Thus
value of the four readings. In addition, six thermo- for a prescribed rotational speed and load, the power
couples were mounted on the outer bush surface loss of the two support bearings was considered to be
Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996 21
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

h upstream Downstream :
GWWe i2 t 3’ Groove >
52 ,/ 51 /
2: 25 2;
16 17 18 1 ,2 f A 5 6 ,, fi ,9 10 11 IT !3 1: l$-

20 24 28
t t t
49 50
I+9 ‘: ‘:
‘:

Fig 2 Diagram showing thermocouple locations in the bush and grooves

Table 1 Dimensions of the test bearings Table 2 Test operating conditions

Nominal journal diameter D= 110mm Lubricant IS0 VG 32


Bearing width L=80mm Rotational frequencies N = 1000,2500,
Outer radius of bush R2 = 100 mm 4000, 5500,7000
Angular groove extent + = 55 degrees wm
Average axial groove length L, = 60 mm Specific loads ps = 0.2, 1.0, 2.0,
Clearance ratio 3.0, 4.0 MPa
Circular bearing k/J = 0.0017 Oil feed temperature
Elliptical bearing $ = 0.00188 Circular bearing & = 45°C
Preload ratio of elliptical m = 0.5i5 Elliptical bearing Tf = 48°C
bearing Oil feed pressure
Circular bearing pf = 134 kPa (20
psi 1
Elliptical bearing pf = 67 kPa (10
equal to half of the total power loss measured for the psi)
four rolling ball bearings.

Results and discussion


grooves at the lightest specified load of 1.694 kN (ps
Some experimental results for both bearings will be = 0.2 MPa) and a rotational speed of 4000 r-pm for
detailed in this section. The effects of speed and load the circular and elliptical bearings respectively. In the
on the detailed and global bearing thermal behaviour figures, circumferential coordinates 90” to 270” denote
will be discussed. the loaded (lower) half of the bearing. It can be seen
that the temperature excursions were similar and not
significant in the two lobes for both bearings. This
Detailed temperatures was due to a comparatively uniform oil film at the
Figures 3(a) and (b) show the measured temperatures ,light load. Clearly, the whitemetal temperatures were
of the bearing liner, back, seat and the oil in the higher than those on the bearing back surface and the
22 Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

(a) ‘lbo-axial-groove Circular Bearing so-called temperature fade) can be noted in the outlet
QO.0
A Lkler region of the loaded half for both bearings. This
60.0 x Back was mainly due to the cold oil backflow from the
4 Seat. downstream groove.
t 0 oii
E
It is noteworthy that instead of a drop, the measured
..A.*
AA i
: *
*y. liner temperature increased modestly in the outlet
_ .* x
-QX + t x r x + + x
CJ region of the unloaded half of the circular bearing.
Qlio
B This, it is believed, is a consequence of, and evidence
of, oil backflow from the upstream groove of the
bearing. Since the oil temperatures in the upstream
30.0
groove were higher than those of the liner in the
ml 150 210 270 330 390 450 unloaded half of the circular bearing, as can be clearly
Circumferential coordinate (Deg.) seen from Fig 4(a), the backflow oil from this groove
would result in an increase in liner temperature. The
higher oil temperatures in the upstream groove resulted
(b) 00.0 -7 from the higher feed temperature to this groove. The
reason for this can be found in Reference 13.

In addition, the current experimental results for both


bearings showed that the axial variation of bush
temperature was small if the bearing was well aligned.
The temperatures in the centre plane were slightly
higher, but by not more than 4°C. than those at the
bearing edges.
40.0 -
I
I,, , , , ,I,
30.0 , 1 . , . I , , '. r .
80 GO 2iO 2;0 3io 380 450
Circumferential coordinate (Deg.)
(a) ho-axial-groove C~I ular Bearing
Bearin
90.0 I
Fig 3 Measured temperatures of the bearing and oil in
the grooves for W = 1.694 kN and N = 4000 rpm: A Liner
60.0 - x Back
(a) circular bearing; (b) elliptical bearing 4 Seat
.**
LG . : ---l-l cl oil
70.0 - . * 8
6 . x 9
;; 60.0 -1 . -
lowest temperatures can be found on the bearing seat. ki
.Q Q x
+ f x
L
;: 0
.
Moreover, the oil temperatures in the grooves were g60.0
860.0 - I? 4 : +
:

higher than the oil feed temperature, especially for E 08


Cl
t

the circular bearing. This certainly arises from the 40.0 -


effect of hot oil carry-over.
30.0 I . , . , . 7 I , I * . I . .
Figures 4(a) and (b) illustrate the measured tempera- Qo 160
150 210 270 40
330 se0 450
tures at a rotational speed of 4000 rpm with the higher Circumferential coordinate (Deg.)
loads of 33.88 (ps = 4 MPa) and 25.41 (ps = 3 MPa)
kN respectively for the circular and elliptical bearings. Elliptical Be ing
It will be noted that the variation of liner temperature (b) QO.0

is very significant in the loaded half for both bearings. * Lher


60.0 - x Back
Although the variation of temperature on the bearing . 4 Scat
back was consistent with that of liner temperature, G * . : 0 oil
L 70.0 -
the temperature differences between the liner and . i!
:: .
back surfaces were considerable, especially in the 3f 60.0 -
.
?i
vicinity of maximum temperature. The temperatures f .A* ‘+‘I
.
on the bearing seat were considerably lower than those i~60.0-"
60.0 x + e 4 : +
on the back in the lower half. This is mainly due to OBO

1
:
the cooling effect of the feed oil passing through the 40.0 -
galleries on the seats around the lower half. of the
bearings. In the unloaded half, the liner temperature 30.0 I r , . , 1 , , , +- I ’ ’ I ’
excursions were very small and the measured solid 90 154 210 270 330 380
Circumferential coordinate (Deg.)
temperatures were similar due to insignificant tempera-
ture gradients. For both bearings the oil temperatures Fig 4 Measured temperatures of the bearing and oil in
in the downstream groove were very close to the the grooves for (a) W = 33.88 kN and N = 4000 rpm
average feed value because of the dominating effect (circular bearing); (b) W = 25.41 kN and N = 4000
of the fresh feed oil in oil groove mixing at the heavy rpm (elliptical bearing)
loads’*. Moreover, a drop in liner temperature (the
Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996 23
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

Effects of speed and load on temperature (4 Two-axial-groove Circular Bearing


90.0
profiles I I I I I
A p.=o.2 MPa
x p.-1.0 MPa
Figures 5(a) and (b) give the measured liner tempera- + p.=2.0 wa
ture distributions on the bearing centre plane at the Q p.-3.0 wa
x p.=4.0 MPa
five specified speeds and a fixed load of 16.94 kN (ps
= 2 MPa) for the circular and elliptical bearings
respectively. It is clear that the temperature values
and excursions increased with rotational speed in both
lobes, but much more significantly in the loaded G

lobe. For the circular bearing, an unusual drop in


temperature can be seen in the vicinity of the expected
maximum temperature for the two higher speeds. This
was due to a hollow about 40 pm in depth on the 90 loo 210 ?30 330 390 450

bush inner surface, which resulted from the damage Circumferential coordinate (Deg.)

suffered by the circular bearing13. Since the film was


much thicker in the area of the hollow, the temperatures
in this region would consequently be lower. @I Elliptical Bearing
00.0 , ,
Figures 6(a) and (b) compare the liner temperature
profiles in the centre plane for the five specific loads 80.0
1
*
x
4
p.=o.2
p.-1.0
p.=2.0
MPa
UPa
YPa
Q p.=3.0 IPa
and at a prescribed speed of 4000 rpm. In general, x p.=4.0 we
the temperatures in the loaded half of the bearings
increased with specific load. However, the reverse was
true in the unloaded half. This is not surprising,
considering the effect of oil groove mixing in the
downstream groove. Since for increasing specific load,
the bearing eccentricity increased, the recirculating
hot oil from the loaded (lower) half reduced. Thus
90 150 210 270 330 3eo 450
Circumferential coordinate (Deg.)

(4 Two-axial-groove Circular Bearing Fig 6 Bush liner temperature profiles on bearing centre
00.0 7
I I I I plane for different specific loads (N = 4000 rpm):
* N=1000 rpm
(a) circular bearing; (b) elliptical bearing
80.0
- x
+
N-2500
N=4000
rpm
rpm
G 0 N-6500 rpm
L 70.0
- X N=7000 rpm

i! the cold supply oil dominated in the oil flow into the
se50.0- unloaded (upper) half and, moreover, the overall
clearance became larger around the upper half due to
Boo.0
- the increase in eccentricity. In consequence, the
:! temperatures in the upper half of the bearings decreased
with increase in specific load.
Comparing graphs (a) and (b) respectively in Figs 5
90 150 210 270 330 980 450 and 6, one can note that the temperatures in both
Ciicnmferential coordinate (Deg.) bearings are quite similar. However, in the outlet
region of the loaded half of the elliptical bearing there
(b) 00.0 Elliptical Bearing was a much more significant temperature fade than
I I I I1 with the circular bearing. This arose from the larger
A N=lOOO rpm gap associated with the elliptical bearing in this region.
x N=2600 rpm
+ N=4000 rpm

Effects of speed and load on bearing


performance
Figure 7 shows the measured global characteristics of
the circular bearing against specific load for five
prescribed rotational speeds. From Fig 7(a) it can be
seen that the maximum bush temperature increased
generally with specific load and the higher the speed,
30.0 11 the larger the increase. It can be noted also that the
00 loo 210 270 330 390 450
maximum bush temperature increased significantly
Circumferential coordinate (Deg.)
with rotational speed for the full range of specific
Fig 5 Bush liner temperature profiles on bearing centre loads. As indicated in Fig 7(b), the power loss
plane for different speeds (W = 16.94 kN): (a) circular increased modestly with specific load, but considerably
bearing; (b) elliptical bearing with rotational speed. This is an expected result. The
24 Tribology international Volume 29 Number 1 1996
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

s QO.0 7

t 80.0
3
E
ifi 70.0
E
3

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
0.0 I
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
1
Specific load @Pa) Specific load (MPa) Specific load @Pa)
(a) Maximum temperature (b) Power loss (c) Total flow rate

+.N=4000 r-pm
x N=Z500 rpm X N=?OOO i-pm
A N=lOOO rpm 0 N=6500 rpm

Fig 7 Measured static performance characteristics of the circular bearing

flow rate varied with specific load in a quite different bush temperature, power loss and flow rate shows a
way. Generally, in the lower range of specific loads it similar trend to that observed with the circular bearing.
increased markedly and then hardly changed for higher
specific loads. For lower loads, the increasing flow If comparing approximately the corresponding graphs
in Figs 7 and 8, the maximum temperatures and power
rate resulted from the increase in film temperature
losses are fairly similar in the two bearings. However,
and axial pressure gradients at the bearing edges due
the flow rates are greatly different. The elliptical
to the significantly increasing film wedge effect. For
higher loads, although the film temperature and bearing had a much higher supply requirement than
pressure gradients still increased with specific load, the circular bearing, though the oil feed pressure for
the film extent reduced considerably because of film the elliptical bearing was only half of that for the
circular bearing.
cavitation, and the combined effect was that the total
flow rate hardly changed. Clearly the flow rate
increased significantly with increase in rotational speed. Conclusions
The performance characteristics of the elliptical bearing An experimental apparatus has been developed to
are presented in Fig 8. The variation of the maximum investigate the thermal behaviour of profile bore

250.0
G go.0 -l
L
5 80.0 F 200.0 -
% 3
% Y* 150.0 -
a 70.0
E ,-I -cy
s x
d
m 60.0
2
32 100.0 :e
B
2 50.0 -
E

h 1
\
1
O.O
0.0 , I , I , I , I ,

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 010
Specific load (MPa) Specific load @Pa) Spdcific ioad ‘(MPzj’
(a) Maximum temperature (b) Power loss (c) Total flow rate

+'N=4000 rpm
X N=Z500 rpm X N57000 rpm
A N=lOOO rpm 0 N9.5500 rpm

Fig 8 Measured static performance characteristics of the elliptical bearing


Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996 25
Thermal effects in plain journal bearings: M.-T. Ma and C.M. Taylor

journal bearings. A two-axial-groove circular bearing References


and an elliptical bearing were tested and the tempera-
ture distribution, power loss and flow rate were 1. Khonsari M.M. A review of thermal effects in hydrodynamic
bearings - Part II: Journal bearings. ASLE Trans. 1987, 30,
measured for a series of prescribed operating con- 26
ditions. From the results and discussion presented in
2. Tonneson J. and Hansen P.K. Some experiments on the steady
this paper, the following conclusions may be drawn: state characteristics of a cylindrical fluid-film bearing considering
(1) The thermal behaviour of the journal bearings thermal effects. ASME Trans., J. Lub. Tech. , 103, 1981, 107
was affected significantly by rotational speed and 3. Ferron, J., Frene J. and Boncompain R. A study of the
the maximum bush temperature, power loss and thermohydrodynamic performance of a plain journal bearing:
flow rate increased markedly with speed. Comparison between theory and experiments. ASME Trans.,
J.Lub. Tech. 1983, 105, 422
(2) The temperature excursions were significant along
the circumference of the bearings, but not in the 4. Mitsui J., Hory Y. and Tanaka M. Thermohydrodynamic
axial direction. The temperatures on the centre analysis of cooling effect of supply oil in circular journal bearing.
ASME Trans., J. Lub. Tech. 1983, 105, 414
plane were slightly higher than towards the edges
of the bearing. 5. Mitsui J., Hori Y. and Tanaka M. An experimental investigation
on the temperature distribution in circular journal bearings.
(3) The temperature differences between the bearing ASME Trans., J. Trib., 1986, 108
liner and back surface were considerable in
the vicinity of maximum temperature for the 6. Gethin D.T. and Medwell J.O. An experimental investigation
operating conditions of higher speeds and loads. into the thermohydrodynamic behavior of a high speed cylindrical
bore journal bearing. ASME Trans., J. Trib., October, 1985,
(4) The maximum temperature and power loss meas- 107
ured for the two bearings were similar for similar
operating conditions, whereas the flow rate 7. Gethin D.T. and El-Deihi M.K.L. Thermal behaviour of a twin
axial groove bearing under varying loading direction. Proc. I.
associated with the elliptical bearing was much Mech. E., Part C., 1990. 204, 77
higher than that with the circular bearing.
8. Gethin D.T. and Basri S.B. An experimental and numerical
(5) There was a significant temperature fade in the investigation into the thermal behaviour of a three-lobe profile
outlet region of the lower half for both bearings, bore bearing. Proc. I. Mech. E., Part C., 1991, 205, 251
especially for the elliptical one.
9. Hopf G. and Schuler D. Investigations on large turbine bearings
(6) The elliptical bearing was also tested at different working under transitional conditions between laminar and
feed temperatures and pressures, and the effects turbulent flow. ASME Trans., J. Trib. 1989, 111, 628
of feed temperature were significant. The results
will be reported separately in due course. 10. Read L.J. and Flack R.D. Temperature, pressure and film
thickness measurements for an offset half bearing. Wear, 1987,
117, 197
Acknowledgements Il. Fitzgerald M.K. and Neal P.B. Temperature distributions and
heat transfer in journal bearings. ASME Trans., J. Trib., 1992,
The work presented in this paper was carried out in 114, 12
the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Leeds
University as a part of a co-operative project with 12. Ma M.-T. and Taylor C.M. A theoretical and experimental
study of thermal effects in a plain circular steadily loaded
Michell Bearings-Vickers plc. The test bearings were journal bearing. In Plain Bearings - Energy Efficiency and
kindly provided by them and the support of Mr S. Design, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, 1992,
Advani and Dr D. Horner is acknowledged with 31
thanks. Many thanks are due to Mr R.T. Harding, 13. Ma M.-T. Thermal effects in circular and non-circular plain
Mr L. Bellon, Mr. A. Heald and other colleagues in journal bearings. PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical
the Department for their help during experiments. Engineering, Leeds University, 1992

26 Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996