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DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS FOR THE UQUO IKOT ABASI GAS PIPELINE LOWERING

INTRODUCTION.

The 68 km long 18 diameter Uquo-Ikot Abasi Gas Pipeline is situated onshore in South-eastern Nigeria, North of the Bight of Biafra and West of the Gulf of Guinea. This pipe line has been badly eroded, thereby exposing the pipeline at several locations on the ROW. As part of proposed means of re-instatement, Evomec Global Services Limited intends to lower all pipeline exposed sections below original depth to achieve minimum invert of 1m. As a guide to safe practice for a live pipeline, Evomec Global Services Limited has come up with a deflection calculations to prove that the extent of lowering is within the safe minimum yield stress for API 5L X52, Grade A pipe.

Design codes, regulations and industry publications offer little guidance on what factors should be considered to determine safe pressures during this lowering activity. Surface-loading conditions and soil overburden result in stresses that should be evaluated in determining safe lowering pressures in the areas of exposure.

To achieve this activity of safe lowering of the pipes, we considered the stress associated with such bending and deflection of a steel live pipeline which includes:

 • Bending stress • Axial stress due to pipe extension • Longitudinal stress due to internal pressure

EVOMEC GLOBAL SERVICES LIMITED 50A Evo Road, GRA., Port Harcourt, Rivers State

DEFLECTION CALCULATION FOR THE UQUO-IKIOT ABASI GAS PIPELINE LOWERING

AUGUST 2013

Original Pipe Level
X
Lowered Level
L 1
L 1
L1 = Transition Length
 Where GAS = 0.60 and OIL = 0.72 ANSI B 31.4 (oil) or 31.8 (Gas) P=(2St/D)*F*E*T S SMYS 5,200 psi t Wall thickness, in 0.50 D OD, in 18 F Design Factor 0.6 E Efficiency 1 T Temp Derating 1 P Maximum Pressure 173.33 psi Maximum Allowable Stress 3,120 psi Material Prorperties of Pipeline Outside Diameter of Pipe, inches = 18 Corrossion Coat Thickness, inches = 0.50 Density of Asphalt enamel Coating 1400kg/m 3 Pipe Material = API 5L X52 Wall Thickness, in = 0.5 Modulus of Elasticity, E = 30 x 10 6 psi Moment of Inertia, I = 549.21in 4 Factor of Safety, F = 0.72 Operating Pressure, P= 450 psi Yield Strenght of Pipe Material = 30X10 6 psi Lowering Level of Pipeline X = 700mm Length of Pipeline to be loweredc, L= 200m Transition length for Pipeline relocation, L1= 100m

Note:

Allowable Stress, Sa = Min Yield Strength, S * Factor of Safety, F = 37,440PSI Min Yield Strenght for Steel Piping API 5L X52, Grade A = 30x10 6 psi The Stresses associated with the lowereing of the pipeline includes:

(1) Bending Stress b ; (2) Axial Stress due to pipe extension, a ; (3) Longitudinal Stress due to Internal ip ;

Radius of Curvature = (Steel Buckling)

1
2
+
X
2
L 1
X
2
2
• (a) Bending Stress b = 2EXD

2

L 1 L1 = 100m= 328.084ft

 Where X = 700mm = 2.3 ft

b = 2x30x10 6 X 2.3 x 12 x 18

= 1923psi

(328.084x12)

• (b) Axial Stress due to pipe extension

a = 8
2.3x12
3
2x 328.08x12

2

x 30x10 6

=

983psi

X
2
3

a = 8

2 L 1

© Longitudinal Stress due to Internal Pressure ip

 ip = PD 4t 450 x 18 = 4,050 psi 4 x 0.5

EVOMEC GLOBAL SERVICES LIMITED

DEFLECTION CALCULATION FOR THE UQUO-IKIOT ABASI GAS PIPELINE LOWERING

AUGUST 2013

The combined stress resulting from operation and displacement of the pipeline would be;

=

b + a + ip

= 1923 + 983 + 4050

• 6956 psi which is less than the minimum yield stress of AP52 GradeA

30x10 6

Radius of Curvature Computaton for 0.7m (2.3ft)

Radius of Curvature for the transition arcs is given by the relationship

=
1
328.084x12
2
+
R c
2.3x12
2
2.3x12 2
2

= 140405.74ft (3566.3m)

• x Rc = 3566.49m(11701.1ft)

= 1.0m(3.28ft)

• x Rc = 3566.7m(11701.9ft)

= 1.3m(4.26ft)

• x Rc = 3567m(11702.9ft)

= 1.6m(5.25ft)

• X Rc = 3567.4(11704.13ft)

= 1.9m(6.23ft)

• X Rc = 3567.86(11705.56ft)

= 2.2m(7.21ft)

Recommendations:

1 Upon comparing the combined stress as calculated, with the Minimum Yield Stress for API 5L X52, Grade A , it shows that lowering the pipeline to the proposed depth of 0.7m is completely safe. With reference to the

table below, a depth of 2.2m is still within the allowable limit.

REFERENCE:

API 5L Line Pipes Physical Prorperties ASME B31.3 Process Piping 1996 ASME B31.8 Transportation and Distribution of Piping System

EVOMEC GLOBAL SERVICES LIMITED

DEFLECTION CALCULATION FOR THE UQUO-IKIOT ABASI GAS PIPELINE LOWERING

AUGUST 2013

See Table for Technical Parameters

 Bending Lowering Half Horizontal Curved Elongatio Stresses(ps Hoop Combined Factor of Height(m) Drop(m) CosA A(Radians) A (Degrees) Length(m) Length(m) n(m) i) Stress(psi) Stress(psi) Safety Radius(m) 0.7 0.35 1 0.00699 0.4 200 200.052 13,500 0.052 1,923 6,956 10.84% 3566.3 1 0.5 1 0.00999 0.57 200 200.052 13,500 0.052 2,743 8,792 8.56% 3566.49 1.3 0.65 0.9999 0.01299 0.74 200 200.052 13,500 0.052 3,562 10,984 7.07% 3566.7 1.6 0.8 0.9999 0.01599 0.92 200 200.052 13,500 0.052 4,388 13,555 6.03% 3567 1.9 0.95 0.9998 0.01899 1.09 200 200.052 13,500 0.052 5,211 16,477 5.25% 3567.4 2.2 1.1 0.9998 0.02199 1.26 200 200.052 13,500 0.052 6,034 19,759 4.65% 3567.86

EVOMEC GLOBAL SERVICES LIMITED