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T3-2P5 [81 marks]

Consider the structure and bonding in MgCl2 and PCl3.

[3 marks]
1a. State and explain the electrical conductivities of these two chloride compounds in their liquid state.

1b. Suggest, giving your reasons, the approximate pH values of the solutions formed by adding each chloride compound separately to [4 marks]
distilled water.

MgCl2

PCl3
[2 marks]
1c. Identify the acid-base character of the oxides of each of the elements from sodium to chlorine in period 3.

[2 marks]
1d. State the equations for the separate reactions of sodium oxide and phosphorus(V) oxide with water.

Consider the molecules PBr3 and SF4.

1e. Deduce the Lewis (electron dot) structure of both molecules. [2 marks]
1f. Predict the shapes of the two molecules, giving the Br–P–Br bond angle in PBr3 and the F–S–F bond angles in SF4. [4 marks]

1g. Explain why both PBr3 and SF4 are polar. [2 marks]
The structure of cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioic acid is shown below.

Describe the covalent bond between carbon and hydrogen in the molecule above and how it is formed. [2 marks]
1h.

1i. Deduce the hybridization of the oxygen atoms labelled α and β. [1 mark]

α:

β:
Describe sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds between atoms. [2 marks]
1j.

σ bond:

π bond:

1k. Identify the number of sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds present in a molecule of cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioic acid. [1 mark]

2. Which equation represents the first electron affinity of chlorine? [1 mark]

A. Cl(g)+e-→ Cl-(g)
B. 1 Cl2(g) + e- → Cl-(g)
2
C. Cl+(g) + e- → Cl(g)
D. Cl(g) → Cl+(g) + e-

Which element is a metalloid? [1 mark]


3.
A. Co

B. As

C. Cs

D. Es

Which property increases down group 17, the halogens? [1 mark]


4.
A. Electron affinity

B. Boiling point

C. First ionization energy

D. Reactivity
5. Which solution forms when phosphorus(V) oxide, P4O10, reacts with water? [1 mark]

Which correctly describes the reaction between potassium and excess water? [1 mark]
6.
A. The reaction is endothermic.

B. The final products of the reaction are potassium oxide and hydrogen.

C. The final products of the reaction are potassium hydroxide and hydrogen.

D. The final pH of the solution is 7.

Which periodic trend is described correctly? [1 mark]


7.
Phosphine (IUPAC name phosphane) is a hydride of phosphorus, with the formula PH 3.

(i) Draw a Lewis (electron dot) structure of phosphine. [8 marks]


8a.
(ii) State the hybridization of the phosphorus atom in phosphine.

(iii) Deduce, giving your reason, whether phosphine would act as a Lewis acid, a Lewis base, or neither.

(iv) Outline whether you expect the bonds in phosphine to be polar or non-polar, giving a brief reason.

(v) Phosphine has a much greater molar mass than ammonia. Explain why phosphine has a significantly lower boiling point than ammonia.

(vi) Ammonia acts as a weak Brønsted–Lowry base when dissolved in water.

Outline what is meant by the terms “weak” and “Brønsted–Lowry base”.

Weak:

Brønsted–Lowry base:
Phosphine is usually prepared by heating white phosphorus, one of the allotropes of phosphorus, with concentrated aqueous [8 marks]
8b.
sodium hydroxide. The equation for the reaction is:

(i) The first reagent is written as P4, not 4P. Describe the difference between P4 and 4P.

(ii) The ion H 2PO2− is amphiprotic. Outline what is meant by amphiprotic, giving the formulas of both species it is converted to when it
behaves in this manner.

(iii) State the oxidation state of phosphorus in P 4 and H2PO2−.

P4:

H2PO2−:

(iv) Oxidation is now defined in terms of change of oxidation number. Explore how earlier definitions of oxidation and reduction may have led
to conflicting answers for the conversion of P 4 to H 2PO2− and the way in which the use of oxidation numbers has resolved this.
2.478 g of white phosphorus was used to make phosphine according to the equation: [4 marks]
8c.

(i) Calculate the amount, in mol, of white phosphorus used.

(ii) This phosphorus was reacted with 100.0 cm 3 of 5.00 mol dm −3 aqueous sodium hydroxide. Deduce, showing your working, which was
the limiting reagent.

(iii) Determine the excess amount, in mol, of the other reagent.

(iv) Determine the volume of phosphine, measured in cm 3 at standard temperature and pressure, that was produced.
Impurities cause phosphine to ignite spontaneously in air to form an oxide of phosphorus and water. [9 marks]
8d.
(i) 200.0 g of air was heated by the energy from the complete combustion of 1.00 mol phosphine. Calculate the temperature rise using
section 1 of the data booklet and the data below.

Standard enthalpy of combustion of phosphine,

Specific heat capacity of air = 1.00Jg −1 K−1 =1.00kJkg−1 K−1

(ii) The oxide formed in the reaction with air contains 43.6% phosphorus by mass. Determine the empirical formula of the oxide, showing
your method.

(iii) The molar mass of the oxide is approximately 285 g mol −1 . Determine the molecular formula of the oxide.

(iv) State the equation for the reaction of this oxide of phosphorus with water.

(v) Suggest why oxides of phosphorus are not major contributors to acid deposition.

(vi) The levels of sulfur dioxide, a major contributor to acid deposition, can be minimized by either pre-combustion and post-combustion
methods. Outline one technique of each method.

Pre-combustion:

Post-combustion:
Impurities cause phosphine to ignite spontaneously in air to form an oxide of phosphorus and water.

(i) 200.0 g of air was heated by the energy from the complete combustion of 1.00 mol phosphine. Calculate the temperature rise [5 marks]
9a.
using section 1 of the data booklet and the data below.

Standard enthalpy of combustion of phosphine,

Specific heat capacity of air = 1.00Jg −1 K−1 = 1.00 kJkg−1 K−1

(ii) The oxide formed in the reaction with air contains 43.6 % phosphorus by mass. Determine the empirical formula of the oxide, showing
your method.

(iii) The molar mass of the oxide is approximately 285gmol −1 . Determine the molecular formula of the oxide.
9b. (i) State the equation for the reaction of this oxide of phosphorus with water. [5 marks]

(ii) Predict how dissolving an oxide of phosphorus would affect the pH and electrical conductivity of water.

pH:

Electrical conductivity:

(iii) Suggest why oxides of phosphorus are not major contributors to acid deposition.

(iv) The levels of sulfur dioxide, a major contributor to acid deposition, can be minimized by either pre-combustion and post-combustion
methods. Outline one technique of each method.

Pre-combustion:

Post-combustion:

Magnesium is a group 2 metal which exists as a number of isotopes and forms many compounds.

State the nuclear symbol notation, A X, for magnesium-26. [1 mark]


10a. Z
10b. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a sample of magnesium gave the following results: [2 marks]

Calculate the relative atomic mass, Ar, of this sample of magnesium to two decimal places.

Magnesium burns in air to form a white compound, magnesium oxide. Formulate an equation for the reaction of magnesium oxide [1 mark]
10c.
with water.

Describe the trend in acid-base properties of the oxides of period 3, sodium to chlorine. [2 marks]
10d.

In addition to magnesium oxide, magnesium forms another compound when burned in air. Suggest the formula of this compound [1 mark]
10e.
Describe the structure and bonding in solid magnesium oxide. [2 marks]
10f.

Magnesium chloride can be electrolysed. [2 marks]


10g.
Deduce the half-equations for the reactions at each electrode when molten magnesium chloride is electrolysed, showing the state symbols
of the products. The melting points of magnesium and magnesium chloride are 922 K and 987 K respectively.

Anode (positive electrode):

Cathode (negative electrode):

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